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TheSite&PreliminaryWork
1.0Surveying
1.1FeasibilityStudies
For large sites likethetownships wehadvisitedrequirepreliminaryworkknownasfeasibilitystudiessothat any ambiguityorcontroversiesregardingtheprojectcanbe
cleared.Suchstudiesfocuson
legalapprovals
analysisofbudget
likelihoodofpotentialenvironmentalimpact
assessmentofpotentialtouseorreuseexistingfacilities
assessmentofsiteinformationgivenbyclient
consideringwaystoaccessthesite

These detailed studies help client decide whether ornottoprocess to the next
stage

1.2SurveyingLand
Sitesurveyingmayinvolveprofessionalspecialistswherebyonlysurveysthat
needtobedoneareconducted.Surveyingincludesstudyof:
topography
existingbuildings
infrastructure
reference points that will guide placement of structures and provide
horizontalcontrolformultiplefloors

Atheodoliteisoneofthemostcommonlyusedsurveyinginstrumentswhichcan:
measureverticalandhorizontalangles
measuringlineardistance
extendingastraightlinebytransitingthetelescopetolineintermediate
pointsalongaline

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TomakelinearmeasurementsMakingtrigonometricmeasurements.

1.3Settingupperimeters
Boundariesofthesitearedetermined.Inthetownshipwevisited,woodenrodswereerectedintheearth
toactasmarkersformingthelatticeofagrid(asseenonleft)Duringconstructionsurveying,the
surveyorwillhavetoconvertfromgeodesiccoordinatestothecoordinatesystemusedforthatproject.

Accesspointstositearedeterminedherewhichwillincludeentryandexitpointsformachinery,vehicles
andpeopleeitheronaregularbasisorinthecaseofanemergency.

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Appropriatesignageisinstalledontheexternalwallofhoardingtoinformthepublicandrestrictentrytothepotentialconstructionsite.Fencingmaybeputup
temporarilybeforehoarding.

Signageknownlocallyas
PapanTandaBinaan
isthenputupoutsidecontaining
informationasseenontheleft.Thisboardwasplaceddirectlyoutsidethehoardingat
oursite.

1.4Clearing
Thesitewehadvisitedwasonceapalmoilestatethathadtobeclearedout.Alltrees
andtopsoil(fertilesoil)wasremovedthroughexcavationasseenbelow.

Thefigureontherightshowsahypothethicalsectionthatmaybefoundonasite.
Cuttingorexcavatingthelandinsomeareasandfillingotherareashelpstoflatten
naturalelevationline.

1.5Facilities

the

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1.5.1Workersquarters

Intheentiresitethereweretwolocationswheretheworkersquarters
couldbefound.Thesetendtobeplacesrelativelyfarawayfromthe
activeconstructionzones.Hencebeingclearoffumesfrommachinery
andothervehiclesbutwerestillexposedtothenoiseanddustyintheair.

Workersquartersasseenonsite

1.5.2Bathrooms
Thebathroomsonsitewerelocatedby/closeto:
officecabins
activeconstructionzones
workersquarters

Thefirstimageontherightshowsastafftoiletwhichwasmadeofconcreteandwitha
tiledinterioraswellaszincroof.Usuallynotmuchcareisputtotheaestheticsofthese
toiletsastheyaretemporary.Thesecondimageshowstypicalportabletoiletsfound
throughoutsite.

1.5.3 Office cabins

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Office cabins on site had sructures consiting of contennas tha


make doors and windows. The doors were tightly secured.
outside.

provided flooring, walls and cielling. Apetures were made out to


These were fully air conditioned by the disel-generators located

concrete foundation

1.5.4Generatingelectricity
Adieselcompressionignitionengineoftenisdesignedtorunonfueloil,butsometypesareadaptedforother
liquidfuelsor
naturalgas
.
Dieselgeneratingsetsareusedinplaceswithoutconnectiontoa
powergrid
,orasemergencypowersupplyif
thegridfails,aswellasformorecomplexapplicationssuchaspeaklopping,gridsupportandexporttothe
powergrid.

Dieselgeneratoronsite

Safety
2.1 Signage

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Signage on contructions sites must be clear.reminders After the Papan Tanda Binaan, the next set of signages that you should see are signs like shown below which
cover protocol, warnings and general reminders . These may be seen on proper stands or in banners or even installed onto hoarding.

