6
Engineering Physics
In the case of coherent waves, combine amplitudes vectorially and square the resulting amplitude
to obtain a quantity proportional to Luminous Intensity.
In the case of incoherent waves, square the individual amplitudes to obtain quantity proportional
to individual intensity and add the individual intensities.
1.5 INTENSITY IN YOUNG'S DOUBLE SLIT EXPERIMENT
We know that light wave is electromagnetic in nature and is represented by electric and magnetic field
vectors ( _{E} and _{B} ). Let us assume that the electric field components of the two waves from slits S _{1} and
S _{2} vary with time at point P (Fig. 1.7) as


E 

(1.4) 



and 
E 
= 
(1.5) 
where is the angular frequency and is equal to 2 and is the phase difference between the two
waves which depends on location of P which is described by .
E _{o} is the initial amplitude.
Let us assume that the slits are narrow (a < < ) and illuminates the central portion uniformly.
But the resultant wave disturbance at P on the screen is found and is given by
E = E
1
+ E
2
, and using eqns. (1.4) and (1.5), we have
=
E _{o} sin t + E _{o} sin ( t + )
= E _{o} [sin t + sin ( t +
B
cos
+
C
cos
C −
t
+ φ − ω
t
Using the trigonometric relation, sin B + sin C = 2 sin
E =
E o
2
_{} ω
sin
t
+ ω
t
+ φ
2
ω
2
2
2
we have
Wave Optics
7
= 2 E _{o} [sin ( t + cos
2E _{o} cos /2 sin /2)
(put = and 2 E _{o} = E _{m}
)
= E _{m} cos sin ( t + )
_{E}
E
θ
sin (ω
t
+ β)
E _{} = E _{m} cos
E _{o} cos
where _{} is the amplitude of resultant wave disturbance which determines the I of interference fringes.
E _{m} is the maximum possible amplitude.
We knew in the case of coherent waves, the intensity is proportional to square of the amplitude
i.e., I E ^{2} where E is the electric field strength.
If I _{} is the intensity of resultant wave at P and I _{o} is the intensity that a single wave acting alone
would produce, then
I _{}
E _{} ^{2}
and
I _{} E _{o}
2
I
θ
=
kE
2
θ
I
o
=
2
kE
θ
or
E
I
θ
=
θ
I
o
E
o
2
(or)
(or)
I
^{θ}
I
o
= (2 cos ^{}^{}^{} from equation (1.6)
= 4 cos ^{2}
I _{} =
4
I
o
cos
2
β
I _{} = I _{m} cos ^{2}
...
(1.7)
To compute I _{} as a function of we substitute ^{φ} value in terms of from the relation
Phase difference Path difference (eqn. 1.3)
i.e., 


or 

= 
2 π λ
d sin
φ
=
^{π} d sin
λ
...
(1.9)
The intensity pattern for the double slit interference is shown in the Fig. 1.8.
Fig. 1.8 Energy distribution in Young’s experiment.
8
1.6 BIPRISM  FRINGEWIDTH
Engineering Physics
After Young’s double slit experiment, objection was raised that the bright fringes may be due to some
modification of the light by the edges of the slits and not true interference. Thus wave theory of light
was still questioned.
Fresnel brought forward several new experiments in which the interference of two beams of light
was proved. One of them is the Fresnel biprism experiment.
The arrangement is as shown in the Figure 1.9. The biPrism consists of two prisms attached
back to back. The angle at the edges of the biprism is of the order of 30' and the other angle in the bi
prism is of the order of 179º. If a monochromatic source is placed in front of the biprism, the light
spreads out in the form of two beams which superimpose one over the other. Here the interference
condition has been fulfilled. The two beams looks like originating from the imaginary source positions
S _{1} and S _{2} . The location of S _{1} and S _{2} can be obtained by extending the two beam backwards. These are
the two virtual images of the source S and act as two slit sources in Young’s double slit experiment and
produce stationary interference pattern.
If x is the distance between successive fringes and d is the distance between S _{1} and S _{2} , then the
wavelength value can be obtained from the equation.
Fig. 1.9 A Typical biprism arrangement.
Fig. 1.10 Determination of slit separation ( _{d}_{)}_{.}
Wave Optics
9
The distances d and D can easily be determined by placing a convex lens between the biprism and
the screen/eyepiece. For a fixed position of the eyepiece, there will be two positions of the lens
(L _{1} or L _{2} ) where the images S _{1} and S _{2} can be seen at the eyepiece. Let d _{1} be the distance between the
two images where the lens is at L _{1} (b _{1} from eyepiece to L _{1} ). Similarly d _{2} × b _{2} for L _{2} position of the
lens.

