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Engineering Physics

In the case of coherent waves, combine amplitudes vectorially and square the resulting amplitude

to obtain a quantity proportional to Luminous Intensity.

In the case of incoherent waves, square the individual amplitudes to obtain quantity proportional

to individual intensity and add the individual intensities.

1.5 INTENSITY IN YOUNG'S DOUBLE SLIT EXPERIMENT

We know that light wave is electromagnetic in nature and is represented by electric and magnetic field

vectors ( E and B ). Let us assume that the electric field components of the two waves from slits S 1 and

S 2 vary with time at point P (Fig. 1.7) as

 E 1 = E o sin t (1.4) and E 2 E o sin t + ) = (1.5)

where is the angular frequency and is equal to 2 and is the phase difference between the two

waves which depends on location of P which is described by .

E o is the initial amplitude.

Let us assume that the slits are narrow (a < < ) and illuminates the central portion uniformly.

But the resultant wave disturbance at P on the screen is found and is given by

E = E

1

+ E

2

, and using eqns. (1.4) and (1.5), we have

=

E o sin t + E o sin ( t + )

= E o [sin t + sin ( t +

Fig. 1.7

  B

cos

+

C

  cos  

C

t

+ φ − ω

t

Using the trigonometric relation, sin B + sin C = 2 sin

E =

E o

2

ω

sin

t

+ ω

t

+ φ 

2

 ω

2

2

2

we have

Wave Optics

7

= 2 E o [sin ( t + cos

2E o cos /2 sin /2)

(put = and 2 E o = E m

)

= E m cos sin ( t + )

E

E

θ

sin (ω

t

+ β)

E = E m cos

E o cos

where is the amplitude of resultant wave disturbance which determines the I of interference fringes.

E m is the maximum possible amplitude.

We knew in the case of coherent waves, the intensity is proportional to square of the amplitude

i.e., I E 2 where E is the electric field strength.

If I is the intensity of resultant wave at P and I o is the intensity that a single wave acting alone

would produce, then

I

E 2

and

I E o

2

I

θ

=

kE

2

θ

I

o

=

2

kE

θ

or

E

I

θ

=   

θ

I

o

E

o

2

  

(or)

(or)

I

θ

I

o

= (2 cos from equation (1.6)

= 4 cos 2

I =

4

I

o

cos

2

β

I = I m cos 2

...

(1.7)

To compute I as a function of we substitute φ value in terms of from the relation

Phase difference Path difference (eqn. 1.3)

 i.e., or =

  2 π    λ

d sin

φ

=

π d sin

λ

...

(1.9)

The intensity pattern for the double slit interference is shown in the Fig. 1.8.

Fig. 1.8 Energy distribution in Young’s experiment.

8

1.6 BIPRISM - FRINGEWIDTH

Engineering Physics

After Young’s double slit experiment, objection was raised that the bright fringes may be due to some

modification of the light by the edges of the slits and not true interference. Thus wave theory of light

was still questioned.

Fresnel brought forward several new experiments in which the interference of two beams of light

was proved. One of them is the Fresnel bi-prism experiment.

The arrangement is as shown in the Figure 1.9. The bi-Prism consists of two prisms attached

back to back. The angle at the edges of the bi-prism is of the order of 30' and the other angle in the bi-

prism is of the order of 179º. If a monochromatic source is placed in front of the bi-prism, the light

spreads out in the form of two beams which superimpose one over the other. Here the interference

condition has been fulfilled. The two beams looks like originating from the imaginary source positions

S 1 and S 2 . The location of S 1 and S 2 can be obtained by extending the two beam backwards. These are

the two virtual images of the source S and act as two slit sources in Young’s double slit experiment and

produce stationary interference pattern.

If x is the distance between successive fringes and d is the distance between S 1 and S 2 , then the

wavelength value can be obtained from the equation.

∆ x d
d
=
=
∆ x
...
(1.10)
a
+
c
D

Fig. 1.9 A Typical biprism arrangement.

Fig. 1.10 Determination of slit separation ( d).

