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TI Designs

Remote Controller of Air Conditioner Using MSP430


User's Guide

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Ultra Low Power with FRAM Technology


Infrared Code Sending with Optimized Timer
Matrix Key Scan for 14 Buttons
Segment LCD

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MSP430FR4133

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Infrared LCD Remote Controller

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System Description

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System Description
This board demonstrates an ultra-low power, general purpose, infrared remote controller solution. The
board uses a FRAM-based MCU MSP430FR4133, which supports features such as real time clock, button
scan, infrared encoding, LED backlight, and LCD display.

1.1

MSP430FR4133
The MSP430FR4133 is a FRAM-based ultra-low power mixed signal MCU. With the following features, the
MSP430FR4133 is highly suitable for portable device applications.
16-bit RISC architecture up to 16 Mhz
Wide supply voltage range from 1.8 V to 3.6 V
64-Pin/56-Pin/48Pin TSSOP/LQFP package options
Integrated LCD driver with charge pump can support up to 4x36 or 8x32 segment LCD
Optimized 16-bit timer for infrared signal generation
Low power mode (LPM3.5) with RTC on:0.77 uA
Low power mode (LPM3.5) with LCD on: 0.936 uA
Active mode: 126 uA/MHz
10^15 write cycle endurance low power ferroelectric RAM (FRAM) can be used to store data
10-channel, 10-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with built-in 1.5 V reference for battery powered
system
All I/Os are capacitive touch I/O

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Circuit Design

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Circuit Design
The highly-integrated mixed signal processer MSP430FR4133 has a small amount of components
necessary to realize a fully-functional air conditioner remote controller.
Refer to Figure 1 for the design block diagram.

Figure 1. Remote Controller Block Diagram


A 4x28 segment LCD is directly connected to the MSP430FR4133 LCD driver pins. Designers can swap
the COM and SEG pins to simplify the PCB layout.
A 4x4 matrix is used to detect 15 buttons. The matrix columns are connected to interrupt-enabled GPIOs
(P1) to wake up the MSP430FR4133 from low power mode. MCU internal pull up/pull down resistors are
used as button scan matrix pull up resistors. No external resistor is needed for button detection, and no
external circuit is needed for battery voltage detection. The function is also realized by the MCU ADC
module without any external component.

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Circuit Design

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A 32.768 KHz watch crystal serves as the MCU FLL and RTC clock source. Two chip capacitors, C4 and
C6, are used as the crystal loading capacitor. Designers must choose C4 and C6 values carefully
according to crystal specification. Cautious PCB layout design for the crystal is strongly recommended, to
secure system clock robustness. Figure 2 illustrates an example of the crystal PCB design.

Figure 2. Crystal PCB Layout


Refer to SLAA322B-MSP430 32-kHz Crystal Oscillators for detailed design considerations.

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Software Description

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Software Description
The software implements an interrupt-driven structure. In the main loop, the MCU stays in LPM3.5 mode.
Interrupts from the button, RTC, and timer wake up the MCU for task processing. Inputs from the button
are processed in task KeyProcess (), which handles system status and generates the content for the LCD
display and infrared signal. RTC generates a 3S interval interrupt to inform the system of battery voltage
measurement.

Figure 3. Software Structure

3.1

Infrared Signal Generation


There are several kinds of infrared modulation protocols in the industry. This design illustrates pulse
distance protocol with data frame format, the most commonly-used format for air conditioner remote
controllers. As shown in Figure 4, each bit is composed of a carrier-modulated pulse and a space. The
spaces width distinguishes logic 1 and logic 0 respectively. The carrier-modulated pulse width is constant.
In this design, space length for 1 is 1690 uS, and 560 uS for digit 0. Modulated pulse width is 560 uS.

Figure 4. Pulse Distance Protocol, Bit Encoding

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Software Description

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A complete data frame format is shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5. Pulse Distance Protocol, Data Frame Format


The envelope waveform depends on the frame format. Quantize all of the above items with a minimum
time slot of 0.56 ms, as shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Table 1. Pulse Distance Protocol, Data Encoding Quantization Table
Leading Code

Logic 1

Logic 0'

Tail Code

Items

Carrier
Modulated
Pulse

Space

Carrier
Modulated
Pulse

Space

Carrier
Modulated
Pulse

Space

Carrier
Modulated
Pulse

Space

Length

9 ms

4.5 ms

0.56 ms

1.69 ms

0.56 ms

0.56 ms

0.56 ms

0 ms

Quantizatio
n

16

TA1 is used to generate an envelope waveform, and each pair of carrier-modulated pulse and space must
update the CCR0 and CCR2 once. The CCR0 depends on the carrier-modulated pulse period plus the
space period, while the CCR2 depends on the carrier-modulated pulse period. For instance, if TA1
sources from SMCLK of 4 MHz and uses default divider configuration, CCR0 and CCR2 are individually
configured as 54,000 and 36,000, to generate the leading code (9 ms carrier modulated pulse paired with
4.5 ms space), and updated to 9,000 and 2,240 for logic 1 (see Figure 6). To send one full data frame,
CCR0 and CCR2 must be updated 34 (1+8*2+8*2+1) times, which is achieved in the TA1 interrupt
routine.

