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DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE NATIONAL AIR & SPACE INTELLIGENCE CENTER (AF ISR AGENCy) WRlGHT.PATTERSON

DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE

NATIONAL AIR & SPACE INTELLIGENCE CENTER (AF ISR AGENCy) WRlGHT.PATTERSON AFB OHIO

Colonel Mark E. Hess

Vice Commander

National Air and Space Intelligence Center (NASle)

4180 Watson Way Wright·Patterson AFB OH 45433·5648

John Greenewald, Jr.

Wright·Patterson AFB OH 45433·5648 John Greenewald, Jr. Dear Mr. Greenewald AUG 2 5 Z009 This letter
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AUG

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"Freedom Through Vigilante"

, , , It) o o 00 .­ t- ea L • , FTD-ID(RS)T- 1409-

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FTD-ID(RS)T- 1409- 87

onc_fiLE COP'

FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION

1409- 87 onc _ fiLE COP' FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION ARTIFICIAL CLOUDS IN THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE L.A.

ARTIFICIAL CLOUDS IN THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE

L.A.

by

Andreyeva. A. A.

Khanan'yan

ATMOSPHERE L.A. by Andreyeva. A. A. Khanan'yan · , OTtO <- S ELECTED '" '. FE8221988

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ELECTED

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CAE .s/Il·

Distribution authorized to U.S. Government

agencies and their contractors

(Copyright)

(5

Feb 88

).

Other requests for this

I

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document shall be referred to F'ID/STINFO.

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HUMAN TRANSLATION
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FTD-ID(RS)T-1409-87
5 February 1988
Dr
HICROFICHE NR, FTD-88-C-DQOJ53L
D19tribution/
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AvaIlab1l1ty Codes
ARTIFICIAL
CLOUDS
IN
THE EARTH IS
AniOSPHERE
ban. and/or
Dist
Spocial
By:
L.A.
Andreyeva. A.A.
Khanan'yan
English
pages :
7
­
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Source:
Chelovek 1 Stikhiya. G1drometeo1%da t,
1984, pp.
Country of origin:
41 - 42
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1:0""
USSR
Translated by:
Carol S. Nack
Requester: FTD/TQTA
Distribution authorized to U.S.
Government a genc.in .s/~
and their contractors
(Copyright)
(5 feb
88) .
Other requests for this document shall be re fened to
FTO/STlNFO.
THIS TAAN$,ATION IS A RENDITION OF THE ORIGI ­
NAL FOREIGN TEXT WITHOUT AN'( ANALYTICAl OR
PREPARED BY:
EDITORIAl COMMENT. STATEMENTS OR THEORIES
ADVOCATED OR IMPliED ARE THOSE Of THE SOURCe
ANO 00 NOT NECESSARILY REFLECT THE POSlTlON
TRANSlATION OMS! ON
FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION
OR OPINION OF THE FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION.
• WPAfB. OHIO.
Date
f'TD-lD(RS)T- 1409-87
5 February
19 8 8
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GRAPHICS DISCLAIMER

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ARTIFICIAL CLOUDS

IN

THE EARTH'S

ATKOSPHERE

L. A.

A.

A.

Andreyeva,

Khanan'yan,

Cand i date of Physicomathematical Sciences,

Candidate of Physicomathematical Sciences

·

,

In the 1950's,

when rocket methods of studying t~e upper atmo-

;

sphere were just beginning to be developed, Soviet scientist I. S. Shklovskiy and English scientist D. R. Bates suggested the idea of creating an artificial luminous cloud. They proposed discharging a small quantity of sodium vapor into the atmosphere by rockets, think­ ing that because of resonant emission, the sodium atoms illuminated by the sun should form a luminous cloud in the atmosphere which would

be

clearly visible from the Earth •

The

initial

experiments confirmed the

reality of i mplementing

this idea, and th~y were used to study the elementary processes which

the

cause sodium atoms t9 glow in the upper atmosphere and to measure

wind velocity at altitudes of 85- 110 kilometers. 1
wind velocity at altitudes
of 85- 110 kilometers.
1

