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MULTIPLE CHOICE.

Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) A molecule inside a cell consists of over 3,500 covalently linked atoms weighing about 105,000
daltons. From this description, the molecule can most specifically be described as a
A) protein.
B) polypeptide.
C) lipid.
D) macromolecule.
E) polysaccharide.
2) Polymers of polysaccharides, fats, and proteins are all synthesized from monomers by
A) ionic bonding of the monomers.
B) the addition of water to each monomer.
C) connecting monosaccharides together.
D) the formation of disulfide bridges between monomers.
E) the removal of water (dehydration reactions).
3) Which of the following best summarizes the relationship between dehydration reactions and
hydrolysis?
A) Hydrolysis creates monomers, and dehydration reactions destroy them.
B) Dehydration reactions can occur only after hydrolysis.
C) Dehydration reactions occur in plants, and hydrolysis happens in animals.
D) Hydrolysis occurs during the day, and dehydration reactions happen at night.
E) Dehydration reactions assemble polymers, and hydrolysis breaks them down.
4) Carbohydrates normally function in animals as
A) energy-storage molecules.
B) enzymes in the regulation of metabolic processes.
C) the functional units of lipids.
D) sites of protein synthesis.
E) a component of triglycerides.

Figure 5.1
5) If 100 molecules of the general type shown in Figure 5.1 were covalently joined together in sequence,
the single molecule that would result would be a
A) polypeptide.
B) nucleic acid.
C) polyunsaturated lipid.

D) polysaccharide.
E) fatty acid.
6) Consider a polysaccharide consisting of 828 glucose molecules. The total hydrolysis of the
polysaccharide would result in the production of
A) 827 glucose molecules and 827 water molecules.
B) 828 glucose molecules and 828 water molecules.
C) 827 water molecules.
D) 828 glucose molecules and no water molecules.
E) 827 glucose molecules.
7) Which of the following are polysaccharides?
A) glycogen and starch
B) RNA and DNA
C) cholesterol and triacylglycerol
D) uracil and thymine
E) glucose and sucrose
8) Which of the following is true of both starch and cellulose?
A) They are both used for energy storage in plants.
B) They can both be digested by humans.
C) They are geometric isomers of each other.
D) They are both polymers of glucose.
E) They are both structural components of the plant cell wall.
9) What is a fat or triacylglycerol?
A) a lipid made of three fatty acids and glycerol
B) a carbohydrate with three sugars
C) a molecule formed from three alcohols
D) a protein with tertiary structure
E) a kind of lipid that makes up much of the plasma membrane
10) Which of the following is true concerning saturated fatty acids?
A) They are the predominant fatty acid in corn oil.
B) They are usually produced by plants.
C) They have double bonds between the carbon atoms of the fatty acids.
D) They are usually liquid at room temperature.
E) They have a higher ratio of hydrogen to carbon than do unsaturated fatty acids.

Figure 5.2
11) What is the molecule illustrated in Figure 5.2?
A) a common component of plant oils
B) an unsaturated fatty acid
C) similar in structure to a steroid
D) a saturated fatty acid
E) a polyunsaturated triglyceride

Figure 5.3
12) The molecule shown in Figure 5.3 is a
A) polypeptide.
B) unsaturated fatty acid.
C) saturated fatty acid.
D) nucleic acid.
E) polysaccharide.
13) The hydrogenation of vegetable oil would result in
A) an increase in the number of hydrogen atoms in the oil molecule.
B) the oil being a solid at room temperature.
C) a decrease in the number of carbon-carbon double bonds in the oil molecules.
D) two of the above.
E) all of the above.

