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2015

CLASS NOTES ON

FOR

5TH & 6TH SEMESTER OF

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING & EEE (B.TECH PROGRAMME)

VEER SURENDRA SAI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

BURLA -768018, ODISHA, INDIA

2015

DISCLAIMER

This document does not claim any originality and cannot be used as a substitute for prescribed

textbooks. The matter presented here is prepared by the author for their respective teaching

assignments by referring the text books and reference books. Further, this document is not

intended to be used for commercial purpose and the committee members are not accountable for

any issues, legal or otherwise, arising out of use of this document.

2015

SYLLABUS

ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS & INSTRUMENTATION (3-1-0)

MODULE-I (10 HOURS)

Measuring Instruments: Classification, Absolute and secondary instruments, indicating instruments,

control, balancing and damping, constructional details, characteristics, errors in measurement, Ammeters,

voltmeters: (DC/AC) PMMC, MI, Electrodynamometer type

Wattmeters: Electrodynamometer type, induction type, single phase and three phase wattmeter,

compensation, Energymeters: AC. Induction type siqgle phase and three phase energy meter,

compensation, creep, error, testing, Frequency Meters: Vibrating reed type, electrical resonance type

MODULE-II (10 HOURS)

Instrument Transformers: Potential and current transformers, ratio and phase angle errors, phasor

diagram, methods of minimizing errors; testing and applications.

Galvanometers: General principle and performance equations of D' Arsonval Galvanometers, Vibration

Galvanometer and Ballistic Galvanometer.

Potentiometers: DC Potentiometer, Crompton potentiometer, construction, standardization, application.

AC Potentiometer, Drysdale polar potentiometer; standardization, application.

MODULE-III (10 HOURS)

DC/AC Bridges :General equations for bridge balance, measurement of self inductance by Maxwells

bridge (with variable inductance & variable capacitance), Hays bridge, Owens bridge, measurement of

capacitance by Schearing bridge, errors, Wagners earthing device, Kelvins double bridge.

Transducer: Strain Gauges, Thermistors, Thermocouples, Linear Variable Differential Transformer

(LVDT), Capacitive Transducers, Peizo-Electric transducers, Optical Transducer, Torque meters,

inductive torque transducers, electric tachometers, photo-electric tachometers, Hall Effect Transducer

MODULE-IV (10 HOURS)

CRO: Block diagram, Sweep generation, vertical amplifiers, use of CRG in measurement of frequency,

phase, Amplitude and rise time of a pulse.

Digital Multi-meter: Block diagram, principle of operation, Accuracy of measurement, Electronic

Voltmeter: Transistor Voltmeter, Block diagram, principle of operation, various types of electronic

voltmeter, Digital Frequency meter: Block diagram, principle of operation

TEXT BOOKS

[1]. A Course in Elec. & Electronics Measurements & Instrumentation: A K. Sawhney

[2]. Modern Electronic Instrumentation and Measurement Techniques: Helfrick & Cooper

[3]. Electrical Measurement and Measuring Instruments - Golding & Waddis

2015

Full Marks: 70

Time: 3 hours

Answer any six questions including question No. 1 which is compulsory.

The figures in the right-hand margin indicate marks.

(Answer any six questions including Q.No. 1)

[2X10]

1. Answer the following questions:

(a) Differentiate between the spring control and gravity control.

(b) Why an ammeter should have a low resistance value.

(c) What are the precautions taken while using a DC voltmeter and DC ammeter.

(d) What is the major cause of creeping error in an energy meter

(e) What are the errors occurs in instrument transformers.

(f) Differentiate the principle of dc potentiometer and ac potentiometer.

(g) What are the sources of errors in AC bridge measurement.

(h) Differentiate between dual trace and dual beam CRO.

(i) What are active and passive transducers? Give examples.

(j) What is piezoelectric effect.

2. (a) With a neat diagram explain in detail the construction of PMMC instrument.

(b)What are the shunts and multiplier? Derive the expression for both, with reference to

meters used in electrical circuits.

[5+5]

3. (a) Discuss with block diagram, the principle of operation of single phase energy meter.

(b) An energy meter is designed to make 100 revolutions of the disc for one unit of

energy. Calculate the number of revolutions made by it , when connected to a load

carrying 40 A at 230V and 0.4 p.f. for 1 hour. If it actually makes 360 revolutions, find

the percentage error.

[5+5]

4. (a) Derive expression for actual transformation ratio, ratio error and phasor angle error of

a P.T.

(b) A current transformer with bar primary has 300 turns in its secondary winding. The

resistance and reactance of the secondary circuit are 1.5 and 1.0 respectively,

including the transformer winding. With 5A flowing in the secondary winding, the

magnetizing mmf is 100AT and the core loss is 1.2 W. Determine the ratio and phase

angle errors.

[5+5]

5. (a) Derive the equation of balance for Anderson bridge and also draw the phasor diagram.

(b) An AC bridge is balanced at 2KHz with the following components in each arm:

Arm AB=10K, Arm BC=100F in series with 100K, Arm AD=50K

Find the unknown impendence RjX in the arm DC, if the detector is between BD.

6. (a) What is transducer? Briefly explain the procedure for selecting a transducer.

(b) Derive an expression for gauge factor in terms of Poissions ration.

[5+5]

7. (a) With a block diagram, explain the working of CRO

(b) With a block diagram, explain in detail the digital frequency meter

[5+5]

8. Write short notes on

(a) Kelvins double bridge

(b) D- Arsonaval galvanometer

[5+5]

2015

Full Marks: 70

Time: 3 hours

Answer any six questions including question No. 1 which is compulsory.

The figures in the right-hand margin indicate marks.

(Answer any six questions including Q.No. 1)

[2X10]

(a) Why is damping required for an electromechanical measuring instrument?

(b) Why is scale of MI instrument calibrated non- linearly?

(c) What is the difference between analog and digital frequency meter?

(d) Which instrument can be used to measure non-sinusoidal voltage?

(e) What is the major cause of creeping error in an energy meter?

(f) What do you mean by active and passive transducer? Give suitable examples.

(g) Draw a suitable AC bridge used for measurement of frequency.

(h) What are the steps to be taken for minimizing errors in PT?

(i) Discuss briefly the role of ordinary galvanometer?

(j) What is the function of time base generator in CRO?

Q.2 (a) Derive the torque equation of a moving iron instrument?

(b) Sketch and explain the working of moving-coil instrument.

[5]

[5]

(b) Explain the operation of a Wagners earthing device.

[5]

[5]

Q.4 Derive the errors of CT and PT, and discuss its preventives.

[10]

(b) Discuss about a galvanometer which is used for measurement of frequency.

[5]

[5]

(b) What is the use of LVDT? Discuss its basic principle of operation.

[5]

[5]

Q.7 (a) How are the frequency and phase measured in CRO.

(b)Draw the block diagram of an electronic voltmeter and explain its operation.

[5]

[5]

(a) Owens bridge

(b)Digital frequency meter

(c) Hall-effect transducer

[5X2]

2015

Full Marks: 70

Time: 3 hours

Answer any six questions including question No. 1 which is compulsory.

The figures in the right-hand margin indicate marks.

(Answer any six questions including Q.No. 1)

[2X10]

1. Answer the following questions:

(k) Why scales of the gravity control instruments are not uniform but are crowded?

(l) Why eddy current damping cannot be used for moving iron instrument?

(m) What is mean by Phantom Load?

(n) Why do we use a multiplier with a voltmeter?

(o) What is the major cause of creeping error in an energy meter?

(p) Why is dynamometer type instrument chiefly used as a wattmeter?

(q) Define gauge factor of a strain gauges how is it related to poisons ratio ?

(r) Why the secondary of a CT is never left open circuited?

(s) Why there are two conditions of balance in ac bridges, where as there is only one for

dc bridges?

(t) How to prevent the loading of a circuit under test when a CRO is used?

2. (a) Draw the possible methods of connecting the pressure coil of a wattmeter and

compare the errors. Explain the meaning of compensating winding in a wattmeter and

show how they help to reduce the error.

[5]

(b) Sketch and explain the working of moving-coil instrument.

[5]

3. (a) What are the different testing conducted on a single phase energy meter?

[5]

(b)The meter constant of 230V, 10A energy meter is 1700. The meter is tested under half

load and rated voltage at unity p.f. The meter is found to make 80 revolutions in 138 sec.

Find % error.

[5]

4. Differentiate between a C.T. and P.T. Discuss the theory of a P.T with phasor diagrams.

Derive expression for actual transformation ratio, ratio error and phasor angle error of a

P.T.

[10]

5. (a) Describe how an AC potentiometer, can be used for the calibration of wattmeter? [5]

(b)Explain how LVDT can be used for measurement of displacement.

[5]

6. (a) Derive the equation of balance of a Schering Bridge. Draw the phasor diagram under

null conditions and explain how loss angle of capacitor can be calculated.

[5]

(b) Describe the general working principle of a D Arsonval Galvanometer.

[5]

7.

[5]

(b)Draw the block diagram of an electronic voltmeter and explain its operation. [5]

(a) Thermo couple

(b)Peizo-Electric Transducers.

