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CHAPTER 5-PROTECTION COORDINATION

Article 2.40.1.12

and 2.40.9.1 of Philippine Electrical

Code I 2009 requires overcurrent protection coordination

to

minimize the hazard to personnel and equipment .


5.1 Protection Coordination Guidelines
5.1.1 Coordination time
According

to

IEEE

Buff

book

Std

242-2001,

coordination time interval (CTI) should be maintained between


curves of protection devices in series to ensure correct selective
operation and to reduce nuisance tripping. It is therefore required to
assign a suitable CTI based on the protection device operating times
and accuracy. For this study, CTI is calculated as follows:
CTI (Device operating Times) (measurement and relay timing Errors) Safety Margin

CTI (OTCB OTRELAYO/ S )

(2ErRe lay ErCT )


100

xOTRELAY OTSAFETY

Where, OTCB is Circuit breaker interrupting time (taken as 75ms)


OTRELAY O/S is Relay overshoot time (taken as 20ms)
OTRELAY is the maximum operating time of relay (taken as 1000ms)
ErRELAY is Relay timing error (taken as +/- 2%)
ErCT is the CT error (taken as +/-5%)
OTSAFETY is the safety margin (taken as 15ms)

CTI (75 20)

((2x2) 5)
1000 15 200ms
100

CTI 200 ms

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5.1.2 Protection for Medium Voltage Motor


For medium voltage motor feeder unit, the following motor
protection scheme shall apply. This motor protection scheme is
based on ANSI IEEE standard C37.96-2000.
50P/51P-Phase Instantaneous and Time overcurrent relay for
phase overcurrent protection. The 51 pickup shall be set at 115% of
motor FLA using ANSI Very Inverse time-current curve while 50
pickup shall be set at 200% of motor LRA.
50G/51G-Ground Instantaneous and Time overcurrent relay for
ground overcurrent protection.
49-Motor overload relay protection for thermal protection. 46-Phase
current unbalance relay for phase loss protection.
51LR-extreme overload relay (for 1500hp and above). 37-Under
load/undercurrent relay for load loss protection.

52

CT

50/51

51LR

49

46

37

ZCT

50/
51N

M
Figure 5.1 Protection scheme for VCB DOL Medium voltage
motor

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5.1.3 Protection for Power Transformer


For Power Transformer,
5.1.4 Protection for MV Capacitor Bank
5.1.5
5.2 Overall Protection
5.2 Equipment Operating and Damage Curves
5.2.1 Transformers and Feeder Cables TCC Landmark
Damage points for TRM1,TRL3A and TRL3B are based on
IEEE C57.109-1993 and calculated as Category IV liquid-immersed
transformers (30,000kVA and above) for TRM1 and Category II
liquid-immersed transformers (501-5000kVA) for TLR3A/B as shown
in table 5.1, 5.2 respectively. For both TRM1 and TRL3A/B, the
magnetizing Inrush point is calculated at 12 times the transformers
full load current and is shown in table 5.3 and 5.4.
Table 5.1 Thermal and Mechanical Damage Curve for TRM1
Time
(s)
1800
300
60
30
10
2
5000Z(p
u)2
8
2

TRM1 Thermal Damage Curve


Current at Wye (A)
Current at Delta (A)
(58% of Current at Wye)
2xIFL = 6693.92
3882.47
3xIFL =10040.87
5823.71
4.75xIFL =15898.05
9220.87
6.3xIFL =21085.84
12229.78
11.3xIFL =37820.63
21935.96
25xIFL =83673.95
48530.89
TRM1 Mechanical Damage Curve
0.5xIFL /Zpu =10459.24
6066.36
0.5xIFL /Zpu=10459.24
1xIFL /Zpu =20918.49

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12132.72

Page 409

Table

5.2

Thermal

and

Mechanical

Damage

Curve

for

TRL3A/3B TCC
TRL3A Damage Curve
Current at Wye (A)
Current at Delta (A)
2 xIFL =7216.87
4,185.79
3 xIFL = 10825.31
6,278.68
4.75 xIFL = 17140.08
9,941.25
6.3 xIFL = 22733.16
13,185.2
11.3 xIFL = 40775.36
23,649.7
25 xIFL = 90210.97
52,322.4
TRL3A Mechanical Damage Curve
0.7 xIFL /Zpu =36084.39
20,928.9

Time(s)
1800
300
60
30
10
2
2551Z(pu)2
4.08
2

0.7 xIFL /Zpu =36084.39


1 xIFL /Zpu =51549.13

20,928.9
29,898.5

Table 5.3 Magnetizing Inrush point for TRM1


Inrush Point
Current (A)
12xIFL,SEC =
40163.49

Time (S)
0.1

Table 5.4 Magnetizing Inrush point for TRL3A/B


Inrush Point
Current(A)
12xIFL =43,301.27

Time
0.1

The damage curve for TL1,TL2 and TL3 transformer feeder


cable is based on ICEA P-32-382-1999 and IEEE STD 242-2001 and
is calculated below and summarized in table 5.5 and 5.6.
2

ISC
234.5 TF
5
A t 1.18x10 log10 234.5 Ti

Where Isc is short circuit current (sym RMS)


A conductor size in mm2
t time in secs
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TF is short circuit current Temperature rating (2500C for XLPE)


Ti is the continuous current Temperature rating (900C to XLPE)
Table 5.5 Damage curve for TL1 (5x630mm2 XLPE)
Time
(secs)
0.1
1
10
100
1000

ISC Current
(A)
4514580
451458
142763.55
45145.8
14276.35

Table 5.6 Damage curve for TL2/TL3 (1x185mm2 XLPE)


Time
(secs)

ISC Current
(A)

0.01
1
10
100
1000

265142
26514
8384.5
2651.4
838.45

5.2.2 Medium Voltage Motors TCC Landmark


Motor

starting

curves

represent

the

time-current

characteristic at normal operating condition of the motor including


the acceleration time, the locked rotor current and the normal full
load current. The points for the medium voltage motors are
summarized on tables 5.7 to 5.10.

