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Tujuan Pembelajaran Umum

Pada akhir perkuliahan mahasiswa diharapkan dapat memahami dan mengasah
pengetahuan dan ketrampilan Bahasa Inggris yang meliputi apoligies, excuses yang
berkaitan dengan bidang ilmu keperawatan dan kesehatan.

2. Tujuan Pembelajaran Khusus

Mahasiswa mampu memahami dan menggunakan apologies, excuses, give advice
terkait dengan bidang keperawatan.
3. Pokok Materi




4. Uraian Materi

A. Apologies (saying sorry)

There's an old saying in English: Manners maketh man'. It means that having good
manners, or being polite to other people, will make you a successful and admirable person. In
this chapter we look at one important way of being polite how to say sorry for something
you've done wrong.
If you make mistakes, hurt someone, or do somethingbad, then you need to make an
apology. And in making an apology, be sure to say that you are sorry.To apologize is to tell
someone that you are sorry for having done something that has caused him/ her inconvenience
or unhappiness. We can apologies (say sorry) in different ways in different situation.

There are some expressionsofsaying sorry as below:

Language for saying sorry
To emphasise how you feel


I'm really sorry...

I'm really sorry, Pete, I didn't mean to lose your


I'm so sorry...

I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday, Oliver!

To say why you're sorry


Sorry about...

Sorry about the mess. I'll clear up later.

Sorry for...

Sorry for taking your DVD.

To say sorry without using the words 'I'm sorry'!

I'd like to apologise for...

I'd like to apologise for the way I spoke to you


Beside talking about expression of saying sorry, we are also try to find out what we can
say when someone says sorry to usfor something they've done wrong.There are lots of short
and friendly expressions that we can use to accept an apology in English. Below table will
show us how to accepting an apology:
Language for
accepting apologies


That's OK.

I'm really sorry, Pete, I didn't mean to hurt your feelings.

That's OK.

No problem.

I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday, Oliver!

No problem.

Don't worry about it.

I'm sorry about the trouble I've caused.

Don't worry about it.

No worries.

I'm sorry for drinking all the milk.

No worries.

After find out making and accepting apologies expression above, we can arrange some
dialogues using those expressions as below:
Example 1
Sari: Hy Elli!
Elli: Hy!
Sari: How are you? Long time no see.

Elli: I am fine. I was busy doing my script. I just had my graduation ceremony
Sari: Really? Why didnt you tell me?
Elli:Oh I am sorry. I forget to tell you.
Sari: So I missed your graduation ceremony?
Elli: Its fine.
Sari: No. Its not fine. I am your friend. How could you forget to tell me?
Elli:Forgive me please. I was in a rush, so that I forgot to tell you.
Sari: Okay. I can accept your excuse. But next time, you need to tell me anything.
Elli: Okay.
Example 2
Nurse : Im afraid visiting hours are over, sir
Visitor: My wifes in room 3B
Nurse : Sorry, youll have to come back in the morning.
Visitor : And leave her all alone overnight?
Nurse : Im afraid thats the policy, sir.
Visitor : Surely you can make an exception? What if she needs me in the night?
Nurse : Dont worry, well look after her. What she really needs is her rest.
Visitor : Some of her friends want to see her too. When can they come?
Nurse : Visiting hours are from 9 to 11 in the morning and 4 to 7 in the evening, but
Im afraid while your wife is on bedrest the doctor has requested that only
immediate family members come in to see her.

Excuses and promises

If the situation is quite important we usually add an explanation or excuse after the

apology. An excuse is the reason for the apology, which mayor may not be true. (If isnt true,
it should still be a reason that people will believe). Here are some common excuses:
Example 1
Jane: I apologize for my behaviour. I was under a lot of stress.
Jack:Never mind. I understand.
Example 2
Andy: Sorry I'm late. I was held up at the airport.
June: That's OK. I've just arrived myself.

Example 3
Shane: Sorry to keep you waiting. It won't happen again.
Bryan: Don't worry about it.