[5X2]

2015

Full Marks: 70

Time: 3 hours

Answer any six questions including question No. 1 which is compulsory.

The figures in the right-hand margin indicate marks.

(Answer any six questions including Q.No. 1)

1. Answer the following questions:

[2 x 10]

(a) What are the parameters on which the critical damping of galvanometer depends?

Why critical damping is important?

(b) The current flowing through a resistance of 10.281 k is measured as 1.217 mA.

Calculate the voltage drop across the resistor to the appropriate number of significant

errors.

(c) What are the main advantages and disadvantages of PMMC instruments?

(d) Why an electrodynamometer type instrument is called a Universal Instrument?

(e) Write the working principle of resonance type frequency meter.

(f) What are the advantages of electronic voltmeter over electro mechanical type

voltmeter?

(g) Why Maxwell Bridge is limited to the measurement of medium Q coils?

(h) What will happen in a current transformer, if the secondary circuit is accidentally

opened while the primary winding is energized?

(i) Suggest a transducer for the measurement of displacement in the order of one tenth

of millimeter and write the basic principle of measurement.

(j) What is the function of delay line in oscilloscope?

Q. 2.

[5 + 5]

a) The coil of a measuring instrument has a resistance of 1 and the instrument has a full

scale deflection of 250 V when a resistance of 4999 is connected with it. Find the

current range of the instrument when used as an ammeter with the coil connected across a

shunt of (1/499) and the value of the shunt resistance for the instrument to give a full

scale deflection of 50 A.

b) Distinguish between gross error, systematic error and random error with examples. What

are the methods for their elimination/reduction?

Q. 3.

[5 + 5]

a) Draw the circuit diagram of Schering Bridge. Derive the conditions for balancing the

bridge and draw the phasor diagram during balanced condition.

b) Describe the theory and method of measurement of low resistance using Kelvins double

Bridge. How the effect of thermo electric emf is taken into account during

measurement?

Q. 4.

2015

[10]

A single range student type potentiometer has 20 step dial switch where each step

represents 0.1 V. The dial resistors are 20 . The slide wire of the potentiometer is

circular and has 10 turns and a resistance of 10 each. The slide wire has 200 divisions

and interpolation can be done to one fourth of a division. The working battery has a

voltage of 10 V and negligible internal resistance. Draw the circuit diagram and calculate

i)

The measuring range of potentiometer

ii)

The resolution

iii)

Working current

iv)

Resistance of series rheostat

Q. 5.

[5 + 5]

a) What is the requirement of Screening of bridge components? Draw the circuit diagram

of Wagners earthing device and explain its operation.

b) Define the sensitivity of a strain gauge. Draw the circuit for measurement of strain and

derive the expression of output voltage in terms of strain.

Q. 6.

[5 + 5]

a) Derive the torque equation of moving iron instrument and comment on the shape of the

scale.

b) Prove that for electrodynamometer type wattmeter

true power = {cos / [cos cos ( ]} x actual wattmeter reading

Where cos = power factor of the circuit

= tan-1 (L/R) where L and R are the inductance and resistance of the pressure

coil of the circuit.

Q. 7.

[5 + 5]

b) Discuss the major sources of errors in current transformer. What are the means to reduce

errors in CT? Explain design and constructional feature to reduce the error.

Q. 8.

[6 + 4]

a) Describe the measurement of frequency, phase angle and time delay using oscilloscope

with suitable diagrams and mathematical expressions.

b) With block diagram explain the operation of Ramp type digital voltmeter.

2015

MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

An instrument is a device in which we can determine the magnitude or value of the

quantity to be measured. The measuring quantity can be voltage, current, power and energy etc.

Generally instruments are classified in to two categories.

Instrument

Absolute Instrument

Secondary Instrument

An absolute instrument determines the magnitude of the quantity to be measured in terms of the

instrument parameter. This instrument is really used, because each time the value of the

measuring quantities varies. So we have to calculate the magnitude of the measuring quantity,

analytically which is time consuming. These types of instruments are suitable for laboratory use.

Example: Tangent galvanometer.

1.3 Secondary instrument

This instrument determines the value of the quantity to be measured directly. Generally these

instruments are calibrated by comparing with another standard secondary instrument.

Examples of such instruments are voltmeter, ammeter and wattmeter etc. Practically

secondary instruments are suitable for measurement.

Secondary instruments

Indicating instruments

Recording

Integrating

Electromechanically

Indicating instruments

2015

This instrument uses a dial and pointer to determine the value of measuring quantity. The pointer

indication gives the magnitude of measuring quantity.

This type of instruments records the magnitude of the quantity to be measured continuously over

a specified period of time.

1.3.3 Integrating instrument

This type of instrument gives the total amount of the quantity to be measured over a specified

period of time.

1.3.4 Electromechanical indicating instrument

For satisfactory operation electromechanical indicating instrument, three forces are necessary.

They are

(a) Deflecting force

(b) Controlling force

(c)Damping force

1.4 Deflecting force

When there is no input signal to the instrument, the pointer will be at its zero position. To deflect

the pointer from its zero position, a force is necessary which is known as deflecting force. A

system which produces the deflecting force is known as a deflecting system. Generally a

deflecting system converts an electrical signal to a mechanical force.

10

2015

When a current passes through the coil (Fig.1.2), it produces a imaginary bar magnet. When a

soft-iron piece is brought near this coil it is magnetized. Depending upon the current direction

the poles are produced in such a way that there will be a force of attraction between the coil and

the soft iron piece. This principle is used in moving iron attraction type instrument.

Fig. 1.2

If two soft iron pieces are place near a current carrying coil there will be a force of repulsion

between the two soft iron pieces. This principle is utilized in the moving iron repulsion type

instrument.

1.4.2 Force between a permanent magnet and a current carrying coil

When a current carrying coil is placed under the influence of magnetic field produced by a

permanent magnet and a force is produced between them. This principle is utilized in the moving

coil type instrument.

Fig. 1.3

1.4.3 Force between two current carrying coil

When two current carrying coils are placed closer to each other there will be a force of repulsion

between them. If one coil is movable and other is fixed, the movable coil will move away from

the fixed one. This principle is utilized in electrodynamometer type instrument.

11

2015

Fig. 1.4

1.5 Controlling force

To make the measurement indicated by the pointer definite (constant) a force is necessary which

will be acting in the opposite direction to the deflecting force. This force is known as controlling

force. A system which produces this force is known as a controlled system. When the external

signal to be measured by the instrument is removed, the pointer should return back to the zero

position. This is possibly due to the controlling force and the pointer will be indicating a steady

value when the deflecting torque is equal to controlling torque.

Td = Tc

(1.1)

Two springs are attached on either end of spindle (Fig. 1.5).The spindle is placed in jewelled

bearing, so that the frictional force between the pivot and spindle will be minimum. Two springs

are provided in opposite direction to compensate the temperature error. The spring is made of

phosphorous bronze.

When a current is supply, the pointer deflects due to rotation of the spindle. While spindle is

rotate, the spring attached with the spindle will oppose the movements of the pointer. The torque

produced by the spring is directly proportional to the pointer deflection .

TC

(1.2)

The deflecting torque produced Td proportional to I. When TC = Td , the pointer will come to a

steady position. Therefore

(1.3)

12

2015

Fig. 1.5

Since, and I are directly proportional to the scale of such instrument which uses spring

controlled is uniform.

1.6 Damping force

The deflection torque and controlling torque produced by systems are electro mechanical.

Due to inertia produced by this system, the pointer oscillates about it final steady position before

coming to rest. The time required to take the measurement is more. To damp out the oscillation

is quickly, a damping force is necessary. This force is produced by different systems.

(a) Air friction damping

(b) Fluid friction damping

(c) Eddy current damping

1.6.1 Air friction damping

The piston is mechanically connected to a spindle through the connecting rod (Fig. 1.6). The

pointer is fixed to the spindle moves over a calibrated dial. When the pointer oscillates in

clockwise direction, the piston goes inside and the cylinder gets compressed. The air pushes the

piston upwards and the pointer tends to move in anticlockwise direction.

13

2015

Fig. 1.6

If the pointer oscillates in anticlockwise direction the piston moves away and the pressure of the

air inside cylinder gets reduced. The external pressure is more than that of the internal pressure.

Therefore the piston moves down wards. The pointer tends to move in clock wise direction.

1.6.2 Eddy current damping

An aluminum circular disc is fixed to the spindle (Fig. 1.6). This disc is made to move in the

magnetic field produced by a permanent magnet.

14

2015

When the disc oscillates it cuts the magnetic flux produced by damping magnet. An emf is

induced in the circular disc by faradays law. Eddy currents are established in the disc since it has

several closed paths. By Lenzs law, the current carrying disc produced a force in a direction

opposite to oscillating force. The damping force can be varied by varying the projection of the

magnet over the circular disc.

1.7

One of the most accurate type of instrument used for D.C. measurements is PMMC instrument.