d 
= 
d d
1
2

and 
D 
= b _{1} + b _{2} 
= a + c = distance from source to screen or eyepiece.
Interference in Thin Films  Reflected Light
Fig. 1.11 Interference in thin films.
Let XY and X'Y' be the two surfaces of a transparent film of uniform thickness t and refractive
index µ as shown in figure 1.11. Suppose S is a monochromatic source of light. Suppose a ray SA is
incident on the upper surface XY at an angle i . This ray is partly reflected along AR and refracted along
AB at an angle r. At B it is incident at angle r. Here it undergoes reflection along BC at an angle r and
refraction along BT at an angle i . At C also it undergoes refraction along CR _{1} and reflection along CD.
This process will continue for a number of times until the intensity becomes very very small. The rays
BR and CR _{1} are derived from the same ray SA and travel in the same direction they interfere. To find
out the effective path difference between the rays AR and CR _{1} draw a normal CE on AR and normal
AF on BC. Produce the normal at A and the ray CB in the backward direction until they meet. Suppose
they meet at Q. From the geometry of the figure, _{∠} _{A}_{C}_{E} _{=} _{i} and _{∠}_{C}_{A}_{F} _{=} _{r} _{.} The optical path difference
between the two reflected light rays ( AR and CR _{1} ) is given by
= Path ( AB + BC) in film; Path AE in air
= µ ( AB + BC) – AE
...
(1.11)
10
From triangles ACE and ACF we know that
µ
= sin i/sin r = AE/AC CF/AC = AE/ CF
Engineering Physics
AE 
= µ CF 
... 
(1.12) 
From equations (1.11) and (1.12), we can write 


µ (AB + BC) – µ (CF ) 

= µ (AB + BF + FC) – µ (CF) 

= µ ( AB + BF) 

= µ (QF ) 
... 
(1.13) 

From triangle AQF , cos r = QF/AQ 

or QF = AQ cos r = 2t = cos r 
... 
(1.14) 

(Since AQ = AP + PQ = t + t = 2t) 

Substituting the value of QE from equation (1.14) in equation (1.13), we have 


= µ × 2t cos r = 2 µ t cos r 
... 
(1.15) 
It should be remembered that a ray reflected at a surface backed by a denser medium suffers an
abrupt phase change of which is equivalent to a path difference /2.
Thus the effective path difference between the two reflected rays is (2 µ t cos r ± 2).
We know that maxima occur when effective path difference = n
For interference maximum 2 µ t cos r ± 2 = n
Or 
2 µ t cos r = (2 n ± 1) 2 
... 
(1.16) 

If this condition is fulfilled, the film will appear bright in the reflected light. 

The minima occur when the effective path difference is (2n ±1) 2 i.e., 

2 µ t cos r ± /2 = (2n ±) /2 or 2 µ t cos r = (2 n ± 1) /2 ± /2 = n 
(1.17) 