The running overload curve

represents the stator thermal capability from rated full load current
back to the current drawn at breakdown torque while the motor is
running. A reduced stator insulation life will occur if the motor is
operated beyond this region. The accelerating thermal limit curve
(also called starting overload curve) represents the rotor thermal
capability

during

acceleration

from

locked

rotor

up

to

the

The ABCs of Overcurrent Coordination by THOMAS P. SMITH, P.E.

Chapter 5-Protective Device Coordination

Page 411

breakdown torque for a specified terminal voltage. Both curves for


all Medium voltage motors are shown in tables 5.11 to 5.18.
Table 5.7 Starting Curve for KM5806
Starting Curve
Time (S)
Current (A)
3000
60.85
1000
60.85
5
60.85
3
60.85
2.3
60.85
2.1
231.21
1
265.47
0.9
266.82
0.8
267.72
0.7
268.80
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.01

269.97
271.06
271.78
272.41
273.31
273.31

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Table 5.8 Starting Curve for YM7601


Starting Curve
Time (S)
Current (A)
3000
485.89
1000
485.89
5
485.89
4
485.89
3.5
485.89
3
2325.20
2
2539.88
1
2628.22
0.9
2637.06
0.8
2642.36
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.01

2648.54
2654.73
2659.14
2667.09
2669.74
2672.40
2672.40

Table 5.9 Starting Curve for KM8639


Starting Curve
Time (S)
Current (A)
7000.00
33.03
100.00
33.03
5.50
34.24
5.45
34.37
5.40
34.51
5.35
34.67
5.30
34.84
5.25
35.03
5.20
35.24
5.15
35.48
5.10
5.05
5.00
5.00
4.98
4.97
4.96

35.73
36.02
36.33
163.49
165.31
167.13
168.94

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4.94
4.92
4.88
4.83
4.76
4.65
4.50
0.10
0.01

170.76
172.58
174.39
176.21
178.03
179.84
181.66
181.66
181.66

Table 5.10 Starting Curve for KM8601


Starting Curve
Time (S)
Current (A)
7000.00
26.85
100.00
26.85
5.50
27.84
5.45
27.94
5.40
28.06
5.35
28.18
5.30
28.32
5.25
28.48
5.20
28.65
5.15
28.84
5.10
5.05
5.00
5.00
4.96
4.95
4.94
4.92
4.89
4.85
4.79
4.72
4.63
4.50
0.10
0.01

29.05
29.28
29.54
132.92
134.40
135.87
137.35
138.83
140.31
141.78
143.26
144.74
146.21
147.69
147.69
147.69

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Table 5.11 Running Overload Curve for KM5806


Running OL (Cold)
Time (S)
Current (A)
7000
77.25
6000
78.15
5000
79.60
4000
81.40
3000
83.56
2000
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100

87.71
96.00
97.44
98.89
101.23
104.29
107.54
112.41
118.72
130.43
155.85

Table 5.12 Starting Overload Curve for KM5806


Starting OL (Cold)
Time (S)
Current (A)
40
212.73
30
249.24
20
303.60

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Table 5.13 Running Overload Curve for YM7601


Running OL (Cold)
Time (S)
Current (A)
7000
615.76
6000
633.42
5000
655.51
4000
681.13
3000
713.82
2000
764.17
1000
871.95
900
895.80
800
917.01
700
947.04
600
980.61
500
1024.79
400
1077.79
300
1157.30
200
1245.65
100
1387.00
Table 5.14 Starting Overload Curve for YM7601
Starting OL (Cold)
Time (S)
Current (A)
20
1707.24
10
2256.30
9
2357.89
8
2436.52
7
2546.06
6
2674.16
Table 5.15 Running Overload Curve for KM8639
Running OL (Cold)
Time (S)
Current (A)
7000
43.96
6000
44.56
5000
45.52
4000
46.72
3000
48.16
2000
50.92
1000
56.45
900
57.41
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800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100

58.37
59.93
61.97
64.14
67.38
71.58
79.39
96.32

Table 5.16 Starting Overload Curve for KM8639


Starting OL (Cold)
Time (S)
20
10
9
8

Current (A)
116.05
153.37
160.28
165.63

Table 5.17 Running Overload Curve for KM8601


Running OL (Cold)
Time (S)
Current (A)
7000
35.73
6000
36.22
5000
37.00
4000
37.98
3000
39.15
2000
41.40
1000
45.89
900
46.67
800
47.45
700
48.72
600
50.38
500
52.14
400
54.77
300
58.19
200
64.54
100
78.30

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Table 5.18 Starting Overload Curve for KM8601


Starting OL (Cold)
Time (S)
Current (A)
20
94.34
10
124.68
9
130.30
8
134.64
Damage Curve points for MV motor feeders will base on the
same

philosophy

as

the

transformer

feeder

cables and are

summarized on tables
Table 5.19 Damage curve for YM7601 Feeder (240mm2 XLPE)

0.01
1
10

ISC
Current
(A)
343,968
34,396.8
10,877.2

100
1000

3,439.68
1,087.72

Time
(secs)

Table 5.20 Damage curve for KM5806/KM8639/KM8601


(185mm2 XLPE)
Time
(secs)

ISC Current
(A)

0.01
1
10
100
1000

265142
26514
8384.5
2651.4
838.45

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5.3 Protection Devices Tag


5.4 Setting Calculations

Chapter 5-Protective Device Coordination

Page 419