Expression of Gratitude or Thanks

Gratitude is an expression that we show or say to express grateful feeling to other

people, when speaking English, you say thanks very often please say thank you when
people give you something and give you compliment, etc.
Expression of Gratitude/ Thanking
The common expressions to thank somebody are :

Thank you


Emphatic ways of thanking:

Thank you very much

Thank you so much

Thank a lot

You can not say thank you a lot or thank lots

If you want to indicate way you are thanking, you can say:
Thank you for or Thank for
Eg :

Thank you for your coming

Thanks for your presence

If you want to make your gratitude more formal, you can use :

I want to thank you for .

I want to tell you how grateful I am .

Im extremely grateful to you for .

Im grateful for .

Expression to respond thanking or gratitude:

You're welcome
That is all right
That is OK
It is pleasure
It is no trouble
It is nothing

Not at allDon't mention it

After find out thanking or gratitude expression above, we can arrange some dialogues
using those expressions as below:
A : Its so hot here.
B : Thats right, its because the Air Conditioner is being repaired. its broken.
A : Do you have a fan or something else to cool down ?
B : I dont have it. But Ill try to open the window, hope it will be better.
A : Thank you very much
B : Not at all.

Examination 1
A. Please complete the text no. 1 until 8

A: I'm.............. sorry.
B: That's OK.
A: I'm sorry. .. late. I'm afraid I got .. ... up
B: That's OK. No
A: Sorry to ................ you waiting.
B: That's OK. Never
A: I'll carry your bags for you.
B: Oh, thank you. That's very of you.
A: I must ...... for missing the meeting.
B: That's OK. It doesn't
A: I'm busy right now but I won't be ............... .
B: .... mind. I'll come back later.
A: I ............... your pardon.
B: It's OK. Don't ...
A: I think the boss has got a real problem.
B: Yes, but don't worry, he'll out.

B. Complete these apology sentences with the correct word.

1. Please ______ me for interrupting you. I didnt realize you were on the phone.
2. I cant believe I forgot your birthday. Please dont be ______ at me.
3. Im so ______ Im late. There was so much traffic!
4. Oh no, how ______ of me! Do you have a cloth so I can clean it?
5. We ______ for the train delay. We will get you to your destination as soon as possible.

6. Im ______ but you are sitting in my seat.


1. Tujuan Pembelajaran Umum
Pada akhir perkuliahan mahasiswa diharapkan dapat memahami dan mengasah
pengetahuan dan ketrampilan Bahasa Inggris yang meliputi requests, invitation, and
suggestion yang berkaitan dengan bidang ilmu keperawatan dan kesehatan.
2. Tujuan Pembelajaran Khusus
Mahasiswa mampu memahami dan menggunakan request, invitation, and suggestions
terkait dengan bidangkeperawatan.
3. Pokok Materi




4. Uraian Materi

A. Requests and replies

Granting requests is to express a wish or ask for to grant a request in a polite or formal
way often followed by an infinitive or by a clause beginning with that. We use different
expressions to introduce a request it depends who we are talking to, and. The size of the
request (big or small). These are some of most common (thesmallrequests first), with
suitable positive and negative replies
- Asking someone to do something:

- The expression to accept it:

Can you give me the..?


Could you phone me at..?


Would you mind repairing my

All right



Do you think you could take me to

Its a pleasure

shop ?

- The expression to refuse it:

I wonder if you could write me an

Im afraid, I .. (give your reason).

application letter?

Im sorry, I cant.
Id like to, but(give your reason).

-Asking someone for something:

Can I borrow your pen?
Could I have a seat?
Cant I sit beside you?
May I use your computer?

Beside some expressions that we already mention above there is an another of

granting request.When you ask someone to do something for you, or ask if you can do
something, it's important to sound polite. Here are some of the common ways that you can do
- Asking someone to do something for you
"Could you open the door for me, please?"
"Would you mind opening the door for me, please?"
"Can you open the door for me, please?"
could and can are followed by the verb without to.
Would you mind is followed by the verb and -ing.
- Asking if you can do something
"Can I use your computer, please?"
"Could I borrow some money from you, please?"
"Do you mind if I turn up the heating?"
"Would you mind if I turned up the heating?"