Figure 5.4
14) What is the structure shown in Figure 5.4?
A) a nucleic acid polymer
B) a steroid
C) a cellulose molecule
D) a protein
E) a starch molecule
15) Which type of lipid is most important in biological membranes?
A) phospholipid
B) fat
C) oil
D) wax
E) triglyceride

16) The 20 different amino acids found in polypeptides exhibit different chemical and physical
properties because of different
A) tertiary structure.
B) carboxyl groups.
C) side chains (R groups).
D) amino groups.
E) Both A and B are correct.
17) The bonding of two amino acid molecules to form a larger molecule requires the
A) addition of a nitrogen atom.
B) release of a water molecule.
C) release of a carbon dioxide molecule.
D) addition of a water molecule.
E) Both C and D are correct.

Figure 5.5
18) The chemical reactions illustrated in Figure 5.5 result in the formation of
A) ionic bonds.
B) peptide bonds.
C) glycosidic bonds.
D) an isotope.
E) hydrogen bonds.
19) Upon chemical analysis, a particular protein was found to contain 438 amino acids. How many
peptide bonds are present in this protein?
A) 437
B) 20
C) 438
D) 876
E) 439

Refer to Figure 5.6 to answer the following questions.

Figure 5.6
20) At which bond would water need to be added to achieve hydrolysis of the dipeptide shown, back to
its component amino acids?
A) A B) B C) C D) D E) E
21) Which bond is closest to the N-terminus of the dipeptide?
A) A B) B C) C D) D E) E
22) Which bond is closest to the C-terminus of the dipeptide?
A) A B) B C) C D) D E) E
23) Which bonds are created during the formation of the primary structure of a protein?
A) peptide bonds
B) hydrogen bonds
C) disulfide bonds
D) Only A and C are correct.
E) A, B, and C are correct.
24) How many different kinds of polypeptides, each composed of 5 amino acids, could be synthesized
using the 20 common amino acids?
A) 5 to power of (5) B) 5 C) 20 to power of (10)
D) 20
E) 20 to power of (5)
25) What maintains the secondary structure of a protein?
A) hydrogen bonds
B) disulfide bridges
C) electrostatic charges
D) peptide bonds
E) ionic bonds
26) Which type of interaction stabilizes the a-helix structure of proteins?
A) nonpolar covalent bonds
B) ionic interactions
C) hydrogen bonds
D) hydrophobic interactions
E) polar covalent bonds
27) The a-helix and the b-pleated sheet are both common forms found in which level of protein
structure?
A) primary
B) tertiary
C) secondary D) quaternary

Figure 5.7
28) Figure 5.7 shows
A) an a-helix of a polypeptide.
B) the a-helix of starch.
C) a polynucleotide folding into a double helix.
D) the a-helix of DNA.
E) the linear form of glucose.
29) Figure 5.7 best illustrates
A) b 1-4 linkages in cellulose.
B) the double helix of DNA.
C) the twisting of a fatty acid chain.
D) the secondary structure of a protein.
E) the primary structure of a protein.
30) The tertiary structure of a protein is the
A) three-dimensional shape.
B) bonding together of several polypeptide chains by weak bonds.
C) bonding of two amino acids together to form a dipeptide.
D) twisting of a peptide chain into an a-helix.
E) order in which amino acids are joined in a peptide chain.
31) What would be an expected consequence of changing one amino acid in a particular protein?
A) The biological activity of this protein might be altered.
B) The tertiary structure might be changed.
C) The primary structure would be changed.
D) Only A and C are correct.
E) A, B, and C are correct.

