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DELISTING TARGETS FOR THE GRAND CALUMET RIVER AREA OF

CONCERN: FINAL REPORT


Submitted to
Indiana Department of Environmental Management
August 1, 2008

Submitted by:

2200 Commonwealth Blvd, Suite 300


Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Ph: 734-769-3004
Fax: 734-769-3164

This project was funded by financial support from the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s
Great Lakes National Program Office.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We would like to thank the US Environmental Protection Agency’s Great Lakes National Program Office
(GLNPO) for funding, and the Indiana Department of Environmental Management for successfully
implementing this important initiative. Thanks are due to Mr. Tony Kizlauskas (GLNPO’s Contract
Manager) and Mr. John Perrecone (GLNPO’s Remedial Action Plan RAP liaison) for facilitating various
administrative components of this project.

Many experts contributed their time, effort, and talent toward the preparation of this report. We would like
to thank the following people for serving on the Technical Committee, and helping prepare this report:

• Ms. Beth Admire, Indiana Department of Environmental Management


• Mr. Thomas Anderson, Save the Dunes
• Mr. Pete Baranyai, East Chicago Sanitary District
• Mr. Dave Behrens, U.S. Steel
• Professor Young Choi, Purdue University – Calumet
• Mr. John Fekete, Citizen
• Ms. Anne Kominowski, Indiana Department of Environmental Management
• Ms. Hala Kuss, Indiana Department of Environmental Management
• Professor Gary Lamberti, University of Notre Dame
• Ms. Vicky Meretsky, Indiana University
• Mr. Mike Molnar, Indiana Department of Natural Resources
• Mr. Dan Plath, NiSource
• Dr. Alan Resetar, Field Museum – Chicago
• Ms. Karen Rodriguez, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency – GLNPO
• Dr. Robin Scribailo, Purdue University – North Central
• Mr. Jim Smith, Indiana Department of Environmental Management
• Mr. Dan Sparks, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
• Mr. Steve West, Indiana Department of Environmental Management

Project Team:
• Ms. Danielle Barnett, Indiana Department of Environmental Management
• Mr. Mark Elster, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
• Ms. Sarah Neville, Environmental Consulting & Technology, Inc. (Project Scientist)
• Mr. Roy Schrameck, Environmental Consulting & Technology, Inc. (Project Manager)
• Dr. Sanjiv Sinha, Environmental Consulting & Technology, Inc. (Project Director)

Delisting Targets for Grand Calumet River AOC: Final Report


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section Page

1.0 Executive Summary ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

2.0 Project Introduction and Rationale-------------------------------------------------------------------3

3.0 Grand Calumet River: Background ------------------------------------------------------------------6


3.1 Introduction ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6
3.2 Existing Beneficial Use Impairments --------------------------------------------------------------7
3.3 Sources of Environmental Stress ------------------------------------------------------------------10
3.4 Trends in Water Quality-------------------------------------------------------------------------------14
3.5 Trends in Biotic Communities -----------------------------------------------------------------------16
3.6 Developments Towards Delisting ------------------------------------------------------------------18

4.0 Delisting Targets: Where We Want To Be ---------------------------------------------------------25


4.1 Applicability of State Water Quality Standards to Delisting Targets ----------------------25
4.2 Summary of Delisting Targets Adopted in Other Areas of Concerns
and Their Relevance to Grand Calumet River AOC ------------------------------------------26
4.2.1 Restrictions on Fish and Wildlife Consumption ----------------------------------------28
4.2.2 Tainting of Fish and Wildlife Flavor--------------------------------------------------------29
4.2.3 Restrictions on Drinking Water Consumption, or Taste and Odor ----------------29
4.2.4 Added Costs to Agriculture and Industry-------------------------------------------------30
4.2.5 Fish Tumors and Deformities ---------------------------------------------------------------31
4.2.6 Bird or Animal Deformities or Reproduction Problems-------------------------------32
4.2.7 Degradation of Benthos ----------------------------------------------------------------------33
4.2.8 Restrictions on Dredging Activities --------------------------------------------------------34
4.2.9 Eutrophication or Undesirable Algae------------------------------------------------------35
4.2.10 Degradation of Phytoplankton and Zooplankton Populations -------------------36
4.2.11 Beach Closures ------------------------------------------------------------------------------36
4.3 Proposed Grand Calumet River Delisting Targets for Each BUI---------------------------37
4.3.1 Restrictions on Fish and Wildlife Consumption ----------------------------------------37
4.3.2 Tainting of Fish and Wildlife Flavor--------------------------------------------------------38
4.3.3 Restrictions on Drinking Water Consumption, or Taste and Odor ----------------38
4.3.4 Added Costs to Agriculture and Industry-------------------------------------------------39
4.3.5 Fish Tumors and Deformities ---------------------------------------------------------------39
4.3.6 Bird or Animal Deformities or Reproduction Problems-------------------------------40
4.3.7 Degradation of Benthos ----------------------------------------------------------------------40
4.3.8 Restrictions on Dredging Activities --------------------------------------------------------41
4.3.9 Eutrophication or Undesirable Algae------------------------------------------------------41
4.3.10 Degradation of Phytoplankton and Zooplankton Populations --------------------42
4.3.11 Beach Closures -------------------------------------------------------------------------------42

5.0 Pathway to Restoration: How Do We Get There? -----------------------------------------------44

Delisting Targets for Grand Calumet River AOC: Final Report


5.1 Basic Implementation Concepts --------------------------------------------------------------------44
5.2 Timeline of the Implementation ---------------------------------------------------------------------45

6.0 Conclusion and Recommendations -----------------------------------------------------------------46

7.0 References ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------47

LIST OF TABLES
3-1: Summary of Fourteen Beneficial Impairments in the Grand Calumet River AOC -------------7
3-2: Metal Concentrations in the Grand Calumet Area of Concern in mg/kg -------------------------11
3-3: Detected Sample Results, Indiana Harbor and Canal, East Chicago, Indiana-----------------13
3-4: Beneficial Use Impairments Guidelines for Listing and Delisting ----------------------------------19
4-1: Grand Calumet River AOC BUIs and Indiana Designated Uses-----------------------------------25
4-2: Muskegon Lake & Bear Lake Delisting Targets for Eutrophication or Undesirable Algae --35

LIST OF FIGURES
3.1: The Grand Calumet River AOC -----------------------------------------------------------------------------A-1
3.2: Grand Calumet River AOC: 1951 Land Use-------------------------------------------------------------A-2
3.3: Grand Calumet River AOC: 1990 Land Use-------------------------------------------------------------A-3
3.4: Grand Calumet River AOC: NPDES Outfall Locations -----------------------------------------------A-4
3.5: Grand Calumet River AOC: June 1992 Ground Water Levels--------------------------------------A-5
3.6: Grand Calumet River AOC: September 1992 Ground Water Levels -----------------------------A-6
3.7: Grand Calumet River AOC: Sediment Sampling Locations -----------------------------------------A-6

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1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


This report summarizes the development of delisting targets for the Grand Calumet River Area of Concern
(AOC). The goal of this project was to establish endpoints that define a rehabilitated watershed and allow
the delisting of the Grand Calumet River AOC under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. Delisting
targets also support and reinforce planning and implementation of watershed rehabilitation efforts, thus
providing positive social and economic impact for the region. The process of delisting AOCs is defined by
policies and guidance established by The International Joint Commission (IJC), U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (USEPA), and Environment Canada. These policies are, in turn, carried out by the
states and provinces wherein the AOCs reside. The Indiana Department of Environmental Management
(IDEM) has collaborated with the Citizens Advisory for the Remediation of the Environment (CARE)
Committee, various local and regional governments, universities, and citizens within the Grand Calumet
AOC in addressing the impairments to the watershed and in the development of these targets.

Changes in land use within the river basins feeding the Grand Calumet River since European settlement of
the region around 1830 have redefined the watershed and resulted in degradation to natural features and
functions. The cumulative effects of this long term degradation resulted in portions of the Grand Calumet
River watershed being listed as a Great Lakes AOC. The Grand Calumet River AOC - consisting of the
east branch of the river, a portion of the west branch, the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal, and the near shore
area of Lake Michigan - was listed in the mid 1980s based on the identification of all fourteen Beneficial
Use Impairments (BUIs) that had been defined by the International Joint Commission (IJC) as potentially
applying to Great Lakes. The fourteen Beneficial Use Impairments for the Grand Calumet River AOC are
as follows:

• Restrictions on fish and wildlife consumption


• Tainting of fish and wildlife flavor
• Restrictions on drinking water consumption, or taste and odor
• Added costs to agriculture or industry
• Degraded fish and wildlife populations
• Fish tumors and deformities
• Bird or animal deformities or reproduction problems
• Degradation of benthos
• Restrictions on dredging activities
• Eutrophication or undesirable algae
• Beach closings
• Degradation of aesthetics
• Degradation of phytoplankton and zooplankton populations
• Loss of fish and wildlife habitat

Because parallel efforts are underway to address some of the BUIs, this project addresses all the above
BUIs except:

• Degradation of Fish and Wildlife Populations


• Loss of Fish and Wildlife Habitat
• Degradation of Aesthetics

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The IDEM and its local collaborators have already made progress toward addressing many of these
impairments. Significant milestones include the completion of a Stage One Remedial Action Plan in 1991;
submittal of a Stage 2 Plan in 1997; development of a Stage 2.5 Plan; completion of a Grand Calumet
River Natural Resources Damage Assessment that culminated in a settlement agreement in 2004;
establishment of programs to reduce combined sewer overflows and implement storm water BMPs to
reduce discharge impacts; and the investigation and remediation of contaminated sediments at several
locations in the watershed.

This project to develop delisting targets has drawn from previous efforts within the Grand Calumet River
and its tributaries, as well as from efforts in other Great Lakes AOCs. The project team reviewed Indiana
Water Quality Standards and the delisting/restoration targets that have been developed in other states to
determine the applicability of these targets to the Grand Calumet River AOC. During this review, it became
apparent that although targets developed in other AOCs and generic state-wide criteria were good starting
points, the final targets developed for an AOC had to be site specific and adapted to the specific
circumstances associated with the watershed under consideration. This philosophy was utilized in tailoring
the Grand Calumet River AOC delisting targets that were reviewed and adopted by members of the
steering committee for this project. Draft delisting targets for eleven of the fourteen BUIs within the AOC
were initially developed by Environmental Consulting & Technology, Inc. (ECT), the project consultants.
The project also reviewed the current state of the river based on existing data and available reports. No
additional data was collected as a part of this project. The delisting targets were then reviewed by
designated technical experts and refined for presentation to the project steering committee before
incorporation into this document.

The delisting targets presented in this report are measurable and definable endpoints established
specifically for the Grand Calumet River AOC. In some cases, the targets are conditional, offering
alternative methods of evaluation to achieve restoration goals. The discussion of the targets identifies
specific actions necessary to apply the target and determine when the criteria have been met. The next
generation RAP, and subsequent iterations, will help identify and prioritize BUIs that can be most easily
delisted using these targets, and will identify the steps necessary to work towards implementing the
restoration for all BUIs. This next generation RAP will constitute a restoration work plan that will address
restoration alternatives, reference sites, schedule, estimated costs, funding sources, and monitoring
networks.

Once it has been established that delisting targets have been met or that progress is being made to meet
delisting goals, a BUI or sub-watershed can be recommended for delisting or placement in the “recovery”
stage. A RAP implementation committee, working in consultation with the public and stakeholders, would
then submit a recommendation to delist the AOC, or portions thereof, and complete a Draft Final RAP
Stage 3 Report to EPA and IDEM. The recommendation will also spell out the roles and responsibilities for
implementation of the RAP.

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2.0 PROJECT INTRODUCTION AND RATIONALE


Throughout the Great Lakes, there is renewed interest in determining goals and targets for “delisting” Areas
of Concern (AOCs) (i.e. determining at what point impaired beneficial uses can be considered restored).
Although the process of listing and delisting AOCs has been largely defined by the International Joint
Commission (IJC) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), this renewed interest in delisting is
especially relevant for the Grand Calumet River AOC, where active involvement by the IDEM, CARE,
various local and regional governments, universities and citizens’ groups has resulted in significant
progress. This collaborative effort has resulted in several reports and initiatives that have established the
foundation upon which this current delisting effort is based. Specifically, the 1991 and 1997 Stage 1 and
Stage 2 Remedial Action Plans and the current draft Stage 2.5 Plan, the Grand Calumet River Natural
Resources Damage Assessment (NRDA) settlement document and related studies/documents, and the
TMDL technical documents have, among others, provided valuable site specific information to support the
development of meaningful restoration endpoints.

It is important to note that the development of delisting targets is a culmination of efforts at the international,
federal, state, and community levels. Thus, the development of delisting targets that are accepted by
Indiana, the USEPA, other agencies, regional and local governments, and the public was the major goal of
this project.

The process of delisting AOCs is defined by policies and guidance established by the IJC, USEPA, and
Environment Canada. These policies are, in turn, carried out by the states and provinces wherein the
AOCs reside. The original listing of Great Lakes AOCs was based on the presence of beneficial use
impairments within each candidate area. The IJC lists fourteen Beneficial Use Impairments (BUIs) that
may apply to Great Lakes Areas of Concern, all fourteen of which were identified as impaired in the Grand
Calumet River AOC Remedial Action Plan. Annex 2 of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement
(GLWQA) provided no guidance for listing or delisting BUIs. The first set of guidance for delisting target
was put forth in 1991 by IJC. These criteria were fairly general, and led to a more specific set of guidance
published by the USEPA in 2001. In addition to the generalized guidance published by EPA, the states of
Michigan (April 2006) and Ohio (2005) have developed generic statewide criteria that can be applied to
AOCs within these jurisdictions. These and other AOC-specific criteria were considered in the
development of delisting targets for the Grand Calumet River AOC.

The 14 Beneficial Use Impairments for the Grand Calumet River AOC are as follows:

• Restrictions on fish and wildlife consumption


• Tainting of fish and wildlife flavor
• Restrictions on drinking water consumption, or taste and odor
• Added costs to agriculture or industry
• Degraded fish and wildlife populations*
• Fish tumors and deformities
• Bird or animal deformities or reproduction problems
• Degradation of benthos
• Restrictions on dredging activities
• Eutrophication or undesirable algae

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• Beach closings
• Degradation of aesthetics*
• Degradation of phytoplankton and zooplankton populations
• Loss of fish and wildlife habitat*

*not part of this project or report

The goal of developing delisting targets is to provide an endpoint definition of “how clean is clean” that will
lead to the creation of a plan for the restoration of the watershed. There are environmental, social, and
economic consequences of the current BUIs of the Grand Calumet River AOC that can be addressed
through the delisting of the AOC. For example, a 2003 study by the Northeast-Midwest Institute estimated
that remediation of contaminated sediment in Waukegan Harbor, Illinois could increase individual property
values by a range of $21,000 to $53,000. In Thunder Bay, Sustainable Futures et al. (1996) estimated that
$50 million in investments in economic development would ensue from cleanup of contaminated sediments
in this AOC (Sediment Priority Action Committee 2000).

Restoration of the Grand Calumet River AOC will result in benefits that can be described both qualitatively
and quantitatively (e.g., in terms of economic benefits). Restoration is expected to enhance the beneficial
uses of the watershed, including swimming, boating, transportation, tourism, fish for recreational catch and
consumption, wildlife viewing, clean and healthy drinking water, biodiversity and genetic preservation. In
addition, the quality of life is improved with enhanced aesthetics from the natural beauty of the watershed.
Many people experience the environment in positive ways, such as a relief from the stresses and pressures
of urban life or by having a spiritual experience or a connection with nature. In general, we can attribute
many social and psychological benefits to preserving the natural beauty of our environment.