Construction: A permanent magnet is used in this type instrument. Aluminum former is

provided in the cylindrical in between two poles of the permanent magnet (Fig. 1.7). Coils are

wound on the aluminum former which is connected with the spindle. This spindle is supported

with jeweled bearing. Two springs are attached on either end of the spindle. The terminals of the

moving coils are connected to the spring. Therefore the current flows through spring 1, moving

coil and spring 2.

Damping: Eddy current damping is used. This is produced by aluminum former.

Control: Spring control is used.

15

2015

Fig. 1.7

Principle of operation

When D.C. supply is given to the moving coil, D.C. current flows through it. When the current

carrying coil is kept in the magnetic field, it experiences a force. This force produces a torque

and the former rotates. The pointer is attached with the spindle. When the former rotates, the

pointer moves over the calibrated scale. When the polarity is reversed a torque is produced in the

opposite direction. The mechanical stopper does not allow the deflection in the opposite

direction. Therefore the polarity should be maintained with PMMC instrument.

If A.C. is supplied, a reversing torque is produced. This cannot produce a continuous deflection.

Therefore this instrument cannot be used in A.C.

Torque developed by PMMC

Let

Td =deflecting torque

TC = controlling torque

= angle of deflection

K=spring constant

b=width of the coil

16

2015

N=No. of turns

I=current

B=Flux density

A=area of the coil

The force produced in the coil is given by

F = BIL sin

(1.4)

When = 90

(1.5)

(1.6)

Td = NBIL b = BINA

(1.7)

Td = BANI

(1.8)

Td I

(1.9)

Advantages

Torque/weight is high

Power consumption is less

Scale is uniform

Damping is very effective

Since operating field is very strong, the effect of stray field is negligible

Range of instrument can be extended

Disadvantages

Use only for D.C.

Cost is high

Error is produced due to ageing effect of PMMC

Friction and temperature error are present

17

2015

Case-I: Shunt

A low shunt resistance connected in parrel with the ammeter to extent the range of current. Large

current can be measured using low current rated ammeter by using a shunt.

Fig. 1.8

Let Rm =Resistance of meter

I m = Current through meter

I sh =current through shunt

I= current to be measure

Vm = Vsh

(1.10)

I m Rm = I sh Rsh

I m Rsh

=

I sh Rm

(1.11)

Apply KCL at P I = I m + I sh

(1.12)

Eqn (1.12) by I m

I

I

= 1 + sh

Im

Im

(1.13)

18

2015

I

R

=1+ m

Im

Rsh

(1.14)

R

I = I m 1 + m

Rsh

(1.15)

R

1 + m is called multiplication factor

Rsh

Shunt resistance is made of manganin. This has least thermoelectric emf. The change is

resistance, due to change in temperature is negligible.

Case (II): Multiplier

A large resistance is connected in series with voltmeter is called multiplier (Fig. 1.9). A large

voltage can be measured using a voltmeter of small rating with a multiplier.

Fig. 1.9

Let

Rm =resistance of meter

Rse =resistance of multiplier

Vm =Voltage across meter

Vse = Voltage across series resistance

V= voltage to be measured

I m = I se

(1.16)

Vm Vse

=

Rm Rse

(1.17)

V

R

se = se

Vm Rm

(1.18)

19

2015

(1.19)

Eqn (1.19) Vm

R

V

V

= 1 + se = 1 + se

Vm

Vm Rm

(1.20)

R

V = Vm 1 + se

Rm

(1.21)

Rse

1 +

Multiplication factor

Rm

One of the most accurate instrument used for both AC and DC measurement is moving iron

instrument. There are two types of moving iron instrument.

Attraction type

Repulsion type

Construction: The moving iron fixed to the spindle is kept near the hollow fixed coil (Fig. 1.10).

The pointer and balance weight are attached to the spindle, which is supported with jeweled

bearing. Here air friction damping is used.

Principle of operation

The current to be measured is passed through the fixed coil. As the current is flow through the

fixed coil, a magnetic field is produced. By magnetic induction the moving iron gets magnetized.

The north pole of moving coil is attracted by the south pole of fixed coil. Thus the deflecting

force is produced due to force of attraction. Since the moving iron is attached with the spindle,

the spindle rotates and the pointer moves over the calibrated scale. But the force of attraction

depends on the current flowing through the coil.

Let be the deflection corresponding to a current of i amp

Let the current increases by di, the corresponding deflection is + d

20

2015

Fig. 1.10

There is change in inductance since the position of moving iron change w.r.t the fixed

electromagnets.

Let the new inductance value be L+dL. The current change by di is dt seconds.

Let the emf induced in the coil be e volt.

e=

d

di

dL

( Li ) = L + i

dt

dt

dt

(1.22)

e idt = L

di

dL

idt + i

idt

dt

dt

(1.23)

e idt = Lidi + i 2 dL

(1.24)

Eqn (1.24) gives the energy is used in to two forms. Part of energy is stored in the inductance.

Remaining energy is converted in to mechanical energy which produces deflection.

Fig. 1.11

21

2015

1

1

( L + dL)(i + di) 2 Li 2

2

2

1

= {( L + dL)(i 2 + di 2 + 2idi) Li 2 }

2

1

= {( L + dL)(i 2 + 2idi) Li 2 }

2

1

= {Li 2 + 2 Lidi + i 2 dL + 2ididL Li 2 }

2

1

= {2 Lidi + i 2 dL}

2

1

= Lidi + i 2 dL

2

(1.25)

= Td d

By law of conservation of energy,

Electrical energy supplied=Increase in stored energy+ mechanical work done.

Input energy= Energy stored + Mechanical energy

1

Lidi + i 2 dL = Lidi + i 2 dL + Td d

2

(1.26)

(1.27)

1 2

i dL = Td d

2

(1.28)

1 dL

Td = i 2

2 d

(1.29)

1 2 dL

i

= K

2 d

(1.30)

1 2 dL

i

2 K d

(1.31)

i2

(1.32)

Scale of the instrument is non uniform.

22

2015

Advantages

MI can be used in AC and DC

It is cheap

Supply is given to a fixed coil, not in moving coil.

Simple construction

Less friction error.

Disadvantages

It suffers from eddy current and hysteresis error

Scale is not uniform

It consumed more power

Calibration is different for AC and DC operation

1.8.2 Repulsion type moving iron instrument

Construction: The repulsion type instrument has a hollow fixed iron attached to it (Fig. 1.12).

The moving iron is connected to the spindle. The pointer is also attached to the spindle in

supported with jeweled bearing.

Principle of operation: When the current flows through the coil, a magnetic field is produced by

it. So both fixed iron and moving iron are magnetized with the same polarity, since they are kept

in the same magnetic field. Similar poles of fixed and moving iron get repelled. Thus the

deflecting torque is produced due to magnetic repulsion. Since moving iron is attached to

spindle, the spindle will move. So that pointer moves over the calibrated scale.

Damping: Air friction damping is used to reduce the oscillation.

Control: Spring control is used.

23

Fig. 1.12

Fig. 1.13

24

2015

2015

This instrument can be used for the measurement of voltage, current and power. The difference

between the PMMC and dynamometer type instrument is that the permanent magnet is replaced

by an electromagnet.

Construction: A fixed coil is divided in to two equal half. The moving coil is placed between the

two half of the fixed coil. Both the fixed and moving coils are air cored. So that the hysteresis

effect will be zero. The pointer is attached with the spindle. In a non metallic former the moving

coil is wounded.

Control: Spring control is used.

Damping: Air friction damping is used.

Principle of operation:

When the current flows through the fixed coil, it produced a magnetic field, whose flux density is

proportional to the current through the fixed coil. The moving coil is kept in between the fixed

coil. When the current passes through the moving coil, a magnetic field is produced by this coil.

The magnetic poles are produced in such a way that the torque produced on the moving coil

deflects the pointer over the calibrated scale. This instrument works on AC and DC. When AC

voltage is applied, alternating current flows through the fixed coil and moving coil. When the

current in the fixed coil reverses, the current in the moving coil also reverses. Torque remains in

the same direction. Since the current i1 and i2 reverse simultaneously. This is because the fixed

and moving coils are either connected in series or parallel.

Torque developed by EMMC

Fig. 1.14

25

2015

Let

L1=Self inductance of fixed coil

L2= Self inductance of moving coil

M=mutual inductance between fixed coil and moving coil

i1=current through fixed coil

i2=current through moving coil

Total inductance of system,

Ltotal = L1 + L2 + 2M

(1.33)

Td =

1 2 d ( L)

i

2 d

(1.34)

1 d

Td = i 2

( L1 + L2 + 2 M )

2 d

(1.35)

1

dM

Td = i 2 2

2

d

Td = i 2

(1.36)

dM

d

(1.37)

Td = i1i2

dM

d

(1.38)

TC = Td

=

(1.39)

(1.40)

i1i2 dM

K d

Hence the deflection of pointer is proportional to the current passing through fixed coil and

moving coil.

26

2015

Case-I Ammeter connection

Fixed coil and moving coil are connected in parallel for ammeter connection. The coils are

designed such that the resistance of each branch is same.

