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TAGUNGEN DES

LANDESMUSEUMS FR
VORGESCHICHTE HALLE

22oo BC Ein Klimasturz als Ursache


fr den Zerfall der Alten Welt?

22oo BC Ein Klimasturz als Ursache


fr den Zerfall der Alten Welt?
22oo BC A climatic breakdown as a cause
for the collapse of the old world?
7. Mitteldeutscher Archologentag
vom 23. bis 26.Oktober 2o14 in Halle (Saale)
Herausgeber Harald Meller, Helge Wolfgang Arz,
Reinhard Jung und Roberto Risch

I S B N 978 - 3 - 9 4 4 5 07-2 9 - 3
I S S N 18 6 7- 4 4 0 2

12/II

12/II

2015

TAGUNGEN DES L ANDESMUSEUMS FR VORGESCHICHTE HALLE

Tagungen des
Landesmuseums fr Vorgeschichte Halle
Band 12/II|2015

22oo BC Ein Klimasturz als Ursache


fr den Zerfall der Alten Welt?
22oo BC A climatic breakdown as a
cause for the collapse of the old world?
7. Mitteldeutscher Archologentag
vom 23. bis 26. Oktober 2o14 in Halle (Saale)
7th Archaeological Conference of Central Germany
October 2326, 2o14 in Halle (Saale)

Tagungen des
Landesmuseums fr Vorgeschichte Halle
Band 12/II|2015

22oo BC Ein Klimasturz als Ursache


fr den Zerfall der Alten Welt?
22oo BC A climatic breakdown as a
cause for the collapse of the old world?
7. Mitteldeutscher Archologentag
vom 23. bis 26. Oktober 2o14 in Halle (Saale)
7th Archaeological Conference of Central Germany
October 2326, 2o14 in Halle (Saale)

Landesamt fr Denkmalpflege und Archologie Sachsen-Anhalt

landesmuseum fr vorgeschichte

herausgegeben von
Harald Meller,
Helge Wolfgang Arz,
Reinhard Jung und
Roberto Risch
Halle (Saale)
2o15

Dieser Tagungsband entstand mit freundlicher Untersttzung von:


The conference proceedings were supported by:

Die Beitrge dieses Bandes wurden einem Peer-Review-Verfahren unterzogen.


Die Gutachterttigkeit bernahmen folgende Fachkollegen: Prof. Dr. Helge Wolfgang Arz,
Prof. Dr. Robert Chapman, Prof. Dr. Janusz Czebreszuk, Dr. Stefan Dreibrodt,
Prof. Jos Sebastin Carrin Garca, Prof. Dr. Albert Hafner, Prof. Dr. Svend Hansen,
Dr. Karl-Uwe Heuner, Dr. Barbara Horejs, PD Dr. Reinhard Jung, Dr. Flemming Kaul,
Prof. Dr. Ourania Kouka, Dr. Alexander Land, Dr. Jos Lull Garca, Prof. Dr. Rafael
Mic, Prof. Dr. Pierre de Miroschedji, Prof. Dr. Louis D. Nebelsick, Prof. Dr. Marco
Pacciarelli, Prof. Dr. Ernst Pernicka, Prof. Dr. Lorenz Rahmstorf, Prof. Dr. Roberto Risch,
Prof. Dr. Jeremy Rutter, Prof. Dr. Gerhard Schmiedl, Anja Stadelbacher, Dr. Ralf Schwarz,
Prof. Dr. Gerhard Trnka, Prof. Dr. Jordi Voltas, Dr. Bernhard Weninger.

Bibliografische Information der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek


Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek verzeichnet diese Publikation in der Deutschen
Nationalbibliografie; detaillierte bibliografische Daten sind im Internet
ber http://portal.dnb.de abrufbar.

isbn 978-3-9445o7-29-3
issn 1867-44o2

isbn (universitat autnoma 978-84-49o-5585-o


de barcelona)


Redaktion


Redaktion und bersetzung

der englischen Texte

Organisation und Korrespondenz

Technische Bearbeitung

Markus C. Blaich, Konstanze Geppert, Kathrin Legler, Anne Reinholdt, Manuela Schwarz,
Anna Swieder, David Tucker, Melina Wieler
Sandy Hmmerle Galway (Irland), Isabel Aitken Peebles (Schottland), David Tucker
Konstanze Geppert, Anne Reinholdt
Thomas Blankenburg, Anne Reinholdt, Nora Seelnder


Sektionstrenner Gestaltung: Thomas Blankenburg, Nora Seelnder;

S.33 Photograph Brooklyn Museum, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund, 39.1. Creative
Commens-BY; S.95 Eberhard-Karls-Universitt Tbingen; S.333 UAB-ASOME;
S.481 R.Kolev (National Museum of History, Sofia), Dr. M.Hristov (National Museum
of History, Sofia); S.669 J.Liptk, Mnchen; S.8o3 Aberdeen University Museum,
National Museums of Scotland, Dr. A.Sheridan (National Museums of Scotland)

Umschlag Malte Westphalen, Nora Seelnder

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by Landesamt fr Denkmalpflege und Archologie Sachsen-Anhalt Landesmuseum fr


Vorgeschichte Halle(Saale). Das Werk einschlielich aller seiner Teile ist urheberrechtlich
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Satzschrift FF Celeste, News Gothic
Konzept und Gestaltung Carolyn Steinbeck Berlin
Layout, Satz und Produktion Anne Reinholdt, Nora Seelnder
Druck und Bindung LHNERT-DRUCK

Inhalt/Contents

Band I

9 Vorwort der Herausgeber/Preface of the editors


25 Vicente Lull, Rafael Mic, Cristina Rihuete Herrada, and Roberto Risch

What is an event?

Sektion Orient und gypten/


Section Middle East and Egypt

35 Harvey Weiss

Megadrought, collapse, and resilience in late 3rd millennium BC Mesopotamia


53 Helge Wolfgang Arz, Jrme Kaiser, and Dominik Fleitmann

Paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic changes around 22ooBC recorded in sediment cores


from the northern Red Sea

61 Michele Massa and Vasf S


ahoglu

The 4.2ka BP climatic event in west and central Anatolia: combining palaeo-climatic proxies
and archaeological data

79 Juan Carlos Moreno Garca

Climatic change or sociopolitical transformation? Reassessing late 3rd millennium BC in Egypt

Sektion stlicher und Zentraler Mittelmeerraum/


Section Eastern and Central Mediterranean

97 Hermann Genz

Beware of environmental determinism: the transition from the Early to the Middle Bronze Age
on the Lebanese coast and the 4.2ka BP event

113 Felix Hflmayer

The southern Levant, Egypt, and the 4.2ka BP event


131 Lindy Crewe

Expanding and shrinking networks of interaction: Cyprus c. 22oo BC


149 Lorenz Rahmstorf

The Aegean before and after c. 22ooBC between Europe and Asia: trade as a prime mover
of cultural change

181 Stephan W.E.Blum and Simone Riehl

Troy in the 23rd century BC environmental dynamics and cultural change


205 Reinhard Jung and Bernhard Weninger

Archaeological and environmental impact of the 4.2 ka cal BP event in the central and eastern
Mediterranean

235 Bernhard Friedrich Steinmann

Gestrzte Idole Das Ende der frhkykladischen Elite

253 Marco Pacciarelli, Teodoro Scarano, and Anita Crispino

The transition between the Copper and Bronze Ages in southern Italy and Sicily
283 Giovanni Leonardi, Michele Cupit, Marco Baioni, Cristina Longhi, and Nicoletta Martinelli

Northern Italy around 22oocal BC. From Copper to Early Bronze Age: Continuity and/or
discontinuity?

305 Giulia Recchia and Girolamo Fiorentino

Archipelagos adjacent to Sicily around 22ooBC: attractive environments or suitable


geo-economic locations?

321 Walter Drfler

The late 3rd millenium BC in pollen diagrams along a south-north transect from the Near East
to northern Central Europe

Sektion Westlicher Mittelmeerraum/


Section Western Mediterranean

335 Laurent Carozza, Jean-Franois Berger, Cyril Marcigny, and Albane Burens

Society and environment in Southern France from the 3rd millennium BC to the beginning of
the 2nd millennium BC: 22ooBC as a tipping point?

365 Vicente Lull, Rafael Mic, Cristina Rihuete Herrada, and Roberto Risch

Transition and conflict at the end of the 3rd millennium BC in south Iberia

409 Antnio Carlos Valera

Social change in the late 3rd millennium BC in Portugal: the twilight of enclosures

429 Germn Delibes de Castro, Francisco Javier Abarquero Moras, Manuel Crespo Dez,
Marcos Garca Garca, Elisa Guerra Doce, Jos Antonio Lpez Sez, Sebastin Prez Daz,
and Jos Antonio Rodrguez Marcos

The archaeological and palynological record of the Northern Plateau of Spain during the
second half of the 3rd millennium BC

449 Martin Klling, Vicente Lull, Rafael Mic, Cristina Rihuete Herrada, and Roberto Risch

No indication of increased temperatures around 22oo BC in the south-west Mediterranean


derived from oxygen isotope ratios in marine clams (Glycimeris sp.) from the El Argar settlement of Gatas, south-east Iberia

461 Mara Weinelt, Christian Schwab, Jutta Kneisel, and Martin Hinz

Climate and societal change in the western Mediterranean area around 4.2ka BP

Band II
Sektion Mittel- und Osteuropa/
Section Central and Eastern Europe

483 Martin Hristov

New evidence for funeral and ritual activity in the northern part of the Balkan Peninsula:
a case study from Southern Bulgaria in the second half of the 3rd millennium BC to the first
half of the 2nd millennium BC

503 Klra Pusztain Fischl, Viktria Kiss, Gabriella Kulcsr, and Vajk Szevernyi

Old and new narratives for Hungary around 22ooBC

525 Mirosaw Furmanek, Agata Hauszko, Maksym Mackiewicz, and Bartosz Myslecki

New data for research on the Bell Beaker Culture in Upper Silesia, Poland

539 Janusz Czebreszuk and Marzena Szmyt

Living on the North European Plain around 22ooBC: between continuity and change
561 Franois Bertemes and Volker Heyd

22ooBC Innovation or Evolution? The genesis of the Danubian Early Bronze Age

579 Frank Sirocko

Winter climate and weather conditions during the Little-Ice-Age-like cooling events of the
Holocene: implications for the spread of Neolithisation?

