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The claim that Jesus Christ was divine is one of the most fundamental doctrines of the Christian church.

It is upon this foundation that the church has been


built, and upon which a number of other vital doctrines take their stand. It is therefore imperative that Christians are able to adequately defend the divinity
of Christ from both a historical and theological perspective, to ensure the faith remains real and relevant for todays world. Ever since the churchs
inception, almost 2000 years ago, it has been attacked by various heresies that have sought to destroy it. The claim of Christs divinity has been one such
target. In recent years, one of the most well known attacks on the divinity of Christ has been from Dan Browns novel The Da Vinci Code. In his book, it
is claimed that the earliest Christians believed that Jesus was only a man. The book says it was not until the 4th century that the deity of Christ was
imposed upon the church by the Roman Emperor Constantine. Although his book is fiction, it has cast doubt in the minds of many people that Jesus
divinity is an essential part of the Christian faith. Similarly, well-known atheists I know such as Richard Dawkins have laughed at the claim that Jesus was
divine, although they do give him credit for being a good and quite interesting man within history. It is against this backdrop that Christians must
defend the divinity of Christ and communicate it effectively to a postmodern world. We are now living in an age where there is no such thing as neutral
truth, and everything is treated with a hermeneutic of suspicion. As a result, people are usually taking on board different philosophies and theories they
like and almost mixing them all together. It can be difficult to communicate the message of the gospel within this context, much less the divinity of Christ.
However, it is the churchs mission to do so, and in this book I aim to adequately examine and explain the historical reasons why the early Christians
came to the startling conclusion that Jesus was divine from the bible itself.

Introduction
It is observably clear that in every book of the New Testament the deity and humanity of the Person of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, was taught implicitly
or explicitly. The Person and nature of the risen Savior Christ defines the orthodox Christian religion. He is God the Son, the Lord of glory, perfect God
and perfect man, of a rational soul and a body (Council of Ephesus re-affirmed). Since the Founder and thus, Cornerstone of Christianity is Jesus Christ,
any such denial or distortion of the biblical revelation of either His Person, nature (God-man), or finished work is a denial of the true God and eternal a
life (1 John 5:20). First, as stated over, it is the entire content of divine revelation that affirms the deity and humanity Jesus Christ, the Son. Virtually every
New Testament book teaches the full deity of the Son explicitly or implicitly. The Bible also certainly teaches that Jesus was fully human. Paul refers to
Jesus as the man Christ Jesus (1 Tim. 2:5). Hebrews tells us that Christ became human in all things (Heb. 2:14, 17: Since the children have flesh and
blood, he too shared in their humanity so that by his death he might break the power of him who holds the power of death--that is, the devil17. For this
reason he had to be made like them, fully human in every way, in order that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in service to God, and that
he might make atonement for the sins of the people.). Here we will examine from the NT with Greek and Aramaic version and OJB (orthodox Jewish
Bible). Without going further lets examine from the Bible: (Note: Yahweh or Jehovah the personal name of God may be used in some verses however they
both are not the correct one)
A) Jesus the Son is God
1) John 1:1: In the beginning was the Word and the Word was with God and the Word was God.
OJB: Bereshis (in the Beginning) was the Dvar Hashem [YESHAYAH 55:11; BERESHIS 1:1], and the Dvar Hashem was agav (along
with) Hashem [MISHLE 8:30; 30:4], and the Dvar Hashem was nothing less, by nature, than Elohim! [Psa 56:11(10); Yn 17:5; Rev. 19:13] The Word is a
person (Logos-masculine noun)
2) John 1:18: No one has ever seen God, but the one and only Son, who is himself God and is in closest relationship with the Father, has made him
known. The word the One and only Son who himself is God is Monogenes Theos-lieterally the Unique God.
Orthodox Jews bible (OJB) has: No one has ever seen Hashem [Ex 33:20]. It is Elohim the Ben Yachid (God the unique Son), it is he, the one being in
the kheyk (bosom) of HaAv, this one is Hashem's definitive midrash (exegesis).
3) John 20:28: Thomas answered and said to Him (Jesus) My Lord and my God. Thomas confession of risen Christ is God and Lord. Jesus did not
rebuke him instead blessed him saying vs 29. Then Jesus told him, "Because you have seen me, you have believed; blessed are those who have not seen
and yet have believed. Notice first that Jesus is called the God. The Greek reads: Apekrith Thmas kai eipen aut, ho kurios mou kai ho theos mou (lit.,
Answered Thomas and said to Him: the Lord of me and the God of me). Here Thomas addresses Jesus as the Lord and the God.This is not mere
statement of surprise as OMG. A monotheist Jews would never said this. In the LXX (Septuagint Greek OT) of Psalm 34:23 (Eng. 35:23), a near identical
phrase is used to address YHWH: Stir up Yourself, and awake to my right And to my cause, my God and my Lord (emphasis added). The LXX renders
the last phrase as, ho theos mou kai ho kurios mou (lit., the God of me and the Lord of me). Was Psalmist simply exclaiming in surprise when he wrote
my Lord and my God? Absolutely not. The typical response of the JWs (Jehovah Witnesses who deny Jesus was God) here is that the phrase my Lord and
my God was Thomas merely expressing excitement or surprise seeing Jesus (something like, Oh my God!). Of course, the argument is completely
destroyed by the fact that first, Thomas was directly addressing Jesus: he [Thomas] said to Him. The phrase translated to Him is from the Greek
personal pronoun aut. The reason why it is translated (in virtually every translation) as to Him (even in the NWT) is due to the pronoun being in the
dative case, thus, something Thomas said to Jesus. And second, if the phrase, the Lord of Me and the God of me as the literal Greek reads, was
merely a statement of excitement used in the presence of Jesus, a perfect Rabbi, Thomas would have certainly been rebuked by Jesus on the spot for taking
the Lords name in vain (cf. Exod. 20:7). In other words, if Jesus were not the Lord and the God, He would have not only corrected Thomas (as the
angel corrected John in Rev. 19:10), but He would have also rebuked him for addressing a creature as the Lord and the God. In Revelation 4:11 we have a
very similar phrase to that of 20:28 where theos is in the nominative case with the vocative force, that is, in direct address like in: Worthy are You, our
Lord and our God (axios ei, ho kurios kai ho theos hmn, lit., Worthy are [You], the Lord and the God of us). Here we have both kurios and theos in
the nominative case, but used with the vocative force (i.e., direct address) by the twenty-four elders (v. 10), as with John 20:28 and the countless other
examples. Also similar to John 20:28 (my Lord and my God) is Psalm 5:2, which is directly addressed to YHWH: my King and my God.
Note: The phrase eipen aut or eipan/ eipon aut (said to him) in JOHN 20:28 is used frequently in Johns Gospel to clearly denote direct address (e.g.,
John 3:26; 4:52-53; 5:14; 7:3; 21:17; 21:19). Also the whole point OF John gospel is Jesus is the son of God and shares the same nature as God John 20:32:
but these have been written so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing you may have life in His name.