Could is more polite that can.

Do you mind if is followed by the verb in the present tense, but
Would you mind if is followed by the verb in the past tense.
When you're using these two sentences, you don't use please. It's already polite!
After find out granting request and its replies, we can arrange some dialogues using those
expressions as below:

: Hey, merry.

Merry : Hi, put.


: What are you doing?

Merry : Im looking for my pencil. Its lose.


: Oh, dont worry fortunately I have two pencil here.

Merry : Really? Can i borrow your pencil?


: Of course

Merry : Thanks

: What I can do for you sir?

Customer : I am looking for a good pants. Would you mind take me some? so I can
compare each others.

: No, please wait a minute, I will take them for you. (Sales takes some
pants into storeroom)

Customer : Ok, thank you. But could you turn on the air conditioner please? I feel so

: My pleasure sir.

B. Invitation and replies

Sometimes, we have a situation and have to also invite some of friends to come. There
are many situations that probably happened in our daily life, such as meeting, birthday party,
graduation party etc. of course, we have to make an invitation for our guests. There will be
two answers for them who are invited by us, they may come or accept the invitation and they
may not come or decline the invitation. The situation will be divided into formal and
informal. There is differences expression that is use in the different context of situation.
Expressions to make, accept or decline in vitiation in formal situation are below:
Making invitation

Accepting invitation

Declining invitation

Would you like to?

I would very happy if?
We would be delighted if
Would you care to..?
We would be pleased if you
Would you care to?
Why dont you come to
Like to come to
Come and
Shall we come to
You must come to

I Would/will
That would be very nice
OK,I will be there !
Id like love to come.
All right.
Sure, I am coming
Thats very kind of you
Wed like very much to.
What a delightful idea
With the greatest pleasure
Thank you very much for
inviting me
Its delightful to.

Im very sorry, I dont

Think I can.
Id like to, but .
Im afraid Ive
Already promised.
Thank you for asking me, but
unfortunately, I cant.
Sort, I cant.
Id love to, but
I dont think I can.
In wish I could, but
Sorry, I am very busy
Sorry, may be next time
Thank you, but I cant
Sorry, I dont think I cant
make it
Im so sorry I can make it

After find out making invitation and its replies, we can arrange some dialogues using
those expressions as below:
Example 1
Andra : Hello Dian, how are you?

: I am alright, what about you?

Andra : I am fine, too. I got a brochure that there will be Sheila on 7 concert on next

: Whoah, I just knew that.

Andra : Yeah, thats why I tell you now, because you are a big fan of Sheila on 7. I
want you to come to the concert with me if you dont mind.

: Sure. Its my pleasure. And please save me in the crowded

Andra : Of course, I will.

Example 2
Etra : Hi Toni. Do you get a birthday invitation from Zarah?
Toni : Yeah, the party will be held tonight, right?
Etra : How about going there together after piano course?
Toni : Why not! What are you going to give to Zarah?
Etra : Hhmm, I think it will be great to give her a surprise.
Toni : Hhmmm, how about playing One Day song in her birthday?

Etra : What a great idea! Thats one of her favorite song.

Toni: Yeah, lets practice for tonights show.
Etra : But we have to wait until Zarah go home. Oh look, shes already picked up by her
Toni: Lets go come to the class!

C. Suggestions and replies

In daily communication, we often advice someone for something. We should know
what expressions are usually used for giving advice/suggestion. Here are some ways to
advice someone for something and how to respond it.
Giving Suggestion

I suggest/
recommend that

Responding the Suggestion





Yes, Id like/ love to.

I tried that, but

That sounds like a

good idea.

Thanks, but that

wont work/ help

You really
should/ought to

Thank you/Thanks

Youd better

Ill do/try that.

Why dont you go to Why didnt I think of

the dentist?

Thats a good idea,

No, Id rather not.
I dont feel like it.