There are measurable and immeasurable benefits to restoring the AOC in terms of human health effects. At
beaches with degraded water quality associated with storm water runoff or sewage discharges, bacterial
and parasitic infections can be measured in direct medical costs or in sick days off of work for afflicted
adults or caring for sick children. Restrictions on fish consumption lead to losses in market revenues from
fisheries, and consumption of contaminated fish can cause health effects. Restoration should lead to
improvements in human health that cannot easily be quantified due to a lack of our understanding or ability
to establish cause-and-effect from exposure to biological and chemical agents from contaminated sites.
For example, gastroenteritis can result from swallowing contaminated water while swimming, or from eating
contaminated food. The relative contribution of cumulative exposures to chemicals in the environment to
major disease processes is very difficult to assess. PCBs, one of the major contaminants in sediments and
fish tissues in the Grand Calumet River AOC, contributes to several health effects including thyroid
problems, reproductive and immune system impairments, decreased IQ in children of mothers with PCBs
stored in their bodies, diabetes, and cancer. Mercury, another contaminant in sediments and fish tissues
that lead to the listing of the AOC, is known to cause neurological and developmental effects.

It is equally important to reduce or eliminate chemical discharges into our waterways. Chemicals released
to the environment cycle between air, soil, water, sediments, and biota and are transported globally through
the atmosphere. Thus, we cannot eliminate our exposure to toxic chemicals by merely avoiding direct
contact with known contaminated sites. Routes of exposure to toxic chemicals include dermal, oral, and
respiratory/inhalation from swimming and other recreational uses. An additional route of exposure could

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result from ingestion exposure to chemicals in drinking water since the Grand Calumet River AOC drains
into Lake Michigan which is a source of drinking water for many communities.

A high biological loading associated with nutrients from fertilizers, storm water runoff, and erosion can lead
to undesirable algal blooms which can affect boating and water quality. Algae can increase the natural
organic matter content of drinking water source water, which upon disinfection with chlorine, may form toxic
disinfection byproducts. Algae can also add an undesirable taste-and-odor to the water.

Ecosystem health is important to humans as well as to the fish and wildlife. Maintaining genetic diversity
and healthy populations of fish and wildlife will result in immediate as well as long term beneficial uses.

Restrictions on dredging directly and indirectly impact navigational uses of the AOC related to recreational
uses and commercial transportation.

Lastly, the development of delisting targets for the BUIs within the AOC is an essential part of the next RAP
update. These targets will be utilized to specify measurable endpoints that will enable the IDEM and
associated stakeholders to know when the remediation in the AOC has accomplished the specified RAP
goals. Each BUI will be evaluated with respect to the applicability of that BUI to each of the AOC sub-
watersheds as part of this project. This information will be utilized in the RAP update to determine which
targets should be applied where within the AOC.

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3.0 GRAND CALUMET RIVER: BACKGROUND


3.1 INTRODUCTION
The Grand Calumet AOC is located approximately fifteen miles south of Chicago in the most northwestern
portion of Indiana (see Figure 3.1). The AOC is roughly thirteen square miles and encompasses the east
branch of the Grand Calumet River, a small segment of the west branch, and the Indiana Harbor Ship
Canal. As the River flows through the heavily industrialized cities of Gary, East Chicago, and Hammond it
passes through the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal eventually draining into Lake Michigan (Environmental
Protection Agency). For this reason, the near shore of the Lake is also included in the AOC. As mentioned,
a considerable portion of the land surrounding the aforementioned water bodies consists of highly
industrialized land use, primarily dominated by the steel industry with three steel manufacturers contributing
90% of all industrial point source discharges. Contrasting the land use in 1951 (Figure 3.2) and 1990
(Figure 3.3), urbanization seems to have resulted in a remarkable loss of non-forested wetlands in the AOC
(Environmental Protection Agency). Within this AOC there are five Superfund Sites, more than 400
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Sites, 23 companies which either treat, store, or dispose
of hazardous waste, 462 underground storage tanks, of which 150 are reporting to be leaking, four oil
refineries, six crude oil pipelines, and 18 petroleum product companies (The Remedial Action Plan for the
Indiana Harbor Canal, the Grand Calumet River, and the Nearshore Lake Michigan Stage I 9). Today, 90%
of the river's flow originates as municipal and industrial effluent, cooling and process water, and storm
water overflows (Figure 3.4). Although there has been a reduction in the amount discharged, a number of
contaminants continue to impair the AOC. The region’s groundwater levels show seasonal changes and
are much lower in summer (Figure 3.5) than in early fall (Figure 3.6) (Environmental Protection Agency).

The natural resources that have contributed to the region’s diversity have been severely impacted by
human interference. Ecological succession and hydrological interconnects have been altered by such
stresses as habitat fragmentation, hydrologic modification, introduction of exotic species, shoreline
alternation, and environmental contamination. As a result, water quality in the Grand Calumet River and
Indiana Harbor Ship Canal system continues to be a serious concern. Cyanide, unionized ammonia, and E.
coli levels frequently exceed acceptable water quality standards. Adding to the problem is the presence of
contaminants such as oil, grease, lead, PCBs, pesticides, and mercury. Due to poor water quality,
swimming is not recommended in the Grand Calumet River and the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal. Beach
closings due to elevated levels of bacteria are also common in the near shore Lake Michigan area
(Remedial Action Plan Stage II 42).

Contaminated sediment, 5 to 10 million cubic yards and typically 20 feet deep, throughout the AOC
significantly contributes to the degradation of water quality as well as aquatic habitat. Studies have shown
that organic chemicals, pesticides, PAHs, PCBs, and heavy metals, all of which have a presence in the
Grand Calumet AOC, are toxic to aquatic species. Studies have also shown that the current state of
sediment transport in the Harbor and Canal allows over 180 million pounds of sediment to enter Lake
Michigan each year. Along with the sediment 420 pounds of PCBs, 2,300 pounds of cadmium, and 110,000
pounds of lead also enter. Satellite infrared images show a three-mile footprint of sediment stretching into
Lake Michigan. This footprint is within one half mile from the public water supply intake pipes for the cities
of Hammond, Whiting, and East Chicago. Overall the largest extent of the impairment to the AOC stems
from legacy pollutants contained in bottom sediments (Environmental Protection Agency).

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Another contributor to the overall degradation of water quality is contamination of groundwater in the area.
Because groundwater and surface water are hydrologically linked and the area has a high water table,
groundwater often becomes surface water (Remedial Action Plan Stage II 41).

Water contamination in the Grand Calumet AOC is adversely affecting aquatic species and macro-
invertebrate communities in the system, as showcased by low levels of biodiversity. This type of species
composition is typical of a degraded environment that consists of pollution tolerant species. Multiple
indicators point to increased levels of contamination beyond just the presence of pollution tolerant indicator
species including higher incidence of disease and low growth rates. Studies indicate that degradation of
water quality, rather than loss of habitat, is most likely the limiting factor contributing to the degradation of
aquatic communities. Furthermore, many of the contaminants present, such as PCB and mercury, are
bioaccumulating. As a result, the Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH) has advised against the
consumption of fishes from the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Ship Canal. Lack of food
resources, low dissolved oxygen, and toxic stress also contribute to the instability of biotic communities
(Remedial Action Plan Stage II 43).

Water contamination relates to all fourteen of the beneficial uses of the AOC. It seriously alters fish and
wildlife populations, drinking water quality, aesthetics, deformities, agriculture, and industrial work. The
productivity of the ecosystem is altered by contaminated sediment from municipal and industrial point
sources, combined sewer overflows, and urban runoff. Combine the problem of point source pollution with
non-point contributors such as land development, erosion, runoff, and air emissions and the beneficial uses
of the area become severely limited. All of the above-mentioned inducers of stress add to the reduction of
the fourteen beneficial uses and increased degradation of the ecosystem (Remedial Action Plan Stage II
43).

3.2 EXISTING BENEFICIAL USE IMPAIRMENTS


Based on the 1991 Remedial Action Plan for the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal, the Grand Calumet River, and
the near shore Lake Michigan, a total of fourteen beneficial uses are considered impaired. The following
table provides a summary of each impaired beneficial use, the existing conditions, and the source or cause
of the problem (Remedial Action Plan Stage II xxvii-xxxv).

Table 3-1: Summary of the Fourteen Beneficial Impairments in the Grand Calumet AOC
IMPAIRED
SOURCE /CAUSE OF
USE EXISTING CONDITIONS
PROBLEM
EVALUATION
Restriction on No fish should be eaten from the Grand Calumet or • Contaminated Sediments
Fish and the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal. In Lake Michigan, • Industrial and Municipal
Wildlife Brown Trout and Lake Trout over 23 inches, Effluents
Consumption Chinook over 32 inches, Catfish, and Carp should • Combined Sewer Overflows
not be eaten. Children under the age of 15, • Urban Runoff
pregnant women, women who may become • Input from Industries and
pregnant, or nursing mothers should not eat Lake Municipalities
Trout between 20 to 23 inches, Coho Salmon • Spills
under 2 inches, and Brown Trout up to 23 inches. • Groundwater Contamination

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Tainting of Fish IDEM staff has identified degraded fish • Contaminated Sediments
and Wildlife populations. Tainting of the fish has occurred. • Industrial and Municipal
Flavor Effluents
• Combined Sewer Overflows
• Urban Runoff
• Input from Industries and
Municipalities
• Spills
• Groundwater Contamination
Degradation of Extremely pollution tolerant forms of fish such as • Contaminated Sediments
Fish and Carp and Oligochactes are dominant. There is a • Industrial and Municipal
Wildlife lack of a stable fish community in the river and Effluents
Populations harbor. As of yet, wildlife surveys have not been • Combined Sewer Overflows
conducted. • Urban Runoff
• Input from Industries and
Municipalities
• Spills
• Groundwater Contamination
Fish Tumors IDEM Environmental scientist have discovered • Contaminated Sediments
and other river and canal carp (bottom dwellers) with eroded • Input from Industries
Deformities fins, swollen eyes, swollen abdomens, deformed
lower jaws, and bloody fins. The bloody fins may
be caused by internal hemorrhage.
Bird or Animal The U.S. Fish and Wildlife will be conducting • Toxics
Deformities or wildlife studies in this area in the near future. Great • Contaminated Fish Tissue
Reproduction Lakes studies have found deformities in migratory • Degraded Water Quality
Problems birds. The AOC has many migratory species. • Contaminated Sediments
Although it is not known if these birds were • Combined Sewer Overflows
contaminated in this area, bird and animal • Input
deformities or reproduction problems are likely. • Urban Runoff
• Groundwater
• Air Toxics
Degradation of A sampling of benthic organisms showed that only • Contaminated Sediments
Benthos sludge worms inhabited the Indiana Harbor Ship • Industrial and Municipal
Canal, suggesting that severe pollution exists. Effluents
Studies concluded that sediment was toxic and • Combined Sewer Overflows
avoided by other benthic organisms • Urban Runoff
• Input from Industries and
Municipalities
• Spills
• Groundwater Contamination
Restrictions on Due to the concern of contaminated sediments and • Contaminated Sediments
Dredging disposal concerns, no dredging activities have

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Activities occurred in several years.

Eutrophication Species of diatoms, which favor eutrophic • Combined Sewer Overflows


or undesirable conditions, have increased in abundance in the • Urban Runoff
algae near shore Lake Michigan waters. The waters of • Input from Industries and
the Grand Calumet River and the Indiana Harbor Municipalities
Ship Canal have persistent water quality problems
as well as decreased water clarity.
Restriction on The AOC is serviced by public drinking water • Contaminated Sediments
Drinking Water supply from Lake Michigan waters. There appears • Industrial and Municipal
Consumption, to be no public safety problems with this water. Effluents
or taste and The CARE Committee unanimously voted that • Combined Sewer Overflows
odor problems there were restrictions with drinking water from the • Urban Runoff
Grand Calumet River and the Indiana Harbor Ship • Input from Industries and
Canal, although this is not a public water supply. Municipalities
• Spills
• Groundwater Contamination
Beach Closings Due to poor water quality, swimming is not • Combined Sewer Overflows
recommended in the river or canal. Along the near
shore waters of Lake Michigan, the Hammond
beach has been closed for several years.
In 1990, Chicago beaches and the Indiana Dunes
National Lakeshore were closed due to high coli
form counts, but the source may or may not have
been from the AOC.
Degradation of Debris litters the banks of the Grand Calumet River • Combined Sewer Overflows
anesthetics and the Canal. The banks of the harbor appear to • Groundwater Contamination
be saturated with petroleum. The river and the • Spills
harbor often have oil sheen. The near shore Lake
Michigan waters often appears murky.
Added cost to Due to the accumulation of sediments in the • Contaminated Sediments
agriculture or harbor, and restrictions for removal of the sediment
industry due to environmental concerns, industry reports
shipping capacity is reduced by 15% and therefore
has a substantial increase in shipping cost.
Degradation of The lack of suitable habitat results in a scarcity of • Contaminated Sediments
phytoplankton aquatic and terrestrial organisms associated with • Industrial and Municipal
and the Grand Calumet River and the Indiana Harbor Effluents
zooplankton Ship Canal. • Combined Sewer Overflows
populations • Urban Runoff
• Input from Industries and
Municipalities
• Spills
• Groundwater Contamination

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Loss of Fish A combination of lack of food resources, low • Industrialization


and Wildlife dissolved oxygen, and toxic stress has resulted in • Draining and Filling of
Habitat the lack of a stable resident fish community in the Wetlands
Indiana Harbor Ship Canal and the Grand Calumet • Degraded Water Quality
River. The wildlife has greatly diminished this • Contaminated Sediments
century.

3.3 SOURCES OF ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS


Multiple types of stress negatively affect the environment in the Grand Calumet AOC. These sources of
environmental strain have resulted in the destruction of many stable ecological communities and include
physical (such as sedimentation, loss of beach nourishment or loss of access to habitat), biological (such
as pathogen or parasite infestation), and chemical impairments (such as too few or too many nutrients). All
fourteen of the beneficial use impairments can be attributed to contamination of some sort. Contamination
is the primary impairment that results in restrictions on fish and wildlife consumption, tainting of fish and
wildlife flavor, and fish tumors and other deformities. It is also responsible for bird and animal deformities
or reproductive problems, restrictions on dredging activities, restrictions on drinking water consumption or
taste or odor problems, beach closings, degradation of aesthetics, and added cost to the agricultural and
industrial industries. Furthermore, in combination with other factors, contamination works to cause
degradation of fish and wildlife populations, degradation of benthos, eutrophication or other undesirable
algae, degradation of zooplankton and phytoplankton populations, and loss of fish and wildlife habitat.

Contaminated Sediment
Critical habitat for aquatic organisms exists in the sediment on the bottom of rivers and lakes. Unfortunately
this sediment is also a major repository for many persistent chemicals that have been introduced into
surface waters. The biological viability of the Grand Calumet AOC has been severely degraded due to
multiple spills, municipal and industrial wastewater discharges, and Combined Sewer Overflows. In total
these actions have significantly impaired the quality of sediment and led to a deterioration of water quality
(Remedial Action Plan Stage II 28).