OJB: John 20:28: In reply, T'oma said to Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach, Adoni and Elohai!
4) Titus 2:13-Looking for the blessed hope and glorious appearing of our Great God and Saviour Jesus Christ (tou megaglou Theou kai soteros hemon
Iesous Christous), who gives Himself for us. The appearing is the son not the Father, the one who redeems us and gave himself for us is the Son. Aramaic
version reads: .of The Great God and Our Lifegiver, Yeshua The Messiah,

OJB: Awaiting the tikvah hameashsheret (the blessed hope), the appearing of the kavod HaEloheinu HaGadol and Moshieynu Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach
Yehoshua, [Gk Epiphenias is used for only Jesus in 1 Timothy 6:14, 2 Tim 4:8, 4:1, 2 Tim 1:10, 2 Theso 2:8.
5) Heb. 1:8-9 the Father calls the Son as GOD. Your throne O God is forever and ever.....Therefore, God, Thy God has anointed Thee.
OJB: and hashem says to haben, kis'ahcha elohim olam vaed shevet mishor shevet malkhutecha ("your throne, o G-d, will endure for ever and ever, and the
scepter of justice is the scepter of your kingdom" --tehillim 45:7). 9 ahavta tzedek vatisna re'sha, al ken meshakhacha elohim, elohecha shemen sasson
mechaverecha ("you loved righteousness and hated lawlessness; on account of this G-d, your G-d, anointed you with the oil of gladness more than your
companions"-tehillim 45:8).
6) 2 Peter 1:1: to those who have obtained a faith of equal standing in the (singular) righteousness of our God and Savior Jesus Christ (tou Theou hemon
kai soteros Iesous Christos). The same rule is used in 2 Peter 1:11: of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ (tou Kuriou hemon kai soteros Iesous Christos), 2
peter 2:20 ..of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ (tou Kuriou hemon kai soteros Iesous Christos, kjv lacks hemon), 2 Peter 3:18: .our Lord and Saviour
Jesus Christ( tou Kuriou hemon kai soteros Iesous Christos).The one refer by Peter as our God and savior in 2 Peter 1:1 is Jesus Christ.
OJB: Shimon Kefa, an eved and Shliach of Rebbe Melech HaMoshiach Yehoshua: to the ones having obtained, with us [Shlichim of Moshiach], equally
precious[orthodox Jewish] emunah (faith) [the Emunah of the true Dat HaYehudit] in the Tzedek Hashem [Dan 9:24] of Eloheinu and Moshieinu Rebbe
Melech HaMoshiach Yehoshua.
7) John 5:18 For this reason therefore the Jews were seeking all the more to kill Him, because He not only was breaking the Sabbath, but also was
calling God His own Father, making Himself equal with God. The verb breaking is eleuen- imperfect active indicative, calling is verb - imperfect active
indicative, making is poion is verb - present active participle-Literally he not only continues to break the Sabbath but also continue to call God his own
Father always making himself equal with God The force of an imperfect tense indicates a continuous or repeated action normally occurring in the
past. Thus, this was not the first time Jesus claimed God was His Father in the sense of essence. Apparently, He had been making (repeating) this claim
John 5:17-18: Son of God = God the Son. One of the best examples of where Jesus claim to be the Son of God denoted ontological (viz. in very
nature) equality with God is found in the Gospel of John chapter 5. In verse 17, Jesus affirms: My Father has been working until now (He is always
working), and I have been working. This was Jesus response to the charges brought against Him: The Fathers creative activity stop after six days, but not
His governing and upholding the universe. However, the Sons activity of mediating, rewarding, punishing, etc. keeps on going. Then we read in verse 18:
For this reason therefore the Jews were seeking all the more to kill Him, because He was not only breaking the Sabbath, but He was also calling God His
Father, making Himself equal with God (emphasis added). The Jews (and the Apostle John) clearly understood that by claiming God was His Father (i.e.,
the Son of God), Jesus was claiming to be equal with God. This is especially confirmed by the response of the Jews to Jesus claim: For this reason
therefore the Jews were seeking all the more to kill Him, because He was . . . calling God His Father, making Himself equal with God (emphasis added).
Note in John 19:7, the Jews response to Jesus recurring claims of being Gods Son: We have a law, and by that law He ought to die because He made
Himself out to be the Son of God. Again, this sharply opposes the position of those who assert that Jesus claim to be the Son of God was not a claim to be
equal with God.
OJB: Because of this, therefore, those of Yehudah were seeking all the more to kill Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach, because not only was he not Shomer
Shabbos, but also Rebbe was saying that his own Av was Hashem, thereby making himself equal with Elohim [Yochanan 1:1]. Aramaic says the same as
Greek
8) John 10:30, 33 vs30: I and the Father are one (semen (verb-we are), one-hen (singular neuter). 31. Again his Jewish opponents picked up stones to
stone him, 33. The Jews answered him, saying, For a good work we stone you not; but for blasphemy; and because that you, being a man, make yourself
God. Jesus affirms that his claim was right in 34. Jesus answered them, "Is it not written in your Law, 'I have said you are "gods? If he called them
'gods,' to whom the word of God came--and Scripture cannot be set aside-- what about the one whom the Father set apart as his very own and sent into the
world? Why then do you accuse me of blasphemy because I said, 'I am God's Son He did not reject the Jews accusation instead he affirms. Jesus was
almost stone because he put himself before the Father I and my Father in vs 30. His whole point was he is the Son sharing the same nature as the Father.
Both historically and in present-day, Christians have rightfully pointed to this passage to show that Jesus Christ claimed equality with God the Father: I
and the Father are one. As with Jesus other undeniable claims to be equal God, the response of the Jews in verse 10:33 is an irrefutable confirmation of
Jesus claim of being equal with GodGod Himself: For a good work we do not stone You, but for blasphemy; and because You, being a man, make
Yourself out to be God (emphasis added). However, it is not merely in verse 30 where we see Jesus claiming to be equal with God. Rather, it is the
passages leading up to verse 30 that prove His claim of absolute. In verses 27-29, Jesus claims that He is the Shepherd and He gives His sheep eternal life
and no one can snatch them from His (vs 28) or His Fathers hand. Now, the Jews were well acquainted with Psalm 95:7: For He is our God, and we are
the people of His pasture and the sheep of His hand. Knowing that only YHWH can make this claim of having sheep in His hand as well as giving them
eternal life (cf. Deut. 32:39': See now that I, I am He, And there is no god besides Me; It is I who put to death and give life. I have wounded and it is I who
heal, And there is no one who can deliver from My hand; Isa. 43:11: I, even I, am the LORD; and beside me there is no saviour); So when Jesus made this
noticeably divine claim and then added, I and the Father are one, its easy to understand the response of the Jews: You, being a man, make Yourself out

to be God. If Jesus was only claiming to be one with the Father in the sense of mere representation as with judges or Moses, Jesus claim would not
have warranted blasphemy (cf. Lev. 24:16). Jesus claimed the exclusive attributes of YHWH (vv. 27-29) then claimed He was one in essence with the
Father, which naturally prompted the Jews to stone Him for blasphemyfor making Himself out to be God. The Jews understood him claiming that he is
the one working in union with the Father in bringing salvation.
