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'

(t)

(z

NOI.LJNOOUJNI

dsf8J

ry

(r)

I''

ancrrvc'aunrJvud

(
u

llun

Matenal Science and MetallutgY

88

'-u
Fractured

+
(a) Hiqhly ductile fracture in

n
I

b) Moderately ductile f racture

which

Fracture, Fi
Stage

Cr

Thc srnallcl
matcrial

iI1 a

to note that

..1

the specimen lsofr mtals lile


Pb. Au, etc I necl s down to a Pornr
in atea
showrnq vrtuallv lO006 'eduction

Figure

3.3

3'

Dttctile and brittle fiactute

TY}ESOFFRACIURE

fracture' two fracturc


undergo plastic deformation before
Depending on the abiliiy ofa material to
modes can be dcfined. TheY are:
iiacture)
Moderately ductile fiacture (oup and core

.
.

4l

Brittle liacture

Ductile Fracture

3.3.1

tnaductilefracture,thcmaterialabsorbslargequrntitiesUfcnergybefoJefaiLure'lnothtrwolds.
bcfore failurc The \driousstages
i;"';r"nald;;;;"i".lu.g" urnoontt of itu''rc dcfonnltion
in fi gurc I 2 a1d e\pla'ned a' iouows:
rnvoh ed m a ductile lracrure l' illusl rdled
Stage

When

Neck formation or Necking


ductile

;J;;;ililtt""'
,r""

up to a limiling stress ' and lurther


aterial is loadcd ;n tension, it bchaves elastically
the cross-settional
plastic deformation occurs As the stress is incrcascd'
produced as showfl h figure J 2 (a)
a*.eirscs rapiclly, and a neckecl region is

"iti.J-"L.i"r

Stage

CaYity formation (Micro-cracks)

Voids or
are formcd as shown in figurc 32 (bJ
Within the neck region, small cavitics or voids
pafticles of imr"urilies or othcr
.""nJ, ,r"""r"p ai a iesult of the shess. which causes srncll
or 5epalJle lrom 'ne meralrlli-rr rrr '
di\conlinutlics ln Ihe malendl to either li?rl'lre

Stage

Cn

'fhe crack thu


whichis appr
Sfage

Fra

The fnal shir


con.shapeor

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68

Material Science and I\/etallurgY

90

Refer figure 3.2 (c). lt is clcar fiom figure J 2 (e) that, the central intenor region olthe cup and
cone suJacc has zur irregular and fibrous appearancc, which is the indication ofp lastic deformation.
Figure 3.3 (a) shows the photograph ol'the cup and cone fracture

(a) Photograph ofcup and cone

(ductile) fracture

TI

(b) Pholograph of brittle

fracture

'

Figure

3.3

Photographs ofductile and brittle liacture

3.3.2 Brittle Fracture


a brittle liacture. the small cavjtics or voids join together to lonn a crack that spreads very
rapir.lly rvlth little oI no plastic deformation. The cracks usuallytr?velso fasl. that it is diIlidrlr to lell
rvhen the matenalis aboutto blcak. l he ctack propagates through ihe material to cause fracture'

ln

brittlc lrachlre, the direction o1'cmck motion is very ncarly perpend icu lar to lhc applied tensile
strcss. This pcrpendicular Iiacture lcaves a relatively flal surfbce al the Lrrcak as shown il figure
3.4 (a). Figurc 3.4 (lr) s hows the pssibleforu ot'brittle tensile fracture in metals.
ln brittlc fiacture, the broken pads ofthe materialcan hc assembled togedier lo get the unbroken
shapc ancl size. Figure3.3 (b) shows thc photograph ofthe britile fracture. Brittle fracnrre is tbc

In

mainmode offailurc lbrcold metals, glass and ceramics

=a
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E
E

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=
=

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L6

Material Science and MetallurgY

92

3.5

DUC'|TLE-TO-BRITTLE TRANSITION

to stress Manymatcrials'
The temperature ofa materialcal] affectiis behaviour when subjected
and vice-versa Fol
*hich u.e du.tite ut trigh ten)perattlrijs, bccomo brittlc at low tenperatures
but
tlftuve as a ductile malerial (fi act$e is ductile in nature) above' say 0oC'
u .t""f

-uy
"*"-pi",
l.f"r^iifri, t"-p"t*.",
,fr" au.iil" a
i. ii.".ii"

Tn otller words'
'rer (fraiiture is brittle in nalure)
This trarrsition
has hken place at a particular rango oftempetatures
,i" tcmperature deiendency of thc impact encrgy absorbed during the impact
a "rr.tltior
S The reason fbrtlris transiiion is tlat' athighertemperatures' the atoms in the

it behaves in a brittle

ma

t;nf.