The standard use of colour indicates the nature of the content on the signs as demonstrated above.
Deeper into the site, signages can be found also on the lowest level of scaffolding staircases. These
are reminders that protective equipment must be worn and that there are hazards involved when
scaling scaffolding such as

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tripping hazard
falling objects
obstructions overhead
falling hazard

Theseoccurmainlybecausethescaffoldingisnotinstalledproperlyorincompetently.Also,theladdersorstairsprovidedarenotsecureorofpuredurability

Top : Signage attached to stairs-area of scaffolding


Right : Examples of other signs seen deeper into site

There are also signages throughout designated roads for vehicle/machinery use that remind drivers of the
speed limit and to be aware of surroundering machinery. The yellow indicated on the sign below indicates a
hazard warning. It follows the typical format of a hazard sign : (in the following order)

Warning

eg.
CAUTION

Description
eg.
Construction Area
Instruction
eg.
Watch out for
moving equipment

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2.2 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)


PersonalProtectiveEquipmentisequipmentwornbyaworkertominimizeexposuretospecificoccupationalhazards.Controllingahazardatitssourceshouldbethe
firstchoicebecausethismethodwilleliminateitfromtheworkplacealtogetherorisolateitfromtheworker.Whenthehazardcannotberemovedorcontrolled
adequately,PersonalProtectiveEquipment(PPE)maybeusediftheworkprocessistocontinue.

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The minimum Personal Protection Equipment required by the law is shown as above ( top left ). The image on the top right shows the most complete set of PPE we
had seen on site which was worn by a consultant. Clearly, the equipment is not adequate and does not meet the standards. This would typically be met with serious
penalties.
Workers on site were seen to be wearing yellow hard hats while consultants and visitors wore white. This is typical practise.

2.3 Emergencies

Incaseofemergencies,particularlyafire,therewasadesignatedspaceforallstaffmembersandworkerstoassembleatwhich
waslocatedveryclosetotheentranceneartheofficecabins.Therewasclearsignagethroughoutthisareaasseenintheimages
intheleft.

Therewerealsoafewfireextinguishesattachedtotheouterwallsofthecabinthatwereclearlyvisibleandeasilyaccessibleas
seenontheright.

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First aid kits are also available for more minor injuries or to contain bleeding while awaiting for an ambulance. Typical first aid kit contents as seen in the image on the
right. They require :

afirstaidboxwithenoughequipmenttocopewiththenumberofworkersonsite
anappointedpersontotakechargeoffirstaidarrangements
informationtellingworkersthenameoftheappointedpersonorfirstaiderandwheretofindthem(notice)

2.4 Security
Makeshift rooms, typically constricted out of hoarding material make houses for security guards. These are located close to the
main entrance of a construction site. An example of a typical guardhouse is shown on the left
Hoarding or fencing is also very essential for securing the site perimeter as it :
keep intruders out of site and prevent theft
keeps the public safe from equipment or debris on site
makesthesitelooklessintrusiveandmoreaestheticallypleasingtothoselivinginthevicinityofthesite
Hoarding is typically 2.85meters to 3.35meters high ; metal hoarding being the most popular in Malaysia . Types of hoarding
available :
wooden fencing
wooden hoarding
heras fencing
chain link fencing
metal hoarding
mesh panel fencing
high security fencing

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2.5Scaffoldingandsafetynets
Whereworkersonaconstructionsiteareexposedtoverticaldropsof
6feetormore,OSHArequiresthatemployersprovidefallprotection
inoneofthreeways
before
workbegins:

Placingguardrailsaroundthehazardarea.
Installsafetynets.
Providingpersonalfallarrestsystemsforeach
employee.

Throughoutstructuresthatrequireyoutoaccessanupperstory,
scaffoldingaswellassafetynetswereavailablethroughoutthe
perimeterofthestructure.Therewerestaircasesatdesignated
zoneswithinthescaffolding.
safetynetattachedtoscaffolding

scaffolding
Considerationswhendeterminingwheretoinstallsafetynets:
Safetynetsmustbeinstalledascloseaspracticableunderthesurfaceonwhichemployeesareworking,butinnocasemorethan30feetbelow.
Whennetsareusedonbridges,thepotentialfallareamustbeunobstructed.
Safetynetsandtheirinstallationsmustbecapableofabsorbinganimpactforceequaltothedropforce.
Safetynetsmustextendoutwardfromtheoutermostprojectionoftheworksurfaceasfollows

Typicalnettingmaterialsarepolypropyleneandnylon.
Nylonismorehigherrecomendedinthesenetsbecauseitis47%strongerthanpolypropyleneandprovidesasofterimpact.Typicalmeshforsafetynetsisdisplayed
aboveontheright.

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2.6 Housekeeping
Effectivehousekeepingcaneliminatesomeworkplacehazardsandhelpgetajobdonesafelyandproperly.Poorhousekeepingcanfrequentlycontributetoaccidentsby
hidinghazardsthatcauseinjuries.Itincludes:

keepingworkareasneatandorderlymaintaininghallsandfloorsfreeofslipandtriphazards
removingofwastematerials(e.g.,paper,cardboard)andotherfirehazardsfromworkareas
payingattentiontoimportantdetailssuchasthelayoutofthewholeworkplace
theadequacyofstoragefacilities,andmaintenance.

2.6.1 Stacking supplies

StackedscaffoldingStackedpipesStackedtimberStackedmetalgutter

Thelocationofthestockpilesshouldnotinterferewithworkbuttheyshouldstillbe
readilyavailablewhenrequired.