9) Philippians 2:5-8 Let this mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus, who existed in the nature(form) of God, did not consider robbery to be
equal with God, but made himself of no reputation, emptied himself taking the form of a bond servant, and coming in the likeness of men. And being found
in appearance as a man, he humbled himself by becoming obedient to death-- even death on a cross!
a) The word translated existed (being KJV, NIV) is huparchn, which is a present active participle. The participle here indicates a continuous
existence or state of continually subsisting. Hence, Jesus did not become the very form or nature of God at a certain point in time, rather He was always
existing as God. Literally translating will be who continue to exist or existing always.
b) Next, the word translated form of God (NASB) or nature of God (NIV) is morph. Theou. This word denotes the specific qualities or essential
attributes of something. (Strong's Concordance 3444 morph properly, form (outward expression) that embodies essential (inner) substance so that
the form is in complete harmony with the inner essence. In the form of God-denotes the expression of divinity in the pre-existent Christ, sharing the same
nature as the Father. Thus, in His pre-existent state, Jesus possessed (always subsisting in) essential deity as the Father. Paul does not simply say, He was
God. He says, He was in the form of God, employing a turn of speech which throws emphasis upon Our Lords possession of the specific quality of
God. In other word the form of God is the sum of the characteristics which make the being we call God, specifically God, rather than some other
beingan angel, say, or a man. When Our Lord is said to be in the form of God, therefore, He is declared, in the most expressed manner possible, to be
all that God is, to possess the whole fullness of attributes which make God to be God (God nature is immutability, unchanging, omnipresent, omniscient
omnipotent etc, Christ posses all this nature. To deny that the Son has truly nature of God (the morph (nature) is to deny that the Son was truly in the
nature of man (morph of man (truly man) in vs 7taking the form/nature [morph] of a bond-servant. If Paul comes up saying directly .in Christ
Jesus, who is God this may be wrong because it may convey that Jesus was the Father (God in NT mostly applied for the Father when the context bears it
out), the next phrase makes it clear (His equality with God).
c) His equality with God - is isa- nominative plural neuter constituting all the essence of what God is.
d) The last part of the verse ([He] did not regard equality with God a thing to be grasped) has been a topic of much discussion among scholars as to the
precise meaning of the term harpagmos (a thing to be grasped or robbery). But as we have stated, the meaning must be in light of the first part of the
verse: always subsisting in the nature of God. In other words, the meaning of harpagmos cannot be separated from the meaning of the participle
huparchn. It is something that seized and hold on to, This word (harpagmos) has two distinct meanings. One, a thing unlawfully seized, and two, a
treasure to be clutched and retained. The second one fits in the context. It is translated variously: "Something to be grasped" (NIV, RSV), "something to be
exploited" (NRSV), and "robbery" (KJV). Whatever, the exact meaning of harpagmos, it seems clear that the preexistent Christ already possessed equality
with God, and determined not to clutch at it or cling to it, but rather to obey his Father and humble himself. If harpagmos is used as a denial of deity of
Christ, how come he can seize or keep something that God will not share or allow for a created being (it proves Christ is more powerful than God which is
not the case Paul presented here). The context is Christ did not use his divine attributes for his own good. Matt 11:29 (Or how can anyone enter the strong
man's house and carry off his property, unless he first binds the strong man? And then he will plunder his house)
e) Emptied himself taking: The Self-Emptying of God the Son. It was the Son who voluntarily emptied Himself, taking the nature of a servant (v. 7). The
reflexive pronoun heauton (Himself) indicates that the subject (Jesus) is also the object (i.e., the one receiving the action of the verbthe verb
being (ekensen, emptied). Therefore, Jesus Christ, in His pre-existent state, emptied Himself; it was a self-emptying (lit., He Himself emptied).
The word emptying keno means literally, to empty, "to make empty, to make vain or void." It is rendered: "made void" in Romans 4:14(For if they
which are of the law be heirs, faith is made void, and the promise made of none effect) 1 Corinthians 1:17 (For Christ did not send me to baptize, but to
preach the gospel--not with wisdom and eloquence, lest the cross of Christ be emptied of its power" 1 Corinthians 9:15 (But I have used none of these
things: neither have I written these things, that it should be so done unto me: for it were better for me to die, than that any man should make my glorying
void); "should be vain," 2 Corinthians 9:3 (But I am sending the brothers in order that our boasting about you in this matter should not prove hollow, but
that you may be ready, as I said you would be).. The word does not occur elsewhere in the New Testament, except in the passage before us. The essential
idea of its used is that of bringing to emptiness, vanity, or nothingness where one lays aside his rank and dignity, and becomes in respect to that as nothing;
that is, someone assumes a more humble rank and station and not his essence or nature.
But what did he empty himself of? The term taking is from the Greek aorist active participle, labn. Semantically, this is a participle of means
connecting link. The participle of means describes the means or manner of the emptying. Hence, the Son emptied Himself by means of His incarnation
(John 1:14). The emptying did not involve in any way, shape, or form, His deity, for Paul safeguards against such an assertion in verse 6: Who
[Christ] always and continually subsisting in the very nature and substance of God (lit., trans.). Further, the Hymn indicates plainly that it was not God
the Father, as Oneness Pentecostals suppose, but the Son, who voluntarily emptied Himself and thus became obedient to deatheven death on a cross (v.

8). So emptying connects to the vs 7. but emptied Himself, taking (labon) the form of a bond-servant, and being made in the likeness of men. The whole
point of his emptying is not his divinity but restricting himself to use his divine prerogative for himself.
The hymn says he was "made in human likeness." "Likeness" is the Greek noun homoima, "state of being similar in appearance, image, form, resemblance
-- made like to, likeness, shape, similitude. The blessed Apostle clearly shows us that the manner by which Christ emptied himself was by becoming a man
and, hence, a slave. Paul was basically saying that Jesus laid aside his Divine privileges, not his Divine attributes. This can clearly be seen in the
exhortation that we should follow his example. We cannot lay aside Divine attributes (since we do not have them), nor are we called to lay aside our human
attributes, or cease to be human, but we should follow Jesus in his humility and willingness to serve others, even those who in this world are considered to
be lower than ourselves in power or status as he stated in vs 2-4: make my joy complete by being of the same mind, maintaining the same love, united in
spirit, intent on one purpose. 3Do nothing from selfishness or empty conceit, but with humility of mind regard one another as more important than
yourselves; 4do not merely look out for your own personal interests, but also for the interests of others. The Lord Jesus, according to the inspired Apostle,
set aside the honor, the prestige, the fame, and the glory that comes with being God, a point he makes elsewhere:
So Christ emptied the following by his incarnation:
1. He emptied Himself of glory. In John 17:5, Jesus prayed, Glorify me...with the glory that I had with you before the world existed. He gave up the
adoration of the saints and angels when He came into this world.