595 Alexander Land, Johannes Schnbein, and Michael Friedrich

Extreme climate events identified by wood-anatomical features for the Main Valley (Southern
Germany) A case study for 3ooo2oooBC

603 Matthias B. Merkl and Jutta Lechterbeck

Settlement dynamics and land use between the Hegau and the western Lake Constance region,
Germany, during the second half of the 3rd millennium BC

617 Philipp W. Stockhammer, Ken Massy, Corina Knipper, Ronny Friedrich, Bernd Kromer,
Susanne Lindauer, Jelena Radosavljevic, Ernst Pernicka und Johannes Krause

Kontinuitt und Wandel vom Endneolithikum zur frhen Bronzezeit in der Region Augsburg

643 Andreas Bauerochse, Inke Achterberg, and Hanns Hubert Leuschner

Evidence for climate change between 22ooBC and 216oBC derived from subfossil bog and
riverine trees from Germany

651 Johannes Mller

Crisis what crisis? Innovation: different approaches to climatic change around 22ooBC

Sektion Mitteldeutschland/
Section Central Germany

671 Ralf Schwarz

Kultureller Bruch oder Kontinuitt? Mitteldeutschland im 23.Jh. v.Chr.


715 Matthias Becker, Madeleine Frhlich, Kathrin Balfanz, Bernd Kromer und Ronny Friedrich

Das 3.Jt. v.Chr. zwischen Saale und Unstrut Kulturelle Vernderungen im Spiegel
der Radiokohlenstoffdatierung

747 Kathrin Balfanz, Madeleine Frhlich und Torsten Schunke

Ein Siedlungsareal der Glockenbecherkultur mit Hausgrundrissen bei Klobikau,


Sachsen-Anhalt, Deutschland

765 Madeleine Frhlich und Matthias Becker

Typochronologische berlegungen zu den Kulturen des Endneolithikums und der


frhen Bronzezeit zwischen Saale und Unstrut im 3.Jt. v.Chr.

783 Frauke Jacobi

Size matters! Die endneolithischen Grberfelder von Profen, Burgenlandkreis,


Sachsen-Anhalt

793 Andr Spatzier

Pmmelte-Zackmnde Polykultureller Sakralort oder Ortskonstanz im Heiligtum whrend


einer kulturellen Transformation?
Ein Beitrag zur Kulturentwicklung des spten 3.Jts. v.Chr. in Mitteldeutschland

Sektion Nord- und Westeuropa/


Section Northern and Western Europe

805 Andrew P. Fitzpatrick

Great Britain and Ireland in 22ooBC


833 Mike Baillie and Jonny McAneney

Why we should not ignore the mid-24th century BC when discussing the 22oo2oooBC climate
anomaly

Anhang/Appendix

845 Autorenkollektiv/Collective contribution

Ergebnistabelle/Table of results

Old and new narratives for Hungary around 2200 BC


Klra Pusztain Fischl, Viktria Kiss, Gabriella Kulcsr, and Vajk Szevernyi

Zusammenfassung

Summary

Alte und neue Interpretationen der Situation in Ungarn


um 2200 v.Chr.

22ooBC represents a time of change in many areas of the Old


World, and this is also true for the Carpathian Basin, and for
Hungary in particular. Among the most salient features of
this change are the disappearance of Bell Beaker-type material in central Hungary, the reappearance of tell settlements
(after their first period in the Late Neolithic) in large portions
of the Carpathian Basin particularly in the east and the
formation of smaller, increasingly distinct ceramic styles that
indicate the formation of smaller networks within Hungary.
Many scholars have tried to provide an account of this transformation, but previous explanations have mainly invoked
migrations, usually from the south-east, that brought with
them a Balkan-Anatolian economy. The aim of the paper is
to provide a new narrative for this major transformation in
Hungarys Bronze Age, focusing on new cultural and techno
logical processes that start at this point. It will be demon
strated that, as opposed to a crisis, 22ooBC in the Carpathian
Basin represents the starting point for a continuous, uninterrupted development of societies lasting until the final phase
of the Middle Bronze Age in the area (c.16oo15oo/145oBC).
As prime movers of change we identify climatic melioration,
surplus production, demographic growth, increasing social
differentiation, and new forms of cultural memory and of
relationship with the past.

In der Zeit um 22oo v.Chr. fanden in vielen Teilen der Alten


Welt Vernderungen statt; dies trifft auch auf das Karpatenbecken und insbesondere auf Ungarn zu. Eine der heraus
ragendsten Vernderungen ist das Verschwinden der
Glockenbecherformen aus Zentralungarn sowie das Wiederaufkommen von Tellsiedlungen (nach einer ersten Phase im
spten Neolithikum) in weiten Teilen des Karpatenbeckens
vor allem aber in den stlichen Gebieten sowie die Entwicklung kleinrumiger und immer ausgeprgterer Keramikstile, die auf die Entstehung kleiner Netzwerke innerhalb
Ungarns hinweisen.
Viele Interpretationsmglichkeiten fr diesen Wandel wurden schon vorgeschlagen. Diese beriefen sich jedoch meist auf
Migrationen, in der Regel aus dem Sdosten, die eine Balkanisch-Anatolische Wirtschaftsform mitgebracht htten.
Ziel des Beitrages ist es, neue Interpretationsmglichkeiten fr diesen bedeutenden Wandel der ungarischen Bronzezeit, durch das Konzentrieren auf kulturelle und technische
Prozesse, zu prsentieren, die in dieser Phase aufkamen. Es
wird aufgezeigt, dass es sich hier keinesfalls um eine Krise
handelte, sondern, dass in der Zeit um 22oo v.Chr. im Karpatenbecken eine kontinuierliche gesellschaftliche Entwicklung
ihren Anfang nahm, die bis zum Ende der Mittelbronzezeit
(ca. 16oo15oo/145o v.Chr.) anhielt. Die Hauptfaktoren, die
zu dieser Vernderung fhrten, waren eine Klimaverbesserung, ein landwirtschaftlicher Produktionsberschuss, ein
Bevlkerungswachstum, eine verstrkte soziale Differenzierung sowie neue Formen der kulturellen Erinnerung und des
Vergangenheitsbezugs.

Introduction
The period between 23ooBC and 21ooBC represents a time
of change in many areas of the Old World, and this is also
true for the Carpathian Basin, and for Hungary in partic
ular. This crucial transition has been described in a number
of different ways.
It was an important turning point of Hungarian Bronze
Age archaeology when, in connection with an international
travelling exhibition of the material of Bronze Age tell settle
ments in the Great Hungarian Plain, a summary of the new
research results was attempted (Meier-Arendt 1992). Though
the exhibition catalogue showed only glimpses of the rich
material of Bronze Age tell settlements, it became a hand
TA G U N G E N D E S L A N D E S M U S E U M S F R V O R G E S C H I C H T E H A L L E B A N D 12 2 015

book of the Early and Middle Bronze Age (MBA) periods in


Hungary, not only because of the nice colour photos of sig
nificant finds, but also because of the very important collec
tion of absolute chronological data (Raczky etal. 1992). These
early explanations, mainly invoking migrations, represented
an old fashioned approach to archaeology and the explana
tion of cultural change. As shown on traditional maps of the
distribution of assumed cultures, the physical movement
and resettlement of whole populations or ethnic groups
was suggested, usually from the south-east, bringing with
them a Balkan-Anatolian economy.
Among the most significant changes of the period between 23ooBC and 21ooBC are the disappearance of Bell
Beaker-type material in central Hungary, the reappearance

504

K L R A P U S Z TA I N F I S C H L , V I K T R I A K I S S , G A B R I E L L A K U L C S R , A N D V A J K S Z E V E R N Y I

Absolute

Bulgaria

dates (BC)

Fig.1ab a The beginning of the Bronze Age in


south-eastern and central Europe; b overview of
Late Copper Age, Early and Middle Bronze Age
chronology, and cultures/groups in Hungary.

Central

Hungary

Europe
Reinecke Bz

Abb.1ab a Der Anfang der Bronzezeit in Sdost- und Mitteleuropa; b bersicht der spten
kupferzeitlichen, frh- und mittelbronzezeit
lichen Chronologie sowie der Kulturen/
Gruppen in Ungarn.

A1

2200/2100
EBA III

2300

Reinecke Bz

EBA 2

A0

2600/2500
EBA 1
EBA II

Eneolithic

Transitional
period

2900/2800
Late
Late Copper

EBA I

Neolithic

Age

3500/3400

cal BC

Central
Europe

Hungary

1500/1450

RB B

MBA 3
MBA 2

RB A2

Western Hungary

Danube River region

Eastern Hungary

Vatya

FzesabonyGyulavarsnd/
Otomani
Hatvan
Maros

Kisapostag
Gta-Wieselburg I

Late Nagyrv
Kisapostag

Late Nagyrv
Hatvan
Nyrsg/Szaniszl
Otomani I
Maros

Late Somogyvr/Proto
Kisapostag

Bell Beaker
Late Mak
Proto and Early
Nagyrv

Late Mak
Nyrsg
Early Nagyrv
Early Maros

Late Vuedol/Early
Somogyvr-Vinkovci

Mak

Mak
Yamnaya

Vuedol, Kostolac
Late Baden

Vuedol
Late Baden,
Kostolac

Late Baden,
Yamnaya, Early
Mak

Baden

Baden

Baden
Pre-Yamnaya

Encrusted Pottery
Gta-Wieselburg II

MBA 1
2000/1900

RB A1

EBA 3

2200/2100
2300/2200

RB A0

EBA 2

Somogyvr-Vinkovci
2500/2400

2900/2800

Eneolithic

Late
Copper
Age

EBA 1

Late
Copper
Age

3500/3400

of tell settlements (after their first period in the Late Neo


lithic) in large portions of the Carpathian Basin, mainly in
the east and along the Danube River, and the formation of
smaller, increasingly distinct ceramic styles that indicate
the formation of new social networks and identities. The

aim of the paper is to provide a new narrative for this major


transformation in Hungarys Bronze Age, focusing on
new cultural and technological processes that start at this
point.

