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An IntroductIon to

Transport Phenomena
in Materials Engineering
second edItIon

DaviD R. GaskEll

An Introduction to
TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
in
MATERIALS ENGINEERING,
2nd Edition

An Introduction to
TRANSPORT
PHENOMENA
in
MATERIALS
ENGINEERING,
2nd Edition

DAVID R. GASKELL

MOMENTUM PRESS, LLC, NEW JERSEY

An Introduction to Transport Phenomena in Materials Engineering, 2nd Edition


Copyright Momentum Press, LLC, 2013
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted in any form or by any meanselectronic, mechanical, photocopy,
recording or any otherexcept for brief quotations, not to exceed 400 words, without
the prior permission of the publisher.
First edition published by Macmillan Publishing Company, New York;
Maxwell Macmillan Canada, Toronto; Maxwell Macmillan International in 1991
Second edition published in 2012 by
Momentum Press, LLC
222 East 46th Street
New York, NY 10017
www.momentumpress.net
ISBN-13: 978-1-60650-355-3 (hard cover, case bound)
ISBN-10: 1-60650-355-3 (hard cover, case bound)
ISBN-13: 978-1-60650-357-7 (e-book)
ISBN-10: 1-60650-357-X (e-book)
DOI: 10.5643/9781606503577
Cover design by Jonathan Pennell
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Printed in the United States of America

For Ivy Jean

Preface to the
Second Edition

The first edition of this textbook contained a large number of typographical errors.
In this, the second edition, a serious attempt has been made to correct these errors.
The major difference, however, between the first and this edition is that this edition
contains an additional chapter, Chapter 12, titled Boiling and Condensation. The
material presented in this chapter is particularly important in view of the current
interest in Renewal Energy Resources involving such devices as windmills and solar
panels. Developments in this field require a thorough familiarity with the phenomena
and mechanisms of boiling and condensation.

vii

ix

x Preface

Contents xi

List of Symbols xvii


1 Engineering Units and Pressure in Static Fluids 1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6

Origins of Engineering Units 1


Concept of Pressure 5
Measurement of Pressure 11
Pressure in Incompressible Fluids 15
Buoyancy 21
Summary 26
Problems 27

2Momentum Transport and Laminar Flow


of Newtonian Fluids 30
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7

Introduction 30
Newtons Lax of Viscosity 32
Conservation of Momentum in Steady-State Flow 36
Fluid Flow Between Two Flat Parallel Plates 40
Fluid Flow down in Inclined Plane 48
Fluid Flow in a Vertical Cylindrical Tube 53
Capillary Flowmeter 65
xi

xii Contents

2.8 Fluid Flow in an Annulus 69


2.9 Mean Residence Time 76
2.10 Calculation of Viscosity from the Kinetic Theory of Gases 78
2.11 Viscosities of Liquid Metals 90
2.12 Summary 96
Problems 98

3Equations of Continuity and Conservation


of Momentum and Fluid Flow Past
Submerged Objects 102
3.1 Introduction 102
3.2 Equation of Continuity 102
3.3 Conservation of Momentum 104
3.4Navier-Stokes Equation for Fluids of Constant Density
and Viscosity 108
3.5 Fluid Flow over a Horizontal Flat Plane 115
3.6Approximate Integral Method in Obtaining Boundary
Layer Thickness 117
3.7 Creeping Flow past a Sphere 125
3.8 Summary 132
Problems 133

4Turbelent Flow 135


4.1 Introduction 135
4.2 Graphical Representation of Fluid Flow 139
4.3 Friction Factor and Turbulent Flow in Cylindrical Pipes 141
4.4Flow Over a Flat Plate 153
4.5 Flow Past a Submerged Sphere 160
4.6Flow Past a Submerged Cylinder 163
4.7 Flow Through Packed Beds 167
4.8 Fluidized Beds 175
4.9 Summary 180
Problems 181

5Mechanical Energy Balance and Its Application


to Fluid Flow 185
5.1 Introduction 185
5.2 Bernoullis Equation 185

Contents xiii

5.3 Friction Loss, Ef 188


5.4Influence of Bends, Fittings, and Changes in the
Pipe Radius 190
5.5 Concept of Head 203
5.6Fluid Flow in an Open Channel 205
5.7 Drainage from a Vessel 207
5.8 Emptying a Vessel by Discharge Through an Orifice 209
5.9 Drainage of a Vessel Using a Drainage Tube 213
5.10 Emptying a Vessel by Drainage Through a Drainage Tube 215
5.11 Bernoulli Equation for Flow of Compressible Fluids 219
5.12 Pilot Tube 221
5.13 Orifice Plate 225
5.14 Summary 228
Problems 229

6Transport of Heat by Conduction 235


6.1 Introduction 235
6.2 Fouriers Law and Newtons Law 236
6.3 Conduction 238
6.4Conduction in Heat Sources 256
6.5 Thermal Conductivity and the Kinetic Theory of Gases 267
6.6General Heat Conduction Equation 274
6.7 Conduction of Heat at Steady State in Two Dimensions 278
6.8 Summary 289
Problems 290