Sediment characterization studies have revealed the presence of various chemical compounds including:
conventional pollutants, metals, and organic chemicals such as PCB’s. Locations of sediment sampling are
presented in Figure 3.7. Characterization of the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Ship Canal by
Hoke et al. (1993) analyzed sediment data from the AOC in regards to 104 organic chemicals. Sixty-three
(63) chemicals were detected and their concentrations varied widely. Chemicals present in the low
concentrations include m-chlorophenol, 2,6-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,3,5,6-
tetrachlorophenol, 3,4-dichloroaniline, 3,3-dichlorobenzidine, p,p’-DDD, tetrachloroethylene, 1,2,3-
trichlorobenzene, 1,1,1-trichloreothane, di-n-butyl phthalate, 1-chloro-2-nitrobenzene, and 2,4-
dinitrotoluene. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), total polychlorinated buphenyls (PCB’s, such as
Aroclor 1248), p, p’-DDE, toxaphene, p-chlorotoluene, ethylbenzene, and p-dichlorobenzene exhibited the
highest sediment concentrations. In general these compounds were found in the 2-20 mg/kg (ppm) range
with a few exceptions of PAHs concentrations as great as 100mg/kg (qtd. in Remedial Action Plan Stage II
28).1

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The Hoke study also found concentrations of the majority of the metals analyzed present in the Grand
Calumet AOC. In general, iron, magnesium, and manganese were present in high to low concentrations in
solid phase sediments. Of those metals that present a toxicological concern in aquatic systems, zinc, lead,
and chromium were found at concentrations of 5.23, 3.94, and 1.22 gm/kg (or parts per thousand),
respectively. Concentrations of copper, nickel, and cadmium were found at concentrations below 500
mg/kg. At these levels there is a real risk of causing adverse ecological effects (qtd. in Remedial Action
Plan Stage II 28).2

In 1994 the IDEM Office of Water Management conducted a sediment contamination study and found a
variety of pollutants including Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), PCB’s, and metals. The study
collected surficial aquatic sediment samples at Bridge Street, Cline Avenue, Kennedy Avenue, Indianapolis
Boulevard, and at Dickey Road on the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal. PAH’s of the highest concern include
chrysene, pyrene, fluoranthene, phenanthreme, and benzo (a) pyrene (qtd. in Remedial Action Plan Stage
II 34).3 Metals of concern had the following concentrations:

Table 3-2: Metal Concentrations in the Grand Calumet Area of Concern in mg/kg

95TH
METAL LOW HIGH STATE MEAN
PERCENTILE
Cadmium 3.0 29.2 0.37 7.09
Copper 105 879 20.2 120
Lead 230 4350 24.1 197
Mercury 0.220 12.4 0.057 0.34
Nickel 1.7 418 13.2 64.7
Zinc 1080 4860 84.0 460
Arsenic 20.5 101 6.43 22.2
Chromium 185 696 16.1 97.9

In 1994, sediment toxicity was analyzed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in the Pre-Remedial
Biological and Water Quality Assessment of the East Branch Grand Calumet River in Gary, Indiana. By
exposing organisms commonly found in sediment, sediment toxicity tests indicate whether or not pollutants
exist in toxic amounts. In this study, sediment samples were taken from various locations along the East
Branch of the Grand Calumet River, Long Lake, and the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Results
indicated that statistically significant mortality occurred for one of the test organisms in all East Branch
Sediments (qtd. in Remedial Action Plan Stage II 34). 4

The three main sources that account for sediment entering the Grand Calumet Area of Concern are
municipal and industrial point source discharges, Combined Sewer Overflows, and urban runoff. Thirty-
nine (39) permits have been issued by IDEM for outfalls on the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor
Ship Canal which include municipal sewage treatment plants, semi-integrated steel-manufacturing,
chemical producers, and others. Additionally, the sanitary districts of Gary, Hammond, and East Chicago
maintain combined sewer systems that overflow into the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Ship
Canal (Remedial Action Plan Stage II 46). Hammond has an approved Long Term Control Plan (LTCP)

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and East Chicago should have their LTCP approved within the next couple years, however at the time of
this report these sources continue to be a source of sediment to the AOC.

In relation to the amount of sediment entering the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Ship Canal,
there are differences of opinion as to the extent of contamination. A study conducted by the U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers in its Comprehensive Management Plan for dredging the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal
estimated the total annual loading to be 152,000 cubic yards. Another study, conducted by Mark W.
Tenney, ScD, P.E., on the behalf of the Grand Calumet Task Force, estimated the total loading from
sediment to be in the 15,000 to 26,000 cubic yards range. One potential explanation for the difference in
findings may be attributed to the use of different methodologies. Alternatively, it may be due to the fact that
the study conducted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers was produced in the early 1980’s, prior to
Tenney’s study, when better management practices to control loading had not yet been developed (qtd. in
Remedial Action Plan Stage II 46).5

Based on monthly IDEM discharge reports conducted from August 1993 to July 1995, nineteen National
Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permittees in the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Ship
Canal discharged an average total flow of 833 million gallons per day or 1,291 cubic feet per second. In
prospective, this amount of effluent accounts for the entire flow of the river system during dry weather
months. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers estimated that the soil and sediment loss due to stormwater runoff
to the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Ship Canal is 20,000 pounds annually. The Grand Calumet
River and Indiana Harbor Ship Canal system have reached a steady-state condition with a balance
between the amount of sediment deposition and scour/transport. As a result, there is a loading of 100,000
to 200,000 cubic yards of sediment to Lake Michigan from the mouth of the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal
annually. Furthermore, it has been estimated that this load contains an estimated 67,000 pounds of
chromium, 100,000 pounds of lead, and 420 pounds of PCB’s (qtd. in Remedial Action Plan Stage II 47).6

In, “An Assessment of Injury to Human Uses of Fishery Resources in the Grand Calumet River and Indiana
Harbor Canal, the Grand Calumet River Lagoons, and Indiana Harbor and the Nearshore Areas of Lake
Michigan” the levels of contaminants present in the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Canal was
examined. A number of substances that impair human uses of fishery resources were identified. More
specifically, the contaminants include: benzene, benz[a]anthracene; benzo(a)pyrene,
benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene,
carbazole, Aroclor 1242, Aroclor 1248, Aroclor 1254, Aroclor 1260, total PCBs, chlordane, dieldrin, endrin,
heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, betahexachlorocyclohexane, lindane, p,p’-DDD, p,p’-DDE, p,p’-DDT, and
TCDD-TEQs. The study goes on to state,

Additional benchmarks for sediment chemistry are needed to confirm that other COPCs (e.g.,
metals and certain PAHs) occur in sediments at levels sufficient to injure human uses of fishery
resources. Chemical benchmarks for assessing hazards to human health associated with the
consumption of fish and shellfish tissues (i.e., USFDA action levels, USFDA tolerance levels, or
ISDH Group 1 threshold levels) were located for mercury, PCBs, aldrin/dieldrin, chlordane, DDTs,
and heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide. Of these substances, the USFDA action level for chlordane (1
of 78 samples) and the USFDA tolerance level for PCBs (70 of 87 samples) was exceeded in one
or more of the fish tissue samples collected from the GCR/IHC. By comparison, the ISDH Group 1
threshold levels for both mercury and total PCBs were commonly exceeded in fish tissues from this

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portion of the Assessment Area…. Based on the information provided in the Indiana FCA, PCBs
and mercury were the substances responsible for issuance of FCAs in the GCR/IHC between 1986
and 2002 …. Therefore, it is concluded that mercury and total PCBs are the principal COCs in the
GCR/IHC …. Insufficient information (e.g., lack of tissue residue data or chemical benchmarks for
fish tissues) was available to determine if certain other tissue-associated COPCs, such as PAHs,
PCDDs/PCDFs, other metals, pesticides, chlorinated benzenes, chlorophenols, or phthalates
occurred at concentrations in fish tissues sufficient to injure human uses of fishery resources in this
portion of the Assessment Area (i.e., it was not possible to determine if these substances were
COCs) (An Assessment of Injury to Human Uses of Fishery Resources in the Grand Calumet River
and Indiana Harbor Canal, the Grand Calumet River Lagoons, and Indiana Harbor and the
Nearshore Areas of Lake Michigan 2002).

In 2003, CDM Federal Programs Corporation (CDM) was contracted by the United States Army Corps of
Engineers to conduct sediment sampling and analysis at the Indiana Harbor and Canal in East Chicago,
Indiana. The purpose of these tests was to obtain chemical data for the sediments to be dredged from the
Lake George Branch of the canal. Five sediment samples, and one duplicate, were analyzed for toxicity
characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) volatile organic compounds (VOCs), TCLP semi-volatile organic
compounds (SVOCs), TLCP Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 8 metals, TCLP
pesticides/herbicides, close-up flashpoint, reactive sulfides, and total PCBs. The following table depicts the
results of the sediment survey. Note: None of these detections exceeded the EPA TCLP regulatory levels.

Table 3-3: Detected Sample Results, Indiana Harbor and Canal, East Chicago, Indiana

Regulatory IHC03- IHC03- IHC03- IHC03- IHC03- IHC03-


Compound
Level C1 C1-D C2 C3 C4 C5
TCLP
11
VOCS Benzene 500 12 ----- 20 ---- -----
(µg/L)
PCBs Aroclor-
(a) ----- 80 640 140 370 180
(µg/kg) 1248
TCLP
Aroclor-
Metals (a) ---- ---- 140 26 59 41
1260
(µg/L)
Arsenic 5,000 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 13.9
Barium 100,000 469 314 920 715 738 288
Cadmium 1,000 2 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Chromium
5,000 16 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Lead
5,000 157 92.8 ---- 208 ---- ----
Selenium 1,000 16.2 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Mercury 200 0.11 ---- ---- 0.05 0.04 ----
Total Solids
N/A 84 84 81 79 80 73
(%)
---- = Non-Detect
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(a) = Total PCB Toxic Substances Control Act Regulatory level is 50,000 µg/Kg

Non-Point and Point Sources of Pollution


Documented point source discharges in the Grand Calumet AOC include direct discharges from steel mills,
oil refineries, chemical manufacturing plants, and three municipal wastewater treatment facilities. In
addition to these point sources, studies indicate that many pollutants reach the waterways of the AOC
through non-point source discharges originating from Combined Sewer Overflows, stormwater discharges,
lagoon leakage, landfill drainage, and non-permitted outfalls (The Remedial Action Plan for the Indiana
Harbor Canal, the Grand Calumet River, and the Nearshore Lake Michigan Stage I 9).

The U.S. EPA classifies industrial point sources as either minor or major dischargers. National Pollutant
Discharge Elimination System records indicate that five major industrial dischargers discharge into the
River, Harbor, and near shore areas include Amoco Corporation, Mittal (formerly Inland Steel Corporation),
LTV Steel Company (historical discharger – no longer in business), USS-Gary Works, and DuPont
Corporation. Minor dischargers to the Grand Calumet Area of Concern include: Vulcan Materials
Company, American Steel Foundries, Blaw Knox Foundry, Industrial Disposal and Explorer Pipeline
Company, and Citco Petroleum Corporation (The Remedial Action Plan for the Indiana Harbor Canal, the
Grand Calumet River, and the Nearshore Lake Michigan Stage I 43-51).

Combined Sewer Overflows discharge an average of 11 billion gallons of raw waste water into the Grand
Calumet Area of Concern each year. This includes significant quantities of toxic pollutants from industrial
discharges contributing to the sewer system upstream of the overflow. Although roughly one-third of the
problem can be attributed to each of the three sanitary districts, the impact of each sub-area depends more
strongly on which pollutant loads are associated with each Combined Sewer Overflows and Combined
Sewer Overflows locations relative to areas of oxygen deficiencies and sediment accumulation (The
Remedial Action Plan for the Indiana Harbor Canal, the Grand Calumet River, and the Nearshore Lake
Michigan Stage I 51).

Nonpoint source water pollution in the AOC is a result of runoff from urban, agricultural, industrial, and rural
sources. This includes erosion of riparian and other unprotected areas, surface and groundwater
contamination from excessive use of pesticides and fertilizers, nutrient loading from the improper land
application of sludge, wastewater, animal waste, and failing on-site sewage disposal systems. Eleven of
the 38 waste disposal and storage sites in the AOC are within two-tenth of a mile of the River. As a result,
industrial waste site stormwater runoff is contributing oil, heavy metals, arsenic, PCBs, PAHs, and lead into
the ecosystem (Remedial Action Plan Stage II 48).

3.4 TRENDS IN WATER QUALITY


Historic water quality monitoring efforts indicate problems with several water contaminants. More recent
monitoring efforts indicate that many of these same parameters are still at levels that exceed applicable
water quality standards. These problems exist, albeit to a lesser extent, despite the installation of new or
expanded treatment facilities, the recent increase in productivity of industrial facilities, and the adoption of
more stringent water quality standards for the area (The Remedial Action Plan for the Indiana Harbor
Canal, the Grand Calumet River, and the Nearshore Lake Michigan Stage I 41).

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A 1994 IDEM monitoring report of the waters of the Grand Calumet and Indiana Harbor Ship Canal from
1992 to 1993 shows the water bodies have persistent water quality problems, including elevated
concentrations of cyanide and E. coli. In three out of seven sampling stations cyanide concentrations
surpassed acceptable criterion thirty-three (33) percent of the time. Eighty-six (86) percent of the time, E.
coli bacteriological levels exceeded acceptable levels. A similar study conducted from 1994 to 1995
showed similar water quality violations for both cyanide and E. coli. The 1994 to 1995 study also found that
unionized ammonia failed to meet criteria in twenty-eight percent of surface water quality samples
collected. Based on these findings, both the East and West branches of the Grand Calumet River and the
Indiana Harbor Ship Canal have been labeled as non-supporting for both aquatic life and recreational use
(qtd. in Remedial Action Plan Stage II 27).7

Metals including mercury, copper, and lead are often found at concentrations that exceed promulgated
water quality standards in the Grand Calumet River and the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal. In the near shore
Lake Michigan area copper, cadmium, and mercury were occasionally present at levels that exceeded
acceptable standards. Although little data has been collected concerning the concentration of organic
substances in the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal and the Grand Calumet River, a 1998 IDEM study found that
of 145 organic parameters, only 35 were found at detectable levels in either ambient water or effluent
samples. An alternative study analyzed samples from ten locations along the Grand Calumet River and
three in the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal. This study demonstrated toxicity by analyzing the inhibition of
weight gain in the test organism. The results demonstrated an average growth inhibition of 91.9 percent
indicating a significant increase in toxicity (qtd. in Remedial Action Plan Stage II 36).8

1988 to 1989 IDEM surveys of the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal and the Grand Calumet River showed
existing problems involving dissolved oxygen, ammonia bacteria, and dissolved solids. Ammonia levels
were found to have frequently exceeded acceptable water quality standards in the upper portion of the East
Branch of the Grand Calumet River, the West Branch of the Grand Calumet River, and the Indiana Harbor
Ship Canal. Dissolved oxygen levels in the West Branch were measured at 0.0 mg/l on multiple occasions
and were frequently below applicable standards in the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal. Although these
parameters have historically been problems in this system, low dissolved oxygen levels were rarely found
in the East Branch of the Grand Calumet River during the testing period. Bacterial levels have never been
low enough to support recreational uses due in part to the large number of Combined Sewer Overflows,
bypassing at the POTWs, and runoff from urban areas (qtd. in The Remedial Action Plan for the Indiana
Harbor Canal, the Grand Calumet River, and the Nearshore Lake Michigan Stage I 43).9

In 2001 and 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey collected water samples from the Grand Calumet River,
Indiana harbor Canal, and Lake Michigan. These samples were tested for mercury by low-level methods
during seasons of contrasting weather and stream flow in August 2001 and May 2002. In all of the samples
collected in the Grand Calumet River/Indiana Harbor Canal, mercury exceeded the 1.3 ng/L Indiana water-
quality standards for waters within the Great Lakes system. Mercury levels were also higher in samples
collected during wet-weather stream flow. Comparisons of data from this study compared to data from
1994, suggest that there have been no substantial changes in distribution of mercury from 1994 to 2001
(Risch 2005).

Ground Water

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The AOC is composed of complex, shallow groundwater flow connected to the surface water. Numerous
excavations have disrupted the uppermost bedrock area; the slight contamination in that aquifer is
attributed to leaks from wells and borings in surface and shallow groundwater. As described in a USGS
study conducted from 1988-89 by Fenlon and Watson water quality is worst at steel and petrochemical
facilities, moderate near light industry and commerce, and best in residential and park areas. Furthermore,
the USEPA estimates that 16.8 million gallons of oil float on top of the groundwater beneath the AOC. A
1996 study by Kay et al. found that groundwater contributes more than ten percent of the ammonia,
chromium, and cyanide in the AOC. Waste disposal sites near the AOC also contribute to groundwater
contamination. Furthermore, crushed and hot slag, poured to create land along the shores of lakes in the
AOC has been studied by the USGS and USEPA. Results provide an understanding of problems at specific
sites, but not of the relation between sites, or between a site and the AOC as a whole (qtd. in Remedial
Action Plan Stage II 41).10

3.5 TRENDS IN BIOTIC COMMUNITIES


A number of studies on the biological integrity of fish communities have been conducted in the Grand
Calumet AOC. Through these monitoring efforts a better understanding of the collective measurements of
all stresses acting on the ecological community has been reached. An Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) is used
to score the ecological integrity of a fish community and is based on the compositional, structural, and
functional makeup of the aquatic community. This indicator is then compared to a calibrated reference on
the best attainable conditions in order to obtain a characterization of the biotic community under study.
Studies of biotic communities are especially important as biological communities tend to imprint into their
composition a collective measurement of all of the stresses on the ecosystem, not just those stresses
present at the immediate site of testing (Remedial Action Plan Stage II 36).