Therefore

I1 = I 2 = I

Fig. 1.15

To extend the range of current a shunt may be connected in parallel with the meter. The value

Rsh is designed such that equal current flows through moving coil and fixed coil.

Td = I1I 2

dM

d

Or Td = I 2

(1.41)

dM

d

(1.42)

TC = K

(1.43)

I 2 dM

K d

(1.44)

(1.45)

Fixed coil and moving coil are connected in series for voltmeter connection. A multiplier may be

connected in series to extent the range of voltmeter.

27

2015

Fig. 1.16

V

V

I1 = 1 , I 2 = 2

Z1

Z2

(1.46)

V V

dM

Td = 1 2

Z1 Z 2 d

(1.47)

K V K V dM

Td = 1 2

Z1

Z2

d

(1.48)

KV 2 dM

Td =

Z1Z 2 d

(1.49)

Td V 2

(1.50)

(1.51)

Case-III As wattmeter

When the two coils are connected to parallel, the instrument can be used as a wattmeter. Fixed

coil is connected in series with the load. Moving coil is connected in parallel with the load. The

moving coil is known as voltage coil or pressure coil and fixed coil is known as current coil.

Fig. 1.17

28

2015

Assume that the supply voltage is sinusoidal. If the impedance of the coil is neglected in

comparison with the resistance R. The current,

v sin wt

I2 = m

R

(1.52)

I1 = I m sin(wt )

(1.53)

dM

d

Td = I1I 2

(1.54)

V sin wt dM

Td = I m sin( wt ) m

R

d

(1.55)

Td =

1

dM

( I mVm sin wt sin( wt ))

R

d

(1.56)

Td =

1

dM

I mVm sin wt. sin( wt )

R

d

(1.57)

(Td ) avg =

(Td ) avg =

(Td ) avg =

(Td ) avg

1 2

Td d (wt )

2 0

1

2

RI V

m m

(1.58)

sin wt.sin( wt )

dM

d (wt )

d

Vm I m

1 dM

{cos cos(2 wt )}dwt

2 2 R d

2

2

Vm I m dM

=

4R d 0

0

(1.59)

(1.60)

(1.61)

(Td ) avg =

Vm I m dM

2

cos [wt ]0

4 R d

(Td ) avg =

Vm I m dM

[cos (2 0)]

4 R d

(1.63)

(Td ) avg =

Vm I m 1 dM

cos

2

R d

(1.64)

(1.62)

1 dM

R d

(1.65)

29

2015

(1.66)

TC

(1.67)

KVI cos

(1.68)

VI cos

(1.69)

Advantages

Hysteresis error is nill

Eddy current error is nill

Damping is effective

It can be measure correctively and accurately the rms value of the voltage

Disadvantages

Power consumption is high(because of high resistance )

Cost is more

Error is produced due to frequency, temperature and stray field.

Torque/weight is low.(Because field strength is very low)

Errors in PMMC

The permanent magnet produced error due to ageing effect. By heat treatment, this error

can be eliminated.

The spring produces error due to ageing effect. By heat treating the spring the error can

be eliminated.

When the temperature changes, the resistance of the coil vary and the spring also

produces error in deflection. This error can be minimized by using a spring whose

temperature co-efficient is very low.

1.10

An attraction type instrument will usually have a lower inductance, compare to repulsion type

instrument. But in other hand, repulsion type instruments are more suitable for economical

production in manufacture and nearly uniform scale is more easily obtained. They are therefore

much more common than attraction type.

30

1.11

2015

Characteristics of meter

The current required to bring the pointer to full-scale or extreme right side of the

instrument is called full scale deflection current. It must be as small as possible. Typical value is

between 2 A to 30mA.

1.11.2 Resistance of the coil( Rm )

This is ohmic resistance of the moving coil. It is due to , L and A. For an ammeter this should

be as small as possible.

1.11.3 Sensitivity of the meter(S)

S=

1

I FSD

( / volt ), S =

Z

V

It is also called ohms/volt rating of the instrument. Larger the sensitivity of an instrument, more

accurate is the instrument. It is measured in /volt. When the sensitivity is high, the impedance

of meter is high. Hence it draws less current and loading affect is negligible. It is also defend as

one over full scale deflection current.

1.12

Due to temperature variation, the resistance of the coil varies. This affects the deflection of the

instrument. The coil should be made of manganin, so that the resistance is almost constant.

1.12.2 Hysteresis error

Due to hysteresis affect the reading of the instrument will not be correct. When the current is

decreasing, the flux produced will not decrease suddenly. Due to this the meter reads a higher

value of current. Similarly when the current increases the meter reads a lower value of current.

This produces error in deflection. This error can be eliminated using small iron parts with narrow

hysteresis loop so that the demagnetization takes place very quickly.

1.12.3 Eddy current error

The eddy currents induced in the moving iron affect the deflection. This error can be reduced by

increasing the resistance of the iron.

31

2015

Since the operating field is weak, the effect of stray field is more. Due to this, error is produced

in deflection. This can be eliminated by shielding the parts of the instrument.

1.12.5 Frequency error

Z = ( Rm + RS ) 2 + X L2

I=

(1.70)

V

V

=

Z

( Rm + RS ) 2 + X L2

(1.71)

Fig. 1.18

Deflection of moving iron voltmeter depends upon the current through the coil. Therefore,

deflection for a given voltage will be less at higher frequency than at low frequency. A capacitor

is connected in parallel with multiplier resistance. The net reactance, ( X L X C ) is very small,

when compared to the series resistance. Thus the circuit impedance is made independent of

frequency. This is because of the circuit is almost resistive.

C = 0.41

(1.72)

( RS ) 2

In multi cellular construction several vans and quadrants are provided. The voltage is to be

measured is applied between the vanes and quadrant. The force of attraction between the vanes

32

2015

and quadrant produces a deflecting torque. Controlling torque is produced by spring control. Air

friction damping is used.

The instrument is generally used for measuring medium and high voltage. The voltage is reduced

to low value by using capacitor potential divider. The force of attraction is proportional to the

square of the voltage.

Fig. 1.19

Torque develop by electrostatic instrument

C=capacitance between vane and quadrant

1

Energy stored= CV 2

2

(1.73)

Let the voltage increases by dv, the corresponding deflection is + d

When the voltage is being increased, a capacitive current flows

i=

dq d (CV ) dC

dV

=

=

V +C

dt

dt

dt

dt

(1.74)

33

2015

Fig. 1.20

Vidt =

dC 2

dV

V dt + CV

dt

dt

dt

(1.75)

Vidt = V 2 dC + CVdV

(1.76)

1

1

Change in stored energy= (C + dC )(V + dV )2 CV 2

2

2

(1.77)

[

[

1

1

(C + dC )V 2 + dV 2 + 2VdV CV 2

2

2

1

1

= CV 2 + CdV 2 + 2CVdV + V 2 dC + dCdV 2 + 2VdVdC CV 2

2

2

1

= V 2 dC + CVdV

2

1

V 2 dC + CVdV = V 2 dC + CVdV + F rd

2

=

(1.78)

1

Td d = V 2 dC

2

(1.79)

1 dC

Td = V 2

2 d

(1.80)

1 dC

K = V 2

2 d

(1.81)

1 2 dC

V

2K

d

(1.82)

34

2015

Advantages

There is no frequency error.

There is no hysteresis error.

There is no stray magnetic field error. Because the instrument works on electrostatic

principle.

It is used for high voltage

Power consumption is negligible.

Disadvantages

Large in size

Cost is more

1.14 Multi range Ammeter

Fig. 1.21

I sh1Rsh1 = I m Rm

(1.83)

I R

I R

Rsh1 = m m = m m

I sh1

I1 I m

(1.84)

35

Rsh1 =

Rm

I1

1

Im

, Rsh1 =

2015

Rm

I

, m1 = 1 = Multiplying power of shunt

m1 1

Im

Rsh 2 =

Rm

I

, m2 = 2

m2 1

Im

(1.85)

Rsh3 =

I

Rm

, m3 = 3

m3 1

Im

(1.86)

Rsh 4 =

Rm

I

, m4 = 4

m4 1

Im

(1.87)

R1 = Rsh1 Rsh2

(1.88)

R2 = Rsh2 Rsh3

(1.89)

R3 = Rsh3 Rsh4

(1.90)

R4 = Rsh 4

(1.91)

Fig. 1.22

Ayrton shunt is also called universal shunt. Ayrton shunt has more sections of resistance. Taps

are brought out from various points of the resistor. The variable points in the o/p can be

connected to any position. Various meters require different types of shunts. The Aryton shunt is

used in the lab, so that any value of resistance between minimum and maximum specified can be

used. It eliminates the possibility of having the meter in the circuit without a shunt.

36

2015

Fig. 1.23

Rs1 = Rm ( m1 1)

Rs 2 = Rm (m2 1)

Rs3 = Rm (m3 1)

(1.92)

V

V

V

m1 = 1 , m2 = 2 , m3 = 3

Vm

Vm

Vm

(1.93)

We can obtain different Voltage ranges by connecting different value of multiplier resistor in

series with the meter. The number of these resistors is equal to the number of ranges required.