TA G U N G E N D E S L A N D E S M U S E U M S F R V O R G E S C H I C H T E H A L L E B A N D 12 2 015

O L D A N D N E W N A R R AT I V E S F O R H U N G A R Y A R O U N D 2 2 0 0 B C

Chronological and cultural framework


We are all aware that there is still some controversy regard
ing the onset of the Bronze Age in terms of its relative chro
nology. In the Carpathian Basin, for example, Hungarian
and Romanian prehistorians emphasise the regions media
ting role and tend to take an intermediate position compared
to Bulgarian research, which dates the beginning of the
Bronze Age to the mid-4th millenniumBC, when multi-layered
settlements appeared and Central European research, which
assigns the onset of the Bronze Age to around 22ooBC, when
the first tin bronzes were made (Fig.1ab)1.
The chronological system currently used in Hungary for
the Bronze Age was developed by the early 198os by a num
ber of Hungarian scholars and concerns mostly the Copper
Age and the Early and Middle Bronze Ages2 . According to
this system the Bronze Age was divided into three main
phases: Early, Middle, and Late. All these phases are in turn
divided into three subphases (13), which in certain areas
and at certain times can be divided into even smaller units
(ab). This system has since been elaborated and refined in
certain issues3, but has remained unchanged in its funda
mental aspects. According to this Hungarian relative chro
nological scheme, the period under study here, between
23ooBC and 21ooBC, falls to the Early Bronze Age phases2b
and 3. While this classic, tripartite chronological framework
for the Early Bronze Age in Hungary generally seems to
serve its purpose fairly well, there are nevertheless certain
problems. An important one is that sometimes there is a
poor fit between the relative chronological scheme and the
absolute dates obtained through radiocarbon dating. Besides
the traditional typological approach and the older radiocar
bon dates (Raczky etal. 1992; Forenbaher 1993), the num
ber of modern accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dates
for the area has been continuously increasing. This means
around 3o new dates for the period between 25oo/24ooBC
and 22oo/21ooBC, although there are usually only one or
two dates per site and larger series suitable for Bayesian sta
tistical analysis are rare. In the following we will briefly
sketch the chronological and cultural framework of the area
between c. 25ooBC and 22oo/21ooBC.
According to the most recent model, there was a short,
approximately 2oo -year-long transitional period between
28oo/27ooBC and 26oo/25ooBC, when Late Copper Age
material was used contemporaneously with Early Bronze
Age material culture4. The beginning of the Bronze Age
(EBA1) in the Carpathian Basin can be traced along two
lines. If we simplify a rather complicated situation, we may
say that in southern Transdanubia (Hungary), Slavonia
(Croatia) and Syrmia (Serbia/Croatia), material of the Late
Vuedol and then Somogyvr-Vinkovci types can be found,
1 E .g. Maran 1998; Gogltan 1999; Bertemes/
Heyd 2oo2; Kulcsr 2oo9; Remnyi 2oo9;
Heyd 2o13; Kulcsr/Szevernyi 2o13.
2 Bna 1975, 222; Bndi 1982; Kalicz 1982;
Kalicz-Schreiber 1982; Kovcs 1982.
3 E .g. Kalicz-Schreiber/Kalicz 1997, Abb.1; 2;
most recently Remnyi 2oo9.
4 Gl/Kulcsr 2o12; Horvth 2o12; Kulcsr
2o12; Kulcsr 2o13; Kulcsr/Szevernyi
2o13; Horvth/Kulcsr 2o14.

while most of the Great Hungarian Plain, northern Trans


danubia, and southwest Slovakia are characterised by
Mak-type finds, occasionally with Late Yamnaya connec
tions from the East European steppe5.
In the light of radiocarbon dates6, however, this picture
is in need of some re-evaluation. Some Mak style assem
blages, usually assigned to EBA12a (c.26oo 23ooBC),
have been radiocarbon dated to after 23ooBC, indicating
that they belong instead to the EBA phases2b3 and are
thus relevant for the question regarding the changes
around 22ooBC (e.g. ll, Site5, co. Pest (Hungary): 234o
213ocalBC; Domony, co. Pest (Hungary): 234o 2o5o calBC;
see Kulcsr/Szevernyi 2o13, 71).
In the following the processes of change will be presen
ted in three separate regions: 1. the Danube River region,
2. eastern Hungary the Tisza River and Maros River regions, and 3. western Hungary/Transdanubia (Fig.25).

The Danube River region


The greatest changes can be noted in the Budapest area
(Hungary), where several intensively occupied settlements
appear, together with large cemeteries, often containing
hundreds or even a thousand or more burials: this is the Bell
Beaker period7. The section of the Danube River in the Buda
pest area had always been suited to a settlement concentra
tion of this type, acting as a gateway between the west and
the eastern plains. The appearance of the Bell Beaker popu
lation brought new cultural impulses (Heyd 2oo7; Heyd
2oo7a). The assessment of the settlements and the ceme
teries in the Budapest area yielded evidence that the region
was an important meeting point between the north-west,
the east, and the south. A cultural syncretism can be noted
in both the burial rite and the grave goods in the EBA2
cemeteries, and a few stable isotope analyses indicate some
degree of mobility in the period (Price etal. 2oo4; Kulcsr
2o11). This complexity formed the basis of the groups iden
tity. Marked differences can be discerned between the two
banks of the Danube River. The eastern bank shows contacts
with the Tisza River and Maros River regions, while the con
tacts of the western bank were more oriented to the northwest and the south (Kulcsr 2o11; Endrdi 2o13). Through
the mediation of this area, the network of interaction at this
period thus spanned the vast territory between Moravia
and Serbia, and the Tisza/Maros Rivers region and Lower
Austria. The stimulus behind the interaction network was
no doubt the exchange of raw materials and possibly horses.
The first tin bronzes, although with a very low tin content,
are also known from this area (Endrdi etal. 2oo3; Rem
nyi etal. 2oo6).

5 E .g. Dani 2oo1; Dani 2oo5; Kulcsr 2oo9;


Remnyi 2oo9.
6 A ll radiocarbon dates in the text have been
recalibrated using OxCal v4.2.4 (Bronk Ram
sey 2oo9), using the IntCal13 atmospheric
calibration curve (Reimer etal. 2o13).
Calibrated dates are given with 1 proba
bility, unless otherwise stated.

TA G U N G E N D E S L A N D E S M U S E U M S F R V O R G E S C H I C H T E H A L L E B A N D 12 2 015

7 Kalicz-Schreiber 2oo1; Endrdi/Psztor


2oo6; Czene 2oo8; Endrdi etal. 2oo8; Patay
2oo8; Kulcsr 2o11; Endrdi 2o12; Endrdi
2o13; Endrdi 2o13a; Patay 2o13.
8 R aczky etal. 1992; Forenbaher 1993;
Endrdi/Psztor 2oo6; Kulcsr 2o11;
Horvth 2o13; Kulcsr 2o13a; Patay 2o13.

505

K L R A P U S Z TA I N F I S C H L , V I K T R I A K I S S , G A B R I E L L A K U L C S R , A N D V A J K S Z E V E R N Y I

arp
er n C

No

Austria

Slovakia
Mtra

To
k

kk
B

rth

N
ea
ste

Ukraine

aj

st
hwe
N or t

ns
athia

Tis

rn

Ca
rp

za

at
hia
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n
ai
Pl

n
ia
ar
g
1
un 2 Srrt
tH
a
e
Krs
Gr
Hungary

Apuseni
Mountains

Maros

Romania
Croatia

s
thian
arpa

Slovenia

er n C
East

bia
nu
a
d
ns
Tra

Danub

506

Drava

Serbia

hians
arpat
C
n
r
e
South
Sava

Bosnia and Herzegovina


100 km

Fig.2ab a 1 The Danube River region; 2 eastern Hungary the Tisza and Maros River regions; 3 western Hungary/Transdanubia; b Bronze Age sites
ment ioned in the text: : settlement, burial, hoard; n tell settlement.
Abb.2ab a 1 Die Donauregion; 2 Ostungarn Theiss- und Marosgebiet; 3 Westungarn/Transdanubien. b Die im Text erwhnten bronzezeitlichen Fundstellen. Siedlung, Bestattung, Hortfund; n Tellsiedlung.