The idea

ot creating luminous clouds to study the physicochemi­

cal and dynamic processes in the upper atmosphere proved to be so

intriguing th at it was rapidly developed in many ro~ket experiments. After sodium, other substances began to be used, such .:l~. lithium, potassium, cesium, barium oxide, europium, titanium tetrachl?~ide and trimethyl aluminum, which are capable of creating neutral and even

ionized clouds. I.nd soon

smoke clouds formed at stratospheric and mesospheric altitudes due to

the rapid combustion of certain chemically active substances in the atmosphere with the subsequent formation of a cloud of submicron particles which are good reflectors of solar radiation.

a

new type

of artificia l

cloud appeared ­

The use of various

substances capable of actively reflecting or

reemit ting solar radiation and which also glow as a result of chemi­ cal reactions with environmental components made it possible to

study the state of different layers of the upper atmosphere at virtu­ ally any time of day, when natural cloud cover was not present, of course. One can jUdge how intensively this method of analyzing the upper atmosphere was developed from the fact that during 1969-1975 alone a total ot around 300 rocket experiments involving the forma­ tion of artificial clouds with the discharge ot various reagents were carried out around the world. using them, it was ·possible to get an idea of the nature of the physicochemical and dynamic processes in a

wide range of altitudes.

In our country,

in

the artificial luminous and smoke cloud method

was used

research conducted by the Institute of Experimental

2

country, in the artificial luminous and smoke cloud method was used research conducted by the Institute
Meteorology of Goskomgidromet (state Committee on Hydrometeorology]. An extensive program of work on studying the

Meteorology of Goskomgidromet (state Committee on Hydrometeorology].

An extensive program of work on studying the thermohydrodynamic characteristics of the upper atmosphere at polar and middle latitudes using the MR-12 rocket compl~x was carried out here under the

management of Doctor of Physicomathematical sciences, ProfessQr L .

Katasev. In the 1970 ' s, this proqran was supplemented by researc:, electrical fields from observations of the drift of ionized clouds, as well as investigations of the wind structure and turbulence in the stratosphere and mesosphere using M- lOOB meteorological rockets. During this period, a large "number of studies on large-scale specialized projects such as "Aktivnoye Solntse" [Active Sun],

on

A.

"Spok.oynoye Solntse" (Calm Sun) I "Solntse - - amosfera" [Sun­ Atmosphere], etc . were carried out which enriched our knowledge of the Earth and near-Earth space. The structure of the polar atmo­

sphere under various geophysical conditions ~as studied with interna ­ tional cooperation in the complex
sphere
under various geophysical conditions ~as studied with interna ­
tional cooperation in the complex rocket experiments "Polyarnoye
utroll (Polar Morning) (1972, 1974), "Ozhoul ' ;'
(Joule) (1976, 1977)
and "Energeticheskiy balans" (Energy Balance) (1980).
With all
their apparent simplicity
(the cloud was generated,
it
was photographed,
the intensity of illumination in diff~rent spectral
bands was measured),
the
joint efforts
of a large number o~ scien ­
tists and specialists were required to conduct each of these exp~ri­
ments,
both
and later,
in the stage of preparation and laullching the r?cxets,
for processing and analyzing the experimental data f".-O­
tained.
In order to record the clouds,
;i.t is
necessary to establish
ground observation posts outfitted with a set of special photographic
3
and spectral equipment and to provide the~e posts wi~h the reliable communicat~ons system needed to
and spectral equipment and to provide the~e posts wi~h the reliable communicat~ons system needed to
and spectral equipment and to provide the~e posts wi~h the reliable
communicat~ons system needed to perform synchronous measurements.
Because the substances discharged are highly chemically active, a
whole series of technical problems must be solved in order to work
with them, such as creating special evaporators and devices to suc­
cessfully discharge the substances into the atmosphere, making 2~
safe to work with them during installation on rocket nose cones,
solving the problem of compatibility with other research i"nstruments
installed on the rocket, etc.
Special requirements are imposed on the
individuals and equip­
ment
involved when the experiments are conducted on polar latitudes
(e.g.,
on astrov Kheysa
in
Franz Josef Land,
where the
northernmost
atmospheric rocket soundiAg station
in the world is located).
Here
each l aunch requires not only a great deal
also courage.
of work,
but sometimes
As soon
as
the cloud appeared in the atmosphere,
the scientists
were
rewarded for all thei r efforts. Literally two- three
minutes
1
after the rocket is launched, when the evaporators begin to operate j
­ ,
at the r~quired altitude, an astonishing spectacle whose beauty is
probably only ~xceeded by the polar aurora begins to unfold in the
sky. A long blue- green wake forms in the atmosphere from the dis­
charge of trimethyl aluminum interspersed with red and orange sphere~ j
I
,
I
from the discharges
of lithium and sodiu~ 1 and
somewhere on the v~ry
,
top of the wake barium bursts out in a
light blue cloud.
It
is
rapidly separated into neutral and ionized parts which go off in
\
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'-

.