Thefirstimageontheleftshowsslidinganddroppingactionthatshouldbe
preventedtoavoidinjury.Theimagetowardstherightshowsimprovisedmanual
handling.

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2.6.2 Waterproofing

Polyethelynesheetsareusedforprotectionfor
indoororoutdoorstoragefrom:
rotting
molding
mildewresistance
protectionfrommoisture,grease,andoilorabarrieragainstsolvents,acids,
oralkalis.

Theuseofplasticsheetsonsiteseenabove
andontheleft.
Thistypeofsheetingistough
flexible,lightweightandeasytohandle

3.0 Plants and Machinery

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3.1 Hydraulic Excavators

Anexcavatorisusedtoexcavateormovelargeobjects.AnExcavatorisbasicallymadeupof2parts:

1. adrivingbaseassociatedapowerfulboomarmwithanattachmentdesignedforexcavating
2. asmallcabconnectedtothebasewhichtheoperatorsitswithintocontrolthearm

TheexcavatorusesaHydraulicsystemtogenerateahydraulicforcetocontrolthemechanicalarmofthemachine.Italsousesachainwheelsystemforitsmovement.

Themorecommonuseofexcavatorsinclude:
Diggingoftrenches,holes,foundations
Demolition
Generalgrading/landscaping
Brushcuttingwithhydraulicattachments
Forestrywork
Riverdredging

Pictures on the left show excavators


as seen on site
3.2 Dump truck
Adumptruckisusedfortransporting
loosematerial(suchas
sand
,
gravel
,or
dirt
).Atypicaldumptruckisequippedwithan

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openboxbed,whichishingedattherearandequippedwith
hydraulicpistons
toliftthefront,allowingthematerialinthebedtobedeposited("dumped")ontheground
behindthetruckatthesiteofdelivery.
Load cycle of dump truck
1. Load time
2. Haul time
3. Dump time
4. Return time

A loaded truck

Dumping process

Unregistereddumptrucks,colloquially
knownaslorihantu.
Theseareonlypermittedtobedriven
withinsite.

3.3 Cranes
3.3.1 Telescopic crawler

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Images of crane lifting load as seen on site


Telescopic crawlers are popular on site because of their short set-up time and are very easy to transport. These cranes work on a boom and jib system. The boom is
made up of many tubes fitted inside one another that can be extended through hydraulics. They are known for their precision. They can place heavy loads with
exactitude whilst being easily manoeuvrable and able to reach up high.
Other types of cranes include :
Tower cranes ( first image below )
Loader cranes ( second image below )
Truck-mounted cranes ( third image below )

3.4 Pile-Driver
Apiledriverisanydevicethatdrivespoles(alsocalledpiles)intothegroundtoaddfoundationsupport.Themostbasicversionofapile
driverissimplyaguidedweightplacedonapole,whichisthenraisedintotheairanddrivendownontoapole.

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Variationsofpiledrivers(mostlytodowithpowersource)
Dieselhammer
Verticalleveltreadsystem
Hydrolichammer
Vibratorypiledriver
Pilingrig

Hydraulicpilingrigasseenonsite

3.5 Additional machinery


3.5.1 Tile cutter
This makes repetitive cutting of ceramic tiles faster than with the use of other devices like tile saws.

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Othertypesoftilecuttingdevicesusedare(notseenonsite):
Anglegrinders
Tilesaws(seenright)

3.5.2Swivelarmhoist
Deviceusuallyattachedtoscaffolding.Typicalhoisterscanliftobjectsupto100poundsheavyandsome
hoistingdeviceforworkersalsoavailableinmarket

Theoneshowninthepicturetakenontherightisspecificallyusedtoliftheavybricksfromthegroundfloor
tothefirststoreyofthebuilding.

Hoisting device as seen on site

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Sourcesforinformationandimages:

http://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/Feasibility_studies_for_construction_project
http://www.ustudy.in/node/7808
http://firecontrolman.tpub.com/14101/css/Transits68.htm
http://hsse.jgc.com/web/project/058582/473.html
https://orangutan.org/ourprojects/foreststewardship/palmoiltrainingprograms/
(
http://www.littledreamers.ie/images/littlelife_family_first_aid_kit_1_02.jpg
)
https://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/prevention/ppe/designin.html
https://www.osha.gov/Publications/OSHA3252/3252.html
http://www.hse.gov.uk/construction/faqfirstaid.htm
https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/construction/falls/safetynet.html
http://www.forestworks.com.au/images/ISC_Skills_Standards/ISC_find_a_resource/Attachment_RES.WorkSafeVictoria.StackingTimberForDrying.pdf
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/pm15.pdf
http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Crane_(machine)
http://www.merajinternational.com/product_details.aspx?proid=16
http://www.basiccivilengineering.com/2015/04/useofexcavatorinconstruction.html