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18 Aufrufe6 Seitence cours donne un aperçu sur la façon step by step de mettre en valeur la méthode des éléments finis

Jul 13, 2016

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ce cours donne un aperçu sur la façon step by step de mettre en valeur la méthode des éléments finis

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18 Aufrufe

ce cours donne un aperçu sur la façon step by step de mettre en valeur la méthode des éléments finis

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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S. Jamali2 M. Ardebili' K. Abbaszadeh'

,

Assistant professor the electrical engineering, Department of K.N. Toosi University, Tehran, Iran

2M.S Student of the electrical engineering, Department of K.N. Toosi University, Tehran Iran

abbaszadeh@eetd.kntu.ac .ir

Abstract:

A new

and simple

procedure

core. Then this model is divided to triangular elements.

By using magneto static analysis of the finite element

method, the magnetic vector potential of three nodes of

each triangular element is calculated and therefore the

flux distribution over the model is obtained.

Then, the flux density of each element is evaluated.

Because of this reason that magnetic vector potential of

each element is considered as a linear function of x and y,

the flux density of each element becomes a constant

value.

After this step, leakage reactance of transformer can

be calculated by using several post processing methods

such as magnetic energy method.

A model of total three phase transformer is also

considered and since the magnetic vector potential of

each node is evaluated, the self inductances and mutual

inductance of coils is calculated by a post processing

method and then leakage inductance of each winding is

calculated.

The accuracy of these post processing methods is

verified by comparison with experimental result.

For calculation of radial and axial electromagnetic

forces upon the transformer coils, two components of

leakage flux density in x and y directions are calculated.

By analysis of leakage flux distribution over the

transformer window, it can be realized that the

asymmetrical LV and HV windings can result in

asymmetrical forces.

for

electromagnetic forces that acting upon the transformer

coils is presented in this paper. Before manufacturing

and within the design process, it is required that we

model the transformer and analyze the transformer

condition using this model.

The analysis of

electromagnetic forces is essential for mechanical

considerations. This study is accomplished by using

two dimensional planar models utilizing the finite

element method. Just by modeling the transformer

window and using FEM, the magnetic vector potential

is calculated over each node. Then by using three post

processing procedures, the leakage reactance of

transformer coils is calculated and the results are

verified by comparison with experimental result. The

radial and axial electromagnetic forces are calculated

over the transformer coils and the effect of

asymmetrical of winding is analyzed.

I. INTRODUCTION

Electrical machines are usually represented, in

electrical engineering, by means of their equivalent

circuits. Accurate calculation of short circuit reactance

of transformer is essential for modeling of transformers.

However, the calculation of leakage reactance of

transformer coils is performed in many papers by using

different analytical and numerical methods [1] - [6], but

most of the analytical methods are not accurate,

especially when the axial length of HV and LV windings

are not equal, and in several of numerical methods the

whole or a half of a three phase transformer is modeled.

In this paper we determine leakage reactance of

transformer by using FEM and just by modeling the half

of transformer window for a three phase core type

transformer and therefore the required time for our

calculation is decreased.

Furthermore the forces that acting upon the transformer

coils have to be evaluated before manufacturing and then

required mechanical support considerations must be

performed during manufacturing process. For these

reasons, evaluation of magnetic field distribution of

transformer is essential for calculation of electromagnetic

forces and number of useful electric parameters such as

leakage reactance. For our purpose, just the modeling of

transformer window is adequate and therefore an

appropriate model of transformer window is defined

considering the construction and position of coils and the

A. Model definition

The transformer that we considered for our studying

is a 30MVA, (63/20) KV, YnD three phase core type

power transformer that its HV winding has 480turns and

its LV winding has 264turns.

A two dimensional model of the window of this

transformer is defined considering construction and

dimensions of coils of this transformer, as shown in

Fig. 1.

The boundary condition of this model is homogeneous

numan boundary condition over the external rectangle

and means that the flux lines come to limbs and yokes

vertically. This is reasonable due to this fact that the

relative permeability of core and yoke is very larger than

that of air and copper.

1725

effect on the leakage reactance calculation and therefore

modeling of transformer window is adequate for our

purpose.

1.2

O8

permeability (p ).

And,

A: is magnetic vector potential.

For 2D models in x-y plane, the non-zero component

of A is the z component of magnetic vector potential

which is function of x andy only.

