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Internet service providers (ISP - Internet Service Provider) companies or institutions

(such as T-Com, Iskon or CARNet in Croatia, AT&T in US and MTNL in India),

which satellite or optical connections with several major Internet node abroad (mainly
in the direction of America and Europe) and the thus ensuring high capacity
connection to the rest of the Internet world. However, practice has shown that it can
barely follow the needs of the growing number of members of Internet communities.
When selecting an ISP of significance is the number of services that it provides to its
customers. All services provided by e-mail, but do not provide any service to FTP,
newsgroups, renting space on the disc, certain program support and
etc. CARNet allows for almost all university departments.
User from their computers at work or at home by joining the Internet can:
Exchange electronic mail (e-mail) to any Internet user in any location on the
Participate in off-line (indirectly, not in real time) discussions via e-mail with
people with similar interests through 'mailing lists' and 'News Groups'.
Participate live (in real time) in a conversation with another person via the
'Internet video phone' (like Skype), or audio-video conferencing between
multiple people using a specially designed computer programs and equipment.
Participate in on-line (directly, in real time) written discussion with a larger
group of people who use the 'Internet Relay Chat' (IRC) service - chat rooms.
To work on a remote computer using the 'Telnet' service or some per function
quite the same.
Take files of any type (download) from remote computers and deliver files
(upload) them with an FTP (File Transfer Protocol) service.
Reading complex documents using 'hypertext'. Clicking on a keyword or image
on the screen the user is automatically goes to other facilities within the same
or other domains.
Read multimedia documents found on WWW (World Wide Web) that contain
text, graphics, sound, and video using intelligent browser web presentation, as
'Google Chrome', 'Firefox' or 'Internet Explorer' program support.

Learning and practicing for the exam and achieve appropriate certification.
Search the Web, documents, various WWW sites or via dedicated international
service, as 'Google' and 'Yahoo!', over subscribed keywords to find the desired
Publicly disclose their images or pictures of his grandchildren, and who wants
to can publish a picture of mother in law.
Advertise your business in a variety of ways, from setting up video clips to
the creation of their own website.
Paying bills through the 'Internet Banking'.
Buy and spend money :-), advertise and offer for sale.
Read web editions of newspapers or say 'IT Alphabet'.
Play simple games and ..... who knows what else.

Services of Computer System

To make computers communicate with each other within the network of any
kind, should be on the computer and allow the network system services, in order to
allow retrieval further described services. The computer operating system is designed
to know how to use system services, but also to offer their services to the
environment. The holder of any communication within the local network and outside
the TCP / IP protocol. According to TCP / IP - OSI model protocols of upper layers
allow the use of certain services. The basis of all is the client-server architecture, then
architecture in which part of the network resource offers individual services and the
resources that they use.
As for computer use is the most important service within the local network, as
well as SOHO network, SHARING (AVAILABILITY) of devices connected to
computer (like a printer), and directories and files of computer (such as multimedia
content) to other participants in the network - File and Printer Sharing service. And
the computer could fetch a resource on the Internet the most important service is the
the DNS and DHCP obtain by server in the local network or SOHO device. By using
first service enables to recognize the computer in the network by a domain name

rather than IP addresses and vice versa, and the other service provides automatic
assign of TCP / IP settings regarding computer to enable communication. All other
services are these further upgrade on them, and follows a description of some of them.

WWW (World Wide Web)

The latest is an information service on the Internet. After the advent of the
1993rd The present multi-tens of millions of web pages is a synonym for the Internet.
The first two words 'World Wide' mean global distribution, and the last word 'Web'
means in this context of network computing. Scope of diverse content on the WWW
servers is constantly growing. Almost everything can be found. Since the purchase of
the product, technical support, advice, research papers, advertisements, price lists and
who knows what all, depending on the site designated for and inspiration of their
creator. So there are useful and useless, beautiful and ugly, organized and
unorganized. Their development today is the extraordinary artistic and programming
WWW is a graphical hypertext way of using the Internet using the HTTP
protocol for transmitting Web pages and other information over the Internet, in
principle, between the server and the user's computer. Web pages are written in HTML
(Hypertext Markup Language) language, and recognizes them for this purpose
designed browser (Internet Explorer, Firefox, ...). Service provides
hypertext links between documents and combined display of text, images, sound and
video, that enables the integration of different information content. Hypertext is a
document or a system with related text units according to the principle shown in the
following figure.