During the mid 1980’s, fish community surveys were conducted by IDEM in conjunction with USEPA
Region V on the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Ship Canal. They consisted of 500-meter river
reaches sampled in the near shore regions of both shores. Fish in this study were identified, measured for
length, weighed, and enumerated in the field. Results showed that the East Branch of the Grand Calumet
River and the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal had IBI ratings of “very poor” to “poor.” The West Branch had an
IBI rating of “very poor” with no fish being collected in the same area during sampling conducted a few
years later. A “very poor” rating is characteristic of a community dominated by omnivores, tolerant forms,
and habitat generalists. These communities can also be characterized as having a few top carnivores,
depressed growth rates and condition factors, and hybrid and diseased fish present. Eighty percent (80%)
of the fish community in the Grand Calumet River is composed of three pollution tolerant species: the
golden shine, goldfish, and the common carp. Interestingly, both the goldfish and common carp are non-
native species to this ecosystem (qtd. in Remedial Action Plan Stage II 36).11

In 1994 another fish community study was conducted by Sobiech et al. focusing on the East Branch of the
Grand Calumet River. This study concluded that all of the sites sampled had an IBI rating of “very poor.” A
high proportion of omnivorous fish were observed as well as a lack of the clean gravel or cobble substrate
necessary for reproduction. Hybrids were commonly found and deformities, eroded fins, lesions, and
tumors were present on 3.4 to 12.5 percent of the total fish community (compared to the 1-2 percent
anomaly occurrence that is typically expected) (qtd. in Remedial Action Plan Stage II 36).12

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Fish tissue monitoring is an alternative tool for assessing the biological integrity of an aquatic community.
For some contaminants, the concentrations may be greater in the tissue of aquatic organisms due to
bioaccumulation than in the surrounding water. For this reason, fish tissue monitoring can be used as a tool
that can measure contamination that cannot otherwise be measured in the water or air. Since 1986, the
Biological Studies Section of the Office of Water Management at IDEM has been collecting fish samples
from the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Ship Canal. In the 1994 sample, 95 percent has PCB
concentrations that exceeded 2.0 parts per million. Of the common carp sampled, PCB levels ranged from
0.8 parts per million to 27 parts per million with an average of 10.3. The Grand Calumet River and Indiana
Harbor Ship Canal contain the most contaminated fish and the most different kinds of pollutants in the
state. Other contaminants of concern include the organochlorine-based pesticide aldrin, DDT, chlordane,
lindane, dieldrin, and Hexachlorobenzene (qtd. in Remedial Action Plan Stage II 38).13

In 2000, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service authored a study entitled, “Past, Present, and Potential of Fish
Assemblages in the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Canal Drainage with Emphasis on Recovery
of Native Fish Communities.” Results of this study suggest a recovery of the fish community present in the
Grand Calumet River. The fish community was found to be dominated by pollution tolerant detrivores, a
non-indigenous species. The study found the highest levels of species richness and biological integrity in
the East Branch Grand Calumet River. In the Grand Calumet Lagoons, sensitive species such as Iowa
darter and lake chubsucker could still be found. In the West Branch of the Grand Calumet River, several
period of collection yielded zero fish. Biological Integrity scores show that the communities possess “poor”
to “very poor” integrity levels.Tissue consumption advisories were also issued at this time due to high
levels of contaminations from PAHs, mercury, and inorganic metals (Simon 83).

IDEM is also responsible for sampling of the aquatic macro-invertebrates present in the Indiana Harbor
Ship Canal, the Dickey Road Bridge, and several studies of the Grand Calumet River in the mid-to-late
1980’s. In these studies aquatic macro- invertebrates were sampled through the use of artificial substrates
which have been suspended into the water. After six to eight weeks, the sampler is retrieved and the
organisms on it are counted, identified, and used to assess the biological integrity of the community.
Collections from the east and west branches of the Grand Calumet River, Indiana Harbor Ship Canal, and
the Lake George Canal contained no intolerant species. However, it was noted that many facultative
organisms were present indicating severe oxygen depletions were not occurring but the benthic community
was stressed by toxic chemicals. Furthermore, there was evidence of moderate organic pollution at every
site, evidence of stress caused by toxic compounds, and low levels of nutrient inputs (qtd. in Remedial
Action Plan Stage II 37).14

An assessment of aquatic macro-invertebrate communities was also included in the study by Sobiech. In
this study an indicator tool similar to an IBI was used based on the observed attributes of the macro-
invertebrate community. Overall, the invertebrate taxa composition of the sampled communities in the East
Branch was deemed poor. Although no sensitive taxon was detected and the community was not
dominated by tolerant species, the area showed low numbers of individuals, low organism diversity, and
low taxa diversity. The characterization of poor reflects degraded environmental conditions that are a result
of continual toxic loading to the East Branch (qtd. in Remedial Action Plan Stage II 37).15

In the 2000 study by Laurel Lake and Richard Whitman, “Aquatic Macro-invertebrates of the Grand
Calumet River,” the macro-invertebrate community composition is examined broken down into several

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geographic areas. There is evidence that in the last fifty years sediment quality has improved, likely due to
pollution controls. In the stretch that includes the Grand Calumet River lagoons east of U.S. Steel; species
that are not considered particularly pollutant tolerant were found with the highest overall amount of species
diversity. In the reach that borders the USX property, all sites were classified as having a very poor to poor
invertebrate biotic integrity. The trophic structure of this reach was also found to contain an unbalanced
trophic structure dominated by gathering collectors, an indication of degraded environmental conditions. In
the Gary Sanitary District reach, the Macro-invertebrate Biotic Indices were quite poor, indicating pollution
stress. In addition, the investigators noted a strong petroleum and sulfur odor and an anoxic appearance of
the sediments. In the section that covers the East Branch of the Grand Calumet River from Cline Avenue to
the Indiana Harbor canal, species diversity and richness were fair despite a poor macro-invertebrate biotic
index rating of poor. From the section that spans the West Branch of the Grand Calumet River from the
Hammond/East Chicago boundary east to Indianapolis Boulevard species sampled were pollution tolerant
suggesting very poor habitats. In the East Chicago Sanitary District reach the most common species were
aquatic earthworms and crane flies, two slightly pollution tolerant species. Finally, in the Federal Dredging
Project reach, an increase in richness and diversity was seen from 1979 to 1988, with a peak in 1986.
Although the invertebrate community in this range is degraded, as shown by a dominance of pollution
tolerant earthworms, the region is not the most impaired (Lake 2000).

In 1991, an additional study conducted by the Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments
Program looked at the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal specifically and the effects of contamination of
invertebrate communities. The results indicated an invertebrate community dominated by the Oligochaeta
family Tubificidae, an indicator species present in ecosystems dominated by heavy organic pollution. All of
the species identified in this study are known to be very tolerant of organic pollutants. Furthermore,
Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, one of the most pollution tolerant species, was the most abundant organism found
in the collected samples (qtd. in Remedial Action Plan Stage II 38).16

3.6 DEVELOPMENTS TOWARDS DELISTING


The IJC has adopted generalized listing and delisting target that can be applied to AOCs (Table 3-3 below).
This project is designed to develop delisting targets that are specific to the Grand Calumet River AOC.

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Table 3-4: Beneficial Use Impairments Guidelines for Listing and Delisting

IMPAIRMENT ENDPOINT LISTING GUIDELINE DELISTING GUIDELINE


Restriction on fish Similar When contaminant levels When contaminant levels in fish
and wildlife across the in fish or wildlife and wildlife populations do not
consumptions AOC populations exceed exceed current standards,
current standards, objectives or guidelines.
objectives, guidelines, or Contaminant levels in fish and
public health advisories wildlife must not be due to
are in effect for human contaminant input from the
consumption of fish or watershed.
wildlife. Contaminant
levels in fish and wildlife
must be due to
contaminant input from
the watershed
Tainting of fish Similar When ambient water When survey results confirm no
flavor across the quality standards, tainting of fish or wildlife flavor.
AOC objectives, or guidelines,
for the anthropogenic
substance(s) known to
cause tainting, are being
exceeded or survey
results have identified
tainting of fish or wildlife
flavor.
Degradation of fish Each reach When fish and wildlife When environmental conditions
and wildlife will have a management programs support healthy, self-sustaining
population different have identified degraded communities of desired fish and
endpoint fish or wildlife populations wildlife at predetermined levels
due to a cause within the of abundance that would be
watershed. In addition, from the amount and quality of
this use will be considered suitable physical, chemical, and
impaired when relevant, biological habitat present. An
field-validated; fish or effort must be made to ensure
wildlife bioassays with that fish and wildlife objectives
appropriate quality for AOC are consistent with
assurance/quality controls Great Lakes ecosystem
confirm significant toxicity objectives and Great Lakes
from water column or Fishery Commission fish
sediment contaminants. community goals. Further, in
the absence of structure data,
this use will be considered
restored when fish and wildlife
bioassays confirm no

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significant toxicity from water


column or sediment
contaminants.
Fish tumors and Similar When the incidence rates When the incidence rates of
other deformities across the of fish tumors or other fish tumors or other deformities
AOC deformities exceed rates do not exceed rates at un-
at un-impacted control impacted control sites and
sites or when survey data when survey data confirm the
confirm the presence of absence of neoplastic or
neoplastic or preneoplastic liver tumors in
preneoplastic liver tumors bullheads or suckers.
in bullheads or suckers.
Bird or animal Similar When wildlife survey data When the incidence rates of
deformities or across the confirm the presence of deformities (e.g. cross-bill
reproductive AOC deformities (e.g. cross-bill syndrome) or reproductive
problems syndrome) or other problems (e.g. egg-shell
reproductive problems thinning) in sentinel wildlife
(e.g. egg-shell thinning) in species do not exceed levels in
sentinel wildlife species. inland control populations.
Degradation of Similar When the benthic macro- When the benthic macro-
Benthos across the invertebrate community invertebrate community
AOC structure significantly structure does not significantly
diverges from un- diverge from un-impacted
impacted control sites of control sites of comparable
comparable physical and physical and chemical
chemical characteristics. characteristics. Further, in the
In addition, this use will be absence of community
considered impaired when structure data, this use will be
toxicity (as defined by considered restored when
relevant, field-validated, toxicity of sediment-associated
bioassays with contaminants is not significantly
appropriate quality higher than controls.
assurance/quality
controls) of sediment
associated contaminants
at a site is significantly
higher than controls.
Restrictions on Each reach When contaminants in When contaminants in
dredging activities will have a sediments exceed sediments do not exceed
different standards, criteria, or standards, criteria, or
endpoint guidelines such that there guidelines such that there are
are restrictions on restrictions on dredging or
dredging or disposal disposal activities.
activities.
Eutrophication or Each reach When there are When there are no persistent

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undesirable algae will have a persistent water quality water quality problems (e.g.
different problems (e.g. dissolved dissolved oxygen depletion of
endpoint oxygen depletion of bottom waters, nuisance algal
bottom waters, nuisance blooms or accumulation
algal blooms or decreased, decreased water
accumulation, decreased clarity, etc.) attributed to
water clarity, etc.) cultural eutrophication.
attributed to cultural
eutrophication.
Restriction on Similar When treated drinking For treated drinking water
drinking water across the water supplies are supplies: 1) when densities of
consumption, or AOC impacted to the extent disease-causing organisms or
taste and odor that: (1) densities of concentrations of hazardous or
problems disease causing toxic chemicals or radioactive
organisms or substances do not exceed
concentrations of human health objectives,
hazardous or toxic standards, or guidelines; 2)
chemicals or radioactive when taste and odor problems
substances exceed are absent; and 3) when
human health standards, treatment needed to make raw
objectives, or guidelines; water suitable for drinking does
2) taste and odor not exceed the standard
problems are present; or treatment used in comparable
3) treatment needed to portions of the Great Lakes
make raw water suitable which are not degraded (i.e.
for drinking is beyond the setting, coagulation,
standard treatment used disinfection).
in comparable portions of
the Great Lakes which are
not degraded (i.e. settling,
coagulation, disinfection).
Beach closings Applies only When waters, used for When waters, used for total-
to Wolf Lake, total-body contact or body contact or partial body-
and near partial-body contact contact recreation, do not
shore Lake recreation, exceed exceed standards, objectives,
Michigan standards, objectives, or or guidelines for use.
guidelines for such use.
Degradation of Each reach When any substance in When the waters are devoid of
aesthetics will have a water produces a any substance which produces
different persistent objectionable a persistent objectionable
endpoint deposit, unnatural color or deposit, unnatural color,
turbidity, or unnatural odor turbidity, or unnatural odor (e.g.
(e.g. oil slick, surface oil slick, surface scum).
scum).
Added cost to Endpoint When there are additional When there are no additional

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agriculture and similar across costs required to treat the costs required to treat the water
industry the AOC water prior to use for prior to use for agricultural
agricultural purposes (i.e. purposes (i.e. including, but not
including, but not limited limited to, livestock watering,
to, livestock watering, irrigation, and crop spraying)
irrigation, and crop- and industrial purposes (i.e.
spraying) or industrial intended for commercial or
purposes (i.e. intended for industrial applications and non-
commercial or industrial contact food processing).
application and non-
contact food processing).
Degradation of Each reach When phytoplankton or When phytoplankton and
phytoplankton and will have a zooplankton community zooplankton community
zooplankton different structure diverges from structure does not significantly
endpoint un-impacted control sites diverge from un-impacted
of comparable physical control sites of comparable
and chemical physical and chemical
characteristics. In characteristics. Further, in the
addition, this will be absence of community
considered impaired when structure data, this use will be
relevant, field-validated, considered restored when
phytoplankton or phytoplankton and zooplankton
zooplankton bioassays bioassays confirm no
(e.g. Ceriodaphnia; algal significant toxicity in ambient
fractionation bioassays) waters.
with appropriate quality
assurance/quality controls
confirm toxicity in ambient
waters.
Loss of fish and Each reach When fish and wildlife When the amount and quality
wildlife habitat will have a management goals have of physical, chemical, and
different not been met as a result biological habitat to meet fish
endpoint of loss of fish and wildlife and wildlife management goals
habitat due to a have been achieved and
perturbation in the protected.
physical, chemical, or
biological integrity of the
Boundary Waters,
including wetlands.

AOC Indicators
Indicators for the Grand Calumet River, the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal, and the near shore Lake Michigan
area have been developed. The indicators are specific to each BUI and will help to achieve the delisting
targets developed for the AOC (Environmental Protection Agency).

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The overall objectives of establishing these indicators are described below:

• General Objective: Future development in the AOC should progress with the goals of protecting
and restoring the beneficial uses as described in Annex 2 of the Great Lakes Water Quality
Agreement.
• Aquatic Community Objectives: The AOC should be able to sustain diverse, healthy,
reproducing, and self-sustaining wildlife communities.
• Habitat Objectives: The AOC should be able to sustain a diverse, healthy, reproducing, and self-
sustaining wildlife community representative of southern Lake Michigan.
• Sustainable Development Objective: The waters of the AOC are a community resource; one that
should provide healthy recreational access in an aesthetically pleasing environment. Past
development has negatively affected the ecosystem; future development must only progress if the
intent is to preserve the natural capacity of the area’s ecosystem, its biodiversity, and its ability to
provide for future generations.

Remedial Action Plan Development and Status


In 1991 the first stage of the Remedial Action Plan (RAP) process was developed. In December of 2007,
the State submitted a Stage 2 document to the IJC. Stage 2 works to link physical, biological, and chemical
stresses to use impairments (Environmental Protection Agency).

Stage 2.5 of the Remedial Action Plan is going through the revision process for submittal to the
International Joint Commission. Stage 2.5 was developed to explain the process in which regulatory,
voluntary, and enforcement activity work to restore beneficial uses. By tracking the restoration activities that
are underway, the CARE committee and State have begun to track that progress of the Stage 3
implementation phase of the project (Environmental Protection Agency).