Therefore the equation (4) takes the following scalar

form:

a aA a OA =

(v )+ (v ) Js

(5)

numan

-core

--<

numan

ax

numan

yoke

06

boundury ->

condition

primary winding

secondarY winding

-~~

v

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

numan

I:

~~~

v

0.2

0.25

0.3

By using PDE TOOLBOX of MATLAB software,

the model is discretized by triangular elements.

In the following section, we determine the partial

differential equation that is required for leakage reactance

calculation and electromagnetic force analysis.

1.2

08

06 -

C. Formulation

In this section, the partial differential equation that

governs calculation of leakage reactance problem is

determined.

Amperes law states that:

Where:

VxH=J

ay

be obtained and solving equation (3), magnetic flux

density can be calculated.

By using magneto static analysis of PDE TOOLBOX of

MATLAB software, the flux distribution for our defined

model is obtained, as shown in fig.2.

04

02

ay

ax

04

0.2-

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

Fig.2. Flux distribution over the defined model for the transformer

model

(1)

is given as a three dimensional figure .3.

J: total current density

We will assume that H is only due to source currents

i.e. no permanent magnets are present.

1) Linear magneto static analysis: Current density J in

equation (1) is due to current sources i.e. current

0 025

0.02

winding.

0.015

intensity and magnetic flux density:

0 01

0 005

(2)

0o

1.5

magnetic vector potential is:

B =VxA

(3)

Hence:

Vx(v.VxA)= J

0.3

02

0.5

0.1

0

defined model is given in the figure.4.

(4)

Where:

1726

over

the

1.2

0.12

0.1

0.8

0.1

0.1

0.08

0.6

0. 12

0.15

0.08

0.05

0.06

0.06

0.4

0.04

0.2

0.04

-0. 05,

1.5

'0.4

0. 02

0.3

0.5

0.05

0.15

0.1

0.2

0.25

0.1

0.3

1 0.02

0.2

absolute, radial and axial flux densities over the defined

model, respectively.

With a glance to these figures, it is clear that the

value of radial leakage flux density is much smaller than

that of axial leakage flux density.

D. Reactance calculation

The leakage reactance of a transformer arises from

this fact that all the flux produced by one winding does

not link the other winding. The magnitude of this leakage

flux is the function of the geometry and construction of

the transformer.

In this stage of analysis, we able to calculate leakage

reactance of transformer, by using two post processing

methods.

1) Magnetic energy storage method: Due to this fact that

we considered the magnetic vector potential of each

triangular element as a linear function of x and y,

therefore the radial and axial component of magnetic flux

density and therefore absolute value of B of each

triangular element become fix values, as shown in

following equations.

10.12

0.2>

0.1

0.15

0.08

0.1

0.06

0.05

0.04

1.5

0.3

u

0.02

A= C1 +C2x+C3Y

(6)

Bx=A

(7)

ay

(8)

=-A

B

Color: uy Height: uy

0.04

o2

+B

B=+2

B=

B

(9)

0.03

0.05-

0.02

radial and axial component of magnetic flux

densities.

After the calculation of absolute value of B for each

element, the magnetic energy that stored in window

space can be calculated by using two following formulas.

0.01

are

-0. 05

1.5

-0 02

003

0.3

0.5

00o

0.1

0.2

0. 04

2

1

W

B.H.dxdy

(10)

JJffJ.A.dxdy

(1 1)

= J-J

than latter. In the former equation, the integration is

performed on the whole window space whereas in the

1727

the primary winding is excited by magnetizing current

and the secondary winding is open circuit, as shown in

Fig.8, can be calculated using the following equation:

the winding area.

Once the magnetic energy is calculated, leakage

reactance of transformer for each phase referred to

primary can be calculated using following formula.

X

(4x;Txf

xWxt)

.2 .2

1p1 + 1s1

L~ N2 Aavgl Aavg2

(16)

(12)

Where:

Np: is the turn number of primary winding and I is

defined as following:

(17)

I = ff J.ds

Where:

f is the supply frequency.

W: is the magnetic energy that calculated using (10) and

(1 1) equations.

t: is the depth of our defined model.

ip : is the instantaneous current of one phase of primary

winding.

Aavg1 and Aavg2 are the average values of magnetic

vector potential of two sheets of primary winding of one

phase, respectively.

The mutual inductance of primary winding and

secondary winding can be calculated by the following

equation:

phase of secondary winding (referred to primary

winding).

2) Linkage and mutual flux method: The leakage

reactance of transformer can be calculated by using

linkage and mutual flux calculations.

In this method, the whole three phase transformer is

modeled and A=0 is set as boundary condition on the

rectangle that enclose the three phase transformer model.

Firstly the primary winding of three phase transformer is

excited and the secondary winding is open circuited.

Then the secondary winding is excited and the primary

winding is open circuited.

In each state, the linkage flux of exited winding and

the mutual flux of excited winding with other open

circuit winding can be calculated using following

procedure.

The linkage flux of each winding can be calculated

using the following formula:

(13)

Vt = ff B.ds = A.dl

Each phase of each winding modeled as two same

sheets; therefore if we apply linear integration on each

winding for one phase, considering this fact that the

nonzero component of magnetic vector potential is z

component, we can write the linear integration as the

following form:

(14)

f = Al -A2

Where: Al and A2 are the magnetic vector potential

value of two sheets of each winding of one phase,

respectively.

Each phase of each winding is considered as two

sheets with uniform current densities; therefore the

average value of magnetic vector potential for each sheet

can be calculated as following equations:

X

fJ A.ds

'avg(i)

(15)

S

For each sheet, the above integration must be

performed on the sheet area where S is the area of sheet.

M psM =N

N~N Aavg3 - Aavg4

N~~~

(18)

Where:

N, is number of turns of secondary winding.

Aavg3 and Aavg4 are the average values of magnetic

vector potential of two sheets of secondary winding of

the same phase, respectively.

I in this case is the product of secondary turn number

and Since the Lf and MA,, are calculated, the leakage

inductance the primary current.

of primary winding can be calculated using the

following relation:

(19)

Ip = Lp -Mps

2.5

2-

1.5

0.5

-0.5

0.5

1.5

2.5

Fig.8. Core flux distribution for the case that primary winding is excited

and secondary winding is open circuit

be calculated in a same procedure.

1728

state that the secondary winding is excited and the

primary winding is open circuit, can be calculated using

the following equation:

Ls~=Ss=N2

by tests, and accurate calculations are essential. Utilities

are becoming increasingly concerned with this, and now

often require documentation from manufacturers that

their transformers are designed to withstand short

circuits, based on computer programs that they both are

familiar with and have confidence in.

Since the current density of the coils is known,

Electromagnetic forces upon the transformer coils can be

calculated, if the radial and axial leakage flux density be

known.

We have these quantities from (7) and (8) equations.

Radial forces are dominant and due to interaction of

current and axial component of leakage flux density, as

shown in the following equation:

(24)

Fx = ff (J x By ).I.dx.dy

Where:

J: is current density of the coils.

1: is the depth of model.

The above integration must be performed on the

winding area. Radial forces usually produce tensile stress

in the outer winding and compressive stress in the inner

winding. Compressive stress can cause buckling, and the

winding must be properly supported by axial spacer bars.

The distribution of radial forces that acting upon the

transformer coils is shown in fig (10).

Aavg3 - Aavg4

(20)

The mutual inductance of secondary winding and

primary winding can be calculated by the following

equation:

N5N~ Aavgl - Aavg2

A/I5=

,o