Wave Optics

9

The distances d and D can easily be determined by placing a convex lens between the biprism and

the screen/eyepiece. For a fixed position of the eyepiece, there will be two positions of the lens

(L 1 or L 2 ) where the images S 1 and S 2 can be seen at the eyepiece. Let d 1 be the distance between the

two images where the lens is at L 1 (b 1 from eyepiece to L 1 ). Similarly d 2 × b 2 for L 2 position of the

lens.

 d = d d 1 2 and D = b 1 + b 2

= a + c = distance from source to screen or eyepiece.

Interference in Thin Films - Reflected Light

Fig. 1.11 Interference in thin films.

Let XY and X'Y' be the two surfaces of a transparent film of uniform thickness t and refractive

index µ as shown in figure 1.11. Suppose S is a monochromatic source of light. Suppose a ray SA is

incident on the upper surface XY at an angle i . This ray is partly reflected along AR and refracted along

AB at an angle r. At B it is incident at angle r. Here it undergoes reflection along BC at an angle r and

refraction along BT at an angle i . At C also it undergoes refraction along CR 1 and reflection along CD.

This process will continue for a number of times until the intensity becomes very very small. The rays

BR and CR 1 are derived from the same ray SA and travel in the same direction they interfere. To find

out the effective path difference between the rays AR and CR 1 draw a normal CE on AR and normal

AF on BC. Produce the normal at A and the ray CB in the backward direction until they meet. Suppose

they meet at Q. From the geometry of the figure, ACE = i and CAF = r . The optical path difference

between the two reflected light rays ( AR and CR 1 ) is given by

= Path ( AB + BC) in film; Path AE in air

= µ ( AB + BC) – AE

...

(1.11)

10

From triangles ACE and ACF we know that

µ

= sin i/sin r = AE/AC CF/AC = AE/ CF

Engineering Physics

 AE = µ CF ... (1.12) From equations (1.11) and (1.12), we can write µ (AB + BC) – µ (CF ) = µ (AB + BF + FC) – µ (CF) = µ ( AB + BF) = µ (QF ) ... (1.13) From triangle AQF , cos r = QF/AQ or QF = AQ cos r = 2t = cos r ... (1.14) (Since AQ = AP + PQ = t + t = 2t) Substituting the value of QE from equation (1.14) in equation (1.13), we have = µ × 2t cos r = 2 µ t cos r ... (1.15)

It should be remembered that a ray reflected at a surface backed by a denser medium suffers an

abrupt phase change of which is equivalent to a path difference /2.

Thus the effective path difference between the two reflected rays is (2 µ t cos r ± 2).

We know that maxima occur when effective path difference = n

For interference maximum 2 µ t cos r ± 2 = n

 Or 2 µ t cos r = (2 n ± 1) 2 ... (1.16) If this condition is fulfilled, the film will appear bright in the reflected light. The minima occur when the effective path difference is (2n ±1) 2 i.e., 2 µ t cos r ± /2 = (2n ±) /2 or 2 µ t cos r = (2 n ± 1) /2 ± /2 = n (1.17) because (n + 1) or (n – 1) can also be taken as integer. Here n = 1, 2, 3 ... etc.

When this condition is fulfilled the film will appear dark in the reflected light.

Looking at the same point as we move our eye the angle of incidence and the corresponding angle

of refraction changes. Therefore the conditions of maxima and minima are changed alternately. Hence

we observe a number of bright and dark regions.

Keeping the eye fixed if we change the point of observation then also we observe bright and dark

regions. If the film is illuminated with white light, the maxima of different colours are observed at

different angles. Hence the film appears coloured.

1.7 NEWTON’S RINGS

When a plano-convex lens with its convex surface is placed on a plane glass plate, an air film of

gradually increasing thickness is formed between the two. The thickness of the film at the point of

contact is zero. If monochromatic light is allowed to fall normally, and the film is viewed in reflected

light, alternate dark and bright rings concentric around the point of contact between the lens and glass

plates are seen.