RAP Implementation and Achievements


In 2004, nine responsible parties were held accountable for their contributions to the contamination of the
Grand Calumet AOC with the announcement of the Grand Calumet River Natural Resources Damages
Assessment settlement. Companies identified include Atlantic Richfield Company, BP Products North
America, Inc., E.I. Du Pont De Nemours and Company, Exxon Mobil Cooperation, GATX Corporation,
Georgia Pacific Corporation, ISPAT-Inland, and United States Steel Corporation. In this settlement, the
monetary value of the natural resources damages was calculated at $56 million (Environmental Protection
Agency).

In the summer of 2004 and 2005 the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act of 2000
was implemented and provided necessary funding to the development of Indiana’s Beach program.
Through the Indiana Beach program IDEM was able to provide funding to the City of Hammond, East
Chicago, and Gary to increase the frequency of E. coli testing. The data from this testing will be used to
refine the BUI for Beach Closures (Environmental Protection Agency).

In terms of water quality and toxic pollution prevention the draft Water Quality Component of Stage 2 is
finalized in response to public comments and several of its provisions have already been implemented. The
RAP process has also gathered the necessary funds to establish a Toxic Pollution Prevention Program and
implement a Household Hazardous Waste Collection Project. Furthermore, IDEM has funded a Steel

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Industry Pollution Prevention Project in order to educate local steel makers on minimizing waste and their
environmental footprint (Environmental Protection Agency).

Progress in reducing Combined Sewer Overflows has already begun with Consent Decrees requiring
sanitary districts to implement Combined Sewer Overflow Operation Plans.

The RAP process has also developed an Urban Nonpoint Source Pollution Control program to address
urban non-point sources of pollution. This project demonstrates best management practices by increasing
the amount of cooperation between public and private landowners (Environmental Protection Agency).

Biodiversity and habitat restoration is being improved through the establishment of a volunteer stewardship
group, the establishment of a new nature preserve, and the initiation of a RAP Right of Way Project that
works with right of way owners to manage their land in an ecological friendly way (Environmental Protection
Agency).

Other Achievements:
• Five river miles were dredged on the Each Branch of the Grand Calumet River.
• IDEM has completed the required technical work for the Total Maximum Daily Load assessment.
• The First Biannual Grand Calumet River: Science in the Area of Concern Symposium at Indiana
University Northwest was held by IDEM and Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant Sponsor.
• The Sediment Injury report for the Grand Calumet River was released by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service as part of the Natural Resource damage Assessment.
• The EPA and IDEM approved a permit for a Passive Dewatering Facility for the U.S. Steel
Dredging project.
• Fourteen technical teams have been established to develop indicators for the RAP.
• IDEM is working with USEPA/GLNPO in developing the Lake Michigan Monitoring and
Coordinating Council.

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4.0 DELISTING TARGETS—WHERE WE WANT TO BE


4.1 APPLICABILITY OF STATE WATER QUALITY STANDARDS TO DELISTING TARGETS
The Grand Calumet River AOC shall be considered restored when there are no significant impairments to
the beneficial uses of the area which have been caused by human activities. The relationship of Grand
Calumet River BUIs and Indiana Designated Uses is presented in Table 4-1.

Table 4-1: Grand Calumet River AOC BUIs and Indiana Designated Uses

USE IMPAIRMENT INDIANA DESIGNATED USE


Restrictions on fish and wildlife • NA
consumption
Tainting of fish flavor • NA

Fish tumors and deformities • Aquatic Life

Bird or animal deformities or reproductive • NA


problems
Degradation of benthos • Aquatic Life
Restrictions on dredging activities • Aquatic Life

Eutrophication or undesirable algae • Aquatic Life


Restrictions on drinking water consumption, • Public Water Supply
or taste and odor problems
Added cost to agriculture and industry • Industrial Water Supply
• Agricultural Use
Degradation of Phytoplankton and • Aquatic Life
Zooplankton populations
Beach Closures •

The State of Indiana has adopted Water Quality Standards (IWQSs) that are applicable to all surface water
bodies in the state. Although the BUIs are technically based on the IJC criteria established in Annex 2 of
the 1987 Amendment to the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement that established the AOC program,
many are also related to the IWQSs/Designated Uses and/or fish contaminant advisories.

Unacceptable contaminant levels in fish and wildlife are established by the Indiana State Department of
Health in conjunction with the IDNR and the IDEM. These contaminant levels are used in conjunction with
measured contaminant levels from the Indiana fish monitoring program to establish fish consumption
advisories that result in the Restrictions on Fish and Wildlife Consumption BUI. Elevated contaminant

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levels can be caused by “food chain biomagnification”, water column contamination, or sediment
contamination.

While Eutrophication or Undesirable Algae is not directly evaluated by application of an IWQS, interference
with Designated Uses established under 327 IAC 2–1.5-5 and unacceptably depressed dissolved oxygen
concentrations compared to 327 IAC 2-1.5-8 can be used to determine if undesirable algae growths are
evident in the watershed. The presence of specific algal species is also indicative of a BUI. This BUI
results from excessive nutrient discharges associated with storm water runoff (both point and non-point
sources), point source discharges from WWTPs, combined sewer overflows, nutrient release from
contaminated sediments, and low base flows resulting in extended detention times in the watershed.

Degradation of Benthos is another BUI that is measured by guidance used by the IDEM but is not directly
related to established IWQSs. The BUI is normally a result of excessive and/or contaminated sediment
within the watershed and/or deteriorated water quality which can be evaluated through the use of IWQSs
but is more a cause-effect relationship than a direct standards comparison.

Specific determinations on handling of dredge spoils are made by the USACE and the IDEM at the time of
dredging. When the dredge spoils must be handled in a special manner or disposed of at a confined
disposal facility due to the level of contaminants in the sediment then the Restrictions on Dredging Activities
is considered to be a BUI.

4.2 SUMMARY OF DELISTING TARGETS ADOPTED IN OTHER AREAS OF CONCERNS AND THEIR
RELEVANCE TO GRAND CALUMET RIVER AOC
Delisting targets developed and/or proposed in other AOCs were reviewed for relevance to the Grand
Calumet River AOC during development of the recommended restoration/delisting targets for the
watershed. These targets from other AOCs are summarized in this section of the report. Progress toward
delisting has been made in the following AOCs:
• In the United States:
• Oswego AOC on Lake Ontario in New York has been delisted; it is the first U.S. AOC to be
delisted
• Presque Isle Bay AOC in Pennsylvania is in recovery stage.
• AOCs Clinton River, White Lake, and Saginaw in Michigan have developed delisting
criteria/targets and/or milestones.
• Torch Lake AOC, Michigan, has a well-defined restoration design with appropriate goals,
indicators, and a long-term monitoring strategy.
• Kalamazoo AOC in Michigan is close to finalizing its delisting targets and has established
baseline inventories of habitat and wildlife, but needs to develop a long-term monitoring
plan.
• The U.S. side of the Detroit River AOC is progressing toward finalization of delisting
targets.
• The Degradation of Benthos BUI for the Manistique River has been recommended for
delisting by the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ).
• In Canada:
• Collingwood Harbour AOC and Severn Sound AOC have been delisted.
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• Waukegon Harbour AOC may be close to being delisted and fish advisories have been
removed.
• Spanish Harbour AOC is in recovery.
• Detroit River AOC on the Canadian side has developed delisting targets that have been
approved by the Canadian side PAC.

The Canadian side of the Detroit River AOC developed delisting targets that have been reviewed and
approved by their PAC (May 2005). The targets report has been endorsed by the Canadian PAC as the
Canadian delisting targets for the Detroit River until bi-national delisting targets can be developed. This is a
multiple BUI and multiple parameter AOC and review of their targets may be useful in evaluating and
developing Grand Calumet River AOC delisting targets.

Torch Lake AOC is a Superfund Site and somewhat irrelevant to the Grand Calumet River AOC because it
is a single issue AOC focusing specifically on mine tailing waste. Most other AOCs have similar issues that
relate to the Grand Calumet River AOC.

Legacy pollutants associated with contaminated sediments (mainly PCBs, metals, and PAHs) are a major
problem in the Grand Calumet River AOC that affect the restrictions on fish and wildlife consumption,
degraded fish and wildlife populations, fish tumors and deformities, degradation of benthos, and restrictions
on dredging activities BUIs.

Kalamazoo River in the Kalamazoo AOC (Michigan) is a site similar to portions of the Grand Calumet River
AOC with restoration activities focused primarily on PCB contaminated sediment remediation. Temporary
measures implemented to contain leaching of PCBs from landfill sites in the Kalamazoo AOC include
installing sheet steel piling to slow erosion of PCB-contaminated soil into the river. A record of decision
(ROD) for remediation has not been issued, yet. One ”lesson learned” from Kalamazoo to be avoided if
possible in the Grand Calumet River AOC is that delays can be costly and that stakeholders need to get
involved in order to achieve progress.

The Presque Isle Bay AOC in Pennsylvania may be relevant to development of Grand Calumet River AOC
targets with respect to the contaminated sediment related BUIs, particularly with respect to consideration of
natural attenuation/monitoring as an implementation strategy in the areas that are not significantly
contaminated with PCBs. Presque Isle Bay, the only U.S. AOC in recovery stage, was listed as an AOC
on the basis of fourteen BUIs, with the most severely impacted being fish tumors and restrictions on
dredging. A review of the current sediment data indicated that the sediments were not as contaminated as
initially believed in 1991 when the AOC was established, and natural attenuation appears to be working as
a recovery process for contaminated sediments.

Although the St. Clair River AOC developed and adopted “yardstick” measurements of success early in the
RAP process, they have not as yet developed approved delisting targets for the nine BUIs in the AOC. The
AOC has made significant remediation progress with respect to contaminated sediments utilizing these
“yardsticks,” which may be relevant to the Grand Calumet River AOC with respect to the dredging
restrictions BUI targets. Of specific interest also the contaminated sediment related studies that have been
conducted to assist in developing sediment related delisting guidelines. These studies have been

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conducted to evaluate surficial sediments that may impair benthos and that may help determine the
feasibility of remediation.

Further details of information gathered from other AOCs and their relevance to specific BUIs are discussed
below:

4.2.1 Restrictions on Fish and Wildlife Consumption


IJC recommends that this BUI is restored “when contaminant levels in fish and wildlife populations do not
exceed current standards, objectives or guidelines and no public health advisories are in effect for human
consumption of fish and wildlife. Contaminant levels in fish and wildlife must not be due to contaminant
input from the watershed.” The limitation to using this criterion is that contaminants in other sites can be
transported to the AOC by atmospheric deposition, and thus will stay in the food chain. A potentially more
rational approach is reflected in the Delisting Targets for Ohio AOCs document (2005) that bases this
delisting target on “no fish and wildlife consumption advisories attributed to sources within the AOC.”
Additionally, the proposed milestones include not only tracking changes in fish tissues and advisories, but
also set fish tissue contaminant maximums for PCBs (50 ppb), mercury (50 ppb) and lead (86 ppb).

The Four Agency Framework (FAF) recommends basing delisting targets for this BUI on appropriate
assessment programs and reporting for a suite of most at risk chemicals and consumption guidelines (on
the most current and restrictive guidelines).

The Great Lakes Fish Consumption Advisory Task Force limit for “no consumption” is for PCB levels above
2000 ng/g, which only applies to lake trout in Lake Michigan. Coho salmon sometimes fall into lesser
categories such as “one meal per month” up to “no more than six meals per year.”

Michigan Guidance (2006) is silent with respect to wildlife because there are no AOCs in Michigan with
advisories for wildlife. The fish advisories are set by the Michigan Department of Community Health
(MDCH). The Michigan guidance states that the BUI is considered restored when “the fish consumption
advisories in the AOC are the same or less restrictive than the associated Great Lake or appropriate control
site” OR, if the advisory is more stringent than its associated Great Lake or control site, “a comparison
study of fish tissue contaminant levels demonstrates that there is no statistically significant difference in fish
tissue concentrations of contaminants causing fish consumption advisories in the AOC compared to a
control site” OR, if a comparison study is not feasible because of the lack of a suitable control site: “analysis
of trend data (if available) for fish with consumption advisories shows similar trends to other appropriate
Great Lakes trend sites.” In addition, more details are given as to how to conduct the comparison,
including choosing the same species as in control site, controlling for variables that affect contaminant
concentrations in tissues, comparing data between the AOC and control site collected within a year of
each other, and testing statistically significant differences between AOC and the control site. Michigan
AOCs impacted by this BUI include Detroit River, Rouge River, River Raisin, St. Clair River, Torch Lake,
Deer Lake and Carp Creek, St. Mary’s River, Saginaw River, Kalamazoo River, Muskegon Lake, White
Lake, and Manistique River.

In the Saginaw River AOC (Michigan) fish contaminant delisting targets are based on a comparison of
contaminant (PCBs and dioxin) levels in other areas of Great Lakes that are not listed as AOCs and on
indications from caged fish studies that PCBs sources have been controlled. Comparison to a reference

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site should be considered in the Grand Calumet River AOC. However, reference sites have to be carefully
chosen and agreed upon by the IDEM, USEPA and stakeholders.

4.2.2 Tainting of Fish and Wildlife Flavor


The 1991 IJC General Delisting Guideline for this BUI states that the BUI can be delisted when survey
results confirm no tainting of fish or wildlife flavor.

Three of Michigan’s AOCs are listed as either impaired or unknown for fish and wildlife tainting – Detroit
River, Saginaw River/Bay, and St. Clair River. The impairment in all of these AOCs is fish, not wildlife,
tainting. The delisting guidance established under the January 2006 Michigan Guidance for Delisting
Michigan’s Great Lakes Areas of Concern is that this BUI will be considered restored when:

• No more than three reports of fish tainting have been made to the MDNR or MDEQ for a period of
three years;

OR, if there have been reports of tainting:

• A one-time analysis of representative fish species in an AOC in accordance with MDEQ Surface
Water Assessment Section (SWAS) Procedure #55 for conducting taste and odor studies indicates
that there is no tainting of fish flavor.

None of the four Ohio AOCs list this BUI as impaired in their RAP documents. Ohio has however
developed a delisting target for this BUI in their guidance document that states the BUI can be delisted if
there are no WQS exceedences of compounds associated with tainting within the AOC (phenol, 2-
chlorophenol,2,4-dichlorophenol) or there are no reports of tainting from wildlife officials.

The Detroit River has adopted a delisting target that if survey results confirm no tainting of fish or wildlife
flavor then the BUI can be delisted. The Saginaw River/Bay AOC delisting goal for this BUI states that
“The goal is to eliminate fish odor and taste problems as a significant impairment to the recreational or
commercial fisheries of the river and bay.”

Utilizing the Michigan approach of surveying area fisherman, using taste testing, and monitoring for taste
and odor causing chemicals may be a useful approach for the Grand Calumet River AOC.

4.2.3 Restrictions on Drinking Water Consumption, or Taste and Odor


There are nine AOCs that have this BUI listed as impaired. Five of these sites are in Michigan: White
Lake, Saginaw River/Bay, Muskegon Lake, St. Clair River, and Detroit River. Most of the Michigan AOCs
are considered impaired for this BUI due to the need for additional treatment of drinking water in order to
meet human health standards and address taste or odor issues. The exception to this is the St. Clair River,
which was considered impaired for this BUI due to closures of drinking water treatment plants to let plumes
from chemical spills pass the intakes.

The 2006 Michigan guidance indicates that this BUI will be considered restored when monitoring data for 2
years indicates that public water supplies:

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• Meet the current and most stringent human health standards, objectives, or guidelines (at the point
of distribution into the water system) for levels of disease-causing organisms, hazardous or toxic
chemicals, or radioactive substances; and
• Treatment needed to make raw water potable and palatable does not exceed standard methods
in those supplies. In the event a public drinking water intake must be closed due to contamination
of surface water, standard treatment methods are considered to have been exceeded.