Based on the radiocarbon dates, Bell Beaker-type mate


rial can be placed between 25ooBC and 22oo/21ooBC 8 . A
blend of local Mak, SomogyvrVinkovci, and proto/early
Nagyrv elements can be noted. This overlap in the second
half of the 3rd millenniumBC is also supported by the radio
carbon dates presented here. A series of five AMS radiocar
bon dates from the cemetery of Szigetszentmikls-Fels
rge-hegyi dl, co. Pest (Hungary) can be subjected to
Bayesian analysis (Patay 2o13). Assuming that the graves
represent a single phase, the time span of the use of the
cemetery can be dated to c.242o 219ocalBC (Fig.6a). A
similar analysis of the three AMS dates from the cemetery
of Budapest-Bksmegyer dates its use to c.
241o
222ocalBC (Fig 6b; Kulcsr 2o13a). One of the most interes
ting questions concerns when and how Bell Beaker material
disappeared from the vicinity of Budapest and what fol
lowed it. We have one published radiocarbon date from
Dunakeszi-Szkesdl, co. Pest (Hungary), where a burial
with Nagyrv style material is dated to 2o3o 19oo calBC
(Endrdi/Psztor 2oo6).
From this perspective, the processes of the emergence of
tell settlements (discussed below) and the associated Nagy
rv-type material along the Danube River are crucial. The

Proto-Nagyrv group, appearing on the right bank of the


Danube River, can be regarded as an independent branch,
differing slightly from the SomogyvrVinkovci in Trans
danubia (Bna 1965; cf. Szab 1992; Kulcsr 2oo9). The
groups distribution in the Danube River valley virtually con
forms to the earlier Vuedol pattern in Syrmia and along
the Hungarian Danube section up to Dunafldvr-Klvria
hegy, co. Tolna (Hungary). This settlement network enabled
the southward spread of the finely decorated Bell Beaker wares from the easternmost intensive settlement concen
tration in the Budapest area to the southernmost site at
Ostrikovac, co. Pomoravlje (Serbia), in the Morava River
valley. The Proto-Nagyrv settlements formed the basis of
the later Bronze Age tell settlements in the Carpathian
Basin. The early phases of the Nagyrv tells can be dated
similarly, slightly earlier than 22ooBC (cf. Gogltan 2oo5).
Older, non-AMS radiocarbon dates with high standard devi
ation (e.g. from Baracs, co. Fejr [Hungary] and BlcskeVrsgyr, co. Tolna [Hungary]; Raczky etal. 1992) indicate
even earlier dates, but these have to be confirmed by new
measurements.

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28

45
21
10 16
12
14
11
43
34 13
3538
18
17
5 15
9

25

2
46
3

4
29

33

19

40
41

42

20
7
6
1

27
22 24
39

44
23

32

26

31
30

100 km

1 Bakonszeg-Kdrdomb 8 Bonyhd
2 Balatonakali
9 Blcske-Vrsgyr
3 Balatonkeresztr-Rti 10 Budakalsz-Csajerszke
11 Budapest-Albertfalva
dl
4 Balatonszd-Temeti- 12 Budapest-Bksmegyer
dl
13 Budapest-Csepel 5 Baracs-Bottynsnc
Hollandi t
6 Berettyjfalu-Herply 14 Domony
7 Berettyjfalu-Nagy 15 DunafldvrBcs-dl
Klvriahegy

b
16 Dunakeszi-Szkesdl 25 Mnfcsanak-Szles 17 Dunajvros-Duna-dl
fldek
18 Ercsi-Sina-telep
26 Mokrin
19 Fajsz
27 Nagyrv-Zsidhalom
20 Gborjn-Csapszkpart 28 Nin Myla
29 Ordacsehi-Cserefld
21 Herndkak
22 Kiskundorozsma 30 Ostrikovac
Hosszht-halom
31 Patulele
23 Kiszombor
32 Pecica/Pcska
24 Klrafalva-Hajdova
33 Pcs-Nagyrpd

Eastern Hungary the Tisza River and Maros River regions


In the areas east of the Danube River, fundamental changes
can be observed after the Mak/Yamnaya period in several
different regions. One such region is the confluence of the
Tisza and Maros Rivers. Here, around 23ooBC to 21oo/
2oooBC, the first Early Maros (bba-Pitvaros) groups, of
supposedly southern origin but with significant northwestern contacts, made their appearance (Bna 1965; Fischl/
Kulcsr 2o11). From 21ooBC this process led to the forma
tion of tell settlements, open, flat sites, large cemeteries, and
a cultural unit with wide connections (OShea 1996; Fischl
1998). So far we do not have modern published radiocarbon
dates from the settlements9. The Bayesian analysis of the six
dates from Mokrin, co. North Banat (Serbia) and four dates
from Kiskundorozsma-Hosszht-halom near Szeged, co.
Csongrd (Hungary), shows that the two cemeteries were
contemporary (OShea 1992; Fischl/Kulcsr 2o11). The typo 9 Only the older dates from Klrafalva-Haj
dova and Kiszombor: OShea 1992; Raczky
etal. 1992; Forenbaher 1993; Fischl/Kulcsr
2o11.

chronologically early, single-phase cemetery of Kiskundo


rozsma is dated to 225o 2o5ocalBC, while in the case of
Mokrin, co. North Banat (Serbia), the second and third
phases of the cemetery are dated to 217o2o2o calBC
(Fig.7ab). Currently it seems uncertain whether the tell set
tlements of the Maros started before 22ooBC: the new exca
vation material from Klrafalva and Kiszombor (both co.
Csongrd, Hungary) has not yet been published, and at least
some of the old radiocarbon dates from Kiszombor (OShea
1992; OShea 1996) seem too early to come even from an Early
Bronze Age context. Here the possibility of contamination
with Late Copper Age material may have to be considered.
Another important region is in the northern/north-east
ern part of the Carpathian Basin. Here the changes after the
Mak/Nyrsg period strong settlement nucleation and the
formation of tell settlements can be connected to the Hat
van period and the locally developed Ottomny/Otomani
period10. Most recently, four dates for the Mak period have

1o Kalicz 1968; Mth 1988; Bna 1992; Dani


2oo1; Gogltan 2oo2; Nmeti/Molnr 2oo2;
Dani 2oo5; Gogltan 2oo5; Nmeti/Molnr

TA G U N G E N D E S L A N D E S M U S E U M S F R V O R G E S C H I C H T E H A L L E B A N D 12 2 015

34 Szzhalombatta-Fldvr 40 Tiszafred 35 SzigetszentmiklsMajoroshalom


41 Tszeg-Laposhalom
Felstag
36 Szigetszentmikls-Fels 42 Trkeve-Terehalom
rge-hegyi dl
43 ll Site 5
37 Szigetszentmikls 44 Vlcele/Bnyabkk
45 Velince
dlsor
46 Vrs 38 SzigetszentmiklsVzmvek
Mriaasszonysziget
39 Szreg

2oo7; Dani/Fischl 2oo9; Gogltan 2o12;


Nmeti/Molnr 2o12; Duffy 2o14.

507

508

K L R A P U S Z TA I N F I S C H L , V I K T R I A K I S S , G A B R I E L L A K U L C S R , A N D V A J K S Z E V E R N Y I

Proto Aunjetitz
Bell Beaker

N
Nitra

Bell Beaker

Late Mak

Nyirsg

Bell Beaker Late Mak


Somogyvr-Vinkovci

Late Mak

Early Nagyrv
Early Nagyrv

Somogyvr-Vinkovci
Early Maros

Somogyvr-Vinkovci

100 km

Fig.3 Carpathian Basin/Hungary around 23oo/22ooBC.


Abb.3 Das Karpatenbecken/Ungarn um 23oo/22oo v.Chr.

gary is dated between 21ooBC and 19ooBC on typological


grounds, were traditionally traced to the Middle Dnieper
River region, based on the pottery decoration (Bna 1961).
Recently found inhumation graves in which the deceased
were laid to rest in a supine position with flexed legs point
toward a possible origin in Northern and Eastern Europe
(perhaps with the Corded Ware Culture, based on both pot
tery decoration and burial practice; Szab 2oo9). However,
the role of local traditions is also shown by Late Somogyvr
(Proto-Kisapostag) features, and western contacts are also
indicated around 21ooBC by the start of fundamental
changes in metallurgy. One radiocarbon date indicates a
surprisingly late period for Late Somogyvr (Proto-Kisapos
tag) material, c.188o 169ocalBC; its proper interpretation
Western Hungary/Transdanubia
requires further research (Balatonszd-Temeti-dl, co.
Somogy [Hungary]; Horvth/Kulcsr 2o14). Currently only
West of the Danube River, Somogyvr-Vinkovci style one radiocarbon date from the Bonyhd cemetery, co. Tolna
material, which followed Late Vuedol, is dated between (Hungary), indicates the appearance of the Kisapostag style
25oo/24ooBC and 23oo/22ooBC (Kulcsr 2o13; Kulcsr/ around 21ooBC (213o 197ocalBC; Kiss etal. forthcoming).
Szevernyi 2o13). It is followed by the Kisapostag style and All other dates for the type fall into the period after
by the Gta-Wieselburg style in the north-west. The origins 2ooo calBC11. Based on the currently available data, there is
of the Kisapostag style, whose appearance in western Hun considerable discrepancy between the relative and absolute

been published from the site of Berettyjfalu-Nagy-Bcsdl, co. Hajd-Bihar (Hungary; Dani/Kisjuhsz 2o13), two
from cremation graves and two from settlement features.
Their combined date is 255o 246o calBC (Kulcsr/Szever
nyi 2o13). The earliest AMS radiocarbon date for Hatvantype material is known from Velince, okr. Rimavsk
Sobota (Slovakia), in the northern Carpathian Basin, and
dates its formation to 219o 2o4o calBC (Grsdorf etal.
2oo4). The early Hatvan phase can be dated in the light of
its connections, for example with the Late Nyrsg, Sza
niszl (Dani 2oo5), and Late Nagyrv groups, and a few new
radiocarbon dates, to c. 22oo 19ooBC at the earliest.

11 Mnfcsanak-Szlesfldek, co. Gyr-MosonSopron (Hungary): 196o 183o calBC; Melis


2o13, 45 Fig.9; Vrs-Mriaasszonysziget,
co. Somogy (Hungary): Medzihradszky etal.

2oo9, 24 Tab.1; Balatonkeresztr-Rti-dl,


co. Somogy (Hungary): 187o 169o calBC;
Fbin 2oo6; Kiss etal. forthcoming.