How about playing


After find out giving suggestion and its replies, we can arrange some dialogues using
those expressions as below:
Asep : What is wrong with me nurse?
Nurse: Well, I think you are suffering insomnia
Asep : What is it, Nurse?
Nurse : That is the inability of sleep. Do you have many problems to think? What are
you thinking?
Asep : I am dizzy with my final project and my brother is hospitalized


Nurse: Thats the point. You have to avoid thinking too heavy. Try to relax yourself,
be calm and having enough sleep.
Asep : Do you have any suggestion for me? Is it dangerous?
Nurse: Yeah, maybe you can try to drink a glass of milk before you go to bed.
And doctor will give you some medicine to make you feel better.
Asep : Well, thank you Nurse.
Nurse: Dont mention it

Examination 2
A. Please complete the text no. 1 until 5

Complete these dialogues with a suitable word or phrase.

1. A: Could you. . that window? It's very hot in here.
B: Yeah, ..................... .
2. A: Clive and Sally are here at the moment and we were ................... if you'd like to
comeover and join us for a meal this evening?
B: Yes, I'd ..................... .
3. A: What ............ we do this evening?
B: I don't know really. Any ideas?
A: Why. . ...go to the cinema? We haven't been for ages.
B: Yeah, that's a .....................

A: OK. Where ....................we go on Saturday?

B: ............... going to the beach if the weather is good?
A: Yeah. Or we . .. try that new sports centre just outside town.
B: Mmm. I think I'd ................... go to the beach.
A: Yeah OK, if you .................. .

A: What. you like to do this weekend?

B: I don't. . ..... You decide.


B. Work in pairs and make conversation according to the situation

1. Linda looks so sad. Her puppy was killed by a car this morning. Give her
suggestion to buy another puppy.
2. Rico is a fourteen years old young boy. He usually drives his motorbike
fast. Give him a warning that he might be get an accident sometime.
3. Robert is a lazy and trouble maker student. He frequently cheats in
examination. Tell him to stop his bad behavior
4. Your wife has a good career in her office. She would be promoted as senior
manager. But she also a wonderful housewife. Sometime she has no time
for herself. Suggest her to take a holiday to Bali next month.


1. Tujuan Pembelajaran Umum
Pada akhir perkuliahan mahasiswa diharapkan dapat memahami dan mengasah
pengetahuan dan ketrampilan Bahasa Inggris yang meliputi giving advice, and making
suggestions yang berkaitan dengan bidang ilmu keperawatan dan kesehatan.
2. Tujuan Pembelajaran Khusus
Mahasiswa mampu memahami dan menggunakan give advice and making suggestions
terkait dengan bidang keperawatan.
3. Pokok Materi

Give advice

Making suggestions

4. Uraian Materi

A. Give advice
Giving Advice is the expression which is

You should..

given when we want to give suggestion to

You ought to..

another. Common characteristic in the

You must.

sentence of giving advice:

You have to.

You better.

You may.
Writers use should, ought to, had better, and might (want to) to describe ways to

solve problems, offer solutions, and say why the solutions are good.
These modals are common in magazine articles, advice columns, personal e-mails,
and other texts that give people advice.
Use had better only to give strong advice or warnings.
You had better apologize to the boss. If you do not, you will probably lose your job.

You can make advice stronger with really before or after should. When really goes
before should, it is even stronger.
They really should leave soon. You should really check the traffic report.
You can soften advice with maybe, perhaps, and I think at the beginning of
Perhaps he shouldnt wear those pants to the interview.
After find out giving advice expressions, we can arrange some dialogues using those
expressions as below:
Example 1

: Aliwhere are you? Wake up my dear. Its Monday morning.


:Im here mom, in my bed room.


: oh. There you are. Dont you go to campus?


: Mom, I have got a headache.


: Let me check. You have got a high temperature. You should stay at home.


: okay, mom.

Example 2

: I just cant tolerate her bad habit.


: Who are you talking about?


: My classmate.


: Whats wrong with her?


