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DIRECT and INDIRECT SPEECH

(Kalimat Langsung & Kalimat Tidak Langsung)


Untuk merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung ada beberapa hal
yang mengalami perubahan antara lain;
1. Perubahan Struktur Kalimat (Structure )
2. Tensis (Tenses)
3. Kata ganti orang (Pronoun)
4. Keterangan waktu dan tempat (Adverb of time and place)
PERUBAHAN TENSES
- Present simple tense Past simple
- Present Continuous tense Past continuous
- Present Perfect tense Pas perfect
- Present Perfect Continuous Past perfect continuous
- Past simple Past Perfect
- Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous
- Past Perfect Past Perfect
- Future simple, will would
- Future Continuous, will be would be
- Future Perfect, will have would have
Perubahan Keterangan Waktu (Adverb of Time)
Direct Speech
This
= ini
That
These
= ini
Those
Come
= datang
Go
Here
= di sini, ke sini
There
Ago
= yang lalu
Before
Now
= sekarang
Then
Today
= hari ini
That day
Tomorrow
= besok
Next day
Yesterday
= kemarin
The previous day
Last night
= tadi malam
The previous night
Next week
= minggu depan
The following week
Hence
= dari sini
Thence
Hither
= ke tempat ini
Thither

Indirect
= itu
= itu
= pergi
= di sana, ke sana
= lebih dahulu
= pada waktu itu
= hari itu
= hari berikutnya
= sehari sebelumnya
= semalam sebelumnya
= minggu berikutnya
= dari sana
= ke tempat itu

Contoh
DIRECT SPEECH

INDIRECT SPEECH
PRESENT TENSE

PRESENT SIMPLE

changes into

He said, I write a letter

PAST SIMPLE

He said that he wrote a letter.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

changes into

He said, he is listening to the music

PAST CONTINUOUS

He said that he was listening to themusic.

PRESENT PERFECT

changes into

She said, he has finished his work

PAST PERFECT

She said that he had finished his work.

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS changes into PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS


He said, I have been studying since 3 Oclock

He said that he had been studying since 3


Oclock.

PAST TENSE
PAST SIMPLE changes into PAST PERFECT
He said to me, you answered correctly

He said to me that I had answered correctly.

PAST CONTINUOUS changes into PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS


They said, we were enjoying the weather

They said that they had been enjoying.

PAST PERFECT changes into PAST PERFECT (tense does not change)
She said, She had visited a doctor

She said that she had visited a doctor.


FUTURE TENSE

FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE


WILL changes into WOULD
He said, I will study the book

He said that he would study the book.

FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE


WILL BE changes into WOULD BE
I said to him, I will be waiting for him

I said to him that I would be waiting for him.

FUTURE PERFECT TENSE


WILL HAVE changes into WOULD HAVE
He said, I will have finished the work

He said that he would have finished the work.