Experimental Arrangement

The experimental arrangement of obtaining Newton's rings is shown in figure. L is a plano convex lens

of large radius of curvature. This lens with its convex surface is placed on a plane glass plate G. The

lens makes contact with the plate at O. Light from an extended monochromatic source such as sodium

Wave Optics

11

lamp falls on a glass plate G' held at an angle 45° with the horizontal. The glass plate G' reflects a part

of the incident light towards the air film enclosed by the lens L and the glass plate G. A part of the

incident light is reflected by the curved surface of the lens L and a part is transmitted which is reflected

back from the plane surface of the plate. These two reflected rays interfere and give rise to an interference

pattern in the form of circular rings. These rings are localised in the air film, and can be seen with a

microscope focussed on the film.

Fig. 1.12a Newton’s rings apparatus.

Fig. 1.12b

Fig. 1.12c Plano-convex lens.

Explanation of the Formation of Newton’s Rings

Newton’s rings are formed due to interference between the waves reflected from the top and bottom

surfaces of the air film formed between the plates. The formation of Newton’s rings can be explained

with the help of the Fig. 1.12c. AB is a monochromatic ray of light, which falls on the system. A part

is reflected at B (glass-air boundary) which goes out in the form of ray R 1 without any phase reversal.

The other part is refracted along BC. At point C it is again reflected and goes out in the form of ray R 2

with a phase reversal of . The reflected rays R 1 and R 2 are in a position to produce interference fringes

as they have been derived from the same ray AB and hence fulfill the condition of interference. As the

rings are observed in the reflected light, the path difference between them is (2µt cos r + /2). For air

film µ = 1 and for normal incidence r = 0. Hence in this case, path difference is (2 t + /2). At the point

of contact t = 0, and the path difference is /2, which is the condition of minimum intensity. Thus the

central spot is dark.

For nth maximum, we have

2 t + /2

= n

This expression shows that a maximum of a particular order will occur for a constant value of t.

In this system, ‘ t’ remains constant along a circle Thus the maximum is in the form of a circle. For

different value of ‘t’, different maxima will occur. Hence we get a number of concentric bright circular

rings. In a similar way, this can be shown that minima are also in the circular form.

12

Theory : Newton’s Rings by Reflected Light

Engineering Physics

Now we shall calculate the diameters of dark and bright rings. Let LOL' be the lens placed on a glass

plate G. The curved surface LOL' is the part of spherical surface with centre at C. Let R be the radius

of curvature and r be the radius of nth bright ring corresponding to the constant film of thickness t. As

discussed above,

 2 t + /2 = n Or 2 t = (2 n – 1) /2 for the bright ring where n = 1, 2, 3, etc. For the property of the circle EP × PF = PQ × PQ Substituting the values r × r = t × (2R – t) = 2Rt – t 2 2Rt (approximately) r 2 = 2 R t or t = r 2 /2 R. Thus for a bright ring 2r 2 /2 R = (2 n – 1) /2 ( 2n − 1)λ R or r 2 = 2 Replacing r by D/2, we get the diameter of nth bright ring as D Dn 2 = 2(2n – 1) R 2 (2n − 1)λ R or 4 = 2 or D = or D 2λR (2 n − 1) ∝ A (2 n − 1)

Thus the diameters of the bright rings are proportional to the square roots of odd natural numbers

as (2n –1) is an odd number.

This shows that the difference in the squares of the diameters of the rings is constant.

Similarly for a dark ring

or

or

or

2r 2 /2r = n R

D 2
= 4 n R
D = 2
nλ R ∝
n

Thus diameters of dark rings are proportional to the square roots of natural numbers.

If D m and D n are the diameters of the mth and the nth rings we have

2

D

m

2

D

n

= 4(m n)λR

This shows that the difference in the squares of the diameters of the rings is constant.

Wave Optics

13

1.8 DETERMINATION OF WAVELENGTH OF SODIUM LIGHT USING NEWTON'S RING

Experimental Arrangement

The experimental arrangement of obtaining Newton's rings is shown in the Fig. 1.12. L is a plano

convex lens of large radius of curvature placed with its convex surface on a plane glass plate P. The lens

makes contact with the plate at O. Light from an extended monochromatic source such as sodium lamp

falls on at glass plate G' held at an angle 45° with the horizontal. The glass plate G' reflects a part of the

incident light towards the air film enclosed by the lens L and the glass plate P. A part of the incident

light is reflected by the curved surface of the lens L and a part is transmitted which is reflected back

from the plane surface of the plate. These two reflected rays interfere and give rise to an interference

pattern in the form of circular rings. These rings are localised in the air film, and can be seen with a

microscope focussed on the film.