Figure 7.4.4 Principle of linking web pages.

How certain region have specific graphemes, header website states the code
page used records that follow. But that will not be relevant if your OS in, e.g. Africa
does not have the character set used in Europe. Unicode will greatly increase the userfriendliness of reading web content regarding the diversity of languages and countries.
Web pages are usually placed servers that allow other Internet services like email and
the like. The servers are in operation almost continuously, and each of them has its
own unique address, a URL (Uniform Resource Locator) and a single seat website
content. One site address would be:


Address is written on a hierarchically organized several DNS servers. 'http'

protocol is a label, 'computer' is the name of the server or name of sub-domain. One
can find and mark 'www' pointing to program support on the client side, which must
be used to copy data (not necessarily). '' is a fundamental domain of the
main domain in which the server and it stands true for all of the services that the
server provides in its domain. It is possible to retrieve the desired content directly via
the IP address (...), only need to know and remember. It's easier to
remember domain name, especially if the name is associated with the desired content.
Tag 'hr' is an abbreviation for the state and each state is assigned a different
label. It represents the main domain. But often, especially in the U.S., for the main
domain tag to find com, edu, gov, int, mil, net, org, according to the type of content
that is presented, and is planning to introduce some more.
Thus defined address of site is unique throughout the world. The award is
called the basic and main domain local ISP decides in consultation with the customer
along with relevant international association of leading Internet about taking care so
that each of them is unique in the world (no two are the same). Label domain and
main domain is an integral part of the labeling of other services offered by the server.
As the number of web pages is a huge phenomenon understandable growing
number of WWW pages with type catalogs, which over the content or accountable to
the inquiry, pointing to other web content. Those are web search engine that contain
the tools to search different databases, documents, databases, e-mails, files,
multimedia content, Web's, and more. This sought as 'Google' and 'Yahoo' really allow
efficient browsing the Internet, but also require a detailed knowledge of the principles
and rules with which they work. What you can not find the look you over 'Astalavista'

Electronic Mail (E-mail)

Service which is much earlier than the World Wide Web and has won hearts of
the users. The idea that in a few minutes you can deliver, text, image, audio or video
recording of any person on the planet was unfeasible until recently, but now, thanks
largely to the rapid expansion of the number of Internet users and the increasing speed
of communication, was to become reality of business and social communication.
Mainly used for the contents of up to 500 kB. Otherwise need to use the FTP service.
It is customary that the electronic address contains two parts separated by ' @ '
(<ALT> + <64>). The first part is usually the user selected a name, but it could be
anything else, any term. The second part is the name of a specific electronic ISP or a
local name from the list of network nodes that belong to its domain (DNS) server. For
example, for CARNet applies:

It is an abbreviated form for which the server CARNet 'name' is the code of the
person, or the name of the application server - USER_NAME or USE_ID, behind
which lies in content table with registered users in the system supporting server, real
name and surname of the ID belongs. The actual e-mail address along with the user
information and the name and location of the computer is:


T-Com Provider (ISP) for the city of Split in Croatia applies:


So something extended address, where is 'T-Com' core domain and 'st' subdomain, which indicates to the user is from the city of 'Split'. How are server systems
are mainly based on a Unix-like operating systems, and almost all the members of the
wide world of computer networks, the use of local graphemes in computer name and
domain name is not recommended. Indeed, local graphemes are not recommended
even when defining user_name, name and surname, nor in the messages to be sent as
well as to and content of the message, because it is doubtful that some 'handle'
interpret a server in America or Africa. So instead .. should be used CZS.., basic
ASCII characters. Local directories can contain local institution graphemes in the
names because they have international significance, but not advisable.

The cost of sending electronic letters to any multimedia attachment to any

Internet user, regardless of the distance is less secure than sending greetings for the
New Year traditional postal services, particularly if it is sent through the mailing-list.
Difficulties may arise if only the system administrator on the receiving side of the
transmit or introduce restrictive measures in respect of defense against unwanted
attachment types in an electronic letter for security needs.
In the business world, this type of communication is more prevalent. No more
waiting on the phone or fax machine to free selection signal or a sign of nervousness
on the calendar. This is irritating especially if the destination is no one to receive the
message. Such a user sends a message to his partner, an electronic mailbox that this
will sooner or later read and return the response.