J*a
i." ii.i".itgtt":

,"""tJiuU."**i*g-aterfreqLrencyandamplitude'lhisincreasedvjbmtionallowslheaioms
olhel
places in the materiil (i e , break bords ard fonn new ones with
i" .f;p t"
plarlic
"rJ.r.ti"t,
i.,ft" -""a"l "ewThis slippage ofatoms is seefl on the outsidc ofthe material as
decrcases'
tempdatrre
"ii-,
iir,ii^.rit" o r.r'^on feanrre ofductile fracturc However' whenthe

noi wani
."".ta"
,n
nf"*, where thc atorns due to dccreascd vibrirtion do
efough'
high
"O*-ut",iut So, when the stress on the matcrial becomes
iolutlo* irt rtt"

to slip io new

the atomsjust

in slippage causes /?o /lastic


b;;ak theif bonds, but do not form new ones. This decrcase
in
little plastic deformation bcfore fiactdre Thus thc matcrialh'ha.i:s
;;;;r;;;r, ;;;-".
a

brittlc mannel at low lemperatures

TI
fb

de

ml

C(

Ier

(n

Figure

3.5

Ductile-io-Brillletransition

HC?
having BCC
Ductile to brittle tansition or vice-versa' is comnonly observcd in metals
'nd
and copper based alloys etc.)
sttucture. but is al,nost missing h mosi ofthe FCC netals (alurniiLrin
range ofiempcratures that
wide
It is imp;rtant to note that, \;th most materials there is a lairly
p:"di:]t't)
supportductileto-brifJe transition (vice-versa) Herrce rt is imf o:siblc lo
asiire tm,rsition ternperature. F igure 3 6 show s ! Frp h thilt detennine
through an irnpact test fbr a 1018 hoi rolled steel

sd

uctilc

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16

Material Science and tuletallurgy

At the initial stages of loading, i.e-, bcfore the formation ofcrack, strain energy is stored in the
material due to the applied stress- When the stress is increased, cmckresults from smallcavities
or voids, and when this crack begins to propagate, the elelstic shain energry stored in the material is
releasd. In other wolds, the surface area ofthe propagating crack increases resulting in decrease

in lhe elastic str4in energr

fUJ

stored in thc rnatcrial.

lfthe elastic suface energy per unit area ofthe material is


gained by the creation oftwo crack surfaces* is given by

'y. then the lold I

slrJdce enetg) (U")

U":yx2xSufacearea
: y.\ 2x (2Cx t)

U":4C\.

-----(1)

The maglitude of strain oncrgy released per unit volume for propagating a crack is given by:

u,: ]("c')
where o =
-E =
C=

applied tensile stress


Youngs modulLrs ofelasticity

One halfthe lcngth ofan intemal crack


(Negative sign indicates release (decrease) ofsbain enerry).

.. Net energy

= U=U"+Ue

-----(l)

Substitutine equation (1) and (2) in (3),

, = to.r.l.[*("..)]
u=

+cy, lfuc')

-----(4)

According to Grillilh criteiia, a cmck propagates under a constant applied s1r'ess (o), ifan incremcntal
increase in the crack length produces no change in thc total energy oI the system, i.e., the increased
surlace energy is compensated by a dccrease in elastic strain encrgy.

i.e.,

,f

dU

_ll+cy.
i(nc,)l
4LL
t1
|

Prcpaeation af a crack resuks in he ctedtion ofnew uack suiac4. Ne\| fiee


the f.lces of the .:rut:k, #ich oloe.des the $tface eneryy al lie sysknt.

suihcer are cteated al

'.!2rr7,? s

td4tnu rrrr ,r//ts r trt .tl

3u1PDo I

oi

s.12.1>.1

3u

tplot )t l){} )o

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sD

pouodJlq ro tunlJleq {F^o Lneraq,\..


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rV

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)!,92

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dear3

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Material Science and lletallurgy

1t2

- --(4)

(r

1)o.'

Substiluting equation (4) in (3) we hare'

(,,

-rl

BD(t) _. ;_
(n - r)o,'
' =.

l)o'

l1

: o!i+
"' ;fu
3.I8

Pr

If

t(n-r)t

,re
fo

So

PROBLEMS

Dr

Problcm I

fi'

for l! com ponentis26 MPa


The critical stress tensity factor 1(/c o[ a matcrial used
coltains itn internal
What is fhe applied stress that wil c;usc frtcture ifthe component
Old scheme MQP-II
crack of lengih l.?2 ornt. Assumc the geomctric conslanf J'

N(

- l'

To

Solution :

X,,

Drta:

Cracklength:2C
Geomeiric constant

26 MPa .,Ci
l :72 mm

0 86 mm

0 86 x 10

rn

= Y= I

To hlrd : Fracture stress or fracture strength

w.k.l. crilicdl qlre\s inlen.:ly

f,rclor

",=

(o/):

Pr

K/. u g lGi

#fu:,#

:soo.2oMPa

thick maferi of
Dctermine the critical crack length for a through thickness crack in a
Assume size factor'l': t"
which is un<lcr a stress of 350
MPa

ri6,

al

So

Problem 2

K,.24.2

ha

D.

'tlPa'

Fb 2004 - 04 nl

To

Solution:
Data:

Fmcture
To

= Krc=24.2 MPa Jn
sbcss:o. : 350 MPa, Size factor -y: I

Stress intensity lactor

find : Crack length = 2C

N(

Ddn

et'totz=

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