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# EXPERIMENT - 6

Cc Cv

and

Cd

## for a jet through an orifice.

INTRODUCTION
An orifice is an opening in the side wall of a tank or a vessel. The liquid flows out of
the tank when the orifice is opened. For sharp-edged orifice, there is a line contact of
the liquid as it flows out. An orifice is called orifice discharging free when it
discharges into atmosphere. The jet issuing from the tank forms the venacontracta at a
distance of d/2, where d is the diameter of the orifice. The orifices are commonly used
for the determination of discharge.
From the Bernoulli theorem it can be shown that the discharge is given by,

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Where
C
c

## is the coefficient of contraction, which is equal to the

C c ratio of the area of the jet at the
venacontracta to the area of the orifice. The value of
usually varies between 0.61 and
0.65.
C
v
is the coefficient of velocity, which is equal to theCvratio of the actual velocity atthe
venacontracta to the theoretical velocity. The value of
usually varies between 0.95 and
0.99.
C
d
is the coefficient of discharge and is the ratio of actual discharge to theoretical
discharge. Its value varies between 0.59 and 0.64.
H is the head causing flow, which is equal to the vertical distance between the free
surface in the tank and the centre of the orifice
a is the area of the orifice.
EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
The setup consists of a constant head supply tank with a circular orifice on its side
wall. A measuring tank is provided to collect the water for the measurement of
discharge. For the measurement of the coordinate of the jet, a horizontal scale to
which a vertical scale is attached to the tank. A hook gauge is mounted on the vertical
scale.
THEORY
By applying the equation of motion of trajectory of the jet, it can be shown that the
actual velocity of the jet is given by

Therefore,

V=

gx 2
2y

Therefore,

Cv =

V =
2gH

gx 2
=
4ygH
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x2
4yH

Where x and y are the co-ordinates of the jet, measured with respect to the centre of the
venacontracta.
The coefficient of discharge is given by

Cd =

Q
a 2gH

Because it is difficult to determine the diameter of the jet and the venacontracta accurately,
Cc can also be determined indirectly from the relation

Cd
= Cc
Cv
PROCEDURE
1. Measure the diameter of the orifice and fit it to the side of the opening of the
constant head supply tank and close it with a rubber plug.
2. Open the inlet valve of the supply tank to fill the water to the required level.
3. Remove the plug . The water flows out of the orifice and the water level in the
tank drops. Adjust the inlet valve till the water becomes constant.
4. Bring the hook gauge to the venacontracta. Note the horizontal scale and the
vertical scale readings when the point of the hook gauge just touches the lower
surface of the jet.
5. Slide the hook to some point at a distance away from the vencontracta and
measure the x and y co-ordinates.
6. Calculate the discharge by collecting the volume of water for a period of time.
7. Repeat the above steps for different H.

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## OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS

Diameter of the orifice =
cm
Height of orifice above tank base =
Area of the Cross-section =
S.no.

x(cm)

y(cm)

h(cm)

cm

cm 2

Q(l/s)

Cd

Cv

Cc

1
2
3

RESULT
Cd

Average Cv =
Average Cc =
Average
=
PRECAUTIONS
1. Make sure that the head remains constant for one set of the observations.
2. The head over the orifice should be fairly large so that the orifice acts as a small
orifice.
3. The hook gauge should not be moved unnecessarily to avoid backlash error.

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