Procedure

First of all the eyepiece of the microscope is adjusted on its crosswires. Now the distance of the

microscope from the film is adjusted such that the rings with dark centre are in focus.

The centre of the crosswires is adjusted at the centre of the rings pattern. The microscope is

moved to the extreme left of the pattern and the crosswire is adjusted tangentially in the middle of a

clearly nth bright or dark ring. The reading of micrometer screw is noted. The microscope is now

moved to the right and the reading of micrometer screw are noted at successive rings etc., till we are

very near to the central dark spot.

Again crossing the central dark spot in the same direction, the readings corresponding to successive

rings are noted on other side. Now a graph is plotted between number of rings n and the square of the

corresponding diameter. The graph is shown in Fig. 1.13. If D m and D n are the diameters of the m th and

n th rings and R is the radius of curvature of curved surface of the lens the wavelength of the sodium

light is given by

D 2

2
2
D
D
Slope
m
n
=
=
4(
m
n R
)
4
R
S lope

n

Fig. 1.13

14

Engineering Physics

The radius R of the plano-convex lens can be obtained with the help of spherometer using the

following formula R =

l 2

h

+

6

h

2

.

Here l is the distance between the two legs of the spherometer and h is

the difference of the readings of the spherometer when it is placed on the lens as well as when placed

on lens surface.

Let R be the radius of curvature of the surface in contact with the plate, the wavelength of light

used and D m and D n be the diameters of mth and nth bright rings respectively, then

 and or D or

2

m

 D 2 = 2(2 m – 1) R m 2 = 2(2 n – 1) R D n 2 = 4 ( m – n) R – D n = D 2 – D 2 / 4(m – n)R (1.18) m n

Using this formula, can be determined.

To find the refractive index of a liquid, it is introduced between the lens and glass plate and the

experiment is repeated as before. If D' m and D' n are the diameters of mth and nth rings in liquid then the

refractive index µ can be calculated using µ =

2

D

m

2

D

n

'

D

2

m

'

D

2

n

.

...

(1.19)

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

• 1. A thin sheet of plastic of refractive index 1.6 is placed in the path of one of the interfering beams in Young’s experiment using light of wavelength 5890 Å. If the central fringe shifts through 12 fringes, calculate the thickness of the sheet.

Solution: Given Data

= 5890 × 10 8 cm

refractive index (µ) = 1.6

order of the fringe ( m) = 12

optical path of beam with plastic sheet = x t + µt

and the path of another beam

path difference

= x

= x t + nt x

= (µ – 1) t = n

=

( µ 1)t

m

or

for maxima

(OU, 2003)

Wave Optics

t =

λ n

(µ − 1)

=

λ × 12

(1.6

1)

= 1178 ×10 8 cm.

=

5890

×

10

8

×

12

0.6

15

• 2. The path of one of the interfering beams in biprism experiment, a thin sheet of mica of refractive index 1.55 is placed. A light of wavelength 5893 Å is incident on it. Calculate the thickness of the sheet if the central fringe shifts through 10 fringes.

Solution: Given Data

= 5893 × 10 8 cm

(OU, 2000)

refractive index (n) = 1.55

order of the fringe (m) = 10

optical path of beam with plastic sheet = x t + µt

and the path of another beam = x

path difference is = x t + µt x

= (µ – 1) t = n

t =

nλ

(µ − 1)

=

10

×

5893

×

10

8

5893

×

10 7

=

1.55

1

0.55

t = 1071.45 × 10 8 cm.

• 3. In double slit arrangement, a strong green light of wavelength 5460 Å is used. The slits are 0.01 cm apart and the screen is placed 20 cm away. What is the angular position of the first minima?

Solution: Given Data

For first minimum n = 0 and

distance between slits (d) = 0.01 cm.

wavelength of light ( ) = 5460 × 10 8 cm.