because (n + 1) or (n – 1) can also be taken as integer. Here n = 1, 2, 3 
... 
etc. 
When this condition is fulfilled the film will appear dark in the reflected light.
Looking at the same point as we move our eye the angle of incidence and the corresponding angle
of refraction changes. Therefore the conditions of maxima and minima are changed alternately. Hence
we observe a number of bright and dark regions.
Keeping the eye fixed if we change the point of observation then also we observe bright and dark
regions. If the film is illuminated with white light, the maxima of different colours are observed at
different angles. Hence the film appears coloured.
1.7 NEWTON’S RINGS
When a planoconvex lens with its convex surface is placed on a plane glass plate, an air film of
gradually increasing thickness is formed between the two. The thickness of the film at the point of
contact is zero. If monochromatic light is allowed to fall normally, and the film is viewed in reflected
light, alternate dark and bright rings concentric around the point of contact between the lens and glass
plates are seen.
Experimental Arrangement
The experimental arrangement of obtaining Newton's rings is shown in figure. L is a plano convex lens
of large radius of curvature. This lens with its convex surface is placed on a plane glass plate G. The
lens makes contact with the plate at O. Light from an extended monochromatic source such as sodium
Wave Optics
11
lamp falls on a glass plate G' held at an angle 45° with the horizontal. The glass plate G' reflects a part
of the incident light towards the air film enclosed by the lens L and the glass plate G. A part of the
incident light is reflected by the curved surface of the lens L and a part is transmitted which is reflected
back from the plane surface of the plate. These two reflected rays interfere and give rise to an interference
pattern in the form of circular rings. These rings are localised in the air film, and can be seen with a
microscope focussed on the film.
Fig. 1.12a Newton’s rings apparatus.
Fig. 1.12b
Fig. 1.12c Planoconvex lens.
Explanation of the Formation of Newton’s Rings
Newton’s rings are formed due to interference between the waves reflected from the top and bottom
surfaces of the air film formed between the plates. The formation of Newton’s rings can be explained
with the help of the Fig. 1.12c. AB is a monochromatic ray of light, which falls on the system. A part
is reflected at B (glassair boundary) which goes out in the form of ray R _{1} without any phase reversal.
The other part is refracted along BC. At point C it is again reflected and goes out in the form of ray R _{2}
with a phase reversal of . The reflected rays R _{1} and R _{2} are in a position to produce interference fringes
as they have been derived from the same ray AB and hence fulfill the condition of interference. As the
rings are observed in the reflected light, the path difference between them is (2µt cos r + /2). For air
film µ = 1 and for normal incidence r = 0. Hence in this case, path difference is (2 t + /2). At the point
of contact t = 0, and the path difference is /2, which is the condition of minimum intensity. Thus the
central spot is dark.
For nth maximum, we have
2 t + /2
= n
This expression shows that a maximum of a particular order will occur for a constant value of t.
In this system, ‘ t’ remains constant along a circle Thus the maximum is in the form of a circle. For
different value of ‘t’, different maxima will occur. Hence we get a number of concentric bright circular
rings. In a similar way, this can be shown that minima are also in the circular form.
12
Theory : Newton’s Rings by Reflected Light
Engineering Physics
Now we shall calculate the diameters of dark and bright rings. Let LOL' be the lens placed on a glass
plate G. The curved surface LOL' is the part of spherical surface with centre at C. Let R be the radius
of curvature and r be the radius of nth bright ring corresponding to the constant film of thickness t. As
discussed above,
2 t + /2 
= n 

Or 2 t = (2 n – 1) /2 for the bright ring where n = 1, 2, 3, 
etc. 

For the property of the circle 

EP × PF 
= PQ × PQ 

Substituting the values 

r × r = t × (2R – t) 
= 2Rt – t ^{2} 2Rt (approximately) 

r ^{2} = 2 R t or t = r ^{2} /2 R. 

Thus for a bright ring 

2r ^{2} /2 R = (2 n – 1) /2 

( 2n − 1)λ R 

or 
r ^{2} 
^{=} 
2 

Replacing r by D/2, we get the diameter of nth bright ring as
2 (2n − ^{1}^{)}^{λ} ^{R} 

or 
4 = 2 or D = 

or 
D 
2λR
(2 n − 1)
∝
A
(2 n − 1)

Thus the diameters of the bright rings are proportional to the square roots of odd natural numbers
as (2n –1) is an odd number.
This shows that the difference in the squares of the diameters of the rings is constant.
Similarly for a dark ring
or
or
or
2r ^{2} /2r = n R
Thus diameters of dark rings are proportional to the square roots of natural numbers.
If D _{m} and D _{n} are the diameters of the mth and the nth rings we have
2
D
m
2
− D
n
= 4(m − n)λR
This shows that the difference in the squares of the diameters of the rings is constant.
Wave Optics
13
1.8 DETERMINATION OF WAVELENGTH OF SODIUM LIGHT USING NEWTON'S RING
Experimental Arrangement
The experimental arrangement of obtaining Newton's rings is shown in the Fig. 1.12. L is a plano
convex lens of large radius of curvature placed with its convex surface on a plane glass plate P. The lens
makes contact with the plate at O. Light from an extended monochromatic source such as sodium lamp
falls on at glass plate G' held at an angle 45° with the horizontal. The glass plate G' reflects a part of the
incident light towards the air film enclosed by the lens L and the glass plate P. A part of the incident
light is reflected by the curved surface of the lens L and a part is transmitted which is reflected back
from the plane surface of the plate. These two reflected rays interfere and give rise to an interference
pattern in the form of circular rings. These rings are localised in the air film, and can be seen with a
microscope focussed on the film.
Procedure
First of all the eyepiece of the microscope is adjusted on its crosswires. Now the distance of the
microscope from the film is adjusted such that the rings with dark centre are in focus.
The centre of the crosswires is adjusted at the centre of the rings pattern. The microscope is
moved to the extreme left of the pattern and the crosswire is adjusted tangentially in the middle of a
clearly nth bright or dark ring. The reading of micrometer screw is noted. The microscope is now
moved to the right and the reading of micrometer screw are noted at successive rings etc., till we are
very near to the central dark spot.
Again crossing the central dark spot in the same direction, the readings corresponding to successive
rings are noted on other side. Now a graph is plotted between number of rings n and the square of the
corresponding diameter. The graph is shown in Fig. 1.13. If D _{m} and D _{n} are the diameters of the m ^{t}^{h} and
n ^{t}^{h} rings and R is the radius of curvature of curved surface of the lens the wavelength of the sodium
light is given by
D ^{2}
n
Fig. 1.13
14
Engineering Physics
The radius R of the planoconvex lens can be obtained with the help of spherometer using the
following formula R =
l ^{2}
h
+
6
h
2
.
Here l is the distance between the two legs of the spherometer and h is
the difference of the readings of the spherometer when it is placed on the lens as well as when placed
on lens surface.
Let R be the radius of curvature of the surface in contact with the plate, the wavelength of light
used and D _{m} and D _{n} be the diameters of mth and nth bright rings respectively, then
and 