The Maumee River AOC is the only one of the four Ohio AOCs considered to be impaired for this BUI.
Ohio delisting guidance for this BUI indicates that the BUI can be delisted if:

• No consumption advisories or taste or odor complaints on the finished water, due to degradation of
raw water quality caused by human activities within the AOC, for any community water system
using "standard or conventional" treatment and drawing water from the AOC.

Additional AOCs indicating this BUI is impaired include Lower Green Bay and Fox River, and the Rochester
Embayment. The Detroit River delisting targets reflect the Michigan guidance in requiring that delisting can
only occur if densities of disease-causing organisms, or concentrations of hazardous or toxic chemicals or
radioactive substances in treated drinking water supplies do not exceed applicable human health
objectives, standards, or guidelines. Taste and odor problems are absent. Treatment needed to make raw
water suitable for drinking does not exceed the standard treatment used in comparable non-degraded
portions of the Great Lakes. The Saginaw Bay taste and odor problems were historically associated with
undesirable forms of algae and have been addressed through nutrient reduction programs, which may not
be germane to the problems associated with the Grand Calumet River AOC influence on drinking water
intakes but should be considered and monitored for to determine the phosphorus:nitrogen ratio in the lake
intake areas. Rochester Embayment delisting targets for this BUI indicate that if there are no taste and
odor problems associated with the drinking water that can be traced back to contributions from the AOC
then the BUI can be delisted.

The Grand Calumet River AOC was initially listed as impaired for this BUI because the CARE committee
unanimously agreed that there were restrictions with drinking water from the Grand Calumet River and the
Indiana Harbor Ship Canal. However, neither of these sources are actually designated as public water
supply sources. This BUI impairment should likely be revisited in the process of developing an appropriate
delisting target.

4.2.4 Added Costs to Agriculture and Industry


The St. Clair River and the Rochester Embayment are the only other AOCs considered impaired for this
BUI. The Rochester Embayment listed this BUI as impaired due to the influence of Zebra Mussels and the
problems associated with this organism as related to water intake structures. The delisting targets indicate
that this BUI can be delisted if the Rochester Embayment watershed does not contribute to the presence of
Zebra Mussels in the Rochester Embayment. The St. Clair River was listed as impaired for this BUI due to
costs associated with temporary shut-downs of intakes for drinking water treatment facilities in the U.S. and
Canada, and for Akzo Salt in Port Huron, Michigan and some food processors in Wallaceburg, Ontario from
pollutant spills into the river. The 1995 Stage 2 RAP for the St. Clair River AOC included a locally-derived
Delisting target for the Added Costs to Agriculture and Industry which addressed costs associated with
closures of drinking and industrial water intakes. The Michigan delisting guidance incorporated this locally-

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driven target and has indicated that this BUI can be delisted in the St. Clair River when there are no plant
shutdowns attributable to water quality over a 2-year period.

The Grand Calumet River AOC was considered to be impaired for this BUI based on the reduction in
shipping capacity due to the accumulated sediment in the harbor and the difficulty associated with dredging
and sediment disposal due to environmental considerations. The approach used in the above two AOCs is
likely not applicable to the Grand Calumet River AOC as the causes for listing the BUI as impaired are so
divergent. This BUI is closely related to the Restrictions on Dredging Activity BUI and can likely be delisted
with that BUI. Consideration will be given to linking this BUI delisting target to the delisting target for the
dredging BUI.

4.2.5 Fish Tumors and Deformities


About half the AOCs (including the fourteen US/binational) have fish tumors/deformities as a BUI. Most
AOCs report declines in the incidence of tumors due to natural attenuation of contaminated sediments and
by addressing source reduction. For example, Presque Isle Bay in Pennsylvania, a U.S. AOC in the
recovery stage, addressed contaminants with a $100 million sewage treatment expansion and a pollution
prevention plan. The class of chemicals thought to contribute the most to tumors and deformities are
polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related compounds such as nitro-PAHs and nitrosamines that are
found in urban runoff from the combustion of fossil fuels. PCBs and dioxins can also be a cause for this
BUI.

The major limitation to delisting is the lack of data needed to substantiate tumor rates and compare them to
an appropriate background rate in a reference site. This BUI was considered to be impaired based on
limited fish observation data within the Grand Calumet River AOC coupled with the potential for fish tumors
based on concentrations of PAHs in sediments that are known to be associated with effects. Niagara River
AOC used the same approach of coupling with the existence of PAHs with observed data on fish tumors.
The approach of evaluating sediments for contaminants related to fish tumor and deformities incidence is a
good first round screening tool until funds become available to do a more extensive survey, if appropriate.
Fish tissue data are better indicators of potential effects than developing relationships based on sediment
concentrations of PAHs, but are one step from the complete fish survey recommended by the Sea Grant
PA study. If sediments are found or known to be contaminated above most sediment quality guidelines for
PAHs, it may not be worth spending the money on a fish tumor/deformity study until the contaminated
sediment issue is resolved and sources are controlled. A standardized approach for evaluating and
monitoring fish tumors and other deformities was developed by Penn State and others under a
Pennsylvania Sea Grant. The standard approach takes into account the species of fish to be considered,
the age of the fish, and how to identify tumors including histology and other criteria. A final document has
not been published, but a manual has been recently released for identification of tumors. A drawback to
this approach is that this method requires a lot of expertise and a statistically meaningful study could be
extremely costly.

The IJC Delisting Target reads, “When the incidence rates of fish tumors or other deformities do not exceed
rates at unimpacted control sites and when survey data confirm the absence of neoplastic or preneoplastic
liver tumors in bullheads or suckers.”

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The Ohio Delisting Target is “DELT (deformities, eroded fins, lesions and tumors) levels in fish do not
exceed 0.5%.” An optional criterion noted in the delisting document is that “low tumor prevalence is
documented in brown bullhead age three years and older over a series of years. Current guidelines
suggest that a 5% incidence of liver tumors and a 12% incidence of external tumors are acceptable to
consider the area to be in recovery. Great Lakes regional final targets are under development but will be
less than 5% liver tumors and 12% overall external tumors.”

The MDEQ guidance considers the BUI restored when “no reports of fish tumors or deformities due to
chemical contaminants have been verified through observation and analysis by the MDNR or MDEQ for a
period of 5 year” OR, in the cases where any tumors have been reported, “a comparison study of resident
benthic fish (e.g., brown bullheads) of comparable age and at maturity (3-years), or of fish species which
have historically been associated with this BUI, in this AOC and a non-impacted control site, indicates that
there is no statistically significant difference (with a 95% confident interval) in the incidence of liver tumors
or deformities.”

The Detroit River’s delisting target is that the incidence rates of fish tumors or other deformities do not
exceed rates at non-impacted control sites for a minimum of three sampling periods spaced two to three
years apart, and should demonstrate a downward trend. At a minimum, no more than 5% of 3-year old
Detroit River brown bullhead fish should have liver tumors, and less than twelve percent should have
external tumors or lesions.

The St. Mary’s River AOC delisting target is that concentrations of persistent toxic substances in fish will be
below no observable adverse effect concentration (NOAEC) for reproductive, population, and teratogenic
effects. Any noted effects will be the same as control populations from unaffected areas that may include
Lakes Superior and Huron.

A recent workshop in Ohio hosted by the Great Lakes National Program Office was convened for the
purpose of discussing the fish tumor targets. Two important recommendations coming out of the workshop
were that a Great Lake-wide reference condition for fish tumors in brown bullheads should be developed
and that DELT should not be used as part of the Fish Tumor and Deformities BUI delisting. The DELT was
felt to be more appropriate for evaluation of the Degradation of Fish and Wildlife Populations.

4.2.6 Bird or Animal Deformities or Reproduction Problems


River Raisin, St. Clair River, Detroit River, Saginaw River, St. Mary’s River, Deer Lake, and Kalamazoo
River in Michigan list this BUI as being either impaired or “unknown status.” Some of these AOC listings
are based on historic data and observations of crossed bills and eggshell thinning. In most cases, recent
studies of bird/animal deformities or reproductive problems have not been done. Michigan is using two
approaches for determining when this BUI can be considered to be restored/delisted based primarily on
availability of data specific to the AOC. In general, the first approach evaluates restoration based on
existing MDEQ or other State-approved bird and wildlife data while the second approach, when direct bird
and animal data are not available, is to compare tissue residue data with known concentrations of effects.
If fish tissue residues in the AOC are not statistically significantly different from their associated Great Lake
residues (at the 95% CI), then the AOC is considered restored according to MDEQ (2006).

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In Kalamazoo, the delisting target is to “remediate contaminated sediments so that there are no
reproductive or other negative health effects on wildlife or benthos.” In River Raisin, the proposed delisting
criterion (2002 RAP Update) is “reduce bird deformities due to causes within the Area of Concern.” In the
Saginaw AOC, the delisting target is “for bald eagles - the reproductive success of bald eagles in the
Saginaw Bay area is equivalent to that found in other Lake Huron coastal areas in Michigan and, for herring
gulls, PCB levels in eggs taken from Saginaw Bay area nest sites are not significantly higher than those
found in other Lake Huron sampling locations.” According to a 1999 survey, PCBs in the affected site are
about five times higher than the reference site. This survey is cited in a report by Public Sector Consultants
Inc. (2000).

In New York, the Rochester Embayment set the delisting targets as “Representative samples of water do
not exceed NYSDEC ambient water quality standards for the protection of aquatic life and/or for protection
of wildlife, and mink are present and are reproducing, or levels of PCBs, dioxin/furans, mirex and mercury
measured in the tissue of resident prey are below those known to be associated with mink reproductive
failure.”

The Ohio AOCs do not have this BUI.

4.2.7 Degradation of Benthos


The degradation of benthos in the Grand Calumet River AOC is demonstrated by a lack of biodiversity, a
dominance of pollution tolerant species, a low number of individuals, and a dominance of Tubificidea. The
degradation is caused by metal toxicity and anoxic conditions in some cases, as well as sediment
contamination. Thus, addressing contaminated sediments and nutrients will aid in the restoration.

The IJC delisting target is when the benthic macroinvertebrate community structure does not significantly
diverge from unimpacted control sites of comparable physical and chemical characteristics. Further, in the
absence of community structure data, this use will be considered restored when toxicity of sediment-
associated contaminants is not significantly higher than controls.

The MDEQ Guidance (2006) states that this BUI will be considered restored when “an assessment of
benthic community, using either MDEQ’s SWAS Procedure #51 for wadeable streams or MDEQ’s pending
rapid assessment procedure for non-wadeable rivers yields a score for the benthic metrics which meets the
standards for aquatic life in any 2 successive monitoring cycles (as defined in the two procedures)” OR, in
cases where MDEQ procedures are not applicable and benthic degradation is caused by contaminated
sediments, the BUI will be considered restored when “all remedial actions for known contaminated
sediment sites with degraded benthos are completed (except minor repairs during operation and
maintenance) and monitored according to the approved plan for the site.” The MDEQ guidance further
indicates that the BUI only applies to surficial sediments where organisms live.

Four Agency Framework recommends delisting based on no more benthos than observed in unimpaired
areas elsewhere in the Great Lakes basin, or upon comparison with upstream/downstream populations.

On the Canadian side of the Detroit River, the delisting target reflects a benthic community that contains
none of the attributes that characterize a degraded community for four years, and toxicity of sediments from

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test sites should not be significantly higher than controls. The Canadian RAP specifies the criteria for
evaluating if the benthic community is degraded.

In the Saginaw AOC, the delisting targets require that samples of mayfly nymphs collected in the open
areas of Saginaw Bay exceed 30-square meter for two consecutive years based on established sampling
methods. Mayfly nymphs were used as an indicator organism because they are important to fisheries and
their populations have been severely impacted since early 1950s.

Severn Sound also has as a partial delisting target, “to maintain and enhance presence of the mayfly
Hexagenia as an indicator of ecosystem health.”

The delisting target approach utilized for Hamilton Harbour, Ontario AOC could be considered relevant to
Grand Calumet River AOC. Specifically, these targets are: biomass estimates for mesotrophic conditions
to range from 25 to 50 gram per cubic meters of wet weight of benthos; shift in oligochaete assemblages
from indicators of eutrophic environments to mesotrophic indicators; an increase in the contribution of other
species such as midges, fingernail clams, mayflies, and the amphipod Pontoporeia hoyi; reduction in
oligochaete density from an average 10,000 animals per square meter found in 1984 to between 2,000 and
3,000 per square meter in profundal sediments; appearance of crustaceans, such as freshwater shrimp in
the deep water basin and the amphipod Pontoporeia hoyi in the surficial sediments throughout the
hypolimnion; and absence of acute and chronic toxic effects attributable to trace metals or organics in
benthic macroinvertebrates throughout the harbor.

The Manistique River in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, which feeds into Lake Michigan, has been
recommended for delisting and is awaiting final approval by USEPA. The basis for delisting was mainly
that sediments contaminated with PCBs and other chemicals have been remediated.

Since the Grand Calumet River AOC has several BUIs related to contaminated sediments, the first priority
is to move forward with the remediation of the known contaminated sites. Since most of the PCBs are in
known areas, PAHs will be the next most important priorities for selecting remediation sites. Some of the
same sediments contaminated with PAHs are also ones high in PCBs and metals. These sites will be
remediated as a function of the PAH remediation. Historic sources are significant, but the potential for
ongoing sources will have to be monitored. Reference sites for setting specific delisting targets such as
was done for Hamilton Harbour should be identified and studied.

4.2.8 Restrictions on Dredging Activities


The MDEQ Guidance (2006) states that the BUI is considered to be restored when “there have been no
restrictions on routine commercial or recreational navigational channel dredging by the US Army Corps of
Engineers, based on the most recent dredging cycle, such that special handling or use of a confined
disposal facility required for dredge spoils due to chemical contamination” OR, in cases where dredging
restrictions exist, “a comparison of sediment contaminant data from the commercial or recreational
navigational channel (at the time of proposed dredging) in the AOC indicates that contaminant levels are
not statistically different from other comparable, non AOC commercial or recreational navigation channels.”

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The Canadian Detroit River AOC delisting targets are based on contaminants in sediments not exceeding
applicable standards, criteria, or guidelines. As such, there would be no restrictions on dredging or
disposal activities.

The Presque Isle Bay AOC depends on natural attenuation rather than formal remedial action to alleviate
contaminated sediment and be delisted.

4.2.9 Eutrophication or Undesirable Algae


The Ohio delisting target for this BUI is “when waters meet the minimum dissolved oxygen criteria listed in
the Ohio Water Quality Standards (WQS) AND no nuisance growths of algae, such as filamentous
Cladophora, or blooms of blue-green algae exist. There are no nuisance growths of aquatic weeds that
may be hindering recreational use or contact with the water body.”

The MDEQ Guidance (2006) states that this BUI will be considered restored when “no water bodies within
the AOC are included on the list of impaired waters due to nutrients or excessive algal growths in the most
recent Clean Water Act Water Quality and Pollution Control in Michigan: Section 303(d) and 305(b)
Integrated Report, which is submitted to U.S. EPA every two years.” In addition, MDEQ is in the process of
developing nutrient criteria for surface waters that will be adopted by Michigan’s Water Quality Standards.

Targets used for delisting the Oswego AOC are based on survey results indicating phosphorus
concentrations and loadings, chlorophyll, ammonia, water clarity, dissolved oxygen and other ambient
water quality levels are consistently better than standards, criteria, and guidelines. The observation of algal
blooms in the AOC or downstream needs to be evaluated as to the cause, the undesirable nature, and any
proposed remedial action. Suggested thresholds for ambient water quality comparisons in the AOC include
lake parameters and values: phosphorus concentration < 20 ug/l (lake), Secchi disc transparency > 1.2
meters, dissolved oxygen > 6 mg/l, unionized NH3 < 0.02 mg/l.