The condition for minima is d sin =

or

sin =

  n

+

1

 

λ

.

2

d

  n +

1

2

 

.

λ

=

0

+

1

5460

×

10

8

2

0.01

= 0.0027

Since when is very small, sin

= 0.0027 radians

= 0.16

16

Engineering Physics

• 4. A parallel beam of light ( = 5890 × 10 8 cm) is incident on plate ( = 1.5) such that the angle of refraction into the plate is 60°. Calculate the smallest thickness of the glass plate, which will appear dark by reflection.

 Given that = 1.5, r = 60°, cos 60° = 0.5 n = 1, = 5890 × 10 –8 cm

Applying 2µ t cos r = n

We get t =

n λ

1

×

5890

×

10

8

2µ cos r

=

2

×

1.5

×

0.5

The minimum thickness of the film

t = 4.207 × 10 5 cm

• 5. A soap film 4 × 10 5 cm thick is viewed at an angle of 35° to the normal. Find the wavelengths of light in the visible spectrum which will be absent from the reflected light ( = 1.33).

Let i be angle of incidence and r the angle of refraction

 Give that sin i Applying µ = sin r We get Apply the relation ( i )
 i = 35° and µ = 1.33, sin 35° or 1.33 = sin r r = 25.55° and cos r = 0.90 2 µ t cos r = n

and taking t = 4 × 10 5 cm

For the first order, n = 1

r = ?

= 2 × 1.33 × 4 × 10 5 × 0.90

= 9058 × 10 5 cm

which lies in the infra-red (invisible) region.

( ii ) For the second order, n = 2

2 2 = 2 × 1.33 × 4 × 10 5 × 0.90

2 = 4.79 × 10 5 cm

which lies in visible region.

(iii )

Similarly, taking n = 3

3 = 3.19 × 10 5 cm

which also lies in the ultraviolet range.

Hence, absent wavelength in the reflected light is 4.79 × 10 5 cm

• 6. A parallel beam of light ( = 5890 Å) is incident on a thin glass plate ( = 1.5) such that the angle of refraction is 60°. Calculate the smallest thickness of the plate which will appear dark by reflection. Given that µ = 1.5 and r = 60°; cos 60° = 0.5, = 5890 Å or = 5890 × 10 10 m For minimum thickness n = 1 Applying 2µ t cos r = n We have

n λ

t =

2µ cos r

 Wave Optics 1 × 5890 × 10 − 10 17 t = 2 × 1.5 × 0.5 t = 3926 × 10 –10 m t = 3.926 × 10 –4 mm 7. A soap film of refractive index 1.33 is illuminated with light of different wavelengths at an angle of 45°. There is complete destructive interference for = 5890 Å. Find the thickness of the film. Given that = 1.33 r = 45° cos 45° = 0.707 = 5890 Å = 5890 × 10 –10 m n = 1 ; t = ? Applying 2µt cos r = n n λ Thickness of the film t = 2µ cos r 1 × 5890 × 10 − 10 t = 2 × 1.33 × 0.707 t = 3.132 × 10 –7 m t = 3.132 × 10 –4 mm
• 8. A thin film of soap solution is illuminated by white light at an angle of incidence, i = sin 1

  4  

5

. In reflected light, two dark consecutive overlapping fringes are observed

4

corresponding to wavelengths 5.1 × 10 7 m and 5.0 × 10 7 m. for the soap solution is 3 .

Calculate the thickness of the film.

 Here n 1 = (n + 1) 2 n(5.1 × 10 –7 ) = (n + 1) × 5 × 10 –7 n = 50 4 sin i = 5 4 sin i µ = 3 = sin r sin r = sin i = 4 / 5 = 0.6 µ 4 / 3 cos r = [1 − sin 2 r ] 1 / 2 = 0.8

18

Apply 2µt cos r

= n 1

We have t

=

n λ

1

50

×

5.1

×

10

7

=

2

µ

cos r

2

×

(4 / 3)0.8

The minimum thickness of the film t = 1.2 × 10 5 m

Engineering Physics

• 9. In Newton’s rings experiment, what will be the order of the dark ring which will have double the diameter of that of 20 th dark ring. The wavelength of incident light is 5890 Å.