or 
D 
or 
2
m
D 
2 
= 2(2 m – 1) R 

m 

2 
= 2(2 n – 1) R 

D 
n 

2 
= 4 ( m – n) R 

– 

D 
n 


= 
D 
2 
– 
D 
2 
/ 4(m – n)R 
(1.18) 

m 
n 
Using this formula, can be determined.
To find the refractive index of a liquid, it is introduced between the lens and glass plate and the
experiment is repeated as before. If D' _{m} and D' _{n} are the diameters of mth and nth rings in liquid then the
refractive index µ can be calculated using µ =
2
D
m
−
2
D
n
'
D
2
m
−
'
D
2
n
^{.}
...
(1.19)
NUMERICAL EXAMPLES
1. A thin sheet of plastic of refractive index 1.6 is placed in the path of one of the interfering beams in Young’s experiment using light of wavelength 5890 Å. If the central fringe shifts through 12 fringes, calculate the thickness of the sheet.
Solution: Given Data
= 5890 × 10 ^{–}^{8} cm
refractive index (µ) = 1.6
order of the fringe ( m) = 12
optical path of beam with plastic sheet = x – t + µt
and the path of another beam
path difference
= x
= x – t + nt – x
= (µ – 1) t = n
=
( µ − 1)t
m
or
for maxima
(OU, 2003)
Wave Optics
t =
λ n
(µ − 1)
=
λ × 12
(1.6
−
1)
= 1178 ×10 ^{–}^{8} cm.
=
5890
×
10
− 8
×
12
0.6
15
2. The path of one of the interfering beams in biprism experiment, a thin sheet of mica of refractive index 1.55 is placed. A light of wavelength 5893 Å is incident on it. Calculate the thickness of the sheet if the central fringe shifts through 10 fringes.
Solution: Given Data
= 5893 × 10 ^{–}^{8} cm
(OU, 2000)
refractive index (n) = 1.55
order of the fringe (m) = 10
optical path of beam with plastic sheet = x – t + µt
and the path of another beam = x
path difference is = x – t + µt – x
= (µ – 1) t = n
t =
nλ
(µ − 1)
=
10
×
5893
×
10
− 8
5893
×
10 ^{−}^{7}
=
1.55
−
1
0.55
t = 1071.45 × 10 ^{–}^{8} cm.
3. In double slit arrangement, a strong green light of wavelength 5460 Å is used. The slits are 0.01 cm apart and the screen is placed 20 cm away. What is the angular position of the first minima?
Solution: Given Data
For first minimum n = 0 and
distance between slits (d) = 0.01 cm.
wavelength of light ( ) = 5460 × 10 ^{–}^{8} cm.
The condition for minima is d sin =
or
sin =
n
+
1
λ
.
2
d
1
2
.
λ
=
0
+
1
5460
×
10
−8
2
0.01
= 0.0027
Since when is very small, sin
≅
= 0.0027 radians
= 0.16
16
Engineering Physics
4. A parallel beam of light ( = 5890 × 10 ^{–}^{8} cm) is incident on plate ( = 1.5) such that the angle of refraction into the plate is 60°. Calculate the smallest thickness of the glass plate, which will appear dark by reflection.
Given 
that 
= 1.5, 
r = 60°, 
cos 60° = 0.5 
n = 1, 
= 5890 × 10 ^{–}^{8} cm 
Applying 2µ t cos r = n
We get t =
n λ
1
×
5890
×
10
− 8
2µ cos r
=
2
×
1.5
×
0.5
The minimum thickness of the film
t = 4.207 × 10 ^{–}^{5} cm
5. A soap film 4 × 10 ^{–}^{5} cm thick is viewed at an angle of 35° to the normal. Find the wavelengths of light in the visible spectrum which will be absent from the reflected light ( = 1.33).
Let i be angle of incidence and r the angle of refraction
Give that 