1.17 Potential divider arrangement

The resistance R1, R2 , R3 and R4 is connected in series to obtained the ranges V1,V2 ,V3 and V4

37

2015

Fig. 1.24

Consider for voltage V1, ( R1 + Rm ) I m = V1

V

V

V

R1 = 1 Rm = 1 Rm = 1 Rm Rm

V

Im

Vm

( m)

Rm

R1 = (m1 1) Rm

(1.95)

V

For V2 , ( R2 + R1 + Rm ) I m = V2 R2 = 2 R1 Rm

Im

R2 =

(1.94)

V2

(m1 1) Rm Rm

Vm

Rm

(1.96)

(1.97)

R2 = m2 Rm Rm (m1 1) Rm

= Rm (m2 1 m1 + 1)

(1.98)

R2 = (m2 m1) Rm

(1.99)

For V3 (R3 + R2 + R1 + Rm )I m = V3

V

R3 = 3 R2 R1 Rm

Im

V

= 3 Rm (m2 m1 ) Rm (m1 1) Rm Rm

Vm

= m3 Rm (m2 m1 ) Rm (m1 1) Rm Rm

R3 = (m3 m2 ) Rm

38

For V4

2015

(R4 + R3 + R2 + R1 + Rm )I m = V4

V

R4 = 4 R3 R2 R1 Rm

Im

V

= 4 Rm (m3 m2 ) Rm (m2 m1) Rm (m1 1) Rm Rm

Vm

R4 = Rm [m4 m3 + m2 m2 + m1 m1 + 1 1]

R4 = (m4 m3 )Rm

Example: 1.1

Coil dimension are 1cm 1cm. Spring constant is 0.15 10 6 N m / rad , Flux density is

1.5 10 3 wb / m 2 .Determine

Solution:

BANI = K

N=

K

BAI

A= 1 104 m 2

K= 0.15 10 6

N m

rad

B= 1.5 10 3 wb / m 2

I= 2 10 3 A

= 90 =

rad

2

N=785 ans.

Example: 1.2

39

2015

The pointer of a moving coil instrument gives full scale deflection of 20mA. The potential

difference across the meter when carrying 20mA is 400mV.The instrument to be used is 200A

for full scale deflection. Find the shunt resistance required to achieve this, if the instrument to be

used as a voltmeter for full scale reading with 1000V. Find the series resistance to be connected

it?

Solution:

Case-1

Vm =400mV

I m = 20mA

I=200A

V

400

Rm = m =

= 20

Im

20

R

I = I m 1 + m

Rsh

20

200 = 20 103 1 +

Rsh

Rsh = 2 10 3

Case-II

V=1000V

R

V = Vm 1 + se

Rm

R

4000 = 400 10 3 1 + se

20

Rse = 49.98k

Example: 1.3

A 150 v moving iron voltmeter is intended for 50HZ, has a resistance of 3k. Find the series

resistance required to extent the range of instrument to 300v. If the 300V instrument is used to

measure a d.c. voltage of 200V. Find the voltage across the meter?

Solution:

Rm = 3k , Vm = 150V , V = 300V

40

V = Vm 1 +

2015

R se

Rm

3

R

V = Vm 1 + se

Rm

Case-II

3

200 = Vm 1 +

3

Vm = 100V Ans

Example: 1.4

What is the value of series resistance to be used to extent 0to 200V range of 20,000/volt

voltmeter to 0 to 2000 volt?

Solution:

Vse = V V = 1800

I FSD =

1

1

=

20000 Sensitivity

Example: 1.5

A moving coil instrument whose resistance is 25 gives a full scale deflection with a current of

1mA. This instrument is to be used with a manganin shunt, to extent its range to 100mA.

Calculate the error caused by a 100C rise in temperature when:

(a) Copper moving coil is connected directly across the manganin shunt.

(b) A 75 ohm manganin resistance is used in series with the instrument moving coil.

The temperature co-efficient of copper is 0.004/0C and that of manganin is 0.000150/C.

Solution:

Case-1

I m = 1mA

Rm = 25

41

I=100mA

R

I = I m 1 + m

Rsh

25

25

100 = 11 +

= 99

Rsh

Rsh

25

Rsh =

= 0.2525

99

Instrument resistance for 100C rise in temperature, Rmt = 25(1 + 0.004 10)

Rt = Ro (1 + t t )

Rm / t =10 = 26

Shunt resistance for 100C, rise in temperature

Current through the meter for 100mA in the main circuit for 100C rise in temperature

I = I m 1 +

Rm

Rsh t =10 C

26

100 = I mt 1 +

0.2529

Im

t =10

= 0.963mA

Error due to rise in temperature=(0.963-1)*100=-3.7%

Case-b As voltmeter

R

I = I m 1 + m

Rsh

100

100 = 11 +

R

sh

Rsh =

100

= 1.01

100 1

42

2015

2015

Rm

t =10

Rsh

t =10

R

I = I m 1 + m

Rsh

101.11

100 = I m 1 +

1.0115

I m t = 10 = 0.9905mA

Error =(0.9905-1)*100=-0.95%

Example: 1.6

The coil of a 600V M.I meter has an inductance of 1 henery. It gives correct reading at 50HZ and

requires 100mA. For its full scale deflection, what is % error in the meter when connected to

200V D.C. by comparing with 200V A.C?

Solution:

Vm = 600V , I m = 100mA

Case-I A.C.

V

600

Zm = m =

= 6000

I m 0 .1

X L = 2fL = 314

Rm = Z m 2 X L2 = (6000) 2 (314) 2 = 5990

V

200

I AC = AC =

= 33.33mA

Z

6000

Case-II D.C

V

200

I DC = DC =

= 33.39mA

Rm

5990

43

2015

I

I AC

33.39 33.33

Error= DC

100 =

100 = 0.18%

I AC

33.33

Example: 1.7

A 250V M.I. voltmeter has coil resistance of 500, coil inductance 0f 1.04 H and series

resistance of 2k. The meter reads correctively at 250V D.C. What will be the value of

capacitance to be used for shunting the series resistance to make the meter read correctly at

50HZ? What is the reading of voltmeter on A.C. without capacitance?

C = 0.41

Solution:

= 0.41

L

( RS ) 2

1.04

(2 103 ) 2

= 0.1F

Z = (500 + 2000) 2 + (314) 2 = 2520

With D.C

Rtotal = 2500

For 2500 250V

1

2520

250

2500

250

2520 = 248V

2500

Example: 1.8

The relationship between inductance of moving iron ammeter, the current and the position of

pointer is as follows:

Reading (A)

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

Deflection (degree)

36.5

49.5

61.5

74.5

Inductance ( H )

575.2

576.5

577.8

578.8

Calculate the deflecting torque and the spring constant when the current is 1.5A?

Solution:

44

2015

dL 577.65 576.5

=

= 0.11H / deg ree = 6.3H / rad

d

60 49.5

Deflecting torque , Td =

1 2 dL 1

= (1.5) 2 6.3 10 6 = 7.09 10 6 N m

I

2 d 2

T

7.09 10 6

N m

Spring constant, K = d =

= 7.319 10 6

0.968

rad

Fig. 1.25

Example: 1.9

For a certain dynamometer ammeter the mutual inductance M varies with deflection as

M = 6 cos( + 30 )mH .Find the deflecting torque produced by a direct current of 50mA

corresponding to a deflection of 600.

Solution:

Td = I1I 2

dM

dM

= I2

d

d

M = 6 cos( + 30 )

dM

= 6 sin( + 30)mH

d

dM

= 60 = 6 sin 90 = 6mH / deg

d

Td = I 2

dM

= (50 10 3 ) 2 6 10 3 = 15 10 6 N m

d

45

2015

Example: 1.10

The inductance of a moving iron ammeter with a full scale deflection of 900 at 1.5A, is given by

the expression L = 200 + 40 4 2 3H , where is deflection in radian from the zero

position. Estimate the angular deflection of the pointer for a current of 1.0A.

Solution:

L = 200 + 40 4 2 3 H

dL

2

= 40 8 3 H / rad

90

=

d

dL

3( ) 2 H / rad = 20 H / rad

= 40 8

90

=

d

2

2

=

1 2 dL

I

2 K d

1 (1.5) 2

=

20 10 6

2 2 K

For I=1A, =

=

1 2 dL

I

2 K d

1

(1) 2

40 8 3 2

6

2 14.32 10

3 + 36.64 2 40 = 0

= 1.008rad ,57.8

Example: 1.11

the deflection in radian from zero position. The spring constant is 12 10 6 N m / rad . Estimate

the deflection for a current of 5A.

Solution:

46

2015

dL

H

= (5 2 )

d

rad

1 2 dL

I

2 K d

1

(5) 2

(5 2 ) 10 6

2 12 10 6

= 1.69rad ,96.8

Example: 1.12

The following figure gives the relation between deflection and inductance of a moving iron

instrument.