~~~I

(21)

Since the L, and M,p are obtained, the leakage

inductance of secondary winding can be calculated using

the following relation:

(22)

is Ls M5p

The equivalent leakage reactance of transformer

referred to primary can be calculated using following

equation:

Np 2

(23)

methods are compared with the experimental result, as

shown in the table 1.

The experimental leakage reactance of the under

study transformer in percent is 13%.

With a glance to this table, we can deduce that our

modeling and post processing methods are very accurate.

105

1.5

x

x

Leakage reactance in

method

per unit

Percentage error

Experimental

method

0.13

0%

Energy storage

method using

0.1227761

0.7224%

equation (10)

Energy storage

method using

0.1227455

0.7254%

equation (11)

Linkage

And

0.1215231

0.8477%

Mutual flux method

105

0.5

0.5

-2

1.5

0.3

'

0.5

00o

0.1

0.4

0.2

the transformer coils

-1.5

leakage flux density are usually compressive, as shown

in the following equation:

(25)

Fy = ff (J x Bx).I.dx.dy

The above integration must be performed on the

winding area. These forces tend to bend the conductors in

axial direction, and their sum total act on the coilclamping ring and other clamping structures. The

distribution of axial forces upon the transformer coils is

shown in the figure. 10.

The distribution of axial forces upon the LV winding

of transformer is not symmetrical due to especial shape

modeling is a little smaller than experimental result. This

little difference is reasonable due to this fact that the lead

of winding, that coming out from the transformer, is not

modeled in our modeling and thus the little of leakage

flux is not considered in our modeling. In high current

transformer the leakage flux of high current leads

become much larger and therefore for increasing the

accuracy, the high current leads must be considered in

the modeling.

E. Force Analysis

Forces at short circuit are calculated as flux density

time current time length. The windings must be designed

1729

LV winding toward to core limb in the case that the axial

length of HV and LV winding is not equal. Note to Fig.2.

x

104

6~

4

O2

2

-2

-6,

1.5

.04

0.3

0.5

00O

0.1

0.2

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