News Groups
Service derived from e-mail, which allows the public debate on various issues.
As part of this service, it is possible to follow the discussion on any topic or even start
a new topic for discussion. Similar to the e-mail message is sent to all members of the
group, and everyone signed on the group read the message and optionally answer
them. Very practical and convenient to search for help in solving business problems.

Almost every Internet service provider offers this very interesting and useful

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

Before the World Wide Web and FTP was the only way to transfer large files
between computers of Internet users. Allows access to a computer on the Internet (if
it's public or available to the password), preview content on its hard disk, finding the
necessary files and copy on its own disk. This Internet service is not as simple as the
World Wide Web, but it is very useful.
Using program support for FTP will set about establishing communication
address is similar as in the previous examples:


File transfer function is increasingly taking the WWW, so that with a

confirmation copy selected files as needed and the auxiliary program with WWW
browser (GetRight or similar) which will take over the task of FTP transmission and
after stop using the browser.

IRC (Internet Relay Chat)

This service allows the Internet to one or more of Internet users who are
hooked to the same channel at the same time see the text that you type on your
computer, and the texts of other active users typing on his computer. Channels to 'talk'
to exist for almost all areas of interest. This system is much faster than e-mail because
it is conducted almost simultaneously send and read messages, but it is much more
expensive than e-mail, because it requires a long term connection with the Internet,
but only for those who pay for this service out of his own pocket.

Internet service that allows the user logs on and runs on a remote computer and
use programs installed on the remote computer. Of course, the remote computer must
be enabled in the user access rights to the computer. For security reasons this service
on many servers is not allowed. It is better to say that the Telnet 'Terminal Emulation'
software support, which to communicate with a computer connected via a TCP / IP
stack. Thus, the emulator work former unit called 'Terminal' (from the mainframe era).
This same role today better performed by programs that use SSH (Secure Shell)
connections over TCP / IP as the carrier of connection, but all traffic is encrypted.
Although this mechanism provides plenty of security in the work with the server,
system administrators are reluctant to make this service available to all users.

Voice / Video Communication - Skype

Internet networking service that allows users to voice / video communication.
This implies that the devices that use this service have built-in camera and
microphone. Although this service is usually used for that purpose, in addition to
communicate written messages, internet calls, sharing information and much more.
Can be used as a common telephone communications. This service is based on the
free program support allows free calls to anyone who has installed a 'Skype' program

support on his computer, anywhere in the world. Thanks to the high speed internet
communication has increasingly better quality. Can be achieved over a fixed PTT
communication lines or cell phones or send text messages at very reasonable prices,
without any special setup or subscriptions.
It should be emphasized that this is no communication between user devices
(phones), but between two user accounts registered on 'Skype' service which includes
registration, enter the user_name and password protected some basic personal
information. The user can later modify the information in their profiles as needed.
'Skype' has just developed that allows retrieval of user account and select the desired
action and can be installed on a PC with Windows, Mac or Linux operating system,
several kinds of mobile phones, and what is best to communicate between multiple
users in a commercial version it's the conference using the 'Skype Manager' program
support to be purchased. Provides for the use of TV sets in communication. So, a kind
of free video phone, which offers even extra specific services. With this program
support the new generation of smartphones and tablets, using the resources of the
existing SOHO infrastructure, 'calling' becomes really cheap. This service should not
be confused with VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) technology that allows the
transmission of voice communications over Internet networks for the purpose of
protocol design, that 'Skype' is used in the sense of some kind of Peer-to-Peer (P2P)
Something similar is service 'Viber' that allows free calls, SMS and MMS
share content with anyone, anywhere, but there is no ability to transfer video as
'Skype'. Similar to the above mentioned is service 'WhatsApp', multiple platform
mobile application to send messages in real time.

Social networks
Social networks are a newer phenomenon and do not belong in a separate
category because they contain almost all of the previously mentioned services, unified
to work in an easy, friendly way. Not only does it allow communication among users
but also represent a form of socializing. There are already quite developed FORUMS,
bulletin boards web version, which uses a technology exchange text via the web site,
or web sites. It is a debate on a topic initiated by a member of the forum. As a rule,
seek enrollment, mostly for free, using the application type USER_NAME
/ PASSWORD, typically associated with a user's address in the e-mail regarding the
identification. To service the forum is not abused in any way and to respect the rules
of acceptable behavior take care administrators - moderators appointed by the forum
owner of the forum members themselves who usually takes this obligation voluntarily