The relevant delisting targets for the Muskegon Lake AOC (MI) are:

Table 4-2: Muskegon Lake and Bear Lake Delisting Targets for Eutrophication or Undesirable Algae

TARGET FOR
INDICATOR AVERAGE ANNUAL REASONING
CONCENTRATIONS
Surface Total Phosphorus Concentration MDEQ guidance
30 ug/l
Chlorophyll a 10 ug/l U.S. EPA
Secchi Disk depth Pentwater Lake as
~ 2.0 m reference
Trophic Status Index Pentwater Lake as
50-55
reference

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The following AOCs also have specific measures for delisting this BUI. Collingwood Harbour used the
specific delisting targets of: all harbour waters have persistent phosphorus concentrations of less than 0.02
mg/L, a Secchi disc transparency of greater than 1.2 meters, dissolved oxygen at saturation, chlorophyll
concentrations of less than 10 ug/L, unionized ammonia of less than 0.02 mg/L, and phosphorus load from
the sewage treatment plant of less than 2760 kilograms per year. Saginaw River/Bay used the delisting
targets of: the average concentration of total phosphorus is 15 10 ug/L or less, in accordance with the
supplement to Annex 3 of the 1978 Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (as amended). The Rochester
Embayment targets were: total phosphorus concentrations for near (11 to 12-meters) and near-nearshore
(1-meter) are less than or equal to 15 parts per billion and 20 parts per billion, respectively; and chlorophyll
a concentrations for the near (11 to 12-meters) and near-nearshore (1 meter) are less than or equal to 3.8
parts per billion and 5 parts per billion, respectively; and Secchi disk measurements in the nearshore (12-
meters) are greater than or equal to 4-meters.

4.2.10 Degradation of Phytoplankton and Zooplankton Populations


In Michigan, the only AOC impacted by this BUI is Saginaw. The MDEQ Guidance (2006) states that this
BUI will be considered restored when “the Statewide delisting targets for the Eutrophication or Undesirable
Algae BUI have been met in Saginaw River/Bay/AOC.”

The only other AOCs impacted besides the Grand Calumet River AOC and Saginaw are the Rochester
Embayment, (New York), Cuyahoga River (Ohio), the Milwaukee River Estuary (Wisconsin), and
Waukegan Harbor (Illinois).

For the Rochester Embayment, the delisting target is: “Ninety percent of ambient water samples (collected
monthly for one year), compared to a control, cause no chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia.”

The Waukegan Harbor (Illinois) delisting target is: “Provide water and sediment quality throughout the
harbor and nearshore lake area which is not detrimental to the development and growth of phytoplankton
and zooplankton populations.”

The State of Ohio’s delisting target is: “Phytoplankton or zooplankton bioassays (e.g. Ceriodaphnia, algal
fractionation bioassays) confirm no toxicity in ambient waters and/or community structure is diverse and
contains species indicative of clean water.”

4.2.11 Beach Closures


The IJC Criteria states that the BUI can be delisted “when waters, commonly used for total-body contact or
partial body-contact recreation, do not exceed standards, objectives, or guidelines for such use.”
The Michigan MDEQ Guidance (2006) states that this BUI will be considered restored when “no water
bodies within the AOC are included on the list of impaired waters due to contamination with pathogens in
the most recent Clean Water Act Water Quality and Pollution Control in Michigan: Section 303(d) and
305(b) Integrated Report, which is submitted to U.S. EPA every two years.” The limits for E. coli are set by
Michigan’s Water Quality Standards for bacterial contamination (Rule 323.1062). The rule states that for
partial and total body contact bacterial densities shall not exceed 130 E.coli per 100 ml for total body
contact recreation and 1000/100 ml for partial body contact based on a specified monitoring protocol.

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Many of the Michigan AOCs have adopted this guidance for their delisting target or are in the process of
adopting the guidance.

The Ohio Guidance (2005) document has delisting targets as follows:

Total Body Contact:


For Bathing Waters - Geometric mean E. coli content, based on not less than five samples within a 30-day
period, exceeds 126 per 100 ml.; or E. coli content exceeds 235 per 100 ml. in more than 10% of the
samples taken during any 30-day period.
For Primary Contact - Geometric mean E. coli content, based on not less than five samples within a 30-
day period, exceeds 126 per 100 ml.; or E. coli content exceeds 298 per 100 ml. in more than 10% of the
samples taken during any 30-day period; or geometric mean fecal coliform content, based on not less than
five samples in a 30-day period exceeds 1000 per 100 ml; or fecal coliform content exceeds 2000 per 100
ml in more than 10% of the samples taken in any 30-day period.

Partial Body Contact:


Secondary Contact - E. coli exceeds 576 per 100 ml. in more than 10% of the samples taken during any
30-day period; or fecal coliform exceeds 5000 per 100 ml in more than 10% of the samples taken in any 30-
day period.

The St. Louis River AOC anticipates that this impairment can only be met when the entire AOC attains the
target rather than just designated beach areas. The St Louis River AOC target considers control of sanitary
and stormwater sources, absence of impaired water listings, and establishment of an effective bacterial
monitoring program.

The Canadian side of the Detroit River based its delisting targets generically that total or partial body
contact standards, guidelines and objectives not be exceeded, and that there are no beach closures as a
result of water quality problems for two years.

The Rouge River set its target for concentrations of bacteria during dry weather flow to be below full body
contact criteria at all its recreational areas for three consecutive summers. Saginaw River is similar. The
St. Clair River’s delisting target is zero beach closures for two years.

4.3 PROPOSED GRAND CALUMET RIVER DELISTING TARGET FOR EACH BUI
4.3.1 Restrictions on Fish and Wildlife Consumption
This BUI can be considered for delisting when:

• All known man-made sources of bioaccumulative chemicals of concern (BCCs) (including


PCBs, mercury, dioxins, and furans) within the AOC and tributary watershed have been
controlled through issuance of the appropriate regulatory control document or eliminated; and
• Fish consumption advisories for the AOC fall within Group 1 or Group 2 for two consecutive
sampling cycles; and
• Waters within the Grand Calumet River AOC are not listed as impaired due to fish
consumption advisories and/or contaminant levels in fish tissue in the most recent Indiana

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Integrated Water Monitoring and Assessment Report (submitted to US EPA every two years)
and/or the most recent Indiana Fish Consumption Advisory; and
• Waters within the Grand Calumet River AOC do not have special fish consumption advisories
due to mercury from controllable man-made sources within the AOC and/or tributary watershed
in the most recent Indiana Fish Consumption Advisory.

Or if the above is not achievable within 5 years:

• All known man-made sources of BCCs (including PCBs, mercury, dioxins, and furans) within
the AOC and tributary watershed have been controlled or eliminated; and
• A multi-year comparison study of fish tissue contaminant levels demonstrates that there is no
statistically significant difference (with a 95% confidence interval) in fish tissue BCC
concentrations in the AOC compared to fish tissue BCC concentrations in a representative
non-impacted control site within the Lake Michigan Basin.

Actions
• Determine appropriate fish species for tissue concentration trend analysis.
• Implement an appropriate monitoring program within the AOC that will isolate on-going sources
of BCCs (PCB/Mercury/etc) to the AOC.
• Establish appropriate control/comparison sites within the AOC or a similar watershed for
evaluating relative progress toward attaining the restoration criteria utilizing comparative
contaminate analysis. The studies should be designed to control variables known to influence
contaminant concentrations such as species, size, age, sample type, lipids, and collection
dates. The control site should be chosen based on physical, chemical, and biological similarity
to the AOC.

4.3.2 Tainting of Fish and Wildlife Flavor


This BUI can be considered for delisting when:
• All known sources of materials that could result in tainting of fish and/or wildlife within the AOC
and tributary watershed have been controlled through issuance of the appropriate regulatory
control document or eliminated; and
• Tissue analysis over three consecutive monitoring cycles shows that there are no chemicals
present at concentrations that would result in tainting of the fish/wildlife flavor.

Actions
• Determine appropriate fish species for tissue trend analysis.
• Establish a complaint/report receipt and tracking process/procedure at the IDEM/IDNR for
fish/wildlife tainting reports.
• Establish appropriate monitoring locations within the AOC to determine baseline conditions
and trends.

4.3.3 Restrictions on Drinking Water Consumption, or Taste and Odor


This BUI can be considered for delisting when:

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39

• A reevaluation of this BUI indicates that the initial basis for listing the BU as impaired was in
error; or
• There are no complaints of taste and/or odor in the raw water intake source as a result of
contaminants originating within the AOC for a period of three consecutive years; and
• There are no taste and/or odor problems associated with raw water intakes as a result of
excessive algae and/or algal species that would cause taste and/or odor problems in the water;
and
• There is no additional raw water treatment that needs to be supplied specifically for control of
taste and/or odor problems in the finished water supply.

Actions
• Determine if this BU should be listed as a BUI.
• Establish a complaint/report receipt and tracking process/procedure.

4.3.4 Added Costs to Agriculture and Industry


This BUI can be considered for delisting when:
• There is no increased cost of shipping due to the inability to dredge in the harbor and shipping
canal for environmental reasons.

Action
• Track increased costs to industry due to the need to lighten cargo loads in ships because of
lack of dredging due to environmental concerns regarding contaminants in the sediment.

4.3.5 Fish Tumors and Deformities


This BUI can be considered for delisting when:
• All known sources of PAHs and chlorinated organic compounds within the AOC and tributary
watershed have been controlled through issuance of the appropriate regulatory control
document or eliminated; and
• There have been no reports of external Deformities, Lesions, and Tumors (DLTs) or internal
organ/system impacts due to chemical contaminants which have been verified through
observation and analysis by the IDEM/IDNR for a period of five years.

OR, in cases where any tumors have been reported:


• A comparison study of resident benthic fish (e.g., brown bullhead or white suckers) of
comparable age and at maturity (3 years), or of fish species which have historically been
associated with this BUI, in the AOC and a non-impacted control site indicates that there is no
statistically significant difference (with a 95% confidence interval) in the incidence of liver
tumors or deformities; and
• A comparison study of resident non-benthic fish of comparable age and at maturity in the AOC
and a non-impacted control site indicates that there is no statistically significant difference (with
a 95% confidence interval) in the incidence of contaminant related external DLTs.

Actions
• Determine baseline for existence of BUI
• Establish routine monitoring for this BUI

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• Establish a complaint/report receipt and tracking process/procedure


• Determine species that will be used for studies and comparison studies
• Establish comparison site(s) if needed
• Track changes in tumor/deformity incidents over time
• Track contaminant levels in sediment for related chemicals

4.3.6 Bird or Animal Deformities or Reproduction Problems


This BUI can be considered for delisting when:

Approach 1 – Observational Data and Direct Measurements of Birds and Other Wildlife
• Deformity or reproductive problem rates are not statistically different than inland background
levels (at a 95% confidence interval), or no reproductive or deformity problems are identified
during the two successive monitoring cycles. If the rates are statistically different, it may
indicate a source from either within or from outside the AOC. Therefore, if the rates are
statistically different or the amount of data is insufficient for analysis, then:
• Contaminant levels in egg, young, and/or adult wildlife are lower than the Lowest Observable
Effect Level (LOEL) for that species or are not statistically different than inland control
populations (at a 95% confidence interval).

Data for a comparison study must come from a control site which is agreed to by the IDEM, in consultation
with IDNR. It will be chosen based on physical, chemical, and biological similarity to the AOC and the two
sites must be within the same U.S. EPA Level III Ecoregions for the Conterminous U.S. (see references).

Where direct observation of wildlife and wildlife tissue data is not available, the following approach can be
used:

Approach 2: Fish Tissue Contaminant Levels as an Indicator of Deformities or Reproductive Problems


• Fish tissue concentrations of PCBs, dioxins, DDT, or mercury (as determined in the RAP)
contaminants of concern in the AOC are at or lower than the LOEL known to cause
reproductive or developmental problems in fish-eating birds and mammals, or
• Fish tissue concentrations of PCBs, dioxins, DDT, or mercury in the AOC are not statistically
different than the associated Great Lake (at 95% confidence interval).

Fish of a size and species to be prey for the wildlife species under consideration must be used for the
tissue data.

Actions
• Determine appropriate indicator species
• Determine appropriate comparison site(s) if necessary
• Design sampling/observation program

4.3.7 Degradation of Benthos


This BUI can be considered for delisting when:

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41

• All remedial/restoration actions for specific impacted benthic communities are completed
(except for minor repairs required during operations and maintenance) and monitored
according to the approved plan(s); and
• Known contaminant sources within the AOC contributing to sediment contamination and
degraded benthos have been identified and control measures implemented; and
• The macroinvertebrate Index of Biotic Integrity (mIBI) at all sampling sites is a minimum of
1.4 for samples collected with an artificial substrate; and
• Acute sediment toxicity survival is at least 80% at all sampling locations; and
• No sample locations show chronic toxicity.

Actions
• Determine appropriate sampling locations within the AOC based on historical sampling
locations and sites of known impact.
• Sediment monitoring will need to included toxicity test, both acute and chronic, when
delisting is near.

4.3.8 Restrictions on Dredging Activities


This BUI can be considered for delisting when:

• When there have been no restrictions on routine navigational and/or recreational/private


dredging done by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and/or private dredging companies, based
on the two most recent dredging events, such that special handling or use of a confined
disposal facility is required for dredge spoils due to chemical contamination originating from
controllable sources impacting the AOC.

Actions
• Track dredge spoil disposal requirements for projects within the AOC to determine when
criteria is being met through review of issued dredging permits.
• Determine the degree of contamination in the river sediments and track trends in the level of
contamination as remediation efforts precede throughout the watershed.

4.3.9 Eutrophication or Undesirable Algae


This BUI can be considered for delisting when:

• Nutrient TMDLs have been established within the AOC including the necessary implementation
programs addressing both non-point sources and storm water; and
• In stream total phosphorus concentrations within the AOC do not exceed 0.3 mg/l or the value
determined as part of the TMDL process; and
• Total phosphorus concentration in the near shore Lake Michigan areas does not exceed 0.07
mg/l or the value determined as part of the TMDL process; and
• Total phosphorus concentrations in impoundments within the AOC shall not exceed 0.05 mg/l
or the value determined as part of the TMDL process; and
• There are no violations of the minimum dissolved oxygen concentrations established in 327
IAC Article 2 in the AOC due to excessive sediment or algal growths; and
• Levels of chlorophyll a are consistent with IDEM “fully supporting” levels throughout the AOC.

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42

• No water bodies within the AOC are included on the list of impaired waters due to nutrients or
excessive algal growths in the most recent Indiana Integrated Water Monitoring and
Assessment Report submitted to U.S. EPA every two years; and
• There are no beach closures in the AOC due to excessive/nuisance algal growths; and
• There are no taste and/or odor problems associated with raw water intakes as a result of
excessive alga and/or algal species that would cause taste and/or odor problems in the water.

Actions
• Establish appropriate monitoring locations within the AOC to determine baseline conditions
and trends.
• Determine if concentrations are at the appropriate level.
• Develop scientifically based monitoring program to establish trends and determine when
concentration criteria have been accomplished.

4.3.10 Degradation of Phytoplankton and Zooplankton Populations


This BUI can be considered for delisting when:

• Phytoplankton or zooplankton bioassays confirm no toxicity in ambient waters and the


community structure is diverse and contains species indicative of clean water; and
• Waters within the Grand Calumet River AOC are not listed as impaired due to degradation of
phytoplankton or zooplankton in the most recent Indiana Integrated Water Monitoring and
Assessment Report (submitted to U.S. EPA every two years) and/or the most recent Indiana
Fish Consumption Advisory.

Actions
• Identify the appropriate species and community structure that should exist in the Grand
Calumet River AOC under non-impaired conditions.
• Develop appropriate scientifically based monitoring scenarios to establish a baseline and
trends.

4.3.11 Beach Closures


This BUI can be considered for delisting when:

• All known sources of bacterial contamination to the AOC and tributary watershed originating in
the AOC have been identified and, if feasible, have been controlled or treated to reduce
exposures; and
• No sanitary sewer overflows or unpermitted combined sewer overflows have occurred within
the AOC during the previous five year period as a result of a less than 25-year precipitation
event or snow/ice melt conditions; and
• All municipalities within the AOC have adopted and are implementing storm water reduction
programs including an illicit discharge elimination program; and
• There have been no more than two beach closings as a result of bacterial concerns in any
given calendar year over the previous five years; and
• No water bodies within the AOC are included on the list of impaired waters due to
contamination with pathogens or chemicals having a public health concern (i.e. carcinogenic,

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43

mutagenic) in the most recent Indiana Integrated Water Monitoring and Assessment Report
which is submitted to U.S. EPA every two years; and
• No local or state contact advisories related to the presence of a chemical contaminant have
been issued within the AOC during the previous five years.