2. He emptied Himself of independent authority. In John 5:30, Jesus said, I can do nothing on My own. He brought Himself into a different relationship
with the Father, where ALL of His activities and actions had to be cleared in that unusual way. Though equal with the Father, now uniquely submissive to
Him.
3. He released the voluntary exercise of His divine attributes. Compare John 1:4351 (his omnipresent) with Matthew 24:36 (his humanity does not
know the last hour) to see how Jesus sometimes was omniscient and sometimes not.
4. He gave up eternal riches. I just want you to try to imagine for a moment the treatment that the Son of God, the King of the universe, gets in heaven.
Yet 2 Corinthians 8:9 says, ...though he was rich, yet for your sake he became poor, so that you by his poverty might become rich.
5. He gave up His intimate relationship with the Father. Who can describe the fellowship that exists between the first and second Person of the Trinity?
And to hear Jesus on the cross in Matthew 27:46 shouting, My God, why have You forsaken Me? He made Himself nothingfor you and me.
6. He became a servant: For even the Son of Man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many." Mark 10:45
f) Found appearance as man he humbled Himself (heauton- The reflexive pronoun) by becoming obedient to death-- even death on a cross!
The Greek noun schma means "the generally recognized state or form in which something appears, outward appearance, form, shape of a person; He
assumed all the innocent infirmities of our nature. He appeared as other people do, was subjected to the necessity of food and clothing, like others, and was
made liable to suffering, as other men are. Outward fashion was all that men could see; and in it they found no form or comeliness, or beauty, that they
should desire Him (Isaiah 53:2-3). Was Jesus really human or just pretending to be? A second century Christian heresy, docetism, held a Hellenistic
dualistic view that spirit is good and flesh is evil, thus Jesus could not have become flesh and thus partaken in human evil. Ergo, Jesus must have been
merely pretending to be human. But from its earliest days, the apostles insisted that Jesus indeed had become human. The Apostle John made this
confession a test of a genuine Christian: "This is how you can recognize the Spirit of God: Every spirit that acknowledges that Jesus Christ has come in the
flesh is from God, but every spirit that does not acknowledge Jesus is not from God" (1 John 4:2-3a). The Council of Nicaea re-affirmed that Christ had not
only become human, but in human form was both fully God and fully human, not half divine and half human as John's Gospel declares: "In the beginning
was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, full of grace and truth; we have
beheld his glory, glory as of the only Son from the Father." (John 1:1, 14, RSV). The Nicene Creed states this truth thus: "Who, for us men for our
salvation, came down from heaven, and was incarnate by the Holy Spirit of the virgin Mary, and was made man; and was crucified also for us under
Pontius Pilate; He suffered and was buried; and the third day He rose again, according to the Scriptures; and ascended into heaven, and sits on the right
hand of the Father; and He shall come again, with glory, to judge the quick and the dead; whose kingdom shall have no end."In summery Paul was
contending that Jesus was though equal with God the Father laid aside all his divine glory for us and so we must also serve our fellow human though we are
of equal nature. Phil 2:2-5: make my joy complete by being of the same mind, maintaining the same love, united in spirit, intent on one purpose. 3Do
nothing from selfishness or empty conceit, but with humility of mind regard one another as more important than yourselves; 4do not merely look out for
your own personal interests, but also for the interests of others.
g) Vs 9-11:. Therefore God exalted him to the highest place and gave him the name (to anomati) that is above every name, so that (hina) at the name of
Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue acknowledge that Jesus Christ is Lord (Kurios-nominative
singular masculine, Iesous- nominative singular masculine) to the glory of God the Father. Which is to be understood, not of the outward act of bowing the
knee upon hearing the name, and the syllables of the mere name Jesus pronounced; for in the bare name there can be nothing which can command such a
peculiar respect; it was a name common with the Jews: Joshua is so called in Hebrews 4:8; and the name of Elymas the sorcerer was Barjesus: that is, the
son of Jesus, Acts 13:6. The name appears as in vs 10. Iesoun (genitive of possession), it is the name Jesus has which is the Lord Yahweh quotation of

Isaiah 45:23. In verse 9, we read that the Father exalted Christ and bestowed on Him the name which is above every name. Name (onoma) is highly
significant in a Semitic (Jewish) context. Generally, it carries the meaning of authority, power,or on behalf of (see 1 Sam. 17:45). In verses 10-11,
without question, Paul is loosely drawing from Isaiah 45:23: I have sworn by Myself, The word has gone forth from My mouth in righteousness And will
not turn back, That to Me every knee will bow, every tongue will swear allegiance. This passage is an undeniable reference to YHWH (cf. vv. 22-25).
Paul, however, applies it here to Jesus Christ the Lord who glorifies the Fathernamely, the YHWH of Isaiah 45:23. There are further exegetical details
that enhance the force of Pauls Jesus-Isaiah connection. First, both Isaiah 45:23 (LXX) and Romans 14:11 (also from Isa. 45:23) contain future tenses
(every knee will bow, every tongue will confess [or will swear allegiance]) and indicative moods, indicating the future certainty of the event.
However, in Philippians 2:10-11, Paul changes the original tenses and moods of the verbs from that of Isaiah 45:23 (and Rom. 14:11) to make, as indicated,
Philippians 2:10-11 a purpose and result clause. The purpose of God the Father exalting the Son, then, was for the result of every knee bowing and every
tongue confessing that Jesus Christ is Lord, thus, the YHWH of Isaiah 45:23hence Jesus will be the fulfillment of Isaiahs (future) prophecy. That is
why Phili 2:11: says every knee should bow (Kamse verb - aorist active subjunctive).every tongue confessed (exomologstai verb - aorist middle
subjunctive). Also the term Kurios was a Septuagint translation of YHWH and Paul refer Jesus as YHWH of Isaiah and OT. Moreover Yahweh does not
share his name or glory. Isa 42:8: I am the LORD; that is my name! I will not yield my glory to another or my praise to idols.
Isaiah 48:11: For my own sake, for my own sake, I do this. How can I let myself be defamed? I will not yield my glory to another.
1 Cor 12:3: Wherefore I give you to understand, that no man speaking by the Spirit of God calleth Jesus accursed: and that no man can say that Jesus is
the Lord (kyrion accusative singular masculine- Iesoun- accusative singular masculine) but by the Holy Ghost (even KJV says).
Roman 10:9: If you declare with your mouth, "Jesus is Lord," (kyrion accusative singular masculine- Iesoun- accusative singular masculine) and believe in
your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. Kjv has Lord Jesus
OJB: Philip 2:5-8: 5 Let this mind be in you which was also in Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach Yehoshua, 6 Who, though existing in the demut of the mode of
being of Elohim [His etzem or essential nature, Yn 1:1-2; 17:5], nevertheless Moshiach did not regard being equal with G-d as a thing to be seized 7 But
poured out and emptied himself taking the demut of the mode of being of an eved and was born in the likeness of Bnei Adam and having been found in
appearance as an Adam,8 Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach humbled himself and took the path of shiflut (lowliness), unto mishma'at even unto death and that, a
death on HaEtz
Note: The whole point Paul cites is taken from earliest Christian hymns (Carmen Christi (Hymn to Christ) also called kenosis passage-emptiness, is the
'self-emptying' of one's own will. LXX used Kurios for YHWH obviously Paul refers Jesus as YHWH.