sin i 

Applying µ = 
sin r 
We get 

Apply the relation 

( i ) 
i = 35° 
and µ = 1.33, 

sin 35° 

or 
1.33 = 
sin r 

r = 25.55° and cos r 
= 0.90 

2 µ t 
cos r = n 
and taking t = 4 × 10 ^{–}^{5} cm
For the first order, n = 1
r = ?
= 2 × 1.33 × 4 × 10 ^{–}^{5} × 0.90
= 9058 × 10 ^{–}^{5} cm
which lies in the infrared (invisible) region.
( ii ) For the second order, n = 2
2 _{2} = 2 × 1.33 × 4 × 10 ^{–}^{5} × 0.90
_{2} = 4.79 × 10 ^{–}^{5} cm
which lies in visible region.
(iii )
Similarly, taking n = 3
_{3} = 3.19 × 10 ^{–}^{5} cm
which also lies in the ultraviolet range.
Hence, absent wavelength in the reflected light is 4.79 × 10 ^{–}^{5} cm
6. A parallel beam of light ( = 5890 Å) is incident on a thin glass plate ( = 1.5) such that the angle of refraction is 60°. Calculate the smallest thickness of the plate which will appear dark by reflection. Given that µ = 1.5 and r = 60°; cos 60° = 0.5, = 5890 Å or = 5890 × 10 ^{–}^{1}^{0} m For minimum thickness n = 1 Applying 2µ t cos r = n We have
n λ
t =
2µ cos r
Wave Optics 
1 
× 5890 
× 
10 
− 10 
17 

t 

= 

2 × 1.5 
× 
0.5 

t 
= 3926 × 10 ^{–}^{1}^{0} m 

t 
= 3.926 × 10 ^{–}^{4} mm 



angle of 45°. There is complete destructive interference for = 5890 Å. Find the thickness 

of the film. 

Given that 

= 1.33 

r = 45° 

cos 45° = 0.707 


= 5890 Å = 5890 × 10 ^{–}^{1}^{0} m 

n 
= 1 ; t = 
? 

Applying 2µt cos r = n 

n λ 

Thickness of the film t = 
2µ cos r 

1 
× 5890 
× 
10 
− 10 

t 
= 

2 × 1.33 
× 
0.707 

t 
= 3.132 × 10 ^{–}^{7} m 

t 
= 3.132 × 10 ^{–}^{4} mm 
8. A thin film of soap solution is illuminated by white light at an angle of incidence, i = sin ^{–}^{1}
4
5
. In reflected light, two dark consecutive overlapping fringes are observed
4
corresponding to wavelengths 5.1 × 10 ^{–}^{7} m and 5.0 × 10 ^{–}^{7} m. for the soap solution is _{3} .
Calculate the thickness of the film.
Here 
n _{1} = (n + 1) _{2} 

n(5.1 × 10 ^{–}^{7} ) = (n + 1) × 5 × 10 ^{–}^{7} 

n 
= 50 

4 

sin i 
= 
5 

4 
sin i 

µ = 
3 = 
sin r 

sin r 
= 
sin i 
= 
^{4} 
^{/} ^{5} 
= 0.6 

µ 
4 
/ 3 

cos r 
= 
[1 − sin 
2 
r ] 
1 / 2 
= 0.8 
18
Apply 2µt cos r
= n _{1}
We have t
=
n λ
1
50
×
5.1
×
10
− 7
=
2
µ
cos r
2
×
(4 / 3)0.8
The minimum thickness of the film t = 1.2 × 10 ^{–}^{5} m
Engineering Physics
9. In Newton’s rings experiment, what will be the order of the dark ring which will have double the diameter of that of 20 ^{t}^{h} dark ring. The wavelength of incident light is 5890 Å.
Solution: Given Data
order of dark ring n _{2} = 20
wavelength ( ) = 5890 × 10 ^{–}^{8} cm
We know that the radius of the ring is given by ‘r ’.
r =
λ × R × m


or Diameter ( d) = 2r = 2 
λ Rm


or 
D ^{2} = 4 Rm 

2 
= 4 R × n _{1} 


D 
1 

and 
D 
2 
= 4 R × n _{2} = 4 R × 20 

2 

= 80 R 

Given that : 