reported. These individuals may be excluded from membership and delete and delete
malicious content, basically supervise. Depending on the number of members, topic,
traffic, and the owner of the forum depends with how the server program to use the
Purpose of writing by arbitrarily selected topics has a BLOG (contraction of
the term 'web log'), a type of website that is usually maintained by an individual, is
organized much like a personaldiary with respect to input regarding the content of the
description of an event or topic, with the possibility of enriching the content and
graphics video. As a kind of diary of events, entered contests are usually displayed in
reverse chronological order. Usually allows readers can add here your comments on
the topic that is currently being processed..
One of the most popular is FACEBOOK, a social network where users can set
up their image, disclose your personal information, describe their interests, publish
their written and photographic pieces, develop some thematic discussions, etc. with
the possibility that any of the members receive in 'his 'group or a member of it off. A
sort of meeting place, so it is possible even to initiate effective political, protest,
humanitarian or some other action. Has a similar purpose, and TWITTER, social
networks and mikrobloging service, which uses instant messaging, SMS or web
content. There are also 'LinkedIn', 'Myspace', 'Tumblr', 'Instagram' and the other,
each with its own characteristics. What made them especially adorned with a
tremendously rapid dissemination of information, and misinformation. Thus, the
negative effects are possible.
Very specific Internet service YOUTUBE. Used to exchange video content
where users can upload, view and evaluate video, up to 'Full HD' resolution,
respecting copyrights. It is forbidden to support pornography, violence, crime,
embarrassment and defamation, and advertising. For your own protection YouTube
reserves the right to use, modify and delete content posted. In summary, one can find
all sorts of things, from useful to useless content, but also very funny and naughty and
critical to everyday events. Whether it is a film and music videos covering YouTube to
be a free medium for promoting a filmmaker, musician or politician and there have
been cases where people have gained popularity in this way, and then accepted by
traditional media such as newspapers, radio and television.
Essentially all of these are web applications that typically require enrollment to
confirm the response to the e-mail messages to prospective members. Registration is
usually type USER_NAME / PASSWORD or E-MAIL / PASSWORD, and the user
alone chooses who will be his personal data are visible in your profile settings. But for
one such network services server is usually insufficient. Caring for their functioning in

particular computers-servers; datacenter. The forerunner of the above was certainly

B.B.S. era of modem communications.

Search Engines
Already these social networks to enable retrieval of content that is stored and
monitored, but a special group of interconnected computer servers in a
DATACENTER and interconnected datacenters in a unique system. The basic idea is
that all registered facilities are located on one or more servers can be found in some
sort of elaborate directory by interest groups (sports, music, movies ...). For this
purpose, the contents should be reported to the owner who approves the inclusion of
datacenter facilities and reported its index. Advanced way of this is that all of the
reported content indexes and their keywords are ranked according to their relevance.
Through a simple form to enter the desired search term on the basis of which offers all
of the titles that describe the content of the list according to the achieved ranking. So,
basically it is a huge database that is constantly updated.
Almost every state has its own internal search engine, but the most interesting
are those international type as YAHOO!, GOOGLE and BING. Are listed in the order
they occurred, although they appear to their versions that preceded them, today its
possibilities are not even close. Course and apply them to the desired content
complying with the prescribed rules. Basically all are oriented to search HTML text or
the images, though some of their skills are recognized and other formats of documents
and index them. Currently qualified as a browser web content considered GOOGLE.
In addition to enabling the global search and local search free within declared site.
Algorithm correspondence of new titles, indexing and ranking their content daily in
construction, a mechanism for storing data and their storage is not reduced more on
copying disks themselves but to each other constantly copying content themselves
datacenter which has quite a few in the world, about forty. Seen from the perspective
described something of very great importance should be kept by them.

A free encyclopedia built collaboratively using wiki software (Creative
Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License). Wikipedia was founded in 2001 as a
project for the construction of encyclopedia, which is accessed via the Internet
(online), on the basis of free access and the creation of free content. Since then, it has
grown into the largest encyclopedia ever created, which includes more than five

million articles in the English language, and relies on the contribution of volunteers.
Although Wikipedia has achieved incredible success, there remains a lot of work in
progress. There are still large gaps in the coverage important themes with the
appropriate articles. Many articles, even those vital, is not yet considered as high
quality. It was established more than 200 editions in non-English languages, at the
local level where most missing volunteers. There are still many inconsistencies and a
lot of work that needs to be done about it.
Since articles generally not reviewed by the authorized institutions, it is very
questionable how much can be written in trust, in particular as regards the historical
events at the local level. Technical articles are mostly credible, but for other
questionable credibility. Essentially useful service, but the desired content should
always be carefully considered.