Solution: Given Data

order of dark ring n 2 = 20

wavelength ( ) = 5890 × 10 8 cm

We know that the radius of the ring is given by ‘r ’.

 r = λ × R × m or Diameter ( d) = 2r = 2 λ Rm or D 2 = 4 Rm 2 = 4 R × n 1 D 1 and D 2 = 4 R × n 2 = 4 R × 20 2 = 80 R Given that : D 1 = 2D 2 (or) D 2 4 D 2 On substituting we have 2 = 2 4 Rn 1 = 4 × 80 × R n 1 = 80

(OU, 1999)

...

(1)

• 10. In Newton ring’s experiment, the diameter of the 5 th and 15 th rings respectively was 0.336 cm and 0.590 cm. If the wavelength of light is 5890 Å. Find the radius of curvature of lens surface in contact with plane glass plate.

Solution: Given data

D m = D 15 = 0.590 cm

D n = D 5 = 0.336 cm

= 5890 × 10 8 cm

m = 15

n = 5

We know that in the Newton’s rings experiment (R)

 D 2 m 2 D n − R = 4 λ ( m − n ) (0.590) 2 − = 4 × 5890 × = 99.8 cm
 2 D 15 − D 2 5 = 4 λ (10) (0.336) 2 10 − 8 × 10

(OU, 2000)

Wave Optics

19

• 11. Newton’s ring arrangement is used with a source emitting two wavelengths 1 = 6000 Å and 2 = 4500 Å and it is found that the n th dark ring due to 1 coincides with (n + 1) th dark ring for 2 . Find the diameter of n th dark ring of 1 if the radius of curvature of the lens R = 90 cm.

Solution: Given data

Wavelength 1 = 6000 × 10 8 cm

2 = 4500 × 10 8 cm

radius of curvature R = 90 cm

(OU, 2002)

Let d n be the diameter of n th ring corresponding to wavelength 1 , then diameter of

(n + 1)th dark ring corresponding to wavelength 2 will also be d n

d

2 = 4

n

n

λ

1

R

...

(1)

and

Dividing eq. (2) by (1)

d

2

n

= 4(

n

+ 1)λ

2

R

...

(2)

 n + 1 λ 1 6000 × 10 − 8 = = n λ 2 4500 × 10 − 8 1 + 1 = 60 n 45 1 60 − 1 15 1 = = = n 45 45 3 n = 3. Putting the value of n in eq. (1) d 2 = 4 × 3 × 6000 × 10 –8 × 90 n d n = 0.2545 cm 12. Newton’s rings are observed in reflected light of wavelength 5900 Å. The diameter of 10 th dark ring is 0.50 cm. Find the radius of curvature of the lens and the thickness of the air film. (OU 2001, 2003)

Solution: Given data

Wavelength of light ( ) = 5900 × 10 8 cm

Diameter of the m th ring (D 10 ) = 0.50 cm

Say, Diameter of the n th ring (D o ) = 0

Therefore radius of curvature (R), R =

2

D

m

D

2

n

4

λ

(

m

n

)

=

D

2

m

4λ m

R =

0.50

×

0.50

4

×

5900

×

10

8

×

10

0.25

=

4

×

59

×

10

5

25

=

4

×

59

×

10

3

= 105.96 cm.

R = 105.93 cms.

20

Engineering Physics

• 13. Newton’s rings are formed with reflected light of wavelength 5.895 × 10 5 cm. with a liquid between the plane and the curved surface. The diameter of the 5 th dark ring is 0.3 cm and the radius of curvature of the curved surface is 1 metre. Calculate the refractive index of the liquid.

Solution: Wavelength of light ( ) = 5.895 × 10 5 cm

Diameter of 5 th dark ring D 5 = 0.3 cm

Radius of curvature R = 1m = 100 cm

For the ring system to be dark, we have

d n 2 µ

4 R

= n

4 Rnλ

µ =

d

2

n

=

4

×

100

×

5

×

5.895

×

10

5

0.3

×

0.3

= 1310 ×10 5+2

= 1.31

Refractive index of liquid is 1.31

• 14. In Newton’s rings experiment the diameter of 10 th ring changes from 1.40 cm to 1.20 cm when a liquid is introduced between the lens and the plate. Calculate the refractive index of the liquid. For liquid medium

2

D

1

=

4

nλ R

µ

...