: She litters garbage anywhere she wants. What a bad habit she has!


: Dont complain. You should talk to her. You ought to remind her again
and again.

Helen : Thanks for the advice.

B. Making Suggestion
We make suggestions when deciding what to do with our friends, or giving them
advice on what they might do in a certain situation. Imagine that you would like to go out for
an evening with some friends. Which suggestions would you make?
There are a number of formulas used when making suggestions in English. Here are
some of the most common:
1) WHAT ABOUT/HOW ABOUT ... + Base form + -ING
What about going to the pictures tonight?
How about going to the pictures tonight?

2) WHY + Negative
Why don't we go to the swimming pool tomorrow?
3) IMPERATIVE: Let's + Base form
Let's go to the restaurant now!
We could visit Paris next week.
A. Use might (want to) and could to make You might schedule your interview in the
suggestions. They often express a choice of morning, or you could wait until the
possible actions.
Might is often used with want to.

You might want to think about volunteer
You might not want to ask that question in an







negative You could not ask that question in an



Use might not want to.

B. Why not and Why dont / doesnt are both Why dont you prepare questions for your
question forms and end with a question interview?







Why dont / doesnt and Why not are very Say: Why dont you practice for your
common in conversation. Do not use them interview?
in academic writing.

Write: Interviewees might want to practice for

their interviews.

After find out making suggestion expressions, we can arrange some dialogues using
those expressions as below:
Example 1
A : is something the matter, nuna ?
B : I dont feel very good.
A : oh ? whats wrong ?
B : my stomach feels a little upset.
A : maybe its something you ate. Why dont you go home and rest for awhile?
B : I think I will.

Example 2
Guillem: It's Rosie's birthday next week. Let's buy her a present!
Adri: Ok. Shall we give her a book?
Guillem: I'm not sure. She doesn't really like reading.
Adri: Well, why don't we get her a CD?
Guillem: Great idea. She really likes McFly.
Adri: OK. Let's buy her the new McFly CD.
You can try this picture to your patient!


Examination 3
A. Please complete the text no. 1 until 6

Why not.? Why dont you..?

If I were you, I would
I advice you (not) to
I suggest/advice that you (should)
It would be better if you.
Youd better (not)
B. Complete the conversations. Circle the correct words.
1. A I sent my rsum in for a job a few weeks ago, but I havent had any response.
B You could / Why dont you call the company.
2. A I have an interview next week, and Im worried about getting there on time. Traffic
is so bad.
B You might / Why not schedule the interview for the middle of the day, when traffic
isnt as bad?
3. A I cant fi nd a job in my fi eld. I really need some work, any work!
B You why not / might want to look for temporary work. Thats often easier to find.
4. A I have an interview tomorrow, but I dont know a lot about the company.

B You might want to / Why dont you do some research online. Ill help you.
5. A Im nervous about my interview on Monday. I dont know what theyll ask me.
B Well, we could / why not practice together. I can ask you questions.
6. A Im going to dress casually for my interview tomorrow. Its a very informal
B You could not / might not want to dress too casually. Its still a job interview.
7. A I have to drive to my interview tomorrow, and I always get lost when I drive.
B You might want to / Why dont you print out directions or use a GPS.
8. A I just had a good interview, and Im really interested in the job.
B Why dont / Why not you follow up with a thank-you note? Its always a good idea.
C. With a partner, practice making suggestions in the following situations:
1. Help your partner decide which item to buy.
2. Warn your partner against doing something.
3. Suggest that your partner change his/her plans.
4. Help your partner make up his/her mind.
5. Suggest doing an activity together.