32) Altering which of the following levels of structural organization could change the function of a
protein?
A) primary
B) tertiary
C) secondary
D) Only A and B are correct.
E) A, B, and C are correct.
33) At which level of protein structure are interactions between R groups most important?
A) quaternary
B) tertiary
C) secondary
D) primary
E) They are equally important at all levels.
34) The R group or side chain of the amino acid serine is _________________ -OH. The R group or
side chain of the amino acid alanine is ________________. Where would you expect to find these
amino acids in globular protein in aqueous solution?
A) Both serine and alanine would be in the interior of the globular protein.
B) Alanine would be in the interior, and serine would be on the exterior of the globular protein.
C) Both serine and alanine would be in the interior and on the exterior of the globular protein.
D) Both serine and alanine would be on the exterior of the globular protein.
E) Serine would be in the interior, and alanine would be on the exterior of the globular protein.
35) A change in a protein's three-dimensional shape or conformation due to disruption of hydrogen
bonds, disulfide bridges, and ionic bonds is termed
A) denaturation.
B) stabilization.
C) renaturation.
D) hydrolysis.
E) destabilization.
36) Of the following functions, the major purpose of RNA is to
A) function in the synthesis of proteins.
B) make a copy of itself, thus ensuring genetic continuity.
C) act as a pattern to form DNA.
D) transmit genetic information to offspring.
E) form the genes of an organism.
37) Which of the following best describes the relationship between proteins, RNA, DNA, and genes in
humans?
A) DNA genes RNA proteins
B) proteins RNA DNA genes
C) RNA DNA genes proteins
D) genes proteins RNA DNA
E) genes RNA DNA proteins

38) Which of the following descriptions best fits the class of molecules known as nucleotides?
A) a five-carbon sugar and a purine or pyrimidine
B) a nitrogen base and a phosphate group
C) a nitrogen base, a phosphate group, and a five-carbon sugar
D) a five-carbon sugar and adenine or uracil
E) a nitrogen base and a five-carbon sugar
39) Which of the following are nitrogen bases of the pyrimidine type?
A) guanine and glucose
B) cystine and sucrose
C) thymine and cytosine
D) glycerol and glycogen
E) ribose and deoxyribose
40) Which of the following are nitrogen bases of the purine type?
A) guanine and adenine
B) adenine and thyamine
C) thyamine and uridine
D) uridine and cytosine
E) cytosine and guanine
41) All of the following bases are found in DNA except
A) guanine. B) cytosine. C) adenine. D) uracil. E) thymine.
42) A sequence of a DNA polymer consisting of 80 purines and 80 pyrimidines could have
A) 80 uracil and 80 adenine molecules.
B) 80 adenine and 80 guanine molecules.
C) 80 adenine and 80 thymine molecules.
D) 160 cytosine and 160 thymine molecules.
E) both B and C.
43) The difference between the sugar in DNA and the sugar in RNA is that the sugar in DNA
A) can form a double-stranded molecule.
B) is a six-carbon sugar and the sugar in RNA is a five-carbon sugar.
C) contains less oxygen.
D) can attach to a phosphate, unlike the sugar in RNA.
E) has a six-membered ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms.
44) Which of the following statements best summarizes structural differences between DNA and RNA?
A) DNA has different purine bases from RNA.
B) RNA is a protein, whereas DNA is a nucleic acid.
C) DNA is not a polymer, but RNA is.
D) DNA contains a different sugar from RNA.
E) RNA is a double helix, but DNA is not.
45) In the double-helix structure of nucleic acids, cytosine hydrogen bonds to
A) ribose.
B) adenine.
C) deoxyribose.
D) guanine.