Deflection (degree)

20

30

40

50

60

70

Inductance ( H )

335

345

80

90

391.2 396.5

Find the current and the torque to give a deflection of (a) 300 (b) 800 . Given that control spring

constant is 0.4 10 6 N m / deg ree

Solution:

1 2 dL

I

2 K d

(a) For = 30

The curve is linear

355.5 335

dL

=

= 1.075H / deg ree = 58.7 H / rad

40 20

d = 30

47

2015

Fig. 1.26

Example: 1.13

In an electrostatic voltmeter the full scale deflection is obtained when the moving plate turns

through 900. The torsional constant is 10 10 6 N m / rad . The relation between the angle of

deflection and capacitance between the fixed and moving plates is given by

Deflection (degree) 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Capacitance (PF)

81.4

121

156

189.2 220

246

272

Find the voltage applied to the instrument when the deflection is 900?

Solution:

Fig. 1.27

48

294

316

334

2015

dC

bc 370 250

= tan =

=

= 1.82 PF / deg ree = 104.2 PF / rad

d

ab 110 44

Spring constant K = 10 10 6

V=

N m

= 0.1745 10 6 N m / deg ree

rad

1 2 dC

2 K

V

V =

dC

2K

d

d

2 0.1745 10 6 90

104.2 10 12

= 549volt

Example: 1.14

Design a multi range d.c. mille ammeter using a basic movement with an internal resistance

Rm = 50 and a full scale deflection current I m = 1mA . The ranges required are 0-10mA; 0-50mA;

Solution:

Case-I

0-10mA

Multiplying power m =

I

Im

10

= 10

1

Rm

50

=

= 5.55

m 1 10 1

Case-II 0-50mA

m=

50

= 50

1

Rsh 2 =

Rm

50

=

= 1.03

m 1 50 1

Case-III 0-100mA, m =

Rsh3 =

Rm

50

=

= 0.506

m 1 100 1

Case-IV 0-500mA, m =

Rsh 4 =

100

= 100

1

500

= 500

1

Rm

50

=

= 0.1

m 1 500 1

Example: 1.15

49

2015

A moving coil voltmeter with a resistance of 20 gives a full scale deflection of 1200, when a

potential difference of 100mV is applied across it. The moving coil has dimension of

30mm*25mm

and

is

wounded

with

100

turns.

The

control

spring

constant

is

0.375 10 6 N m / deg ree. Find the flux density, in the air gap. Find also the diameter of copper

wire of coil winding if 30% of instrument resistance is due to coil winding. The specific

resistance for copper= 1.7 10 8 m .

Solution:

Data given

Vm = 100mV

Rm = 20

= 120

N=100

K = 0.375 10 6 N m / deg ree

RC = 30%ofRm

= 1.7 108 m

V

I m = m = 5 10 3 A

Rm

B=

Td

45 10 6

=

= 0.12 wb / m 2

3

ANI 30 25 10 100 5 10

RC = 0.3 20 = 6

Length of mean turn path =2(a+b) =2(55)=110mm

l

RC = N

A

A=

=

RC

6

50

2015

= 3.116 108 m 2

= 31.16 103 mm 2

A=

2

d d = 0.2mm

4

Example: 1.16

A moving coil instrument gives a full scale deflection of 10mA, when the potential difference

across its terminal is 100mV. Calculate

(1) The shunt resistance for a full scale deflection corresponding to 100A

(2) The resistance for full scale reading with 1000V.

Calculate the power dissipation in each case?

Solution:

Data given

I m = 10mA

Vm = 100mV

I = 100 A

I = I m 1 +

Rm

Rsh

10

100 = 10 103 1 +

Rsh

Rsh = 1.001 103

V

100

Rm = m =

= 10

Im

10

R

V = Vm 1 + se

Rm

R

1000 = 100 10 3 1 + se

10

Rse = 99.99 K

Example: 1.17

51

2015

Design an Aryton shunt to provide an ammeter with current ranges of 1A,5A,10A and 20A. A

basic meter with an internal resistance of 50w and a full scale deflection current of 1mA is to be

used.

Solution: Data given

I

m1 = 1 = 1000 A

Im

I m = 1 10

Rm = 50

I1 = 1A

I

m2 = 2 = 5000 A

Im

A I2 = 5A

I 3 = 10 A

I

m3 = 3 = 10000 A

Im

I 4 = 20 A

I

m4 = 4 = 20000 A

Im

Rsh1 =

Rm

50

=

= 0.05

m1 1 1000 1

Rsh 2 =

Rm

50

=

= 0.01

m2 1 5000 1

Rsh3 =

Rm

50

=

= 0.005

m3 1 10000 1

Rsh 4 =

Rm

50

=

= 0.0025

m4 1 20000 1

R2 = Rsh 2 Rsh3 = 0.01 0.005 = 0.005

R3 = Rsh3 Rsh 4 = 0.005 0.025 = 0.0025

R4 = Rsh 4 = 0.0025

Example: 1.18

A basic d Arsonval meter movement with an internal resistance Rm = 100 and a full scale

current of I m = 1mA is to be converted in to a multi range d.c. voltmeter with ranges of 0-10V, 050V, 0-250V, 0-500V. Find the values of various resistances using the potential divider

arrangement.

Solution:

Data given

52

Rm = 100

I m = 1mA

Vm = I m Rm

Vm = 100 1 103

Vm = 100mV

10

V

= 100

m1 = 1 =

Vm 100 10 3

50

V

= 500

m2 = 2 =

Vm 100 10 3

V

250

= 2500

m3 = 3 =

Vm 100 10 3

500

V

= 5000

m4 = 4 =

Vm 100 10 3

R2 = (m2 m1 ) Rm = (500 100) 100 = 40 K

R3 = (m3 m2 ) Rm = (2500 500) 100 = 200 K

R4 = (m4 m3 ) Rm = (5000 2500) 100 = 250 K

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2015

AC BRIDGES

2.1 General form of A.C. bridge

AC bridge are similar to D.C. bridge in topology(way of connecting).It consists of four arm

AB,BC,CD and DA .Generally the impedance to be measured is connected between A and B.

A detector is connected between B and D. The detector is used as null deflection instrument.

Some of the arms are variable element. By varying these elements, the potential values at B and

D can be made equal. This is called balancing of the bridge.

At the balance condition, the current through detector is zero.

.

I1 = I 3

.

I2 = I4

I1

I3

I2

(2.1)

I4

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2015

At balance condition,

Voltage drop across AB=voltage drop across AD.

.

E1 = E 2

.

I1 Z1 = I 2 Z 2

(2.2)

.

E3 = E4

.

I 3 Z3 = I 4 Z 4

(2.3)

I1

Z2

I2

Z1

I3

Z4

I4

(2.4)

(2.5)

Z3

From equation -2.1, it can be seen that, equation -2.4 and equation-2.5 are equal.

Z2

Z4

Z1

.

Z3

.

Z1 Z 4 = Z 2 Z 3

Z1 1 Z 4 4 = Z 2 2 Z 3 3

Z1 Z 4 1 + 4 = Z 2 Z 3 2 + 3

Z1 Z 4 = Z 2 Z 3

1 + 4 = 2 + 3

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Angle on either side must be equal.

Summary

.

I1 = I 3 , I 2 = I 4

Z1 Z 4 = Z 2 Z 3

1 + 4 = 2 + 3

E1 = E 2 &

E3 = E4

Vibration galvanometer

Tuned amplifier

Between the point B and D a vibration galvanometer is connected to indicate the bridge

balance condition. This A.C. galvanometer which works on the principle of resonance. The

A.C. galvanometer shows a dot, if the bridge is unbalanced.

2.2.2 Head phones

Two speakers are connected in parallel in this system. If the bridge is unbalanced, the

speaker produced more sound energy. If the bridge is balanced, the speaker do not produced

any sound energy.

2.2.3 Tuned amplifier

If the bridge is unbalanced the output of tuned amplifier is high. If the bridge is balanced,

output of amplifier is zero.

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2.3.1 Maxwells inductance bridge

The choke for which R1 and L1 have to measure connected between the points A and

B. In this method the unknown inductance is measured by comparing it with the standard

inductance.

L2 is adjusted, until the detector indicates zero current.

Let R1= unknown resistance

L1= unknown inductance of the choke.

L2= known standard inductance

R1,R2,R4= known resistances.

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.

At balance condition, Z 1 Z 4 = Z 2 Z 3

( R1 + jXL1 ) R4 = ( R2 + jXL2 ) R3

( R1 + jwL1 ) R4 = ( R2 + jwL2 ) R3

R1R4 + jwL1R4 = R2 R3 + jwL2 R3

R1R4 = R2 R3

R R

R1 = 2 3

R4

(2.6)

wL1R4 = wL2 R3

L R

L1 = 2 3

R4

Q-factor of choke, Q =

Q=

(2.7)

WL1 WL2 R3 R4

=

R1

R4 R2 R3

WL2

R2

(2.8)

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Advantages

Equations area simple

They do not depend on the frequency (as w is cancelled)

R1 and L1 are independent of each other.

Disadvantages

Variable inductor is bulky.

balance condition is achieved by varying C4.