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netice

N
Nitra
Late Nyirsg

Gta-Wieselburg

Hatvan

Kisapostag

Stanislau

Nagyrv
Nagyrv

Early Otomani

Nagyrv
Kisapostag
Maros

Early Vatin

100 km

Fig.4 Carpathian Basin/Hungary around 22oo/21ooBC.


Abb.4 Das Karpatenbecken/Ungarn um 22oo/21oo v.Chr.

chronological data in Transdanubia. The reason for this is


still unknown; one suggestion is that it is caused by some
outliers which have not been recognised due to the small
number of measurements.

Climate and environment


The Carpathian Basin is an important transitional zone in
Central Europe, connecting the Balkan Peninsula and the
western, eastern, and northern parts of Europe. It has a
very complex geology, topography, and vegetation. Climatic
conditions are determined here by geographical position
and topography. Four major climatic regions can be observed: oceanic in the west, sub-Mediterranean in the south,
continental in the east and centre, and highland in the
mountains. Altitudinal variations complicate the picture
even more, causing differences in precipitation and temper
ature, which, combined with geomorphology, soil, and
anthropogenic impact, determine vegetation. The latter is
zonal at all scales, due to the combined effect of these fac
tors (Fig.8; Smegi/Bodor 2ooo, 84; Smegi etal. 2oo4,
26f.; Smegi etal. 2o12, 49f. Fig.2.23).
The period under study (4.2kaBP/2.2kaBC) falls into
the Sub-Boreal climatic phase, which starts around 5oooBP
(3ooocalBC), and is succeeded by the Sub-Atlantic phase
around 29oo/26ooBP (9oo/6oocalBC), which still continues
TA G U N G E N D E S L A N D E S M U S E U M S F R V O R G E S C H I C H T E H A L L E B A N D 12 2 015

today (Jrai-Komldi 2oo3; for a 53ooBP [33ooBC] start to


the Sub-Boreal period see Juhsz 2oo2). In the Carpathian
Basin, the beginning of the Sub-Boreal phase still falls into
the Late Copper Age, and the Early Bronze Age phase under
study here can be dated to the beginning of its middle phase.
After the Holocene Climatic Optimum, it is characterised
by cooler and wetter weather. Besides the average tempera
ture fluctuations, the mean summer temperature decreased
and the mean winter temperature rose (Smegi/Bodor 2oo5,
214; 22o). As a general feature of the period, deciduous forest
vegetation closed over, and the Carpathian Basin became
covered by forests dominated by oak (Quercus L.) and beech
(Fagus sylvatica L.). Based on Scandinavian pollen data, the
Sub-Boreal is divided into three subphases. The border between the Early and Middle Sub-Boreal is around 2ooo calBC,
which coincides with the transition between the Early and
Middle Bronze Ages in Hungary (Fischl/Remnyi 2o13, 727
Fig.1). The latter sees the widest distribution of the tell set
tlement type (Fischl etal. 2o13). However, oceanic climate,
from which the Scandinavian data come, characterises only
the western fringe of the Carpathian Basin, thus the climatic
zones based on Nordic pollen data cannot be generalised to
the whole area of the basin.
As a consequence, there is no up-to-date climatic recon
struction for the Sub-Boreal phase in the Carpathian Basin.
In any case, a general climatic model could not be sketched
for the whole area due to its mosaic-like character. During

509

2200/2100 BC

K L R A P U S Z TA I N F I S C H L , V I K T R I A K I S S , G A B R I E L L A K U L C S R , A N D V A J K S Z E V E R N Y I

Kisapostag

Gta/

Wieselburg

Nagyrv

Hatvan

Early Nagyrv

Late Mak

Maros

L. Nyrsg/
Sanislau

2300/2200 BC

510

Somogyvr

Bell Beaker

Early Maros

Nyrsg

Fig.5 Selected typical ceramic finds from the Carpathian Basin/Hungary around 23oo/22ooBC and 22oo/21ooBC.
Abb.5 Eine Auswahl typischer Keramikfunde aus dem Karpatenbecken/Ungarn um 23oo/22oo v.Chr. und 22oo/21oo v.Chr.

the past 2o years, however, a series of detailed environmen


tal studies have been published12 . Through the complex anal
ysis of geoarchaeological samples from smaller pollen catch
ment areas, these indicate mixed oak-beech-hornbeam
(Quercus L.-Fagus L.-Capinus L.) deciduous forests within
the Sub-Boreal phase, with a gradual decrease of oak. The
Holocene wood cover of the Great Hungarian Plain was
determined by the regional continental climate: harsh win
ters, very warm summers, and strong winds (Gardner 2oo5,
1o3). On the other hand, local observations indicate a drier
period in the second half of the Middle Bronze Age along the
Maros River (Sherwood etal. 2o13), and grape from the Early
and Middle Bronze Age layers of the core samples from
Keszthely-sztatmajor, co. Zala; and Mezlak, co. Vesz
prm, in western Hungary also indicates a dry, warmer cli
mate, probably due to Mediterranean climatic influence
(Juhsz 2oo7, 49; Smegi 2oo7, 33o). More detailed proxy
data have been published from Keszthely-Fenkpuszta, co.
Zala (Hungary), where anthropogenic impact during this
period was analysed according to 5o 8o -year-long phases

(2o5861, 186661, 181851BC), but even these data can


only be understood at a regional level, and concern only the
development of the western end of Lake Balaton (Smegi
etal. 2o11).
The analysis of water voles (Arvicola) remains from caves
as indicators of wetness shows a gradually wetter climate
during the whole Sub-Boreal phase, without significant
breaks (Kordos 1987; Ndor etal. 2oo7, Fig.9; Darczi 2o12,
Fig.6). At the same time P.Smegi etal. (2o12) suggested
that anthropogenic impact, especially through the emer
gence of tell settlements, may have modified the already
mosaic-like environmental factors of the Carpathian Basin
at a micro-regional or regional level, and the extremely
focused exploitation of the landscape during the establish
ment of the tell settlements brought about a complete disap
pearance of the boundaries between closed woodlands and
adjacent forest-steppe areas contributing to the expansion of
the ecotonal elements to the former areas of gallery forests
and the closed woodlands of the hills and foothills as well
as midmountains of the basin. Based on the above we can

12 Smegi etal. 1998; Smegi/Bodor 2ooo;


Smegi/Gulys 2oo4; Bcsmegi/Smegi
2oo5; Gl etal. 2oo5; Smegi/Bodor 2oo5;
Zatyk etal. 2oo7; Smegi 2o13.

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OxCal v4.2.4 Bronk Ramsey (2013); r:5 IntCal13 atmospheric curve (Reimer et al. 2013)

Sequence Szigetszentmikls
Boundary start

Phase Bell Beaker


R_Date Grave 10

R_Date Grave 49

R_Date Grave 50

R_Date Grave 367

R_Date Grave 626


Boundary end

4500

4000

3500

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

Modelled date (BC)

OxCal v4.2.4 Bronk Ramsey (2013); r:5 IntCal13 atmospheric curve (Reimer et al. 2013)

Sequence Bksmegyer
Boundary start

Phase Bell Beaker


R_Date Grave 193

R_Date Grave 432a

R_Date Grave 445

Boundary end

3500

3000

2500

2000

1500

Modelled date (BC)

Fig.6ab Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates from Bell Beaker cemeteries in Hungary: a Szigetszentmikls-Fels rge-hegyi dl; b BudapestBksmegyer (see Appendix 1 for data).
Abb.6ab Bayessche Statistik von 14 C-Daten aus glockenbecherzeitlichen Grberfeldern in Ungarn: a Szigetszentmikls-Fels rge-hegyi dl; b Budapest-Bksmegyer (Daten siehe Appendix 1).

TA G U N G E N D E S L A N D E S M U S E U M S F R V O R G E S C H I C H T E H A L L E B A N D 12 2 015

511

512

K L R A P U S Z TA I N F I S C H L , V I K T R I A K I S S , G A B R I E L L A K U L C S R , A N D V A J K S Z E V E R N Y I

OxCal v4.2.4 Bronk Ramsey (2013); r:5 IntCal13 atmospheric curve (Reimer et al. 2013)

Sequence Mokrin
Boundary start

Phase Mokrin 2
R_Date Grave 208

R_Date Grave 110

R_Date Grave 52

R_Date Grave 237

Phase Mokrin 3

R_Date Grave 227

R_Date Grave 259

Boundary end

4000

3500

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

Modelled date (BC)

OxCal v4.2.4 Bronk Ramsey (2013); r:5 IntCal13 atmospheric curve (Reimer et al. 2013)

Sequence Kiskundorozsma-Hosszht-halom
Boundary start

Phase Early Maros


R_Date Grave 56

R_Date Grave 55

R_Date Grave 66

R_Date Grave 15

Boundary end

4000

3500

3000

2500

2000

Modelled date (BC)

1500

1000

500

Fig.7ab Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates from EBA 3 cemeteries in Hungary: a Mokrin; b Kiskundorozsma-Hosszht-halom (see Appendix 1
for data).
Abb.7ab Bayessche Statistik von 14 C-Daten aus Grberfeldern der Frhbronzezeit 3 in Ungarn: a Mokrin; b Kiskundorozsma-Hosszht-halom (Daten
siehe Appendix 1).