KJV Commentaries
E (Ekenosen) in the most basic sense means "emptied," but it is proper to translate it with a more precise word that fits the context. The context
that surrounds this verb is exegetical of its meaning (Vine's Complete Expository Dictionary). All translations translate the forms of in various ways
according to context. More dynamic translations exhibit the wide range of ways in which could be translated.
Consider the NIV:
(kekenotai-from verb keno) is translated "has no value" in Romans 4:14
(kenose from verb keno) is translated "deprive" in 1 Corinthians 9:15
Even the literal NASB translates verb (keno) according to context:
is translated "made void" in Romans 4:14 and 1 Corinthians 1:17.
Thus does not merely mean "empty" but emptiness in regards to a thing (determined by context). The NIV in Romans 4:14 translates as
"no value" because the context determines that the emptiness is in regards to value. The NASB in 1 Corinthians 1:17 translates as "made void"
because the context determines that the emptiness is in regards to effect. Likewise, the KJV translates in Philippians 2:7 as "made... of no
reputation" because the context determines that the emptiness is in regards to reputation:
KJV: But made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men: And being found in fashion as a
man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross. (Philippians 2:7-8). The point of Philippians 2:7-8 is that Jesus
made himself empty in regards to reputation. Thus made himself of no reputation is precise. The literal "emptied himself" can lead to abuse by people
like Jehovah's Witnesses who do not believe that Jesus was God. The New World Translation has "emptied himself." One could take this phrase "emptied
himself" and suppose that Jesus emptied himself of his divinity. The KJV translation ensures that the meaning of is understood according to
context and prevents abuse. Since even the literal NASB translates according to context and not always as mere "emptied," the KJV's treatment
of is more proper and helpful.
10) Matthew 1:23: Jesus is called Immanuel which means God is with us.
11) 1 John 5:20, And we know that the Son of God is come, and hath given us an understanding, that we may know him that is true, and we are in him
that is true, even in his Son Jesus Christ. He is the true God and eternal life [houtos eistin ho althinos theos]. He (Jesus) is the Eternal Life in I John 1:2
(the eternal life which was with the Father). The Jehovah's Witnesses refer "This is the true God" to "Him who is true", i.e. the Father of the Son. But that

runs somewhat contrary to normal grammar, where 'houtos', 'this', tends to tie in with the closer possible referent, not the further: "A demonstrative pronoun
is a pointer, singling out an object in a special way. The three demonstrative pronouns used in the NT are 'houtos,' 'ekeinos,' and 'hode'....'houtos' regularly
refers to the near object ('this'), while 'ekeinos' regularly refers to the far object ('that')." (Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics, Daniel B. Wallace, p. 325).
John could have expressed himself ungrammatically; but if he did not, this is a clear statement of the eternal Deity of the Son, Jesus Christ and moreover
the Father is never called eternal life anywhere instead the Son is called even in this same books. The fact is the closest antecedent to houtos is Jesus
Christ. Second, although the Father is said to possess life (cf. John 5:26 and 6:57), just as the Son does (cf. John 1:4, 6:57, 1 John 5:11), eternal life is
never attributed to the Father in the NT, but it is to the Son in John 11:25 and 14:6. Also 1 John 5:11 calls Jesus as eternal life not the Father.
12) 1Timothy 3:16, And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifested (phaneroo-appear, manifestly declare, make,
manifest (forth), shew (self) in the flesh,
13) Isaiah 9:6 a child is given to us whose name is Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God(El gibbor), Everlasting Father, and Prince of Peace. The
prophets understood that the coming Christ would be God. It should also be brought out to the JWs cult that in the Old Testament the Hebrew phrase El
gibbor was applied to YHWH (cf. Deut. 10:17; Ps. 24:8; Jer. 32:18). In Isaiah, many times El denoted the true YHWH contrasted to false El's (e.g., 43:10;
44:10).
Note Targum rendering: The prophet said to the house of David, For unto us a child is born [Heb yeled yalad], unto us a Son is given, and He has taken
the law upon Himself to keep it. His name is called from eternity, Wonderful, The Mighty God, who liveth to eternity, The Messiah, whose peace shall be
great upon us in His days. (Jonathan b. Uzziel; emphasis added).YHWH is called El gibbor in Isaiah 10:21. Thus, ask the JW: If El gibbor ("Mighty
God") means less than the Almighty God, then, how is it that Jehovah can be called El gibbor in Isaiah 10:21 (NWT)?
14) Col 2:9: "For in Him all the fullness of Deity dwells in bodily form"(hoti en aut katoikei (isdwelling)pan to plrma ts theottos smatiks)
Historically Paul's letter to the Colossians was a pointed refutation against Gnosticism. Paul was very concern of the heretical teachings that were creeping
into the church. Paul specifically refutes the Gnostic teaching that asserted Jesus was not the supreme ETERNAL GOD in flesh. The Gnostic Jesus was a
"lesser god," that is, an emanation from the supreme God. According Gnosticism, the supreme God was pure spirit. Hence, spirit is good and all "matter" or
the material world was inherently evil, thus, God or anything good cannot, really, dwell in flesh. Therefore, Jesus, to the Gnostics, only "seemed" to possess
a body. The Apostle John also deals with this error, in 1 John 4:1 and 2 John 7:Beloved, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to see whether they
are from God, because many false prophets have gone out into the world. By this you know the Spirit of God: every spirit that that Jesus has come
[elluthota (perfect tense); lit. "has come and remains] in the flesh is from God. . . . many deceivers have gone out into the world, those who do not
acknowledge Jesus Christ as coming [erchomenon; (present tense); lit. "and remaining"] in the flesh. This is the deceiver and the antichrist (1 John 4:12; 2 John 7; emphasis added).Bearing that in mind, we can understand plainly as to why the Apostle Paul, inspired by the Holy Spirit, choose this specific
wording in this verse. The verse is clear: Jesus is fully God in human flesh. This idea, God becoming flesh, was a sickening thought to the Gnostics of the
day. Because of the clarity of verse, in terms of demonstrating the deity of Christ, it caused great difficulty for JWs who endlessly denied this. Hence, the
JWs change it. The NWT of JWS uses the phrase, "divine quality" (theiots) which means "divinity" as with angels or things that are "godlike" as the word
(theiots) is used in Romans 1:20. However, the adjective theiots is derived from theios. Whereas the word theottos in col2:9 is derived from theos
(God). There is a qualitative difference of these two Greek terms. Recognized Greek lexicographer, Joseph Thayer, defines (translated from Grimms
lexicon) theottos as: "the state of being God." In fact he comments on the difference of the two words:"theot. deity differs from theiot. divinity, as
essence differs from quality or attribute; cf. Fritzsche on Rom. I. 20.]" (Thayer's Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament), 288. In other word Jesus
was God before his incarnation and even after his incarnation, Jesus is fully God even in his human form. He is not just half part of God or half man, he is
fully God as well as fully man. He is still the God-man that is why Paul used present tense.