(

i )

For air medium

D

2

2

= 4n R

Divide ( ii) by ( i)

µ =

D

2

D

1

2

Here D 1 = 1.20 cm, D 2 = 1.40 cm

...

( ii)

15.

=

2

1.40

1.20

= 1.361

In a Newton’s rings arrangement, if a drop of water (µ = 4/3) is placed in between the lens

and the plate, diameter of the 10 th ring is found to be 0.5 cm. Obtain the radius of curvature

of the face of the lens in contact with the plate. The wavelength of light used is 6000 Å.

Here

2

D

n

4nλR

=

µ

or R =

µ

D

2

n

4

n λ

µ

=

4

3

,

D

n

= 0.5 cm

n = 10,

= 6000 Å = 6 × 10 5 cm

R

= ?

 Wave Optics 4 × (0.5) 2 21 R = 3 × 4 × 10 × 6 × 10 − 5 = 139 cm
• 16. Newton’s rings are formed by reflected light of wavelength 5895 Å with a liquid between the plane and curved surface. It the diameter of the 6 th bright ring is 3 mm and the radius of curvature of the curved surface is 100 cm, calculate the reflective index of the liquid. Here, for the nth bright ring,

 3 Given that n = 6, = 5895 × 10 –8 cm, R = 100 cm, r = 2 mm = 0.15 cm To find µ = ? (2 n − 1) λ R Applying µ = 2 r 2 , we get (2 × 6 − 1) × 5895 × 10 − 8 × 100 µ = 2(0.15) 2 µ = 1.441
• 17. In a Newton’s rings experiment the diameter of the 15 th ring was found to be 0.590 cm and that of the 5 th ring was 0.336 cm. If the radius of the plano–convex lens is 100 cm, calculate the wavelength of light used.

Here

D 5

= 0.336 cm = 33.6 × 10 3 m

D 15

= 0.590 cm = 5.90 × 10 3 m

R

= 100 cm = 1m, = ?

 ( D ) 2 D 2 D 2 D 15 − 2 n + m − n 5 = = 4 mR 4 × 10 × R (5.9 × 10 − 3 ) 2 − (3.36 × 10 − 3 ) 2 = 4 × 10 × R = 5.880 × 10 –7 m = 5880 Å
• 18. In a Newton’s rings experiment the diameter of the 12 th ring changes from 1.50 cm to 1.30 cm when a liquid is introduced between the lens and the plate. Calculate the refractive index of the liquid.

 Given that D 1 D 2 For air medium 2 D 1

= 1.50 cm

= 1.30 cm

= 4n R

...

( i )

22

For liquid medium

Dividing (i ) by (ii)

D

2

2

4 nλ R

=

µ

µ

=

D

1

D

2

2

µ

=

2

1.50

1.30

,

= 1.331

Engineering Physics

...

( ii )

• 19. Newton’s rings are observed in reflected light of = 5.9 × 10 5 cm. The diameter of the

10 th dark ring is 0.52 cm. Find the radius of curvature of the lens and the thickness of the air

film.

Given that

= 5.9 × 10 5 cm = 5.9 × 10 7 m

n

Radius of the ring r

R

t

 = 10 = 5.2 × 10 –3 m (5.2 × 10 − 3 ) 2 = 10 × 5.9 × 10 − 7 = n nλ = 2 10 × 5.9 × 10 − 7 = 2 = 2.95 × 10 –6 m

Apply r 2 = n R

We get

( ii )

Thickness of the air film = t

2t

t

EXERCISE PROBLEMS

• 1. In Newton’s ring experiment, diameter of the 5 th ring is 0.336 cm and that of the 15 th ring is 0.590 cm. Find the radius of curvature of the plano-convex lens if the wavelength of light used is 5890 Å.