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2015

(2.9)

1

jwC 4

1

Z 4 = R4 ||

=

1

jwC 4

R4 +

jwC4

R4

Z4 =

R4

R4

=

jwR4 C 4 + 1 1 + jwR4C 4

( R1 + jwL1 )

(2.10)

R4

= R2 R3

1 + jwR4 C 4

( R1 + jwL1 ) R4 = R2 R3 (1 + jwR4C 4 )

R1R4 + jwL1R4 = R2 R3 + jwC4 R4 R2 R3

R1R4 = R2 R3

60

R R

R1 = 2 3

R4

2015

(2.11)

wL1R4 = wC 4 R4 R2 R3

L1 = C 4 R2 R3

(2.12)

Q-factor of choke,

Q=

WL1

R

= w C 4 R2 R3 4

R1

R2 R3

Q = wC4 R4

(2.13)

Advantages

They are independent of frequency.

They are independent of each other.

Standard capacitor is much smaller in size than standard inductor.

Disadvantages

It can be used for measurements of Q-factor in the ranges of 1 to 10.

It cannot be used for measurements of choke with Q-factors more than 10.

We know that Q =wC4R4

For measuring chokes with higher value of Q-factor, the value of C4 and R4 should be

higher. Higher values of standard resistance are very expensive. Therefore this bridge cannot be

used for higher value of Q-factor measurements.

61

.

E1 = I1R1 + jI1 X 1

.

E = E1 + E 3

.

E 4 = I 4 R4 +

I4

jwC 4

E 3 = I 3 R3

Z 4 = R4 +

1 + jwR4C4

1

=

jwC4

jwC4

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At balance condition, Z1Z4=Z3Z2

1 + jwR4C 4

( R1 + jwL1 )(

) = R2 R3

jwC 4

R1 + jwC 4 R4 R1 + jwL1 + j 2 w 2 L1C 4 R4 = jwC4 R2 R3

Comparing the real term,

R1 w 2 L1C 4 R4 = 0

R1 = w 2 L1C4 R4

(2.14)

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2015

C 4 R4 R1 + L1 = C 4 R2 R3

L1 = C4 R2 R3 C4 R4 R1

(2.15)

Substituting the value of R1 fro eqn. 2.14 into eqn. 2.15, we have,

L1 = C 4 R2 R3 C 4 R4 w 2 L1C 4 R4

L1 = C4 R2 R3 w 2 L1C4 2 R4 2

L1 (1 + w 2 L1C 4 2 R4 2 ) = C 4 R2 R3

L1 =

C4 R2 R3

(2.16)

1 + w2 L1C4 2 R4 2

R1 =

w 2C4 2 R2 R3 R4

(2.17)

1 + w 2C4 2 R4 2

w C4 R2 R3

wL1

1 + w2C4 2 R4 2

Q=

=

R1 1 + w2C4 2 R4 2 w2C4 2 R4 R2 R3

Q=

1

wC4 R4

(2.18)

64

Advantages

This bridge is best suitable for measuring high value of Q-factor.

Disadvantages

Measurements of R1 and L1 require the value of frequency.

This bridge cannot be used for measuring low Q- factor.

2.3.4 Owens bridge

E1 = I1R1 + jI1 X1

I4 leads E4 by 900

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2015

E = E1 + E 3

.

E 2 = I 2 R2 +

I2

jwC 2

.

Balance condition, Z 1 Z 4 = Z 2 Z 3

Z 2 = R2 +

jwC 2 R2 + 1

1

=

jwC2

jwC 2

( R1 + jwL1 )

(1 + jwR2C 2 ) R3

1

=

jwC 4

jwC 2

R1C 2 + jwL1C2 = R3C4 + jwR2C 2 R3C4

R1C2 = R3C4

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2015

RC

R1 = 3 4

C2

wL1C 2 = wR2 C2 R3C 4

L1 = R2 R3C4

Q- factor =

=

R1

R3C 4

Q = wR2C2

Advantages

R1 and L1 are independent of Frequency.

Disadvantages

Variable capacitor is costly.

Q-factor range is restricted.

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2015

.

E1 = I1 ( R1 + r1 ) + jI1 X 1

E3 = EC

.

E 4 = I C r + EC

I 2 = I 4 + IC

E2+ E4 = E

E1 + E 3 = E

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2015

Step-1 Take I1 as references vector .Draw I1R11 in phase with I1

R11 = ( R1 + r1 )

1

I1 X1 is r to I1R1

E1 = I1R11 + jI1 X 1

Step-2

E3 = EC , I C leads EC by 900

Step-3

E4 = I C r + EC

Step-4

Step-5

Step-6

By KVL , E1 + E3 = E or E2 + E4 = E

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2015

Fig 2.12 Equivalent delta to star conversion for the loop MON

Z7 =

R4 r

R4 + r +

1

jwc

jwCR 4 r

1 + jwC ( R4 + r )

1

R4

jwC

Z6 =

=

1

1 + jwC ( R4 + r )

R4 + r +

jwc

R4

( R11 + jwL1 )

R4

jwCR4 r

= R3 ( R2 +

)

1 + jwC ( R4 + r )

1 + jwC ( R4 + r )

R (1 + jwC ( R4 + r )) + jwCrR4

( R11 + jwL1 ) R4

= R3 2

1 + jwC ( R4 + r )

1 + jwC ( R4 + r )

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2015

R11R4 = R2 R3

( R1 + r1 ) R4 = R2 R3

R R

R1 = 2 3 r1

R4

wL1R4 = wCR2 R3 (r + R4 ) + wcrR3 R4

R RC

L1 = 2 3 (r + R4 ) + R3rC

R4

L1 = R3C 2 (r + R4 ) + r

R4

Advantages

Inductance can be measured accurately.

R1 and L1 are independent of frequency.

Accuracy is better than other bridges.

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2015

2015

Disadvantages

This is not in the standard form A.C. bridge.

2.4 Measurement of capacitance and loss angle. (Dissipation factor)

2.4.1 Dissipation factors (D)

ideal capacitance.

From the vector diagram, it can be seen that the angle between voltage and current is slightly less

than 900. The angle is called loss angle.

72

A dissipation factor is defined as tan .

tan =

IR

R

=

= wCR

IX C X C

D = wCR

D=

1

Q

D = tan =

sin

cos 1

2.4.2 Desautys Bridge

At balance condition,

1

1

R4 =

R3

jwC1

jwC 2

R4 R3

=

C1 C 2

R C

C1 = 4 2

R3

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2015

74

2015

75

2015

R11 = ( R1 + r1 )

R12 = ( R2 + r2 )

R11R4 +

1

1

) R4 = R3 ( R12 +

)

jwC1

jwC 2

R3

R4

= R3 R12 +

)

jwC1

jwC 2

R R1

R11 = 3 2

R4

R + r1 =

( R2 + r2 ) R3

R4

R

R4

= 3

wC1 wC 2

R C

C1 = 4 2

R3

Advantages

They are independent of each other.

Source need not be pure sine wave.

2.4.4 Schering bridge

E1 = I1r1 jI1 X 4

C2 = C4= Standard capacitor (Internal resistance=0)

C4= Variable capacitance.

C1= Unknown capacitance.

r1= Unknown series equivalent resistance of the capacitor.

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2015

Z1 = r1 +

jwC1r1 + 1

1

=

jwC1

jwC1

1

jwC 4

R4

Z4 =

=

1

1 + jwC 4 R4

R4 +

jwC 4

R4

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.

At balance condition, Z 1 Z 4 = Z 2 Z 3

R3

1 + jwC1r1

R4

=

jwC1

1 + jwC 4 R4 jwC 2

R2C2 + jwC1r1R4C2 = R3C1 + jwC 4 R4 R3C1

R C

C1 = 4 2

R3

wC1r1R4C2 = wC4 R3 R4C1

C R

r1 = 4 3

C2

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2015

2015

R C C R

D = wC1r1 = w 4 2 4 3

R3

C2

D = wC4 R4

Advantages

It can measure capacitance value over a wide range.

It can measure dissipation factor accurately.

Disadvantages

Variable standard capacitor is costly.

2.5 Measurements of frequency

2.5.1 Weins bridge

Weins bridge is popularly used for measurements of frequency of frequency. In this bridge, the

value of all parameters are known. The source whose frequency has to measure is connected as

shown in the figure.

Z1 = r1 +

Z2 =

jwC1r1 + 1

1

=

jwC1

jwC1

R2

1 + jwC 2 R2

.

At balance condition, Z 1 Z 4 = Z 2 Z 3

jwC1r1 + 1

R2

R4 =

R3

jwC1

1 + jwC 2 R2

[1 + jwC R

R2 R3

2

2 2 + jwC1r1 w C1C 2 r1R2 = jwC1

R4

79

80

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2015

1 w 2C1C 2 r1R2 = 0

w 2C1C 2 r1R2 = 1

w2 =

1

C1C2 r1R2

w=

1

1

, f =

C1C 2 r1 R2

2 C1C 2 r1 R2

NOTE

The above bridge can be used for measurements of capacitance. In such case, r1 and C1 are

unknown and frequency is known. By equating real terms, we will get R1 and C1. Similarly by

equating imaginary term, we will get another equation in terms of r1 and C1. It is only used for

measurements of Audio frequency.