Web-Hosting (DATACENTER)
No long that it is the development of technology, high-speed computers and
Internet connections, provided that the user can purchase a server in a datacenter, who
cares about the correctness of the service provider, and in which the user via FTP
Service set up your web content (web hosting). Of course the service is paid, but in
the age of virtualization computing platforms becoming cheaper and more accessible
with very reasonable prices. What set the servers and as a server lease depends on the
users. This requires the lease currently available domain names and headquarters
facilities in which servers become recognizable. 'IT Alphabet' uses just one of them
and has been reported in the previously mentioned search engines. The basic
difference with the search engines is that in thesedatacenter care about the content
(data) leads users, the concern for the safety of equipment and access to available web
content leading provider of these services. Impressive is the concept of 'Google
container data center' that uses Google.
Electronic versions of NEWSPAPERS and PERIODICALS is also one of the
most important services. Main service is not fully available, in addition to the
subscription, which is often not expensive and allows access to archived editions.
Similar is with the offer of books and multimedia content. In addition to this
specialized sites (PORTAL) offers a variety of facilities, from the amendments set out
TV content, educational facilities, entertainment facilities to the content. The
variety is so great that it is very difficult to share content in a few categories. The
above is fundamentally changing habits of users, especially the growing popularity
of tablets, which are becoming, for example, an free integral part of restaurants
offering. With the morning coffee not to use a paper version of the newspaper rather

than a tablet. From the above it is clear why the quality of the program for viewing
Internet content (browser) is given more prominence.
What has set up 'Google' with its 'Android' platform, and skillfully used
'Facebook' and others, and is the basis of working at recent 'Windows' operating
systems - data storage in one location (OneDrive storage), more correctly data centers
that are continuously interconnected copy and synchronize data and presented to the
user as a single group - CLOUD, somewhere on the Internet, a trend that is
increasingly spreading to enable the user to use their data anywhere and anytime, even
with different platforms (PC, Tablet , Mobile ...). To preserve the privacy of the user
traffic to the cloud must be encrypted, so if security required and the data itself is
encrypted. On this principle, essentially functioning banks and public institutions that
offer customers a variety of services; bill payment, payment processing, issuing
various documents and the like.
As usual, the service should be paid, under the principle of 'How much money
- so much music.', But the services that are beneficial to the general welfare generally
are not charged.
Internet Services allows us to access huge amount of information such as
text, graphics, sound and software over the internet. Following diagram
shows the four different categories of Internet Services.

Communication Services
There are various Communication Services available that offer exchange of
information with individuals or groups. The following table gives a brief
introduction to these services:

Service Description

Electronic Mail
Used to send electronic message over the internet.
Used to log on to a remote computer that is attached to internet.
Offers a forum for people to discuss topics of common interests.
Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
Allows the people from all over the world to communicate in real time.
Mailing Lists

Used to organize group of internet users to share common information

through e-mail.
Internet Telephony (VoIP)

Allows the internet users to talk across internet to any PC equipped to receive
the call.
Instant Messaging

Offers real time chat between individuals and group of people. Eg. Yahoo
messenger, MSN messenger.

Information Retrieval Services

There exist several Information retrieval services offering easy access to
information present on the internet. The following table gives a brief
introduction to these services:

Service Description

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

Enable the users to transfer files.


Its updated database of public FTP sites and their content. It helps to search
a file by its name.

Used to search, retrieve, and display documents on remote sites.
Very Easy Rodent Oriented Netwide Index to Computer Achieved

VERONICA is gopher based resource. It allows access to the information
resource stored on gophers servers.

Web Services
Web services allow exchange of information between applications on the
web. Using web services, applications can easily interact with each other.
The web services are offered using concept of Utility Computing.

World Wide Web (WWW)

WWW is also known as W3. It offers a way to access documents spread
over the several servers over the internet. These documents may contain
texts, graphics, audio, video, hyperlinks. The hyperlinks allow the users to
navigate between the documents.

Video Conferencing
Video conferencing or Video teleconferencing is a method of communicating
by two-way video and audio transmission with help of telecommunication

Modes of Video Conferencing


This mode of conferencing connects two locations only.


This mode of conferencing connects more than two locations through Multipoint Control Unit (MCU).