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Fig.8ab a Climatic zones of the Carpathian Basin: 1 oceanic climatic effect; 2 forest-steppe climatic zone; 3 sub-Carpathian climatic zone; 4 transi
tional climatic zone; 5 relative frequency of sub-Mediterranean climatic effect. b Vegetation zones of the Carpathian Basin: 1 Pannonian forest steppe
region; 2 sub-Mediterranean oak forest region; 3 mixed zone between the sub-Mediterranean and central European forest regions; 4 Balkan oak forest
region; 5 Central European oak forest region; 6 beech and coniferous forest; 7 distribution of silver lime (Tilia tomentosa).
Abb.8ab a Klimazonen des Karpatenbeckens: 1 Meeresklimaeffekt; 2 Wald-Steppen-Klimazone; 3 subkarpatische Klimazone; 4 klimat ische bergangszone; 5 relativ hufiges Auftreten des submediterranen Klimaeffekts. b Vegetationszonen des Karpatenbeckens: 1 pannonische Wald-Steppenlandschaft;
2 submediterraner Eichenwald; 3 gemischte Zone mit submediterranen und mitteleuropischen Waldregionen; 4 balkanischer Eichenwald; 5 mitteleuropischer Eichenwald; 6 Buchen- und Nadelwald; 7 Verbreitung der Silber-Linde (Tilia tomentosa).

establish that, according to the currently available data,


there is no significant climatic change that would have
determined or changed the life of the Early Bronze Age
communities of the Carpathian Basin. On the basis of the
continuously growing palaeoenvironmental data, we can
reconstruct an increasingly cooler and wetter climate that
varies in a mosaic-like fashion according to geographical
position.

Settlement and society


The mosaic-like character of the Carpathian Basin is also
reflected in the variability of the observed settlement pat
terns, since environmental factors have a significant role in
shaping the structure of settlement in all regions. Research
has also been somewhat patchy with regard to the whole
study area.
An examination of the settlements of the whole basin
would be an enormous task, so here we would like to single
out one of the most important features of the period. The
most important change observed is the reappearance of tell
settlements after a hiatus of more than 2ooo years since the
Late Neolithic13. This happens first along the Danube River,
then slightly later along the Middle Tisza River, with Early
Nagyrv style material (Szab 1992; Kulcsr 2oo9; Remnyi
2oo9). As mentioned before, the absolute dates we have for
determining the timeframe of the establishment of tell set
tlements are old, non-AMS dates (Raczky etal. 1992). Based
on these and typo-chronological analyses we may say that
tells first appeared along the Danube River (DunafldvrKlvria and Blcske-Vrsgyr [both co. Tolna, Hungary])
around 23oo/22ooBC, followed shortly afterwards by the
Middle Tisza River region (Tszeg-Laposhalom, Nagyrv 13 Bna 1975; Meier-Arendt 1992; Gogltan
2oo2; Gogltan 2oo5; Kienlin 2o12.

TA G U N G E N D E S L A N D E S M U S E U M S F R V O R G E S C H I C H T E H A L L E B A N D 12 2 015

Zsidhalom [both co. Jsz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Hungary]),


then the Maros River region (e.g. Kiszombor, co. Csongrd
[Hungary]; Pecica/Pcska, co. Arad [Romania]), the Beretty
River and Krs River valleys (Bakonszeg-Kdrdomb, co.
Hajd-Bihar [Hungary]; Berettyjfalu-Herply, co. HajdBihar [Hungary]; Gborjn-Csapszkpart, co. Hajd-Bihar
[Hungary]; Trkeve-Terehalom, co. Jsz-Nagykun-Szolnok
[Hungary]), the rmellk/Eriu Valley, co. Bihor (Romania)
and the northern Great Hungarian Plain (Fig.2b; 8).
The formation of tells has many aspects. On the one hand,
they appear only in zones with fairly well-definable ecolog
ical and pedological characteristics, and where a particular
architectural technique was practised (Smegi etal. 2oo3;
Gogltan 2oo6; Rosenstock 2oo9). From a socio-economic
point of view, their basis is formed by settlement or popula
tion concentration and demographic growth. The latter went
hand in hand with increased agricultural production and
specialisation, the separation of craftspeople and traders
and the formation of an elite (Szevernyi/Kulcsr 2o12;
Fischl etal. 2o13; Fischl etal. 2o13a). In the Carpathian Basin
the peak of this process coincides with the beginning of the
Middle Bronze Age, around 2oooBC, but the process starts
around 23oo/22ooBC. Surplus production and the signif
icance of the exchange route along the Danube River both
support this view of the social structure of the communities
living on these tell sites. Tells and fortified sites probably
played the role of central settlements. They may have been
the centres of given regional networks of settlements, with
outstanding socio-political rank; they may have been the
locations of specialised craft production or centres of exchange. All these functions would have made them special
and separated them from the rest of the settlement network.
This, however, was not the case everywhere in Hungary, and
there are some marked regional differences, even within the

513

514

K L R A P U S Z TA I N F I S C H L , V I K T R I A K I S S , G A B R I E L L A K U L C S R , A N D V A J K S Z E V E R N Y I

LCA

EBA I

EBA II

2200 BC

EBA III

MBA I

Fig.9 Chronology of metal finds from the Late


Copper Age until the beginning of the Middle
Bronze Age.
Abb.9 Chronologische Abfolge der Metallfunde
von der spten Kupferzeit bis zum Beginn der
Mittelbronzezeit.

distribution area of tells. While such a hierarchical arrange stroyed, after the ruins are levelled a new house is built
ment is possible in the central part of the country, along the exactly in its place, and so the dwelling place of the
Danube and the Middle Tisza Rivers (e.g. Earle/Kristiansen ancestors remains continuous (Chapman 1997; Chapman
2o1o; Szevernyi/Kulcsr 2o12), it does not seem to be valid 1999; Szevernyi 2o13). This metaphorical relationship with
for the Upper Tisza River region or the Hernd River valley, the past, which the tells represent and which becomes
where tells are not surrounded by less special sites (Fischl/ important in the ideology of the communities of the region
Kienlin 2o13). In Transdanubia, west of the distribution of at the period under discussion, is as important to the study
tells, similar socio-economic processes can perhaps be ob- of tell formation as their role in the development of social
served, starting from the EBA phase3 characterised by processes.
Kisapostag style material. We can observe some settlement
concentration and the fortification of certain sites, but
perhaps because of the different environmental circum Economy
stances tells are not formed (Kiss 2o12).
The formation of tells, however, is also the result of the Metallurgy
conscious decisions of their communities. The rebuilding of
the settlements, one above the other, was regulated by social Early Bronze Age copper shaft-hole axes are characteristic
rules and rituals connected to them. The dwelling mounds for the period between the Final Copper Age and the Early
created this way may have been the three-dimensional Bronze Age, shortly after 25ooBC14. This axe type is evi
manifestations of the identity of the communities that lived dence not only for the spread of a new type of metal weapon
there, significant places of cultural and collective memory or tool, but also of a technological innovation. The relative
(Raczky etal. 2o11; Raczky/Sebk 2o14). A similar type of abundance of Early Bronze Age moulds in the region is cer
settlement signalisation was the circular ditch, which also tainly noteworthy and reflects a flourishing local metal
lurgy. One of the regions most interesting find assemblages
appeared in Transdanubia.
With regard to the formation of tell settlements, experi was unearthed at ll, co. Pest (Hungary), where a cache of
ments indicate that the most convincing explanation for moulds for casting flat chisels and shaft-hole axes came to
the burning of the houses is that they were burnt inten light (Kvri/Patay 2oo5). The radiocarbon date from here is
tionally, probably for ritual reasons (Bankoff/Winter 1979; fairly late (234o 213ocalBC) in comparison with the typo
Gheorghiu 2oo7; Gheorghiu 2oo8). The suggestion is that logical dating (Mak style, EBA2a). This indicates that such
this intentional burning may have connected to the life typologically early (Kozarac/Dunakmld) axes were proba
cycle of those living in the house. During intentional house bly produced even in the last third of the 3rd millenniumBC
burning, through the transformative medium of fire, the (Fig.9).
house is transformed into an ancestral place. It becomes a
From around 25ooBC until somewhere between 23ooBC
source of social and ideological value, which can be ex- and 22ooBC, in the formative Early Bronze Age or Reinecke
ploited later on. This act at the same time ensures the clo Ao phase, the artefacts (e.g. daggers; see Fig.8) of a new type
sure of a cycle, causing discontinuity, and the opening of a of metallurgy started to spread, possibly mostly through the
new cycle, creating continuity. Although the house is de- Bell Beaker network (Bertemes/Heyd 2oo2; EBA phase2 in
14 Hansen 2oo9; Hansen 2o1o; Dani 2o13;
Szevernyi 2o13a.

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Hungary: Meier-Arendt 1992, 4o; Kalicz-Schreiber 1994,