OJB: Because in Moshiach kol melo Elohim (all the plentitude of G-d) finds its bodily maon laShechinah (dwelling place for the Shechinah)
15) Rom. 9:5Christ came who is overall, the eternal God blessed forever. Paul directly says Jesus is God the eternal. VS 3. For I could wish that I
myself were cursed and cut off from Christ for the sake of my people, those of my own race
OJB: Theirs are the Avot (the Patriarchs), and from them came, in so far as his humanity is concerned, Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach, al hakol hu HaElohim
mam'vorach l'Olam va'ed. Omein.
16) Matt. 4:7; Luke 4:12 - Jesus told Satan, you shall not tempt the Lord your God in reference to Himself. Who was Satan tempting? It was Jesus yet
Jesus said to Satan thou shall not tempt the Lord thy God referring to himself.
17) Mark 14:61-62: The High priest asked him saying to Him, Are you the Christ the son of the Blessed One? Jesus said I am. And you will see the Son
of man sitting at the right hand of power, coming with the cloud of heaven. In response the High Priest tore his clothes and said what further need do we
have of witnesses? You have heard the blasphemy. The Jews including the High priest rightly understood that Jesus was claiming to be Divine Person. Jesus
was referring himself as the Son of Man in Daniel 7:13-14: one like the Son of Man coming with the clouds of heavento Him was given all dominion
glory and Kingdom, that all nations, people and language should serve (Pelach) Him, His dominion is everlasting and his kingdom shall never be
destroyed. Here the Son of Man is divine person to be worship by every living being and He is coming to the Ancient of Day (the Father).

18) John 1:23: I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness make straight the way of the LORD. In reply to the crowd, John said he was the voice
crying, who would prepare the way for the LORD (Jesus). John the Baptist proclaimed Jesus as the Yahweh of OT citing the Yahweh of Isaiah 40:3 the
voice of one crying in the wilderness, prepare the way of the LORD, make straight in the wilderness for our God and applying it to Jesus directly. Jesus is
Yahweh
19) Luke 1:16-17: He will bring back many of the people of Israel to the Lord their God. And he shall go before him (The Lord their God)in the spirit and
power of Elias, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the
Lord. See from Vs 6They were both righteous in the sight of God, walking blamelessly in all the commandments and requirements of the Lord. 8. Once
when Zechariah's division was on duty and he was serving as priest before God. 9. He was chosen by lot, according to the custom of the priesthood, to go
into the temple of the Lord and burn incense. 15. For he will be great before the Lord. And he shall not drink wine and strong drink, and he will be full
of the Holy Spirit even from his mother's womb.
20) Revelation 22:6 The angel said to me, "These words are trustworthy and true. The Lord, the God who inspires the prophets, sent his angel to show
his servants the things that must soon take place." The Lord God is Jesus because he himself said in vs 16 I Jesus have sent my angel to testify to you
these things in the churches. In Revelation 1:1 also says The revelation from Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show his servants what must soon take
place. He made it known by sending his angel to his servant John. Obviously, the Lord God is Jesus who sent his angel.
21) I Corinth 8:6: and One Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things, and through whom we live. In agreement of Zechariah 14:9The
LORD will be king over the whole earth. On that day there will be one LORD, and his name the only name. In other word Paul is saying that the one LORD
of the OT is now Jesus Christ. In Deu 6:4 the LORD our God the LORD is one LORD. The One LORD of the OT is the Lord Jesus Christ.
22) John 17:5Jesus said And Now O Father, Glorify me together with yourself [para seaut, seaut is Reflexive pronoun - second person dative] with
the Glory which I had with you [para soi-dative singular] before the foundation of the world. Jesus is commanding the Father for the full restoration of his
glory that he shared with the Father. The word I had is eichon-imperfect active indicative which means he shared with him from eternity, not just a part
of time). Imperfect means without beginning at point of time, in other word from eternity. And second, aside from this passage, which clearly displays the
distinction and intimate relationship between the Father and Jesus, there is the issue of the aorist imperative form of doxaz (i.e., doxason, glorify [Me]).
Although the imperative mood can denote a simple request, the most common usage of the imperative is for commands. Recognized Greek grammarian
Daniel Wallace comments on the imperative verb: with the aorist [as in John 17:5], the force generally is to command the action as a whole. . . . Since
Jesus is presented in Scripture as ontologically (i.e., by nature) co-equal with the Father, His commanding the Father to glorify Him would not infringe on
the doctrine of the Trinityone divine Person commanding another divine Person of the same ontological class or category. Also, doxoson (glorify is in
command form in aorist active middle- When the Greek middle voice verb form is used, the subject of the verb is seen as acting upon itself or for its own
benefit) which only God can do. Know this in Isaiah 42:8 I am the LORD that is my name and I will not give my glory to anyone Isaiah 48:11 For
mine own sake, even for mine own sake, will I do it: for how should my name be polluted? and I will not give my glory unto another.. If God said he will
not share his glory to anyone, then Jesus is not a created being but God of God, sharing the same nature as the Father. If Jesus is not God, it will be
extremely blasphemous for any created being to say such word that God alone can say.
Glorify Me together with Yourself: First, the glory mentioned here is a shared gloryFather and Son. It is the divine glory that Yahweh does not share
with anyone else (cf. Isa. 48:11]. What erases the Oneness notion is that, grammatically, when the preposition para (with) is followed by the dative
case (as in this verse: para seaut, lit., together with Yourself; para soi, lit., together with You), especially in reference to persons, it indicates near,
beside, or in the presence of. A. T. Robertson brings to light the exegetical details of verse 5: This is not just ideal pre-existence, but actual and
conscious existence at the Fathers side . . . before the world was. So how do Oneness advocates answer this? Well, the Oneness position asserts that the
preposition para ("with") means "with the mind/thought," etc. So they apply that meaning to John 17:5. So, the glory that the Son spoke about was a future
glory of the "Son," which was merely "in the mind" of the Father (Jesus' divine nature). Thus, as they argue, the Son was with God in terms of being in the
"mind" of the Father, or a future "plan" of the Father, but not as a distinct person as the text plainly indicates. Oneness advocates conclude, then, that Jesus
was actually praying: "Father, glorify Me together with Yourself with the glory, which I had in Your mind as a future plan, before the world was. Or, as
one Oneness says, "God loved His plan before the beginning." However, a few things should be considered: 1) Although, para with the dative can carry a
meaning of "in the mind" (Num. 31:49 LXX), there is no standard Lexicon that applies that meaning to John 17:5. In light of that, many Oneness teachers
go so far as to abuse (that is, misquote) Greek lexicons in order to make the Oneness-unitarian position work. Again, no standard provides a metaphorical
meaning as "in/with the mind" for para with the dative at John 17:5. In fact, Thayer says of para at John 17:5:"dwelling with God, John 8:38; i. q.