7Transport of Heat by Convection 295


7.1 Introduction 295
7.2Heat Transfer by Forced Convection from a Horizontal Flat Plate
at a Uniform Constant Temperature 295
7.3Heat Transfer from a Horizontal Flat Plate with Uniform Heat Flux
Along the Plate 315
7.4Heat Transfer During Fluid Flow in Cylindrical Pipes 317
7.5Energy Balance in Heat Transfer by Convection Between
a Cylindrical Pipe and a Flowing Fluid 322
7.6Heat Transfer by Forced Convection from
Horizontal Cylinders 331
7.7Heat Transfer by Forced Convection from a Sphere 334
7.8 General Energy Equation 335
7.9 Heat Transfer from a Vertical Plate by Natural Convection 346

xiv Contents

7.10 Heat Transfer from Cylinders by Natural Convection 358


7.11 Summary 360
Problems 361

8Transient Heat Flow 365


8.1 Introduction 365
8.2 Lumped Capacitance Method; Newtonian Cooling 365
8.3 Non-Newtonian Cooling in Semi-infinite Systems 373
8.4Non-Newtonian Cooling in a One-Dimensional
Finite Systems 382
8.5Non-Newtonian Cooling in a Two-Dimensional
Finite Systems 394
8.6Solidification of Metal Castings 401
8.7 Summary 416
Problems 416

9Heat Transport by Thermal Radiation 421


9.1 Introduction 421
9.2 Intensity and Emissive Power 423
9.3 Blackbody Radiation 427
9.4Emissivity 431
9.5Absorptivity, Reflectivity, and Transmissivity 436
9.6Kirchhoffs Law and the Hohlraum 437
9.7Radiation Exchange Between Surfaces 439
9.8Radiation Exchange Between Blackbodies 450
9.9Radiation Exchange Between Diffuse-Gray Surfaces 453
9.10Electric Analogy 458
9.11Radiation Shields 460
9.12Reradiating Surface 463
9.13Heat Transfer from a Surface by Convection and Radiation 466
9.14 Summary 471
Problems 472

10Mass Transport by Diffusion in the Solid State 476


10.1 Introduction 476
10.2 Atomic Diffusion as a Random-Walk Process 476
10.3 Ficks First Law of Diffusion 480

Contents xv

10.4One-Dimensional Non-Steady-State Diffusion in a Solid; Ficks


Second Law of Diffusion 483
10.5Infinite Diffusion Couple 489
10.6One-Dimensional Diffusion in a Semi-infinite System Involving a
Change of Phase 491
10.7Steady-State Diffusion Through a Composite Wall 498
10.8Diffusion in Substitutional Solid Solutions 502
10.9Darkens Analysis 502
10.10Self-Diffusion Coefficient 506
10.11Measurement of the Interdifussion Coefficient: Boltzmann
Matano Analysis 510
10.12Influence of Temperature on the Diffusion Coefficient 514
10.13 Summary 518
Problems 520

11Mass Transport in Fluids 522


11.1 Introduction 522
11.2 Mass and Molar Fluxes in a Fluid 522
11.3Equations of Diffusion with Convection in a Binary
Mixture AB 524
11.4One-Dimensional Transport in a Binary Mixture of
Ideal Gases 527
11.5Equimolar Counterdiffusion 528
11.6One-Dimensional Steady-State Diffusion of Gas A Through
Stationary Gas B 529
11.7Sublimation of a Sphere into a Stationary Gas 536
11.8Film Model 538
11.9Catalytic Surface Reactions 539
11.10Diffusion and Chemical Reaction in Stagnant Film 542
11.11Mass Transfer at Large Fluxes and Large Concentrations 547
11.12Influence of Mass Transport on Heat Transfer in
Stagnant Film 550
11.13Diffusion into a Falling Film of Liquid 553
11.14Diffusion and the Kinetic Theory of Gases 560
11.15Mass Transfer Coefficient and Concentration Boundary Layer on a
Flat Plate 569
11.16Approximate Integral Method 573
11.17Mass Transfer by Free Convection 583
11.18Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer: Evaporate Cooling 586
11.19Chemical Reaction and Mass Transfer: Mixed Control 589
11.20Dissolution of Pure Metal A in Liquid B: Mixed Control 593
11.21 Summary 596
Problems 598

xvi Contents

12Condensation and Boiling 601


12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5

Introduction 601
Dimensionless Parameters in Boiling and Condensation 602
Modes of Boiling 603
Pool Boiling Correlations 606
Summary 612
Problems 612

Appendix AElementary and Derived SI Units


and Symbols 615
Appendix BPrefixes and Symbols for Multiples
and Submultiples of SI Units 617
Appendix CConversion from British and U.S. Units
to SI Units 618
Appendix DProperties of Solid Metals 620
Appendix EProperties of Nonmetallic Solids 623
Appendix FProperties of Gases at 1 Atm Pressure 627
Appendix GProperties of Saturated Liquids 635
Appendix HProperties of Liquid Metals 639
Recommended Readings 642
Answers to Problems 643
Index 651

xvii

xviii List of Symbols

List of Symbols xix

xx List of Symbols