A.F=20 HZ to 20 KHZ

R.F=>> 20 KHZ

Comparing imaginary term,

R R

wC 2 R2 + wC1r1 = wC1 2 3

R4

CR R

C2 R2 + C1r1 = 1 2 3 ..(2.19)

R4

C1 =

1

2

w C2 r1R2

C2 R2 +

R R

= 2 3 C1

R4

w2C2 r1R2

r1

Multiplying

C2 R2

R4

in both sides, we have

R2 R3

R4

R

1

+

4 = C1

R2 R3 w2C2 R2 R2 R3

81

C R

R4

C1 = 2 4 +

R3

w2C2 R22 R3

w 2C1r1C 2 R2 = 1

r1 =

w C 2 R2C1

1

C R

R4

w 2C 2 R2 2 4 +

w 2C 2 R22 R3

R3

1

w2C 2 R R

2 2 4 + R4

R3

R2 R3

r1 =

1

R3

R4

R

r1 = 3

R4

2 2

1

w C2 R2 +

R2

( w 2C 2 R + 1 )

2 2

R2

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(1) The high voltage supply is obtained from a transformer usually at 50 HZ.

2.6 Wagner earthing device:

Wagner earthing consists of R and C in series. The stray capacitance at node B and D are

CB, CD respectively. These Stray capacitances produced error in the measurements of L and

C. These error will predominant at high frequency. The error due to this capacitance can be

eliminated using wagner earthing arm.

Close the change over switch to the position (1) and obtained balanced. Now change the

switch to position (2) and obtained balance. This process has to repeat until balance is achieved

in both the position. In this condition the potential difference across each capacitor is zero.

Current drawn by this is zero. Therefore they do not have any effect on the measurements.

What are the sources of error in the bridge measurements?

Due to external field.

Leakage error: poor insulation between various parts of bridge can produced this error.

Eddy current error.

Frequency error.

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2015

Residual error: small inductance and small capacitance of the resistor produce this error.

Precaution

The load inductance is eliminated by twisting the connecting the connecting lead.

In the case of capacitive bridge, the connecting lead are kept apart.(Q C =

A0 r

)

d

In the case of inductive bridge, the various arm are magnetically screen.

In the case of capacitive bridge, the various arm are electro statically screen to reduced

the stray capacitance between various arm.

To avoid the problem of spike, an inter bridge transformer is used in between the source

and bridge.

The stray capacitance between the ends of detector to the ground, cause difficulty in

balancing as well as error in measurements. To avoid this problem, we use wagner

earthing device.

2.7 Ballastic galvanometer

This is a sophisticated instrument. This works on the principle of PMMC meter. The only

difference is the type of suspension is used for this meter. Lamp and glass scale method is used

to obtain the deflection. A small mirror is attached to the moving system. Phosphorous bronze

wire is used for suspension.

When the D.C. voltage is applied to the terminals of moving coil, current flows through it. When

a current carrying coil kept in the magnetic field, produced by permanent magnet, it experiences

a force. The coil deflects and mirror deflects. The light spot on the glass scale also move. This

deflection is proportional to the current through the coil.

i=

Q

, Q = it = idt

t

Q , deflection Charge

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D.C. voltage is applied to the electromagnet through a variable resistance R1 and a reversing

switch. The voltage applied to the toroid can be reversed by changing the switch from position 2

to position 1. Let the switch be in position 2 initially. A constant current flows through the

toroid and a constant flux is established in the core of the magnet.

A search coil of few turns is provided on the toroid. The B.G. is connected to the search

coil through a current limiting resistance. When it is required to measure the flux, the switch is

changed from position 2 to position 1. Hence the flux reduced to zero and it starts increasing

in the reverse direction. The flux goes from + to - , in time t second. An emf is induced in

the search coil, science the flux changes with time. This emf circulates a current through R2 and

B.G. The meter deflects. The switch is normally closed. It is opened when it is required to take

the reading.

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2015

The curve drawn with the current on the X-axis and the flux on the Y-axis, is called

magnetization characteristics. The shape of B-H curve is similar to shape of magnetization

characteristics. The residual magnetism present in the specimen can be removed as follows.

86

2015

Close the switch S2 to protect the galvanometer, from high current. Change the switch

S1 from position 1 to 2 and vice versa for several times.

To start with the resistance R1 is kept at maximum resistance position. For a particular value of

current, the deflection of B.G. is noted. This process is repeated for various value of current. For

each deflection flux can be calculated.( B =

)

A

Magnetic field intensity value for various current can be calculated.().The B-H curve can be

plotted by using the value of B and H.

Let

RS = resistance of coil S1

E= voltage reading= Voltage induced in S2

I= current in the pressure coil

VP= Voltage applied to wattmeter pressure coil.

W= reading of wattmeter corresponding voltage V

W1= reading of wattmeter corresponding voltage E

W V

W1 EP

W1 E

E W

= W1 =

W V

V

The above circuit is similar to no load test of transformer.

In the case of no load test the reading of wattmeter is approximately equal to iron loss. Iron loss

depends on the emf induced in the winding. Science emf is directly proportional to flux. The

voltage applied to the pressure coil is V. The corresponding of wattmeter is W. The iron loss

corresponding E is

E=

WE

. The reading of the wattmeter includes the losses in the pressure

V

coil and copper loss of the winding S1. These loses have to be subtracted to get the actual iron

loss.

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2015

2.9 Galvanometers

D-Arsonval Galvanometer

Vibration Galvanometer

Ballistic C

2.9.1 D-arsonval galvanometer (d.c. galvanometer)

sophisticated instruments. This works on the principle of PMMC meter. The only difference is

the type of suspension used for this meter. It uses a sophisticated suspension called taut

suspension, so that moving system has negligible weight.

Lamp and glass scale method is used to obtain the deflection. A small mirror is attached

to the moving system. Phosphors bronze is used for suspension.

88

2015

When D.C. voltage is applied to the terminal of moving coil, current flows through it.

When current carrying coil is kept in the magnetic field produced by P.M. , it experiences a

force. The light spot on the glass scale also move. This deflection is proportional to the current

through the coil. This instrument can be used only with D.C. like PMMC meter.

The deflecting Torque,

TD=BINA

TD=GI,

Where G=BAN

TC=KS =S

At balance, TC=TD S =GI

=

GI

S

S=Spring constant

The construction of this galvanometer is similar to the PMMC instrument except for the moving

system. The moving coil is suspended using two ivory bridge pieces. The tension of the system

can be varied by rotating the screw provided at the top suspension. The natural frequency can be

varied by varying the tension wire of the screw or varying the distance between ivory bridge

piece.

When A.C. current is passed through coil an alternating torque or vibration is produced. This

vibration is maximum if the natural frequency of moving system coincide with supply frequency.

Vibration is maximum, science resonance takes place. When the coil is vibrating , the mirror

oscillates and the dot moves back and front. This appears as a line on the glass scale. Vibration

galvanometer is used for null deflection of a dot appears on the scale. If the bridge is unbalanced,

a line appears on the scale

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2015

Example 2.2-In a low- Voltage Schering bridge designed for the measurement of

permittivity, the branch ab consists of two electrodes between which the specimen under

test may be inserted, arm bc is a non-reactive resistor R3 in parallel with a standard

capacitor C3, arm CD is a non-reactive resistor R4 in parallel with a standard capacitor C4,

arm da is a standard air capacitor of capacitance C2. Without the specimen between the

electrode, balance is obtained with following values , C3=C4=120 pF, C2=150 pF,

R3=R4=5000.With the specimen inserted, these values become C3=200 pF,C4=1000

pF,C2=900 pF and R3=R4=5000. In such test w=5000 rad/sec. Find the relative

permittivity of the specimen?

Sol: Relative permittivity( r ) =

capacitance measured with air medium

90

2015

R

C1 = C2 ( 4 )

R3

Let the capacitance value CS when with the specimen dielectric.

R

5000

C0 = C 2 ( 4 ) = 150

= 150 pF

R3

5000

R

5000

C S = C 2 ( 4 ) = 900

= 900 pF

R3

5000

r =

C S 900

=

=6

C0 150

Example 2.3- A specimen of iron stamping weighting 10 kg and having a area of 16.8 cm2 is

tested by an episten square. Each of the two winding S1 and S2 have 515 turns. A.C. voltage

of 50 HZ frequency is given to the primary. The current in the primary is 0.35 A. A

voltmeter connected to S2 indicates 250 V. Resistance of S1 and S2 each equal to 40 .

Resistance of pressure coil is 80 k. Calculate maximum flux density in the specimen and

iron loss/kg if the wattmeter indicates 80 watt?

91

Soln-

E = 4.44 f m N

Bm =

E

= 1.3wb / m 2

4.44 fAN

RS

E2

)

Iron loss= W (1 +

RP ( RS + RP )

= 80(1 +

40

80 10 3

250 2

(40 + 80 103 )

= 79.26 watt

92

2015

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