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2.

2 States and transitions processes


1 A process can be in any of the following three states: Ready, Running and Blocked.
2 The processes in the ready state are those who can pass execution status if the scheduler selects
3 Implementation processes in the state are those that are running on the processor at that given time.
4 Processes are in locked state are awaiting a response from some other process to continue execution. For example operation of
E / S.
5..A process can vary between 5 different state
6 New: When the process is being created.
Running: when the process is running.
Waiting: When the process is waiting for some other event is met.
Ready: When the process is ready to run, waiting for the CPU.
Terminated: When the process is finished.
7. The control blocks are stored in the processes queues, each of which represents a particular state of the
processes, existing in each block, among other information. The states are internal processes and operating system transparent to
the user.
State Processes
8.. The states of processes can be divided into two types: active and inactive

9. 1. active states
They are those that compete with the processor or are able to do so. They are divided into:
-Execution
-Prepared
-Blocked
102. inactive states
Those who can not compete for the processor, but may do so again through certain operations
11They are of two types:
-Locked suspended: The process that was suspended pending an event, without having disappeared the causes of their blockade.
-scheduled Suspended: The process that have been suspended but has no cause to be locked split
12TRANSITIONS
A process can be in running state, locked or ready (also called executable). Of these states of processes and states the following
transitions are derived:
13.. The transition from one state to another.
1. The process is blocked at the entrance.
2. The scheduler chooses another process.
3. The scheduler chooses the process.
4. The entry becomes available.
14.In conclusion the systems that manage processes must be able to perform certain processes and operations with them. Such
operations include:
15-Create a process.-Destroying a process.-Suspend a process.-Resuming a process.-Changing the priority of a process.
-Block a process.-Awakening process.

2.6 Technical Management Planner


1.. In the following subsections we will study certain algorithms used to plan the CPU, choosing
one (or a mixture of several) depends on design decisions.
2Planning First come - First Out (FIFO).Procedures are dispatched in the order of arrival at the
ready queue. Once a process has the CPU, it runs to completion. This planning is not
appropriative; It is just in the formal sense, but somewhat unfair because the major processes do
small jobs wait and unimportant jobs expected to make important jobs.
3 LINK TO SIMULATION FIFO
. Planning for the shortest priority (SJF, Short Job First).
Discipline shortest job first is NOT appropriative and her work or estimated process time shorter
execution until completion, is the next to be executed. The SJF reduces the waiting time process,
however, has a greater variance
4 Planning shorter first remaining time (SRT).
The SRT is appropriative, it estimated the process with less execution time to reach completion is
the next to be executed, including new arrivals. In the SJF discipline, once the work begins
execution continues until it ends.
5 Planning the next relative maximum response (HRT).
HRT is a discipline of NO preemptive planning in which the priority of each work is a function not
only of service time work, but the time that a process has been waiting to be served Once a job
gets the CPU
6

Round Robin (RR)

The processes are dispatched in FIFO, but are given a limited amount of CPU time called time
division (time - slice) or as (quantum).
7

Planning round robin.

Round robin scheme is effective in a timeshare environment in which the system needs to
guarantee a reasonable time for interactive users response.
8.

The size or Quantum

Determining the size of the quantum is critical to the effective operation of a computer system
The questions are: how small or big ?
9.

Multi-level Queves

The schemes discussed so far assume that all runnable processes are in main memory.
-If the main memory is insufficient, the following will occur
-There will remain runnable processes that disk.