Actions:

• Continue ongoing bacterial monitoring programs within the AOC and expand as necessary.
• Conduct annual review of the data collected to determine if sample numbers and/or locations
should be increased or decreased.
• Document implementation effectiveness of Phase II storm water programs within the AOC.
• Conduct periodic public surveys to determine effectiveness of public education campaigns.

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5.0 PATHWAY TO RESTORATION—HOW DO WE GET THERE?

5.1 BASIC IMPLEMENTATION CONCEPTS


Setting Restoration Goals
This project is a first step towards establishing delisting targets that are locally derived and measurable and
meet the criteria for the frequency and longevity of monitoring that is consistent with federal and state
regulations & GLWQA Annex 2. These goals should focus both on the overall watershed and the individual
sub watershed areas as appropriate.

Evaluate Delisting on the Basis of Outside or Natural Factors


BUIs should be evaluated for factors outside the watershed. If restoration of a BUI is not possible because
of factors outside the AOC, or is typical of lake-wide or region-wide conditions, recommend delisting on this
basis and refer BUI to Lakewide Management Plan (LaMP). If the BUI is due to natural causes, not human
sources, recommend delisting on this basis.

Implementing Restoration Goals


The vehicle for ultimate implementation of the delisting/restoration efforts within the AOC focused on
achieving the delisting targets is the RAP. This next generation RAP, and subsequent iterations, will help
identify and prioritize BUIs that can be most easily delisted and identify the steps necessary to work
towards implementing restoration for all BUIs. This next generation RAP constitutes a restoration work
plan that must include:

• Establishment of a realistic restoration budget


• Selection of reference sites where needed
• Establishment of a timeline for implementation including such major milestones as:
o contaminant removal
o point source pollution monitoring and prevention
o non-point source BMP implementation
o habitat restoration
• Development of long term funding sources and agreements
• Establishment of necessary monitoring networks to create baseline data and measure progress in
achieving delisting targets
• Establishment of implementation alternatives such as evaluation of low level, widespread
contamination for feasibility of natural attenuation as a restoration alternative

Once it has been established that delisting targets have been met or that progress is moving extensively
towards delisting goals, the BUI or sub-watershed can be recommended for delisting or placement in the
“recovery” stage. A RAP implementation committee, working in consultation with the public and
stakeholders, would then submit a recommendation to delist the AOC, or portions thereof, and complete a
Draft Final RAP Stage 3 Report to EPA and IDEM. The recommendation spells out the roles and
responsibilities for implementation of the RAP.

Formal request to have AOC delisted

Delisting Targets for Grand Calumet River AOC: Final Report


45

A long-term monitoring plan must be written. Restoration must be completed or well underway and
meeting restoration goals at all sites before an AOC can be delisted. Resources are needed for long-term
monitoring and protection must be in place to prevent future degradation from occurring.

5.2 TIMELINE OF THE IMPLEMENTATION


• Adopt proposed delisting targets for the Grand Calumet River watershed by October 2008.
• Complete RAP Update by September 2010.
• Develop baseline monitoring network by September 2009.
• Begin implementation of all BUIs restoration programs within the AOC and sub-watersheds by
2012.
• Achieve delisting/restoration status of at least one BUI annually starting in 2012.

Delisting Targets for Grand Calumet River AOC: Final Report


46

6.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS


Delisting targets have been developed to address eleven of the fourteen BUIs within the Grand Calumet
River AOC as part of this project. The targets were reviewed and adopted by the IDEM and the project
steering committee. These targets were developed specifically for the Grand Calumet River AOC.

Recommendations:

• The delisting targets need to be incorporated into the process of goal setting in the next iteration of
the watershed planning.
• Specific actions necessary to implement the delisting targets have been identified for the fourteen
Grand Calumet River AOC BUIs. Many of these actions relate to the identification of target species
for tracking trends, the establishment of control sites or the establishment of baseline conditions.
The appropriate agencies and/or organizations should be identified to best carry out these actions
and allow for the tracking and monitoring necessary to apply the delisting target.
• The next generation RAP update that will be initiated shortly needs to utilize the delisting target in
developing the overall goals and action plans for the watershed.
• The RAP steering committee should periodically review the status of restoration efforts within the
watershed and determine the degree of progress toward attainment of the delisting targets.

Delisting Targets for Grand Calumet River AOC: Final Report


47

7.0 REFERENCES
NOTES

1 Examples are available in Remedial Action Plan Stage II. See Hoke, Toxicity of Sediments and Sediment
Pore Waters from the Grand Calumet River-Indiana Harbor, Indiana Area of Concern (1993), qtd. in
Remedial Action Plan Stage II: 28.
2 Examples are available in Remedial Action Plan Stage II. See Hoke, Toxicity of Sediments and Sediment

Pore Waters from the Grand Calumet River-Indiana Harbor, Indiana Area of Concern (1993), qtd. in
Remedial Action Plan Stage II: 28.
3 Examples are available in Remedial Action Plan Stage II. See Indiana Department of Environmental

Management, Indiana 305(b) Report 1992-1993 (1994), qtd. in Remedial Action Plan Stage II: 34.
4 Examples are available in Remedial Action Plan Stage II. See U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Pre-

Remedial Biological and Water Quality Assessment of the East Branch Grand Calumet River Gary, Indiana
(1994), qtd. in Remedial Action Plan Stage II: 34.
5 Examples are available in Remedial Action Plan Stage II. See U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,

Comprehensive Management Plan (Early 1980s), qtd, in Remedial Action Plan Stage II: 46.
6 Examples are available in Remedial Action Plan Stage II. See U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army

Corps of Engineers Grand Calumet River Basin BMP Demonstration (1995), qtd. in Remedial Action Plan
Stage II: 47.
7 Examples are available in Remedial Action Plan Stage II. See Indiana Department of Environmental

Management, Indiana 305(b) Report 1992-1993 (1994), qtd. in Remedial Action Plan Stage II: 27.
8 Examples are available in Remedial Action Plan Stage II. See Hoke, Toxicity of sediments and sediment

Pore Waters from the Grand Calumet River-Indiana Harbor, Indiana Area of Concern (1993), qtd. in
Remedial Action Plan Stage II: 36.
9 Examples are available in Remedial Action Plan Stage II. See Indiana Department of Environmental

Management, Unpublished Results of Macroinvertebrate Sampling (1989), qtd. in the Remedial Action Plan
for the Indiana Harbor Canal, the Grand Calumet River, and the Nearshore Lake Michigan Stage I: 43.
10 Examples are available in Remedial Action Plan Stage II. See Kay, Geohydrology, Water Levels and

Directions of Flow, and Occurrence of Light-Nonaqueous-Phase Liquids on Ground Water in Northwestern


Indiana and the Lake Calumet Area of Northeastern Illinois (1996), qtd. in Remedial Action Plan Stage II:
41.
11 Examples are available in Remedial Action Plan Stage II. See Simon, Development of Index of Biotic

Integrity Expectations for the Ecoregions of Indiana (1991), qtd. in Remedial Action Plan Stage II: 36, and
Sobiech, Pre-Remedial Biological and Water Quality Assessment of the East Branch Grand Calumet River
Gary, Indiana, June, 1994 (1994), qtd. in Remedial Action Plan Stage II: 36.
12 Examples are available in Remedial Action Plan Stage II. See Sobiech, Pre-Remedial Biological and

Water Quality Assessment of the East Branch Grand Calumet River Gary, Indiana, June, 1994 (1994), qtd.
in Remedial Action Plan Stage II: 36.
13 Examples are available in Remedial Action Plan Stage II. See Indiana Department of Environmental

Management, Indiana 305(b) Report 1992-1993 (1994), qtd. in Remedial Action Plan Stage II: 38, and
Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Section 319 Semiannual Report 1994-1995 (1996),
qtd. in Remedial Action Plan Stage II: 38.

Delisting Targets for Grand Calumet River AOC: Final Report


48

14 Examples are available in Remedial Action Plan Stage II. See Fullner, A Comparison of
Macroinvertebrates Collected by Basket and Modified Multiple-plate Samplers (1971), qtd. in Remedial
Action Plan Stage II: 37.
15 Examples are available in Remedial Action Plan Stage II. See Sobiech, Pre-Remedial Biological and

Water Quality Assessment of the East Branch Grand Calumet River Gary, Indiana, June, 1994 (1994), qtd.
in Remedial Action Plan Stage II: 37.
16 Examples are available in Remedial Action Plan Stage II. See Brinkhurst, Aquatic Earthworms in C.W.

(1974), qtd. in Remedial Action Plan Stage II: 38, and Brinkhurst, Interspecific Interaction and Selective
Feeding of Tubificid Oligochaetes (1972), qtd. in Remedial Action Plan Stage II: 38, and Cook, Benthic
Macroinvertebrates of the St. Lawrence Great Lakes (1974), qtd. in Remedial Action Plan Stage II: 38, and
Kennedy, The Distribution and Habitat of Limnodrilus claparede and its Adaptive Significance (1965), qtd.
in Remedial Action Plan Stage II: 38.

WORKS CITED

CDM. Indiana Harbor and Canal Sediment Sampling East Chicago, Indiana Final Report. Prepared for U.S.
Army Corps of Engineers Chicago District. November 2003.

Indiana Department of Environmental Management. The Remedial Action Plan for the Indiana Harbor
Canal, the Grand Calumet River, and the Nearshore Lake Michigan Stage I. Indianapolis: Indiana, 1991.

Indiana Department of Environmental Management. Remedial Action Plan Stage II. Indianapolis: Indiana,
1991.

Last, Laurel and Richard Whitman. Aquatic Macroinvertebrates of the Grand Calumet River. Proceedings of
the Indiana Academy of Science 108/109:45-81. 2000.

MacDonald, D.D., C.G. Ingersoll, D.E. Smorong, R.A. Lindskoog, D.W. Sparks, J.R. Smith, T.P. Simon, and
M.A. Hanacek. An Assessment of Injury to Human Uses of Fishery Resources in the Grand Calumet River
and Indiana Harbor Canal, the Grand Calumet River Lagoons, and Indiana harbor and the Nearshore
Areas of Lake Michigan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2002.

Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. Guidance for Delisting Michigan’s Great Lakes Areas of
Concern. Lansing: Michigan, 2006.

Risch, Martin. Mercury in the Grand Calumet River/Indiana Harbor Canal and Lake Michigan, lake County,
Indiana, August 2001 and May 2002. U.S. Department of the Interior and U.S. Geological Survey. Scientific
Investigation Report 2005-5034. 2005.

Simon, Thomas and Philip Moy. Past, Present, and Potential of Fish Assemblage in the Grand Calumet
River and Indiana harbor Canal Drainage with Emphasis on recovery of Native Fish Communities.
Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 108/109:83-103. 2000.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Grand Calumet River Areas of Concern. 1 December 2007
< http://www.epa.gov/glnpo/aoc/grandcal.html >.

Delisting Targets for Grand Calumet River AOC: Final Report


APPENDIX A: FIGURES

Delisting Targets for Grand Calumet River AOC: Final Report


Grand Calumet Area of Concern

Lake Michigan
129th
D
ic
ke
y

G
ut
hr
ie

Colum bus
Sheffield

Chicago
In
du
s tri
al

Michigan
Indianapolis
Calumet

US Hwy 12 4th
5th
Dun
es
Melton

Broadway
I- 9 0
Cline

I-
6 5
0
Map Data Provided by State of Indiana I- 8

Grand Calumet Area of Concern


® Figure 3.1 - Area of Concern
Delisting Targets
0 0.5 1 2

Miles
Grand Calumet Area of Concern
Bays and Estuaries
Beaches
Commercial and Service
Cropland and Pasture
Deciduous Forest Land
Forested Wetland
Industrial
Open Water
Lake Michigan
129th Mixed Urban or Built-up Land
D
ic
ke Other Urban or Built-up Land
y
Nonforested Wetland
G Residential
Strip Mines, Quarries, and Gravel Pits
ut
hr
ie
Transitional Areas
Transportation, Communications, Utilities
Colum bus

Unspecified
Sheffield

Chicago
In
du
s tri
al

Michigan
Indianapolis
Calumet

US Hwy 12 4th
5th
Dun
es
Melton

Broadway
I- 9 0
Cline

I-
6 5
0
Map Data Provided by State of Indiana I- 8

Grand Calumet Area of Concern


® Figure 3.2 - 1951 Land Use
Delisting Targets
0 0.5 1 2

Miles
Grand Calumet Area of Concern
Bays and Estuaries
Beaches
Commercial and Service
Cropland and Pasture
Deciduous Forest Land
Forested Wetland
Industrial
Lake Michigan Open Water
129th Mixed Urban or Built-up Land
D
ic
ke Other Urban or Built-up Land
Nonforested Wetland
y

G Residential
Strip Mines, Quarries, and Gravel Pits
ut
hr
ie
Transitional Areas
Transportation, Communications, Utilities
Colum bus

Unspecified
Sheffield

Chicago
In
du
s tri
al

Michigan
Indianapolis
Calumet

US Hwy 12 4th
5th
Dun
es
Melton

Broadway
I- 9 0
Cline

I-
6 5
0
Map Data Provided by State of Indiana I- 8

Grand Calumet Area of Concern


® Figure 3.3 - 1990 Land Use
Delisting Targets
0 0.5 1 2

Miles
NPDES Outfall Locations
Grand Calumet Area of Concern

Lake Michigan
129th
D
ic
ke
y

G
ut
hr
ie

Colum bus
Sheffield

Chicago
In
du
s tri
al

Michigan
Indianapolis
Calumet

US Hwy 12 4th
5th
Dun
es
Melton

Broadway
I- 9 0
Cline

I-
6 5
0
Map Data Provided by State of Indiana I- 8

Grand Calumet Area of Concern


® Figure 3.4 - NPDES Outfall Location
Delisting Targets
0 0.5 1 2

Miles
Ground Water Level, June 1992
Grand Calumet Area of Concern

586
58

582
6 584

Lake Michigan
582 129th
D 82
ic 5
k
ey

582 584
G
ut
hr
ie
580 58
Colum bus 582 2

582
Sheffield

58 Chicago 586
0 In
du 588
s tri
al 586
582
58 588
4
Michigan 586
Indianapolis
Calumet

US Hwy 12 586 4th


5th 588
Dun
es
596 Melton
592

Broadway
598 594 I- 9 0
Cline

594 598
59
8 596 I-
6 5
598
0
Map Data Provided by State of Indiana I- 8

Grand Calumet Area of Concern


® Figure 3.5 - June 1992 Ground Water Level
Delisting Targets
0 0.5 1 2

Miles
Ground Water Level, September 1992
Grand Calumet Area of Concern
582 .5

5 Lake Michigan
129th 2.
D 58 585
ic
585

ke
y

G
ut
hr
ie
580
580

Colum bus
Sheffield

Chicago
580

In
du
s tri 582 .5
58 al 585
0
582 .5
585 Michigan
Indianapolis
Calumet

US Hwy 12 4th
5th
Dun
es
595 Melton
590

Broadway
I- 9 0
Cline

595
I-
6 5
600
Map Data Provided by State of Indiana 590 I- 8
0

Grand Calumet Area of Concern


® Figure 3.6 - September 1992 Ground Water Level
Delisting Targets
0 0.5 1 2

Miles
Grand Calumet Area of Concern
Chemical Only
Matching
Tox Only

Lake Michigan
129th
D
ic
ke
y

G
ut
hr
ie

Colum bus
Sheffield

Chicago
In
du
s tri
al

Michigan
Indianapolis
Calumet

US Hwy 12 4th
5th
Dun
es
Melton

Broadway
I- 9 0
Cline

I-
6 5
0
Map Data Provided by State of Indiana I- 8

Grand Calumet Area of Concern


® Figure 3.7 - Sediment Sample Locations
Delisting Targets
0 0.5 1 2

Miles