E) thymine.
46) The two strands making up the DNA molecule
A) are attached through a phosphate to hold the strands together.
B) cannot be separated.
C) contain uridine but not thymine.
D) contain ribose and deoxyribose in opposite strands.
E) are held together by hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces.
47) If one strand of a DNA molecule has the sequence of bases ATTGCA, the other complementary
strand would have the sequence
A) UAACGU. B) TUUCGU. C) TAACGT. D) TAAGCT. E) TUUGCT.
48) The structural feature that allows DNA to replicate itself is the
A) three-part structure of the nucleotides.
B) complementary pairing of the bases.
C) sugar-phosphate backbone.
D) twisting of the molecule to form an a-helix.
E) phosphodiester bonding of the helices.
49) A new organism is discovered in the deserts of New Mexico. Scientists there determine that the
polypeptide sequence of hemoglobin from the new organism has 68 amino acid differences from humans,
62 differences from a gibbon, 24 differences from a rat, and 6 differences from a frog. These data
A) show that the new organism is best adapted to an aquatic habitat.
B) indicate that the new organism may be closely related to frogs.
C) were collected to determine the type of blood in the new organism.
D) suggest that the new organism evolved from gibbons but not rats and mice.
E) suggest that the new organism is closely related to humans.
50) Dehydration reactions are used in forming which of the following compounds?
A) polysaccharides
B) triglycerides
C) proteins
D) Only A and C are correct.
E) A, B, and C are correct.
51) Polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins are similar in that they
A) all contain nitrogen in their monomers.
B) are decomposed into their subunits by the process of dehydration reactions.
C) are synthesized from monomers by the process of dehydration reactions.
D) are synthesized from monomers by the process of hydrolysis.
E) are synthesized by peptide bonding between monomers.
52) Which of the following illustrates hydrolysis?
A) the reaction of two monosaccharides to form a disaccharide with the release of water
B) the synthesis of two amino acids to form a dipeptide with the utilization of water
C) the reaction of a fat to form glycerol and fatty acids with the utilization of water
D) the synthesis of a nucleotide from a phosphate, a ribose sugar, and a nitrogen base with the production
of a molecule of water
E) the reaction of a fat to form glycerol and fatty acids with the release of water

53) Large organic molecules are usually assembled by polymerization of a few kinds of simple subunits.
Which of the following is an exception to the above statement?
A) DNA
B) a contractile protein
C) a steroid
D) cellulose
E) an enzyme
54) The element nitrogen is present in all of the following except
A) DNA.
B) nucleic acids.
C) proteins.
D) amino acids.
E) monosaccharides.
55) All of the following molecules are proteins except
A) antibodies.
B) lysozyme.
C) collagen.
D) cellulose.
E) hemoglobin.
56) All of the following molecules are carbohydrates except
A) hemoglobin.
B) cellulose.
C) starch.
D) lactose.
E) glycogen.

The following questions are based on the 15 molecules illustrated in Figure 5.8. Each molecule may be
used once, more than once, or not at all.

Figure 5.8
57) Which of the following molecules are structural isomers?
A) 12 and 13 B) 1 and 4 C) 8 and 9 D) 14 and 15 E) 6 and 7

58) Which of the following combinations could be linked together to form a nucleotide?
A) 1 and 4
B) 5, 9, and 10
C) 14 and 15
D) 11, 12, and 13
E) 2, 7, and 8
59) Which of the following molecules contains a ketone-type of carbonyl functional group?
A) 8
B) 1
C) 4
D) 9
E) none of the above
60) Which of the following molecules contains an aldehyde-type of carbonyl functional group?
A) 1
B) 10
C) 4
D) 9
E) Answers A and B are correct.
61) Which of the following molecules is a carbohydrate?
A) 14
B) 6
C) 1
D) 15
E) all of the above
62) Which of the following molecules is a saturated fatty acid?
A) 7 B) 10 C) 14 D) 9 E) 5
63) Which of the following molecules is a purine type of nitrogen base?
A) 5 B) 7 C) 13 D) 8 E) 12
64) Which of the following molecules acts as building blocks of polypeptides?
A) 1, 4, and 6
B) 9 and 10
C) 11 , 12, and 13
D) 2, 7, and 8
E) 14 and 15
65) Which of the following molecules is an amino acid with a hydrophobic R group or side chain?
A) 4 B) 7 C) 6 D) 5 E) 9
66) Which of the following molecules could form a peptide bond as a result of a dehydration reaction?
A) 2 and 3 B) 7 and 8 C) 8 and 9 D) 3 and 7 E) 12 and 13
67) Which of the following molecules could form a fat (or triacylglycerol) as a result of a dehydration
reaction?
A) 1 and 2 B) 9 and 10 C) 12 and 13 D) 3 and 5 E) 7 and 8