Figure 6. Pulse Distance Protocol, TA1 in Envelope Generation

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Test Setup and Results

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To generate 38 kHz carrier with duty, CCR0 and CCR2 of TA0 are configured according to SMCLK. For
example, with a 4 MHz SMCLK, CCR0 and CCR2 are individually configured to be 105 (4,000/38) and 26
(4,000/38/4). Figure 7 shows how the duty setting works.

Figure 7. Pulse Distance Protocol, TA0 in Carrier Generation

Test Setup and Results

4.1

Power and Infrared Code Test


2 AAA batteries power the board. By pressing the button pads with conductors, the user can observe the
contents on the LCD. Typical air-conditioner working modes and parameters can be configured. A microampere meter is inserted in the power path to monitor the board power consumption as shown in Figure 8.
Table 2 shows the sample board test results. To observe the infrared signal, use P1.0 with an
oscilloscope. Figure 9 shows the infrared driving signal, typically 38 KHz PWM carriers, 30% duty.

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Test Setup and Results

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Figure 8. Current Test Setup


8

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Test Setup and Results

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Figure 9. Infra Transmitter Driving Signal from MCU


Table 2. Power Consumption Test Result (VCC = 3.0 V with RTC ON and LCD ON, LPM3.5)
Board NO#

Vcc(V)

Low Power Mode with RTC and LCD ON

Standby Current (uA)

1#

3.0

LPM3.5

2.6

2#

3.0

LPM3.5

3.4

3#

3.0

LPM3.5

3.6

4#

3.0

LPM3.5

2.8

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Test Setup and Results

4.2

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Oscillation Frequency, Peak-Peak Voltage and Allowance Test


The ultra-low power 32.768 KHz crystal is the MCU RTC clock source and FLL reference clock source. It
is essential to secure the robustness from noises. According to SLAA322B-MSP430 32-kHz Crystal
Oscillators, the user can test the oscillation frequency and allowance to calculate the SF (Safety Factor),
and evaluate system clock robustness. As described in SLAA322B, the SF should be greater than 3.
To perform the oscillation frequency test, download FR4133CrystalTest.c to the board. Then observe the
MCLK frequency on P1.4, which indicates crystal oscillation frequency.
For an oscillation peak-peak voltage test, observe the signal on XOUT with a low capacitor (<2 pF) probe.
For an oscillation allowance test, add a resistor (Rq) in series with the crystal, as shown in Figure 10.

Figure 10. Oscillation Allowance Test with Added Resister Rq


Table 3 shows the test results of sample boards with different value Rq.
Table 3. Oscillation Test with VCC = 3.0 V, Temperature = 25
Crystal ESR = 35 KOhm
Board

Rq = 0Ohm

Rq=100KOhm

Rq=200KOhm

SF

Freq.(Khz)

Vp-p(mV)

Freq.(Khz)

Vp-p(mV)

Freq.(Khz)

Vp-p(mV)

1#

32.769

512

32.770

616

32.770

560

>6.7

2#

32.769

504

32.770

624

32.770

568

>6.7

3#

32.770

448

32.770

536

32.771

488

>6.7

4#

32.769

488

32.770

560

32.770

520

>6.7

5#

32.770

512

32.770

600

32.771

584

>6.7

6#

32.769

472

32.770

568

32.771

528

>6.7

7#

32.770

630

32.768

608

32.769

520

>6.7

8#

32.767

480

32.770

576

32.770

536

>6.7

As shown in Table 3, even with a 200 KOhm resistor added in series with the crystal, the crystal works
normally, which indicates the SF is greater than 6.7.

10

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Design Files

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Design Files

5.1

Schematics
To download the schematic, see the design files at http://www.ti.com/tool/TIDU513
1