_

-

""~

-

~

.

~

M ~R_

•• _

_

_

_

_

••••

different directions. As time

grouped structure begins to be whimsically \~ansformed by the verti ­

cal structur~ of the wind, molecular and tUrbulent diffusion. After twenty to thirty minutes, only weak reflections which also soon

disappear are lett of the bright cloud.

passes,

this entire rather closely ­

The experiment was completed .and the

cloud had dispersed,

but it

was still

captured on

film and in the memory of thQ instruments which

r~corded it. Then the results of the observations are ana~yzed at the site itself and in laboratories. They are used to reconstruct the details of the pattern of movement of the cloud as a whole and

its individual parts through space, which makes it possible t o deter­ mine the wind velocity and direction in the investIgated range of a,ltitudes. The parameters of molecular and turbulEnt diffusion ilre estimated from the rate of dispersion of the cloud, and from the emission spect.rum - the ambient temperature, etc.

It 1s 10g1cal to raise the question or whether it is practically necessary to conduct experiments with artificial clouds and what parameters and properties shoul.d be investigated using them. Such questions always arise when one describes a parti~ular scientific trend or research method. For today any area of research must con­ tribute to the solution of significant scientific, technical and

economic problems.

Looking at

eY.periments with artificial

clouds

from this

view­

point,

one must admit that

they have alreddy contri~uted a great deal

5

admit that they have alreddy contri~uted a great deal 5 j 1 l i , I

j

1

l i

,

I

,

'j

<

1

"

,

1

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· ,

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to understanding the nature of the processes which take place in the upper atmosphere. ihe

to understanding the nature of the processes which take place in the

upper atmosphere. ihe first unique data about variations in wind

velocity and direct.io .l

sphere were obtainec ~y these experiments; the ro le of flow movements

in the thenuo­

cl nd

the density

and temperature

and interni'l} w.lves in forming the vertical structure of wind was

t he

mo s t

completa

demon s trated,

ll!.':.~~e was obtained and the upper limit of its existence in the

Earth ' s atmosphere was

magnetic fields in the ionosphere and ~agnetosphere were conducted based on the drift of ionized clouds, and their effect on the neutral component of the atmosphere t·/e.s estimated.

information about small - scale tur.bu ­

established. Studie~ of the electrical and

The

investigations carried

out showed that thp. state of the

upper atmos.phere depends on many geophysical and meteorological :iac­ tors, and the variations in its parameters are so great and diverse depending on the time of day, latitude, solar and geomagnetic activi ­

ty,

would be

For this reason, ground and satellite methods of studying the upper

atmosphere a l e being ~apidly developed today .

vide continuous monitoring of the state of the atmosphere on a global

season,

etc.,

that considering its costliness and complexity,

cover this wide

it

impossible to

diversity by rocket sounding _

These methods can pro­

;

,

--

scale . 'FUrther horizons are being discovered for. rocket experiments, 1 including for the artificial cloud method, and new research problems

are being set up. They include making subsatellite measurements, comparing the measurement and calibration data of the developing ground methods of sounding the upper atmosphere, and verifying the

theoretic a l models being de veloped. The problem of studying the

1

I I

6

the upper atmosphere, and verifying the theoretic a l models being de veloped. The problem of
the upper atmosphere, and verifying the theoretic a l models being de veloped. The problem of

" 'nature

of the propagation of pollutants

in the

20-120 kilometer laye~

as a result of mixing caused

important.

by small- scale turbulence

is equally

The solulion of these urgent problems will greatly deter­

mine t' .e direction

ot the

further development of experiments with

arti ficial

luminous and sDoke clouds.

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