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SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS

by R.A.Deshpande,

Power System Division


Central Power Research Institute

Necessity of short-circuit current


calculation
To select equipment of proper short-circuit
current rating
To ensure that the protective equipment like
breakers and fuses etc are of correct rating
To set the relay setting for correct operation of
protective equipment

Necessity of short-circuit current


calculation
whenever there is change or up gradation in
network, there will be change in short-circuit
current values.
This necessitates recalculation of shortcircuit currents

Duration of short-circuit current


Longer the duration, severe the problem
associated with system stability
Longer the duration, more the thermal stress
I2t
Hence desirable to interrupt the short-circuit
current at the earliest

Duration of short-circuit current


The magnitude of current flowing through the
power system after a fault varies with the time
until steady-state condition is reached.
If the protective circuit has to clear the fault
before the steady state is reached, it is
necessary to calculate this interrupting
current value

Effect of Network Parameters and


instance of fault on fault current
It depends upon whether the circuit is resistive
or inductive;
It depends upon whether the fault occurs at
the instance of voltage peak or voltage zero.

Purely resistive network

Main : Graphs
150
100
50
0
-50
-100
-150
150
100
50
0
-50
-100
-150
0.080

voltage

current

0.100

0.120

0.140

0.160

0.180

0.200

0.220

0.1 [H]

RRL

Fault

Main : Graphs
150
100
50
0
-50
-100
-150

current

100

voltage

-60
0.075

0.100 0.125

0.150 0.175

0.200

0.225 0.250

0.275 0.300

0.325

Main : Graphs
150
100
50
0
-50
-100
-150

current

100

voltage

-60
0.075

0.100

0.125

0.150

0.175

0.200

0.225

0.250

0.275

0.300

0.325

Short-circuit Current
i(t) = Vmax
Z

{ sin ( t + )
- sin ( -). e t*(R/L) }

= tan-1 (L/R)
= angle at the instance when fault
occurs

Short-circuit Current
Case a : - = 0

Symmetrical current

Case b: - = /2

Asymmetrical current

Case a corresponds to voltage peak closing


Case b corresponds to voltage zero closing

Faults at the terminals of the


Generators
The reduction in current from its value at the
onset, owing to the gradual decrease in the
magnetic flux caused by the reduction of the
e.m.f. of the induction current
the variation of current with time, I(t), comes close to
the three discrete levels of current, I", I' and I, the
sub transient, transient and steady-state currents,
respectively. The corresponding values of direct
axis reactance are denoted by Xd, Xd and Xd,

Calculation of short-circuit current


the presence of the DC component;
the behaviour of the generator under short
circuit conditions

Calculation of short-circuit current


I peak = I dc + I ac
= 0.9 x 2 x Vrms/ Z + 0.9 x 2 x Vrms/ Z
= 1.2727 (I rms sym + I rms sym)
= 2.55 I rms sym

Contribution of different electric


equipment to short-circuit current

Generators
Power Utility grid
Power Transformer
Cables & Conductors
Motors

Calculation Methods
MVA Method
Impedance Method

1500 MVA
33 kV
R=0

1500/1

544.5

33 x 33/2.0

200

20/0.10

C1

1500

Line

2.0 ohms

#1
Fault

Fault

R=0

#2

20 MVA
33/11 kV, 10%

15 MVA
Xd = 0.2

75

Effective MVA at 11 kV = 208.28


Isc = 208.28/(3 * 11)
= 10.93 kA

15/0.2

Impedance Method
Z grid = 33 * 33 / 1500 = 0.726 ohms
Z line = 2 ohms
Z tfr = 0.1 * 33 * 33 /20 = 5.445 ohms
Z total = 8.171 ohms
Converted to 11 kV side Z total = 8.171/9
= 0.908 ohms
Z motor = 0.2 * 11 * 11 /15 = 1.613 ohms

Impedance Method
Total impedance = 0.581 ohms
I sc = 11 / (3 * 0.581)
= 10.93 kA rms
Z can be replaced with R+jX , then
I sc peak = 2 * Isc rms * ( 1 + e /(X/R))

Classification of faults

Single line to ground


Line to line short-circuit
Double line to ground short-circuit
Three phase short-circuit
Three phase to ground short-circuit