Topic 4
Suggestion, Refusal, and Advice
1. Tujuan Pembelajaran Umum
Pada akhir perkuliahan mahasiswa diharapkan dapat memahami dan mengasah
pengetahuan dan ketrampilan Bahasa Inggris yang meliputi suggestion, refusal, and
advice yangberkaitandengan bidang ilmu keperawatan dan kesehatan.
2. Tujuan Pembelajaran Khusus
Mahasiswa mampu memahami dan menggunakan suggestion, refusal, and advice
terkait dengan bidang keperawatan.
3. Pokok Materi
4. Uraian Materi

1. Suggestion
Dialogue :
Its a holiday. Fred and lyn are trying to decide what to do with their day.
(Listen especially to how they make suggestion).
Fred : What do you want to do today?
Lynn : I don't know. What would you like to do?
Fred : Why don't we go to a movie?
Lynn : We could, but there will be lots of people there today.
Fred : Then how about going to a park?
Lynn : There will be lots of people there too.

: Well then, what do you think we should do? Lynn: I guess I'd like to stay home.

Focus point: Making suggestions:


1. Why don't we (+ verb)..." Also "Lets (+ verb) -- "How about (verb + ing)..." Also
"What about (verb + ing)....
2. Well then..." = "In that case..." --"I guess" for hesitant opinion.



(Listen especially to how they make refusal).

Bob: Are you busy on Friday night?

Ann: Why do you ask?

Bob: Are you interested in going to see a movie?

Ann: That would be nice, but I should really stay at home and work.

Bob: How about next weekend?

Ann: Im not sure right now. Lets wait and see.

Focus point: Refusing politely

1. Bob likes Ann and wants to invite her out on a date. Ann does not like Bob very
much, but doesnt want to be rude. Listen especially to how Ann puts Bob off.


(Listen especially to how they make stronger advice).

Ken: How are you doing today?

Jan: Not too well; I have a bad cold. My head hurts and I have a runny nose.

Ken: That's too bad. Why don't you go see a doctor?

Jan: I don't think it's that serious.

Ken: You can never tell. I really think you should see a doctor.

Jan: Maybe I'll at least go home and take the day off.

Focus point: Stronger advice:


1. Why don't you + (present tense verb)".

2. For fairly strong advice. -- "I really think you should + (present tense verb)." For
strong advice.
Asking and Making Suggestions
Asking for Suggestion
- Can (Could) you open the door, please?

Making suggestions
- Yes, sure.

- Whats the matter?

- Yes, is that all right?

- Will you let me do that job

- Go ahead.

- Is it all right if I leave one hour early?

- Certainly you can.

- I wonder if I can smoke here.

- No, I afraid you cant.

- Can I hand my report tomorrow?

- Yes, but dont be too late.

- May I use your phone?

- I m afraid not.

- Do you mind if I open the window?

- Of course.

- Would it possible for me to do that job?

- Im sorry ..............................................

- Do you think you could lend me 100

- Im afraid I cant.


- Yes, here you are.

- May I borrow your pen?

- I don know. Lets read the directions.

- How do I start the computer?

A. Asking and Making Suggestions


How about eating out this evening?

What about going to see the doctor?


Shall we go shopping?
Shall we take a trip to Bali this weekend?


Why dont we go shopping?

Why dont we take a trip to Bali this weekend?


Why dont you go to see the doctor?

Lets go shopping?
Lets take a trip to Bali this weekend.
Lets go to see the doctor.


Lets go to the cinema, shall we?

Lets go to the party, shall we?


Can you open the door, please?


Could you take your umbrella?

Can I have these postcards, please?
B. Accepting and Refusing Suggestions
2.1. Accepting Suggestions
Good idea.

Thats a good idea.


Thats great.

Yes, thats marvelous.

O.K. Lets go.

2.2 Refusing Suggestions

No, I dont think so.
Well, I dont really want to.
Im sorry. I cant do it.
Conversation 1
A: Excuse me; could you give me some change for the machine? (Asking for suggestions)
B: Yes, is that all right. (Making suggestions)
A: Thats fine. Thank you very much.
Conversation 2.
A: Oh, no!
B: Whats wrong?

(Asking for suggestions)

A: The cash register is out of order.

B: Lets call Ms. Rivas.

(Making suggestions)

A: Good idea.
Conversation 3
A: Were free this evening. Lets have a swim, shall we?

= Asking for suggestions

B: Im sorry. Ive got a headache.

= Making suggestions