D _{1} = 2D _{2} 

(or) 
D 
2 
4 
D 
2 
On substituting we have 

2 
= 
2 

4 Rn _{1} = 4 × 80 × R 

n _{1} = 80 
(OU, 1999)
...
(1)
10. In Newton ring’s experiment, the diameter of the 5 ^{t}^{h} and 15 ^{t}^{h} rings respectively was 0.336 cm and 0.590 cm. If the wavelength of light is 5890 Å. Find the radius of curvature of lens surface in contact with plane glass plate.
Solution: Given data
D _{m} = D _{1}_{5} = 0.590 cm
D _{n} = D _{5} = 0.336 cm
= 5890 × 10 ^{–}^{8} cm
m = 15
n = 5
We know that in the Newton’s rings experiment (R)
D 2 m 
2 D n 

− 

R = 

4 
λ ( 
m 
− n 
) 

(0.590) 2 
− 

= 

4 
× 
5890 × 

= 99.8 cm 
2 D 15 − D 
2 

5 

= 
4 λ (10) 

(0.336) 2 

10 
− 8 
× 10 
(OU, 2000)
Wave Optics
19
11. Newton’s ring arrangement is used with a source emitting two wavelengths _{1} = 6000 Å and _{2} = 4500 Å and it is found that the n ^{t}^{h} dark ring due to _{1} coincides with (n + 1) th dark ring for _{2} . Find the diameter of n ^{t}^{h} dark ring of _{1} if the radius of curvature of the lens R = 90 cm.
Solution: Given data
Wavelength _{1} = 6000 × 10 ^{–}^{8} cm
_{2} = 4500 × 10 ^{–}^{8} cm
radius of curvature R = 90 cm
(OU, 2002)
Let d _{n} be the diameter of n ^{t}^{h} ring corresponding to wavelength _{1} , then diameter of
(n + 1)th dark ring corresponding to wavelength _{2} will also be d _{n}
d
^{2} = 4
n
n
λ
1
R
...
(1)
and
Dividing eq. (2) by (1)
d
^{2}
n
_{=} 4(
n
_{+} 1)λ
2
R
...
(2)
n + 1 
λ 1 
6000 
× 
10 
− 8 

= 
= 

n 
λ 2 
4500 
× 
10 
− 8 

1 + 
1 
_{=} 
60 

n 
45 

1 
60 
− 1 
15 
1 

= 
= 
= 

n 
45 
45 
3 

n = 3. Putting the value of n in eq. (1) 

d 
2 
= 4 × 3 × 6000 × 10 ^{–}^{8} × 90 

n 

d _{n} = 0.2545 cm 



dark ring is 0.50 cm. Find the radius of curvature of the lens and the thickness of the air 

film. 
(OU 2001, 2003) 
Solution: Given data
Wavelength of light ( ) = 5900 × 10 ^{–}^{8} cm
Diameter of the m ^{t}^{h} ^{r}^{i}^{n}^{g} (D _{1}_{0} ) = 0.50 cm
Say, Diameter of the n ^{t}^{h} ring (D _{o} ) = 0
Therefore radius of curvature (R), R =
2
D
m
−
D
2
n
_{4}
λ
_{(}
m
−
n
_{)}
=
^{D}
2
m
4λ m
R =
0.50
×
0.50
4
×
5900
×
10
− 8
×
10
0.25
=
4
×
59
×
10
− 5
25
=
4
×
59
×
10
− 3
= 105.96 cm.
R = 105.93 cms.
20
Engineering Physics
13. Newton’s rings are formed with reflected light of wavelength 5.895 × 10 ^{–}^{5} cm. with a liquid between the plane and the curved surface. The diameter of the 5 ^{t}^{h} dark ring is 0.3 cm and the radius of curvature of the curved surface is 1 metre. Calculate the refractive index of the liquid.
Solution: Wavelength of light ( ) = 5.895 × 10 ^{–}^{5} cm
Diameter of 5 ^{t}^{h} dark ring D _{5} = 0.3 cm
Radius of curvature R = 1m = 100 cm
For the ring system to be dark, we have
^{d} n 2 ^{µ}
4 R
= n
4 Rnλ
µ =
d
2
n
=
4
×
100
×
5
×
5.895
×
10
− 5
0.3
×
0.3
= 1310 ×10 ^{–}^{5}^{+}^{2}
= 1.31
Refractive index of liquid is 1.31
14. In Newton’s rings experiment the diameter of 10 ^{t}^{h} ring changes from 1.40 cm to 1.20 cm when a liquid is introduced between the lens and the plate. Calculate the refractive index of the liquid. For liquid medium
2
D
1
=
4
nλ R
µ
...
(
i )
For air medium
D
2
2
= 4n R
Divide ( ii) by ( i)
µ =
D
2
D
1
2
Here D _{1} = 1.20 cm, D _{2} = 1.40 cm
...
( ii)
15.
=
2
1.40
1.20
= 1.361
In a Newton’s rings arrangement, if a drop of water (µ = 4/3) is placed in between the lens
and the plate, diameter of the 10 ^{t}^{h} ring is found to be 0.5 cm. Obtain the radius of curvature
of the face of the lens in contact with the plate. The wavelength of light used is 6000 Å.
Here
2
D
n
4nλR
=
µ
or R =
µ
^{D}
2
n
4
n λ
µ
=
4
3
,
D
n
= 0.5 cm
n = 10,
= 6000 Å = 6 × 10 ^{–}^{5} cm
R
= ?
Wave Optics 
4 
× (0.5) 
2 
21 