Classification of faults
The first three types of fault are
asymmetrical fault
The last two types of fault are
symmetrical fault

Unsymmetrical faults
Sequence impedance called as positive
sequence, negative sequence and zero
sequence are used for short-circuit calculation
These sequence impedances are designated
as Z1, Z2 and Z0

Unsymmetrical faults
Generated voltages are of positive
sequence only
positive sequence network : voltage source
in series with +ve seq impedance
Overhead line circuits and cables: +ve & -ve
seq impedances are equal
following ratio may be used as
guideline if actual values are not known

Unsymmetrical faults
Z0 /Z1 =2 when no earth wire present
Z0 /Z1 =3.5 when earth wire present
Z0 /Z1 =5.5 for double circuit line
Z0 /Z1 = 1 ~ 1.25 for single core cable
Z0 /Z1 = 3 ~ 5

for three core cable

Unsymmetrical faults
Transformers : Z1= Z2
Z0 depends on connection

Fault

R=0
B

Va = 0 ; Ib = Ic = 0
Ia1 = Ia2 = Iao
Ia1= V/( Z1+Z2+Z0)

Fault

R=0
B

Ia = 0 ; Ib = - Ic
Vb= Vc
Va1 = Va2
Ia1= V/( Z1+Z2)
Ia1= -Ia2
Ia0 = 0 so Ia1+Ia2+Iao = 0
Ib= -Ic = a2 Ia1+aIa2+Iao

Fault

C
R=0
B

Ia = 0 ; Ib = - Ic
Vb= Vc = 0
Va1 = Va2 = Va0
Ia1= V/( Z1+Z2 Z0/ (Z2+Z0))
Ia1= -Ia2
Ia0 = 0 so Ia1+Ia2+Iao = 0
Ib= -Ic = a2 Ia1+aIa2+Iao

Important points

Short-circuit currents are calculated at time


t = 0.

The contact or transition resistance at the


point of short circuit is neglected. It is
taken as zero that is the circuit is
considered to be solidly shorted.

Important points
Sometimes it may be necessary to
determine both the resistance and
reactance component, say for designing
distance protection scheme. Whereas the
magnitude of short-circuit current is
sufficient for over current protection scheme.
If the resistance component is less than 0.3
times reactance component, the calculations
can be made by taking only reactance.

Important points
When the short-circuit currents are
calculated, the load currents in the circuit
prior to short-circuit are neglected, the line is
considered to be unloaded.

**

NODES
NODE01 UB=400 AREA=1
NODE02 UB=400 AREA=1
END
LINES
NODE01 NODE02 NO=1 TYPE=12 R=0.00115 X=0.01734
B=0.6438
NODE01 NODE03 NO=1 TYPE=12 R=0.00525 X=0.08290
B=3.293
END

TRANSFORMERS
NODE04 NODE14 SN=1000 UN1=400 UN2=220 ER12=0.001
EX12=0.05
NODE12 NODE15 SN=1000 UN1=400 UN2=220 ER12=0.001
EX12=0.05
END
SHUNT IMPEDANCES
NODE02 Q=300 UN=400
END

1DATE 6 OCT 2009 TIME 17:05:00


---------------------------------------------------CASE
1
FAULT 3PSG F1 AT NODE12
TOTAL VOLTAGES AND/OR CURRENTS
---------------------------------------------------NODE NODE12 PHASE
LINE NODE04 NODE12
LINE NODE12 NODE05
TR2 NODE12 NODE15
FAUL F1

1
1
0

0.000 KV
PHASE
PHASE
PHASE
PHASE

2.316 KA
2.637 KA
1.113 KA
6.047 KA

NODE NODE04 PHASE


LINE NODE03
LINE NODE03
LINE NODE11
LINE NODE04
LINE NODE04
TR2 NODE04
SYNC GEN04

NODE04
NODE04
NODE04
NODE12
NODE05
NODE14

1
2
1
1
1
0

126.590 KV
PHASE
PHASE
PHASE
PHASE
PHASE
PHASE
PHASE

1.180 KA
1.180 KA
0.734 KA
2.264 KA
0.555 KA
1.304 KA
0.373 KA