• 2. Light of wavelength 6 × 10 5 cm falls on a screen at a distance of 100 cm from a narrow slit. Find the width of the slit if the first minimum lie 1mm on either side of the central maxima.

• 3. The diffraction maxima due to single slit diffraction is at = 30° for a light of wavelength 5000 Å. Find the width of the slit.

Wave Optics

23

• 4. Monochromatic light of wavelength 6.56 × 10 5 cm falls normally on a grating 2 cm wide; the first order spectrum is produced at an angle of 18° 14' from the normal. What is the total number of lines on the grating.

• 5. Newton’s rings are observed in reflected light of wavelength 5900 Å. The diameter of 10 th dark ring is 0.50 cm. Find the radius of curvature of the lens and the thickness of the air film.

• 6. Green light of wavelength 5100 Å from narrow slit is incident on a double slit if the overall separation of 10 fringes on a screen 200 cm away is 2 cm. Find the slit separation.

• 7. A biprism is placed at a distance of 5 cm in front of a narrow slit and is illuminated by sodium light of wavelength 5890 Å. The distance between the virtual sources is found to be 0.05 cm. Find the width of the fringes observed in a light eyepiece placed at 75 cm from the biprism.

• 8. Newton’s rings are observed in a reflected light of wavelength 6000 Å. The diameter of 15 th dark ring is 7 mm. Find the radius of curvature of the lens.

• 9. Find the ratio of intensity at the center of a bright fringe to the intensity at a point 1/4 th of the distance two fringes from the center.

• 10. In Newton’s rings experiment, the diameter of 10 th ring changes from 1.5 to 1.3 cm when a liquid is introduced between the lens and the plane. Calculate the refractive index of the liquid.

• 11. In Young’s double slit experiment two parallel slits 1 mm apart are illuminated by monochromatic light. If the width is 0.50 mm and the screen is held at a distance of 80 cm from the slits, what is the wavelength of light?

• 12. In Newton’s rings experiment the diameter of 5 th and 15 th rings are 0.336 and 0.590 cm respectively. If the wavelength of light is 5896 Å, find the radius of curvature.

• 13. A thin film 4 × 10 5 thick is illuminated by white light normal to its surface. Its refractive index is 1.5. What wavelength within the visible spectrum will be intensified in the reflected beam?

• 14. White light falls normally on a film of soapy water whose thickness is 5 × 10 5 cm and refractive index is 1.33. Which wavelength in the visible region will be reflected more strongly?

• 15. Newton's rings are formed with reflected light of wavelength 5895 Å with a liquid between the plane and the curved surface. The diameter of the 5 th dark ring is 0.3 cm and the radius of curvature of the curved surface is 100 cm. Calculate the refractive index of the liquid.

• 16. A thin parallel liquid film of refractive index 1.28 and thickness 0.48 µm is illustrated by visible light and observed at an angle of 35°. Determine the wavelengths(s) which are absent in reflected light.

• 17. In Newton’s rings experiment, the wavelength of light used is 600 nm and radius of curvature of lens is 1 m. Determine the diameter of the tenth dark ring.

• 18. In Newton’s rings pattern, the diameter of a certain ring is 0.38 cm. A liquid of refractive index 1.38 is introduced between the glass plate and the lens in the same set up. Determine the diameter of the same ring.

24

Engineering Physics

• 19. In Newton’s rings pattern, the diameter of the fifth ring is 0.3 cm and that of the tenth ring is 0.5 cm. Wavelength of light used is 589 nm. Determine the radius of curvature of the lens.

• 20. Newton’s rings are observed in reflected light of wavelength 589 nm with the liquid film formed between plane glass plate and a plano-convex lens. The diameter of 9 th bright ring is

105 cm. Determine the refractive index of the liquid.

QUESTIONS
• 1. Explain constructive and destructive interference. Explain in detail Young's double slit experiment.

• 2. Discuss the necessary theory of interference in thin films.

• 3. Discuss the formation of Newton’s rings and calculate their diameters. How do you determine the wavelength of monochromatic light using Newton’s rings ?

• 4. What is interference of light ? Deduce the conditions for maxima and minima of interference fringes formed by thin films.