U1

C3

104 104 104


C4
200
R1

none

GND

1M

R2
0R

C6
200

GND
B

C5
104

32768

C7
104

C8
106

R3
47K

C9
105

P1
4
3
2
1

GND
DVCC
RST
TEST

R4
2K

JTAG-SBW

C16
101

L8
L9
L10
L11
L12
L13
L14
L15
L16
L17
L18
L19
L20
L21
L24
L25
L26
L27
L28
L29
L30
L31
KEYOUT1
KEYOUT2
KEYOUT3
KEYOUT4

J1
L0
L1
L2
L3
L4
L5
L8
L9
L10
L11
COM1 L12
COM2 L13
COM3 L14
COM4 L15

15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

L16
L17
L18
L19
L20
L21
L24
L25
L26
L27
L28
L29
L30
L31

14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

Header14*2

B
DVCC

R5
0R
C12

C10 C11

104 104 4.7uF

3V

GND

56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29

C1 C2

P7.5/L5
P3.0/L8
P7.4/L4
P3.1/L9
P7.3/L3
P3.2/L10
P7.2/L2
P3.3/L11
P7.1/L1
P3.4/L12
P7.0/L0
P3.5/L13
P4.7/R13
P3.6/L14
P4.6/R23
P3.7/L15
P4.5/R33
P6.0/L16
P4.4/LCDC2
P6.1/L17
P4.3/LCDC1
P6.2/L18
P4.2/XOUT
P6.3/L19
P4.1/XIN
P6.4/L20
DVSS
P6.5/L21
MSP430FR4133
DVCC
P2.0/L24
RST/NMI/SBWTDIO
P2.1/L25
TEST/SBWTCK
P2.2/L26
P4.0/TA1.1
P2.3/L27
P8.3/TA1.2
P2.4/L28
P8.2/TA1CLK
P2.5/L29
P1.7/TA0.1/TDO/A7
P2.6/L30
P1.6/TA0.2/TDI/TCLK/A6
P2.7/L31
P1.5/TA0CLK/TMS/A5
P5.0/UCB0STE/L32
P1.4/MCLK/TCK/A4
P5.1/UCB0CLK/L33
P1.3/UCA0STE/A3 P5.2/UCB0SIMO/UCB0SDA/L34
P1.2/UCA0CLK/A2
P5.3/UCB0SOMI/UCB0SCL/L35
P1.1/UCA0RXD/UCA0SOMI/A1/Veref+
P5.4/L36
P1.0/UCA0TXD/UCA0SIMO/A0/Veref
P5.5/L37

| +

A
GND

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
XOUT
13
XIN
14
GND
15
DVCC
16
RST
17
TEST
18
19
20
21
KEYSHIFT 22
23
KEYIN1
BACKLI GHT 24
25
KEYIN2
26
KEYIN3
27
KEYIN4
SEND
28
L5
L4
L3
L2
L1
L0

VCC

R6
0R
U2 C13

C14 C15

100uF
Battery

106 104

GND
VCC
KEYIN4

KEYIN3

KEYIN2
COLD/BLOW.HEAT

SLEEP/SWINGLR
C

Button-2p
TIMER/SWINGUD
1
KEYSHIFT

2
Button-2p

GND

TEMP.DIS
1

Button-2p
SILENT
2
Button-2p

TURBO
2
Button-2p

ON/OFF
1
2
Button-2p

BACKLI GHT
R7
2R2

HEAT/HEALTH.AIR
1

Button-2p

Button-2p
SHIFT

VCC

SEND

KEYIN1

Button-2p

SAVE
2
Button-2p

LIGHT
2
Button-2p

MODE
1
2
Button-2p

FAN
2
Button-2p

Button-2p
+
Button-2p

R9
220R

KEYOUT1

LED2
Backlight

R8
300R

2
LED1
Infrared Radiation
Q2

KEYOUT2

R10
10R

R11
100K

KEYOUT3

KEYOUT4

GND

GND

Title

Q1

Size

D
Number

Revision

A
Date:
File:
1

2014-9-11
Sheet of
Z:\Share_F
older\..\RemoteControlerB.SchDoc
Drawn By:
4

Figure 11. Schematic

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Design Files

5.2

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Bill of Materials
To download the bill of materials (BOM), see the design files at http://www.ti.com/tool/TIDU513.
Table 4. BOM
Designator

12

Description

Quantity

+, -, COLD/BLOW.HEAT, FAN, HEAT/HEALTH.AIR,


LIGHT, MODE, ON/OFF, SAVE, SILENT,
SLEEP/SWINGLR, TEMP.DIS, TIMER/SWINGUD,
TURBO

Buttons

14

C1, C2, C3, C5

0805, Chip Capacitor, X7R,16 V, +-10%

C4, C6

0805, Chip Capacitor Chip Capacitor 200 X7R,16 V, +10%

C7, C10, C11, C14

0805, Chip Capacitor 104 X7R, 16 V, +-10%

C8, C16

0805, Chip Capacitor 106 X7R,16 V, +-10%

C9

0805, Chip Capacitor 105 X7R,16 V, +-10%

C12

0805, Chip Capacitor Cap Pol1 X7R,16 V, +-10%

C13

0805, Chip Capacitor Cap Pol1 X7R,16 V, +-10%

C15

0805, Chip Capacitor 102 X7R,16 V, +-10%

Crystal

32.768 Khz crystal

J1

Header14*2

LED1

Infrared Radiation transmitter

LED2

Backlight LED

P1

JTAG-SBW

Q1, Q2

Transistor

R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R8, R9, R10, R11

0805 Chip Resistor

10

R7

0805 Chip Resistor

SHIFT

Button

U1

MSP430F4133

U2

Battery

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5.3

PCB Layout
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Design Files

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Figure 12. PCB Layer 1


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Design Files

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Figure 13. PCB Layer 2


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Design Files

5.4

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Gerber Files
To download the Gerber files, see the design files at http://www.ti.com/tool/TIDU513.

Software Files
To download the software files, see the design files at http://www.ti.com/tool/TIDU513

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About the Author

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About the Author


JASON GUO is a system application engineer at Texas Instruments, where he is responsible for
developing reference design solutions for the industrial segment. Jason earned his Engineering Master of
Integrated Circuits Design from Peking University, and Bachelor of Electronic Engineering from Shanghai
Jiaotong University.

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