R 
= 
3 
× 
4 
× 
10 
× 
6 
× 
10 
− 5 

= 139 cm 
16. Newton’s rings are formed by reflected light of wavelength 5895 Å with a liquid between the plane and curved surface. It the diameter of the 6 ^{t}^{h} bright ring is 3 mm and the radius of curvature of the curved surface is 100 cm, calculate the reflective index of the liquid. Here, for the nth bright ring,
3 

Given that n = 6, 
= 5895 × 10 ^{–}^{8} cm, R = 100 cm, r = 2 
mm = 0.15 cm 

To find 
µ 
= ? 

(2 n − 
1) 
λ R 

Applying µ = 
2 
r 
2 
, we get 

(2 × 6 − 1) × 5895 × 10 
− 8 
× 100 

µ 
= 
2(0.15) 
2 

µ 
= 1.441 
17. In a Newton’s rings experiment the diameter of the 15 ^{t}^{h} ring was found to be 0.590 cm and that of the 5 ^{t}^{h} ring was 0.336 cm. If the radius of the plano–convex lens is 100 cm, calculate the wavelength of light used.
Here
D _{5}
= 0.336 cm = 33.6 × 10 ^{–}^{3} m
D _{1}_{5}
= 0.590 cm = 5.90 × 10 ^{–}^{3} m
R
= 100 cm = 1m, = ?
( D 
_{)} 2 
D 
2 
D 

2 


n + 
m 
− 
n 
5 

= 
= 

4 
mR 
4 
× 10 × R 


(5.9 × 
10 
− 
3 
) 
2 
− 
(3.36 
× 10 − 
3 
) 
2 

= 

4 
× 
10 × R 

= 5.880 × 10 ^{–}^{7} m 


= 5880 Å 
18. In a Newton’s rings experiment the diameter of the 12 ^{t}^{h} ring changes from 1.50 cm to 1.30 cm when a liquid is introduced between the lens and the plate. Calculate the refractive index of the liquid.
Given that 

D _{1} 

D _{2} 

For air medium 

2 

D 
1 
= 1.50 cm
= 1.30 cm
= 4n R
...
( i )
22
For liquid medium
Dividing (i ) by (ii)
D
2
2
4 nλ R
=
µ
µ
=
D
1
D
2
2
µ
=
2
1.50
1.30
,
= 1.331
Engineering Physics
...
( ii )
19. Newton’s rings are observed in reflected light of = 5.9 × 10 ^{–}^{5} cm. The diameter of the
10 ^{t}^{h} dark ring is 0.52 cm. Find the radius of curvature of the lens and the thickness of the air
film.
Given that
= 5.9 × 10 ^{–}^{5} cm = 5.9 × 10 ^{–}^{7} m
n
Radius of the ring r
R
t
= 10 