[equivalent to] in heaven, John 17:5. 2) Aside from John 17:5, every place in John's literature where John uses para with the dative (10 times--John 1:39;
4:40; 8:38; 14:17, 23, 25, 17:5 [twice]; 19:25; and Rev. 2:13), it carries a meaning of "with" in a most literal sense--thus, nowhere in John's literature
does para denote in ones mind." Para is used with the dative at John 14:23: "Jesus answered and said to him, If anyone loves Me, he will keep My
word; and My Father will love him, and We will come to him and make Our abode with (para auto) him"; and John 19:25:"Therefore, the soldiers did these
things. But standing by the cross [para t staur] of Jesus were His mother, and His mothers sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene." The

word para is preposition which can mean near; i.e. (with genitive case), from beside, (with dative case) at (or in) the vicinity of (objectively or
subjectively), (with accusative case) to the proximity with. This used over 100 times translated as, beside the road (matt 20:30), beside the sea (mark 2:13),
by the lake (Luke 5:2), Troas with carpus in 2 Timothy 4:13 etc..
23) John 13:13 "You call me 'Teacher' and 'Lord,' and rightly so, for that is what I am. Jesus affirms that he is the Lord (Kurios) the Greek title for
Yahweh. Yahweh (LORD) of the OT now is Jesus Christ without excluding the Father.
24) Rev 22:13: Jesus himself says I am the Alpha and Omega, the Begining and the End the First and the Last.
In Isaiah 44:6 thus says the LORD the King of Israel.I am the first and the Last, part from me there is no God..
Isaiah 41:4 I am the LORD I am the First and I am the Last. Isa 48:12: Listen to me, Jacob, Israel, whom I have called: I am he; I am the first and I am
the last. Jesus is the LORD of OT. The title First and the Last is a divine title, and Jesus used this title for himself which means he call himself God. Jesus
the Son of man claim himself as divine eternal God in Rev 1:17: When I saw him, I fell at his feet as though dead. Then he placed his right hand on me
and said: "Do not be afraid. I am the First and the Last vs 18: I am the living one. I was dead, and now look, I am alive forever and ever! And I hold the
keys of death and Hades.
25) Acts 20:28: God purchased us with his own blood
26) Hebrew 1:3: The Son is the exact substance of the Father (Upostatseos tes character=exact substance) upholding all things by the word of his
powerWhatever the Father is the Son is the same as the Father. The JWs, as well as the Mormons, say that Jesus is not the same substance or nature as
God the Father, however the author of Hebrews expressively contradicts that idea. Jesus is the, "exact representation of God the Father's nature. . . ."
(charaktr tes hupostases). "Hupostases" denotes nature or substance. "Charaktr" denotes, exact or perfect expression of God. Only God (the Son) can
perfectly and exactly represent God (the Father). Creatures such as Michael the archangel, as the JWs assert Jesus to be, cannot do so. We must be careful
though when explaining Hebrews 1:3. The JWs constantly accuse Christians of believing in Modalism, which is the heretical belief that Jesus is the
Father. However, Hebrews 1:1-14 clearly differentiates Jesus from the Father. Jesus is of the same substance or nature as God the Father, as stated in
Hebrews, however they are clearly distinct Persons. As the first part of the Athanasius Creed declares: We worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in
Unity, neither confounding the Persons nor dividing the Substance
OJB: Who being the Shechinah zohar (brilliance) of Hashem and the exact impress and demut of Hashem's essential nature, being, and reality, and
sustaining everything by his Dvar HaKo'ach, after he made tihur (purification) of chatta'im (sins), sat down at LIMIN ("the right hand" TEHILLIM 110:1)
of the Majesty on High.
27) John 5:23: that all should honor the Son just as they honor the Fatherthe Son has to be God in order to be honored exactly as his Father, no mere
created being deserved honor as the Father.
28) John 8:58: Very truly I tell you," Jesus answered, before Abraham was I AM (I AM of exodus 3:14 and Isaiah 40-50): Greek: (.Prin Abraham
genesthai (second aorist middle deponent middle or passive deponent) Ego eimi (verb-present active indicative ). This angered the Jews who tried to stone
Him. Jesus was claiming to the God of burning Bush (Exo 3:14: God said to Moses, "I AM WHO I AM (Heb: Ehyeh asher Ehyeh (LXX-Ego eimi Ho
On). This is what you are to say to the Israelites: 'I AM has sent me to you.) Note: The LXX substitute the second Ehyeh in with verb Ho on which stem
from same verb Ego Eimi. The Targum of Jonathan has it: "I am he that is, and that shall be.''-in Exodus God merely convey that he is the being one, the
eternal self existing one that is why he used the verb form (Ehyeh-I AM). Interesting enough the Platonists and Pythagoreans seem to have borrowed their
from hence, which expresses with them the eternal and invariable Being: it is said that the temple of Minerva at Sais, a city of Egypt, had this inscription on
it, "I am all that exists, is, and shall be.' and on the temple of Apollo at Delphos was written the contraction of "I am".Jehovah witnesses (JWs) wrongly
translated this as I have been (ego huparchw-perfect tense): Literally translating will be Before Abraham was born [genesthai -an aorist tense shows
action happened at point in time, showing the commencement of Abrahams existence], I am [ego eimia present tense form, suggesting timeless
existence]. In Greek an aorist sets a point of beginning for the existence of Abraham, so the present tense I am predicates absolute existence for the person
of Jesus, with no point of beginning at all Robertson (greatest Greek scholars). Usual idiom with prin in positive sentence with infinitive (second aorist
middle of ginomai) and the accusative of general reference to coming as to Abraham suggest the contrasting of two nature of the subjects spoken.
Undoubtedly here Jesus claims eternal existence with the absolute phrase used of God. The contrast between genesqai (entrance into existence of Abraham)
and eimi (timeless being) is complete. See the same contrast between en in # 1:1 (kai theos en ho logos (the Word was God) and egeneto in # 1:14 (kai ho
logos sark egneto (aorist)-the Word become flesh). See the contrast also in # Ps 90:2 between God (ei, art-present tense) and the mountains (genhqhnaiaorist tense).But the issue is not settled so easily. Does the Bible ever legitimately translate the present tense 'eimi' into the English perfect tense "I have
been"? Yes, it does. In John 14:8-9, it says, "Philip said to Him, 'Lord show us the Father, and it is enough for us.' 9Jesus said to him, 'Have I been so long
with you, and yet you have not come to know Me, Philip? He who has seen Me has seen the Father; how do you say, 'Show us the Father?'" Where Jesus
says, "I have been" is in the Greek present tense, 'eimi.' Literally, again, this is "I am." Here we have an example of the Greek present tense being translated
into the English perfect tense. This is the very same thing the JWs organization claims is legitimate in John 8:58. Why is John14:8-9 is translated into "I
have been? Quite simply because if we did not do this, then the English would say, "I am with you so long . . . " That is awkward in the English, so

translators translate it as "Have I been so long with you . . . " It is legitimate to do this in some instances where it is warranted in order to make the English
more readable and clear. Also the nature of the sentence in John 8:58 is totally different from John 14:8-9 where John 8:58 deals with two contrasting
personality. The Jews understood him claiming as God so much that they reach the ground and pick up stone to stone Him vs 59 At this, they picked up
stones to stone him, but Jesus hid himself, slipping away from the temple grounds.The phrase "I AM" in Isaiah 47:8, 10 implies Deity a synonym of self
sufficient can be clearly seen in the following verses: "Now then, listen, you wanton creature (i.e. Babylon), lounging in your security and saying to
yourself, 'I AM (Greek Septuagint- ego eimi), and there is none besides me You have trusted in your wickedness and have said, 'No one sees me. Your
wisdom and knowledge mislead you when you say to yourself. I AM, and there is none besides me. God rebukes Babylon for claiming to be the "I AM",
believing herself to be a God like self sufficient Yahweh. Hence, the "I AM" is used to denote absolute Deity, self-existing, self sufficient and sovereignty,
being used as a synonym for Yahweh.