Abb.15). Arsenic bronzes continued (one fifth of the 65 Bell
Beaker bronzes analysed belong to this category; Merkl
2o1o; Merkl 2o11), but more characteristic are copper objects
with high silver and antimony content (as a result of the
increasing use of fahlores). It is an important observation
that we find artefacts with a tin content higher than 1.oo%
before true tin bronzes become widespread. Based on the
recent analysis of objects from Budapest-Albertfalva (Hun
gary), these were manufactured using a primitive techno
logy involving the co-smelting of copper ore and cassiterite
(Endrdi etal. 2oo3). Interestingly, the halberd from the Bell
Beaker cemetery of Szigetszentmikls, co. Pest (Hungary;
Fig.9), also indicates the participation of these communities
in a western network (Patay 2oo8; Patay 2o13, Fig.21). We
do not have an exact date for this specific grave, but it is
possible that it belongs to a later phase within the lifespan
of the cemetery (c. 242o 219o calBC).
From 22ooBC, in the EBA phase3 in Hungary (corres
ponding to Reinecke BzA1), most of the metal artefacts
were made of copper without tin, and fahlores (Singen [Ger
many] and classical senring copper) seem to dominate
among the analysed finds (Junghans etal. 1974, Anr.1382o;
13825; Krause 2oo3, Datenbank Cl.34/1, 8; Kiss 2o12). For
example, in the Ordacsehi-Cserefld, co. Somogy (Hungary),
bi-ritual cemetery, small metal tubes and hair-rings were
found with high antimony, arsenic and silver content (Fig.9).
Among these last mentioned artefacts only one of the metal
finds seems to have been intentionally alloyed with tin
(3.49%); the others did not contain any tin (Somogyi 2oo4;
Klt 2oo4; Kiss 2o12).
The early metallurgical products of the Maros River
region (wire and plate ornaments, torques, Cypriot pins,
and early triangular daggers; Fig.9) show strong connec
tions with Nitra-type material and the metal objects of the
Singen cemetery in terms of both typology and raw materi
als (Liversage 1994). This metallurgical circle can be dated
between 22ooBC and 19ooBC. The primary raw materials
were arsenic bronze with high silver content and the socalled Eastern Alpine copper. Intentional alloying with tin
is encountered only sporadically (Fischl/Kulcsr 2o11).
Tin bronzes become widespread in the period between
21ooBC and 18ooBC (Pare 2ooo), during the transition from
the Early to the Middle Bronze Age in Hungary. Imported or
finished objects from the area of the communities using
Straubing-, Singen-, and Rhne-type materials can be seen
in varying numbers. Here we can mention the solid-hilted
dagger from Szentgl, co. Veszprm (Hungary) with 1o.oo%
tin in the blade and 6.3o% tin in the hilt (see Fig.9; Mozso
lics 1967, 51 Abb.17; Junghans etal. 1974, 1435314354).
Due to its formal and technical features, it can be associated
with the similarly dated Alpine-type daggers and be inter
preted as an import. However, the different metallurgical
composition of the hilt (senring type) and the great dis
tance from the Alpine region suggests a different place of
production; probably it was manufactured in areas charac
terised by ntice style material (Schwenzer 2oo2, 323f.
Abb.9; 1o; Krause 2oo3, 183f.).
After 2oooBC, during the Middle Bronze Age (2ooo
16ooBC), the local metallurgical workshops that previously
TA G U N G E N D E S L A N D E S M U S E U M S F R V O R G E S C H I C H T E H A L L E B A N D 12 2 015

copied imported artefacts developed their own repertoire,


known from the objects of the Tolnanmedi- and Hajdsm
son-type hoards, and contemporary graves (Kiss 2oo9).

Subsistence economy
Despite recent advances, our knowledge of Early Bronze
Age subsistence practices and their changes through time
remains rather sketchy. With regard to plant cultivation, we
have few analyses from EBA23 sites. At Pcs-Nagyrpd,
co. Baranya (Hungary), einkorn (Triticum monococcum),
emmer (Triticum dicoccum), and compact wheat (Triticum
spp.) dominated, complemented by six-rowed barley (Hor
deum vulgare), lentil (Lens culinaris) and pea (Pisum sativum; Hartynyi etal. 1968, 18; Gyulai 2o1o, 93). Slightly
more data is available from Bell Beaker settlements. Buda
pest-Csepel-Hollandi t (Hungary) yielded mostly sixrowed barley and emmer, while at SzigetszentmiklsVzmvek, co. Pest (Hungary) six-rowed barley, emmer, and
millet (Panicum miliaceum) were attested. The settlement of
Budapest-Albertfalva was sampled more systematically.
Here einkorn dominated, followed by emmer and barley,
and some pulses: pea and horse beans (Macrotyloma uni
florum; Gyulai 2o1o, 93f.).
Very few EBA3 sites have analysed botanical remains,
and in many cases these are tell settlements, where material
from Early Bronze Age and Middle Bronze Age layers was
not always treated separately, and the archaeological con
texts also remain largely unpublished. At Baracs-Bottyn
snc, co. Fejr (Hungary; also known as DunafldvrMacskalyuk; see Szevernyi/Kulcsr 2o12, 3o8f.), the
botanical remains from layers radiocarbon-dated to the
Early Bronze Age are dominated by barley (approximately
8o.oo%), followed by einkorn and lentil (Hartynyi etal.
1968, 13; Hartynyi/Novki 1975, 26). At Tszeg-Laposha
lom, co. Jsz-Nagykun-Szolnok (Hungary), emmer, einkorn,
and barley were attested among cereals, and a fairly large
amount of fine-leaf vetch (Vicia tenuifolia Roth.) was also
found (Hartynyi etal. 1968, 22f.). This seems to indicate
that there was no major difference in the most important
domestic plants exploited during EBA2 and 3.
With regard to animal husbandry, the most interesting
feature of the EBA2 period is the significant number of
horse bones on sites in the Budapest area, which is perhaps
an indication that the Great Hungarian Plain was a second
ary centre of horse domestication during this period. The
proportion of horses in animal bone samples from other
areas is much lower (Bknyi 1978; Bknyi 1992).
The bone material from tell settlements poses the same
chronological problems as the botanical remains. A notable
exception is the material from Szzhalombatta-Fldvr, co.
Pest (Hungary), where systematic sampling took place and
preliminary results are available. Between 24ooBC (or pos
sibly 23ooBC) and 2oooBC, cattle dominate, followed by
sheep/goats and pigs. By 2oooBC, however, animal exploi
tation strategies seem to have changed: both the animal
ratios and the kill-off patterns change, indicating the increasing use of secondary products. Sheep dominate and
are slaughtered at a later age, showing the importance of

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wool collecting. Among cattle, adult animals also dominate


and the ratio of males is higher. This is indicative of their
use for traction (for both ploughing and transport; Vrete
mark 2o1o). It is quite possible that the change towards this
new exploitation strategy had already started in the last
centuries of the 3rd millenniumBC, and culminated in the
stable pattern of the Middle Bronze Age.

Ritual and ideology


Burial rites

Fels rge-hegyi-dl, co. Pest (Hungary), some of the


graves contained rare copper weapons (e.g. a halberd), per
forated silver plaques with repouss decoration, gold hairrings, and gold plaques (Patay 2o13). Another grave from
Szigetszentmikls-dlsor, co. Pest (Hungary) yielded an
exceptional headdress made up of gold and silver plates
(Endrdi 2o12). Similar gold discs can also be found in
some early Maros burials (Bna 1965; Fischl/Kulcsr 2o11).
After 22ooBC, exceptionally rich burials become rarer.
One example is the grave of Balatonakali with its massive
tools and weapons (flanged axe, shaft-hole axe, triangular
dagger, socketed chisel, and arm spiral; Torma 1978).
Together with the gold hair-ring, these can be compared to
the grave-goods of the ntice chiefly graves, providing a
similar self-representation of the elite of the period. In the
Middle Bronze Age, rich graves (often of male warriors with
bronze axes as grave goods) become more frequently attested again.

In EBA phases1 and 2, burial is characterised by isolated


graves, or groups of a few graves; they are mostly crema
tions, but inhumation, even under barrows, is also attested
(Kulcsr 2oo9; Dani/Kisjuhsz 2o13). In the Budapest area,
the recent discovery of large Bell Beaker cemeteries has
changed our perception of funerary behaviour here. Ceme
teries in Budakalsz and Szigetszentmikls (both co. Pest
[Hungary]) and the one already known in Budapest- Hoarding
Bksmegyer contained hundreds of graves, indicating
that a change to large communal cemeteries had already There seem to be significant changes in hoarding practices
throughout the Early Bronze Age. Reaching back to the end
taken place before 22ooBC15.
After 22ooBC, the custom of creating such large burial of the Copper Age, the deposition of single copper shaft-hole
grounds spread all around the territory of Hungary. Well- axes dominates, with exceptions like the large hoard of Vl
known cemeteries, like Tiszafred, co. Jsz-Nagykun- cele/Bnyabkk (Romania; Szevernyi 2o13a) or the small
Szolnok (Hungary; Kovcs 1992), Herndkak, co. Borsod- hoard of Fajsz, co. Bcs-Kiskun (Hungary; see e.g. Hansen
Abaj-Zempln (Hungary; Schalk 1992), or Nin Mya, 2o1o). The manufacture, use, and deposition of various
okr. Koiceokolie (Slovakia; Olexa/Novek 2o13) in the types of such axes (Bnyabkk, Fajsz, Kozarac/Dunakmld,
north-east, or Dunajvros-Duna-dl, co. Fejr (Hungary; Dumbravioara types) continued during the EBA phases1
Vicze 2o11), Ercsi-Sina-telep, co. Fejr (Hungary; Bndi and 2 (Dani 2o13), as also evidenced, for example, by the
1966) and Szigetszentmikls-Felstag, co. Pest (Hungary; above-mentioned moulds from ll.
Kalicz-Schreiber 1995) start in the last phase of the Early
In the EBA phase 3, however, such depositions disappear
Bronze Age and continue into the Middle Bronze Age, some in most of the Carpathian Basin, to be continued only in the
times remaining in use until its very end.
deposition of e.g. Patulele-type axes in Romania and the
There is great variability in burial rites: after the crema Balkans (Ailincai 2oo9). In Hungary the deposition of metal
tions of the Mak and SomogyvrVinkovci period, bi- objects occurs almost exclusively in the context of grave
ritual burial practice is attested in the Nagyrv- and Kisapo goods, where jewellery dominates, and weapons are rather
stag-style burials. After the inhumations of the Kisapostag rare. The deposition of bronze objects in hoards reappears
phase1 (EBA3), cremation began to be employed again in again in the Middle Bronze Age in the classic Tolnanmediphase2 and became the dominant burial tradition in the and Hajdsmson-type hoards, dated to MBA12. The
later phases of the population until the end of the Middle above indicates that there was certainly a major change of
Bronze Age. It is interesting to note that in the Kisapostag ritual behaviour in the deposition of wealth around
cemetery at Bonyhd (and also among the Nagyrv burials 22ooBC, but its causes so far remain unknown.
at Szreg, co. Csongrd [Hungary]), the deceased were
cremated in the burial pit. Reddish discolouration could be
observed on the walls and floor of the graves, and the Conclusions
cremated bones remained in anatomical order, indicating a
person lying supine with legs flexed to the left, in the same Based on the above, we may conclude that there seems to be
position as remains in the inhumation burials in the same no crisis, no abrupt change climatic, economic, or social
cemetery, suggesting an experimental phase or the intro around 22ooBC in Hungary and the Carpathian Basin.
duction of cremation (Szab 2oo4; Szab/Hajdu 2o11).
Changes do occur, but the period between 23ooBC and
Some degree of inequality can be observed in all phases. 21ooBC is the starting point of a continuous, autochthonous
Although Bell Beaker graves in Hungary are usually fairly development with wide ranging interregional connections.
richly endowed, certain burials can be singled out as more Climatic changes seem to be gradual, without any cata
wealthy than others. In the cemetery of Szigetszentmikls- strophic consequences. Transformations in material culture
15 Czene 2oo8; Kulcsr 2o11; Endrdi 2o13a;
Patay 2o13.

