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Splices should not be placed at potential plastic hinge regions. Hence they are not placed
at the end of columns in earthquake regions. Bars having diameter greater than 36mm
should not be spliced but must be spliced by welding or by using mechanical couplers.
Assuming Grade 415 steel and M25 concrete, the development length is 41d in tension
and 32 d for compression. As per IS 13920, the lap splice has to be provided only in the
central half of the member length, and should be proportioned as a tension splice. Hoops
should be provided over the entire splice length at spacing not greater than 150 mm, as
per IS 13920.
Moreover not more than 50% of the bars should be spliced at one section. Laps should
always be staggered. Terminating several bars at one particular section induces large
transverse strains resulting in wider crack widths. Staggering the splicing by more than
1.3 times the required lap length or overlapping by half lap length may reduce the crack
width considerably, as shown in Fig.1.

Fig.1 Cumulative effects of adjacent splices on transverse strains/stresses

Experiments conducted by Paulay (1982) have shown that the main factors affecting the
behavior of lapped splices, especially under cyclic loading, are the diameter and spacing
of transverse reinforcement. Hence all the bars may also be spliced at the same location,
provided transverse reinforcement, are adopted as per Euro code 8. The following
formula is given in EC8 for the area of transverse reinforcement:

Asw = area of one leg of the hoop,
dbl= diameter of the spliced bar
s= spacing of transverse reinforcement
fyld= yield strength of longitudinal steel
fywd = yield strength of transverse steel
The above equation has to be compared with the equation given in clause 7.4.8 of IS
13920 and the largest one has to be adopted.
When the required displacement ductility is less than 3.0, lapped splices could be located
within critical region, with closely spaced transverse reinforcement, according to
Priestley and Park (1987). Additional transverse reinforcement at and near the end of
spliced bars may be necessary to give confinement to the highly stressed concrete.
Additional ties as suggested by Leonhardt and Moenning (1977) and Park and Paulay
(1975) is shown in Fig. 2.

Fig.2 Additional ties required at ends of compression splices. Source: Park and
Splicing by welding is not permitted in column critical regions as per EC 8, as there is a
danger of embrittlement of the steel adjacent to the weld, unless preheating is carried out
in a rigorous manner (Paulay and Priestley, 1992).
1.Paulay, T.(1982), Lapped splices in earthquake resisting columns, Journal of ACI,
vol.79, no.6, Nov-Dec., pp.458-469

2. Priestley,M.J.N., and Park, T. (1987) Strength and ductility of concrete bridge columns
under seismic loading, ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 84, No.1, Jan-Feb, pp.61-76
3. Paulay T.,and Priestley, M.J.N.,(1992). Seismic design of reinforced cincrete and
masonry buildings, John Wiley, 1992, 744pp.
4.Leonhardt F. and Moenning, E. (1977) Vorlessungen ueber Massivbau, Third edition,
Springer Verlag, Berlin, 246pp.
5. Prakash Rao., D.S. (1995). Design principles and Detailing of Concrete Structures,
Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, pp. 34-46