= 5.2 × 10 ^{–}^{3} m 

(5.2 × 
10 
− 3 ) 
2 

= 
10 × 
5.9 
× 
10 
− 7 

= n 

nλ 

= 

2 

10 × 
5.9 
× 
10 ^{−} ^{7} 

= 

2 

= 2.95 × 10 ^{–}^{6} m 
Apply r ^{2} = n R
We get
( ii )
Thickness of the air film = t
2t
t
EXERCISE PROBLEMS
1. In Newton’s ring experiment, diameter of the 5 ^{t}^{h} ring is 0.336 cm and that of the 15 ^{t}^{h} ring is 0.590 cm. Find the radius of curvature of the planoconvex lens if the wavelength of light used is 5890 Å.
2. Light of wavelength 6 × 10 ^{–}^{5} cm falls on a screen at a distance of 100 cm from a narrow slit. Find the width of the slit if the first minimum lie 1mm on either side of the central maxima.
3. The diffraction maxima due to single slit diffraction is at = 30° for a light of wavelength 5000 Å. Find the width of the slit.
Wave Optics
23
4. Monochromatic light of wavelength 6.56 × 10 ^{–}^{5} cm falls normally on a grating 2 cm wide; the first order spectrum is produced at an angle of 18° 14' from the normal. What is the total number of lines on the grating.
5. Newton’s rings are observed in reflected light of wavelength 5900 Å. The diameter of 10 ^{t}^{h} dark ring is 0.50 cm. Find the radius of curvature of the lens and the thickness of the air film.
6. Green light of wavelength 5100 Å from narrow slit is incident on a double slit if the overall separation of 10 fringes on a screen 200 cm away is 2 cm. Find the slit separation.
7. A biprism is placed at a distance of 5 cm in front of a narrow slit and is illuminated by sodium light of wavelength 5890 Å. The distance between the virtual sources is found to be 0.05 cm. Find the width of the fringes observed in a light eyepiece placed at 75 cm from the biprism.
8. Newton’s rings are observed in a reflected light of wavelength 6000 Å. The diameter of 15 ^{t}^{h} dark ring is 7 mm. Find the radius of curvature of the lens.
9. Find the ratio of intensity at the center of a bright fringe to the intensity at a point 1/4 ^{t}^{h} of the distance two fringes from the center.
10. In Newton’s rings experiment, the diameter of 10 ^{t}^{h} ring changes from 1.5 to 1.3 cm when a liquid is introduced between the lens and the plane. Calculate the refractive index of the liquid.
11. In Young’s double slit experiment two parallel slits 1 mm apart are illuminated by monochromatic light. If the width is 0.50 mm and the screen is held at a distance of 80 cm from the slits, what is the wavelength of light?
12. In Newton’s rings experiment the diameter of 5 ^{t}^{h} and 15 ^{t}^{h} rings are 0.336 and 0.590 cm respectively. If the wavelength of light is 5896 Å, find the radius of curvature.
13. A thin film 4 × 10 ^{–}^{5} thick is illuminated by white light normal to its surface. Its refractive index is 1.5. What wavelength within the visible spectrum will be intensified in the reflected beam?
14. White light falls normally on a film of soapy water whose thickness is 5 × 10 ^{–}^{5} cm and refractive index is 1.33. Which wavelength in the visible region will be reflected more strongly?
15. Newton's rings are formed with reflected light of wavelength 5895 Å with a liquid between the plane and the curved surface. The diameter of the 5 ^{t}^{h} dark ring is 0.3 cm and the radius of curvature of the curved surface is 100 cm. Calculate the refractive index of the liquid.
16. A thin parallel liquid film of refractive index 1.28 and thickness 0.48 µm is illustrated by visible light and observed at an angle of 35°. Determine the wavelengths(s) which are absent in reflected light.
17. In Newton’s rings experiment, the wavelength of light used is 600 nm and radius of curvature of lens is 1 m. Determine the diameter of the tenth dark ring.
18. In Newton’s rings pattern, the diameter of a certain ring is 0.38 cm. A liquid of refractive index 1.38 is introduced between the glass plate and the lens in the same set up. Determine the diameter of the same ring.
24
Engineering Physics
19. In Newton’s rings pattern, the diameter of the fifth ring is 0.3 cm and that of the tenth ring is 0.5 cm. Wavelength of light used is 589 nm. Determine the radius of curvature of the lens.
20. Newton’s rings are observed in reflected light of wavelength 589 nm with the liquid film formed between plane glass plate and a planoconvex lens. The diameter of 9 ^{t}^{h} bright ring is
105 cm. Determine the refractive index of the liquid.
1. Explain constructive and destructive interference. Explain in detail Young's double slit experiment.
2. Discuss the necessary theory of interference in thin films.
3. Discuss the formation of Newton’s rings and calculate their diameters. How do you determine the wavelength of monochromatic light using Newton’s rings ?
4. What is interference of light ? Deduce the conditions for maxima and minima of interference fringes formed by thin films.