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are evident, like the disappearance of Bell Beaker material, tinuous, uninterrupted development of societies in the area,
but continuity can indeed be observed between EBA2 and lasting until the end of the Middle Bronze Age. As prime
3 materials. Settlement patterns do seem to change, as evi movers of change we identify a certain degree of climatic
denced by the appearance of tells, but the earliest tells may melioration, surplus production, demographic growth,
actually predate 22ooBC by a century. Tin bronzes start to increasing social differentiation, and new forms of cultural
appear sporadically before 22ooBC, but their number in- memory and of relationship with the past. The processes
creases after that date and they become widespread after that started here laid the foundations for Middle Bronze
2oooBC this also appears to be a fairly continuous devel Age developments, in which even greater population con
opment. With regard to subsistence, plant cultivation does centration and a hierarchy observed in settlements and
not show any clear break, but there are changes in animal cemeteries culminated in the flourishing material culture
husbandry: the significance of horse breeding decreases in of the Koszider period around 16ooBC.
EBA3, but the use of secondary products really seems to
take off. Large communal cemeteries start with the Bell
Beaker period and some even continue into the EBA3, Acknowledgements
while others are newly founded in this phase. Rich burials
become rarer during EBA3, and the deposition of metal This paper was supported by the Hungarian Scientific Rework in hoards also shows a hiatus.
search Fund (OTKA Project 1o8597) and by the J.Bolyai
To sum up, the transition from Early Bronze Age2 to 3 in Research Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
the Carpathian Basin represents the starting point of a con

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Source of figures


15 authors
6 based on Patay 2o13, 3o 9 Fig.19
7 a based on OShea 1992, 1oo;
Forenbaher 1993, 244; b based on
Bende/Lrinczy 2oo2, 87 Tab.1;
Fischl/Kulcsr 2o11, Fig.8 Tab.3

8 after Smegi/Bodor 2ooo, 93


Fig.34
9 based on Dani 2o13, 216 Fig.1o
(with modifications)

Appendix 1

authors

Addresses
Dr. Klra Pusztain Fischl
University of Miskolc
3515 Miskolc-Egyetemvros
Hungary
fklari@gmail.com
Dr. Viktria Kiss
Institute of Archaeology
Research Centre for the Humanities, Hungarian
Academy of Sciences
ri u. 49
1o14 Budapest
Hungary
kiss.viktoria@btk.mta.hu

Dr. Gabriella Kulcsr


Institute of Archaeology
Research Centre for the Humanities, Hungarian
Academy of Sciences
ri u. 49
1o14 Budapest
Hungary
kulcsar.gabriella@btk.mta.hu

TA G U N G E N D E S L A N D E S M U S E U M S F R V O R G E S C H I C H T E H A L L E B A N D 12 2 015

Vajk Szevernyi
Institute of Archaeology
Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Research Centre for the Humanities
ri u. 49
1o14 Budapest
Hungary
szeverenyi.vajk@btk.mta.hu

521

522

K L R A P U S Z TA I N F I S C H L , V I K T R I A K I S S , G A B R I E L L A K U L C S R , A N D V A J K S Z E V E R N Y I

Appendix

Period

Site/feature

Sample
type

Conventional/AMS

Labcode

BP date

13 C (VPDB)
[]

Bell Beaker/Hungary
Bell Beaker

Szigetszentmikls-Felsorge-hegyi du
lo, grave 10

Human
bone

AMS

VERA-4748

392040

-17.60.7

Bell Beaker

Szigetszentmikls-Felsorge-hegyi du
lo, grave 49

Human
bone

AMS

VERA-4749

383040

-20.11.2

Bell Beaker

Szigetszentmikls-Felsorge-hegyi du
lo, grave 50

Human
bone

AMS

VERA-4750

377535

-20.30.6

Bell Beaker

Szigetszentmikls-Felsorge-hegyi du
lo, grave 367

Human
bone

AMS

VERA-4755

387540

-19.71.1

Bell Beaker

Szigetszentmikls-Felsorge-hegyi du
lo, grave 626

Human
bone

AMS

VERA-4757

384535

-21.41.4

Bell Beaker

Bksmegyer, grave 193

Human
bone

AMS

DeA-2875

384536

Bell Beaker

Bksmegyer, grave 432a

Human
bone

AMS

DeA-2876

383135

Bell Beaker

Bksmegyer, grave 445

Human
bone

AMS

DeA-2877

387433

Early Maros

Kiskundorozsma-Hosszhthalom, grave 56

Human
bone

deb-8073

375532

Early Maros

Kiskundorozsma-Hosszhthalom, grave 55

Human
bone

deb-8055

367847

Early Maros

Kiskundorozsma-Hosszhthalom, grave 66

Human
bone

deb-8095

362344

Early Maros

Kiskundorozsma-Hosszhthalom, grave 15

Human
bone

deb-8071

357451

Maros

Mokrin-grave 208 (phase 2,


Wagner 2005)

Human
bone

GrN-14179

369030

Maros

Mokrin-grave 110 (phase 2,


Wagner 2005)

Human
bone

GrN-14178

365530

Maros

Mokrin-grave 52 (phase 2,
Wagner 2005)

Human
bone

GrN-7977

365050

Maros

Mokrin-grave 227 (phase 3,


Wagner 2005)

Human
bone

GrN-14180

365035

Maros

Mokrin-grave 237 (phase 2,


Wagner 2005)

Human
bone

GrN-14181

359535

Maros

Mokrin-grave 259 (phase 3,


Wagner 2005)

Human
bone

GrN-8809

350035

Maros/Hungary

Maros/Serbia

Appendix 1 Individual radiocarbon dates for the Early Bronze Age from Hungary and Serbia.
Appendix 1 Einzelne 14 C-Daten der frhen Bronzezeit in Ungarn und Serbien.

TA G U N G E N D E S L A N D E S M U S E U M S F R V O R G E S C H I C H T E H A L L E B A N D 12 2 015

O L D A N D N E W N A R R AT I V E S F O R H U N G A R Y A R O U N D 2 2 0 0 B C

Cal BC

References

24722346 (68.2%)
25612290 (95.4%)

Patay 2013, Fig.19

23892202 (68.2%)
24592148 (95.4%)

Patay 2013, Fig.19

22782141 (68.2%)
23322043 (95.4%)

Patay 2013, Fig.19

24552297 (68.2%)
24692209 (95.4%)

Patay 2013, Fig.19

24292209 (68.2%)
24582204 (95.4%)

Patay 2013, Fig.19

24302208 (68.2%)
24582204 (95.4%)

Kulcsr 2013a

23392205 (68.2%)
24582151 (95.4%)

Kulcsr 2013a

24542296 (68.2%)
24672211 (95.4%)

Kulcsr 2013a

22702062 (68.2%)
22862040 (95.4%)

Bende-Lo
rinczy 2002, 87, Tab.1;
Fischl-Kulcsr 2011, Tab.3

21371981 (68.2%)
22011937 (95.4%)

Bende-Lo
rinczy 2002, 87, Tab.1;
Fischl-Kulcsr 2011, Tab.3

20351919 (68.2%)
21341886 (95.4%)

Bende-Lo
rinczy 2002, 87, Tab.1;
Fischl-Kulcsr 2011, Tab.3

20211830 (68.2%)
21161758 (95.4%)

Bende-Lo
rinczy 2002, 87, Tab.1;
Fischl-Kulcsr 2011, Tab.3

21342033 (68.2%)
21961977 (95.4%)

OShea 1992, 100; Forenbaher


1993, 244

21231972 (68.2%)
21361944 (95.4%)

OShea 1992, 100; Forenbaher


1993, 244

21301946 (68.2%)
21921894 (95.4%)

OShea 1992, 100; Forenbaher


1993, 244

21201956 (68.2%)
21371930 (95.4%)

OShea 1992, 100; Forenbaher


1993, 244

20131902 (68.2%)
21131831 (95.4%)

OShea 1992, 100; Forenbaher


1993, 244

18831771 (68.2%)
19191700 (95.4%)

OShea 1992, 100; Forenbaher


1993, 244

TA G U N G E N D E S L A N D E S M U S E U M S F R V O R G E S C H I C H T E H A L L E B A N D 12 2 015

523

Bislang erschienene Bnde in der Reihe


Tagungsbnde des Landesmuseums fr
Vorgeschichte Halle

Die Reihe der Tagungsbnde des Landesmuseums wurde


2oo8 ins Leben gerufen. Anlass dazu war die Konferenz
Luthers Lebenswelten, die im Jahr 2oo7 in Halle ausgerichtet wurde. Bereits der zweite Tagungsband widmete sich
mit dem Thema Schlachtfeldarchologie dem Mitteldeutschen Archologentag, der seit 2oo8 jhrlich von Landesamt
fr Denkmalpflege und Archologie Sachsen-Anhalt veranstaltet und zeitnah publiziert wird. Dem groen Anteil inter-

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Mit dem bislang zuletzt erschienenen Tagungsband
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Erhltlich im Buchhandel oder direkt beim


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