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## Radioactivity is the spontaneous decay of an unstable nucleus to

be a stable nucleus by emitting radioactive rays or energetic particles

Author : Khairi

SYMBOL OF ELEMENT

Alpha ()

Beta ()

Gamma ()

4
2

He

-1

None

CHARGE

Mass

positive

big

negative

small

No
charge

No
mass

Author : Khairi

PENETRATING POWER

Thin paper

Aluminium
(a few mm)

(a few cm)
Author : Khairi

EFFECT OF ELECTRIC FIELD
-particle is
deflected to negative
plate because it is
positively charged

-particle is unaffected
because it has no charge

-ve

+ve

-particle is deflected
with larger deflection
because it has a smaller mass
compared to a-particle

-particle is deflected to
positive plate because it is
negatively charged

Author : Khairi

EFFECT OF MAGNETIC FIELD
-particle is
deflected with
X X
small deflection
because it hasXa X
large mass
X X

-particle is unaffected
because it has no charge

X X X X X
X X X X X

X X X X X

-particle is deflected
X X X X X X X
with larger deflection
X X X X X Xbecause
X
it has a smaller
mass compared to
-particle

## X = magnetic field into the paper

Author : Khairi

A process
where an unstable nucleus
reducing its mass
to be a stable nucleus by
emitting

Author : Khairi

NUCLEAR EQUATION
238
92

234
90

Th

X
z

## Nuclear equation above shows that uranium-238 decayed to

Thorium-234 and emits X-ray.
What is the X-ray ?

Nucleon number

Proton number

238 = 234 + y

92 = 90 + z

y=4

z=2

Author : Khairi

NUCLEAR EQUATION
238
92

234
90

Th

X
2

## Nuclear equation above shows that uranium-238 decayed to

Thorium-234 and emits X-ray.
What is the X-ray ?

Nucleon number
238 = 234 + y
y=4

Proton number
92 = 90 + z
z=2
ALPHA DECAY

Particle X is
4

He

Author : Khairi

EXERCISE

24
11

Na

24
12

Mg

## Nuclear equation above shows Natrium-24 decays to

magnesium-24 and emits an X-ray
What is the X-ray ?

Nucleon number
24 = 24 + y
y=0

Author : Khairi

EXERCISE

24
11

Na

24
12

Mg

X
-1

## Nuclear equation above shows Natrium-24 decays to

magnesium-24 and emits an X-ray
What is the X-ray ?

Nucleon number
24 = 24 + y
y=0

Proton number
11 = 12 + z
z = -1
BETA DECAY

Particle X is
0

-1

Author : Khairi

EXERCISE

60
27

Co

60
27

Co

## Nuclear equation above shows cobalt-60 decays and emit an X-ray ?

What is the X-ray ?

Nucleon number
60 = 60 + y
y=0

Author : Khairi

EXERCISE

60
27

Co

60
27

Co

X
0

## Nuclear equation above shows cobalt-60 decays and emit an X-ray ?

What is the X-ray ?

Nucleon number
60 = 60 + y
y=0

Proton number
27 = 27 + z
z=0
GAMMA DECAY

Particle X is
0
0

Author : Khairi

EXERCISE

226
88

Ra

Rn

## Nuclear equation above shows Radium-226 decays to

What is nucleon number and proton number of Radon ?

y = 222

4
2

He
z = 86

Author : Khairi

EXERCISE

226
88

Ra

Rn

4
2

He

## Nuclear equation above shows Radium-226 decays to

What is nucleon number and proton number of Radon ?

Nucleon number
226 = y + 4
y = 222

z = 86

Author : Khairi

EXERCISE

226
88

Ra

Rn

4
2

He

## Nuclear equation above shows Radium-226 decays to

What is nucleon number and proton number of Radon ?

Nucleon number
226 = y + 4
y = 222

Proton number
88 = z + 2
z = 86

Author : Khairi

EXERCISE

234
90

Th

## Nuclear equation above shows Uranium decays to

Thorium and emits -ray
What is the nucleon number and proton number of uranium ?

Nucleon number
A = 234 + 4
= 238

= 92

Author : Khairi

EXERCISE

234
90

Th

## Nuclear equation above shows Uranium decays to

Thorium and emits -ray
What is the nucleon number and proton number of uranium ?

Nucleon number

Proton number

A = 234 + 4

Z = 90 + 2

= 238

= 92

Author : Khairi

DECAY SERIES
238
92

234
90

Th

234
91

Pa

234
92

Author : Khairi

DECAY SERIES GRAPH
238

U
92

234
90

Th

Nucleon number,A

234

91

Pa

234

92

238

Th

234

Pa

90

91

92

Proton number,Z
Author : Khairi

A.

X-ray

B.

Gamma ray

C.

Ultraviolet ray

D.

Infrared ray

## Gamma ray has

high penetration power

Author : Khairi

Ray S
A.

Ray T

B.

C.

D.

Author : Khairi

## PAST YEARS QUESTION

Which of the following statements is a characteristic of

A.

## It has a positive charge

B.

It is an electromagnetic wave

C.

D.

## It has a lower penetrating power than beta radiation

Gamma ray is neutral and
a type of electromagnetic wave

Author : Khairi

## PAST YEARS QUESTION

What is the number of the alpha particles and beta particles emitted
during this process ?

particles

particles

A.

B.

C.

D.

1
Author : Khairi

## PAST YEARS QUESTION

Which of the following has a similar characteristic to -particle ?

A.

proton

B.

Electron

C.

Helium nucleus

D.

Electromagnetic wave

Author : Khairi

## What is the value of X and Y ?

A.

X
0

Y
1

B.

C.

D.

Nucleon number
238 = 230 + 0 + 4Y
Y=2
Proton number
92 = 90 X + 2Y
92 = 90 X + 4
X=2
Author : Khairi

## PAST YEARS QUESTION

What is X ?

A.

particle

B.

particle

C.

Energy

D.

particle

Nucleon number
235 + 1 = 141 + 92 + 3 + X
X=0
Proton number
92 = 56 + 36 + X
X=0

Author : Khairi

Beta and gamma

## b. Explain why the rays follow the path.

Beta is negatively charged and gamma is neutral

Author : Khairi

## What is meant by radioactivity ?

The spontaneous decay of unstable nuclei by emitting radioactive
ray

Author : Khairi

Positive

Author : Khairi

## Compare the voltage of EHT and deflection of the radioactive

emission.
EHT in diagram 10.2 is higher than in diagram 10.1.
Deflection of emission in diagram 10.2 is bigger than in diagram
10.1.
Author : Khairi

## PAST YEARS QUESTION

State the relationship between the EHT and the strength of electric
field between two plates.
EHT is directly proportional to the strength of electric field
between two plates

Author : Khairi

## State the relationship between the strength of electric field between

two plates and the deflection of emission.
The deflection is directly proportional to the strength of electric
field between two plates

Author : Khairi