I AM of Jesus with roman soldiers:
John 18:3: Judas then, having received the Roman cohort and officers from the chief priests and the Pharisees, came there with lanterns and torches and
weapons. ..5 Jesus of Nazareth," they replied. "I am he," Jesus said. (And Judas the traitor was standing there with them.) 6. As soon then as he had said
unto them, I am he 'ego eimi' - predicateless absolute], they went backward, and fell to the ground. 7. Again he asked them, "Who is it you want?" "Jesus of
Nazareth," they said. 8. Jesus answered, "I told you that I am he. If you are looking for me, then let these men go." 18. So the Roman cohort and the
commander and the officers of the Jews, arrested Jesus and bound Him. The word he in I am in vs 5 is not there, added by translator for convenient The
words went backward come from the Greek word aperchomai. In this case, the words depict the soldiers and temple police staggering and stumbling
backward, as if some force has hit them and is pushing them backward. The word fell is the Greek word pipto, which means to fall. It was used often to
depict a person who fell so hard, it appeared that they fell dead or fell like a corpse. The members of this militia that came to arrest Jesus were knocked flat
by some kind of force! In fact, the verse says they went backward and fell to the ground. The words to the ground are taken from the Greek word
chamai, which depicts these soldiers falling abruptly and hitting the ground hard. Some force unexpectedly, suddenly, and forcefully knocked these troops
and temple police flat! The fact that the soldiers fell to the ground when Jesus uttered the words "I AM" affirms that the phrase served to identify Christ as
Yahweh God. Otherwise, there would be no reason for the soldiers' falling down to the ground and John using this term. John writing after 20 years of
Jesus death would absolutely understood and ties the Ego Eimi to OT Gods only title. The readers must have understood the meaning that Ego Eimi was
the very title God identified for himself in the OT in the Greek OT
a) "Now see that I, even I, am He ['ego eimi' LXX], and there is no God besides Me; I kill and I make alive; I wound and I heal; nor is there any who can
deliver from My hand. (Deuteronomy 32:39).
b) Isaiah 43:10-13, 25: "You are My witnesses," declares the LORD, "And My servant whom I have chosen, In order that you may know and believe Me,
And understand that I am He. [Heb: 'ani hu' - 'ego eimi' in LXX predicateless absolute].Before Me there was no God formed, And there will be none after
Me. "I, even I, am [ego eimi predicateless absolute] the LORD; And there is no savior besides Me. "It is I who have declared and saved and proclaimed,
And there was no strange god among you; So you are My witnesses," declares the LORD, "And I am [ego eimi] God. 13 "Even from eternity I am He [ego
eimi] ; And there is none who can deliver out of My hand; I act and who can reverse it?... vs 25. I, even I am (ego-eimi).
c) Isaiah 41:4: Who has performed and accomplished it, Calling forth the generations from the beginning? 'I, the Lord, am the first, and with the last. I am
He. [Heb: 'ani hu' - 'ego eimi' in LXX]
d) Isaiah 46:4: Even to your old age, I [Heb: 'ani hu' - 'ego eimi' in LXX] shall be the same, And even to your graying years I [ego eimi] shall bear you! I
have done it, and I shall carry you; And I shall bear you, and I shall deliver you.
e) "Listen to Me, O Jacob, And Israel, My called: I am He ['ego eimi' LXX], I am the First, I am also the Last." (Isaiah 48:12). Of special interest are the
Septuagint's reduplicated 'ego eimi's in Isaiah 43:25 and 45:19, which are difficult to understand unless the Seventy explicitly understood 'I am he' as a
divine name: "I am 'I AM' ['ego eimi ego eimi'], who erases your iniquities" (43:25), "I am 'I AM' the Lord ['ego eimi ego eimi kurios'], who speaks
righteousness." (45:19, Septuagint translations from C. H. Dodd, The Interpretation of the Fourth Gospel, p. 94).
f) Isaiah 43:25 "I, even I, am [Heb: 'anoki anoki hu' - 'ego eimi ego eimi' in LXX] the one who wipes out your transgressions for My own sake; And I will
not remember your sins.
g) Isaiah 51:12 "I, even I, am [Heb: 'anoki anoki hu' - 'ego eimi ego eimi' in LXX] He who comforts you. Who are you that you are afraid of man who dies,
And of the son of man who is made like grass
h) Isaiah 45:18 For thus says the LORD, who created the heavens (He is the God who formed the earth and made it, He established it and did not create it a
waste place, But formed it to be inhabited), "I am [Heb: 'ani hu' - 'ego eimi' in LXX] the LORD, and there is none else.
i) Matt 14:27 and Mk 6:50 are parallel and contain the predicateless "ego eimi". "Take courage, I AM; do not be afraid." Although it is natural to take this
to mean simply, "It is I", the connection between these passages and the "I am" passages of Jehovah in Isa 40-55, cannot be overlooked.
j) There is a direct connection of thought ("you may believe that I am He") between Isa 43:10 and John 13:19. --hina gnote kai pisteusete kai sinite hoti ego
eimi : You are My witnesses," declares the Lord, "And My servant whom I have chosen, In order that you may know and believe Me, And understand that

I am HeIsaiah 43:10-hina piseusete hoti genetai ego- From now on I am telling you before it comes to pass, so that when it does occur, you may believe
that I am He (predicateless I AM) . John 13:19
29) Isaiah temple vision
Isaiah 6:1-9: In the year that King Uzziah died, I saw the Lord(Adonai), high and exalted, seated on a throne; and the train of his robe filled the temple
(the temple was filled it His glory (LXX). 3. And they were calling to one another: "Holy, holy, holy is the LORD of hosts; the whole earth is full of his
glory. 5...my eyes has seen the King, the LORD of hosts 8.Then I heard the voice of the Lord saying, "Whom shall I send? And who will go for US?" 9. He
said, "Go and tell this people: Be ever hearing, but never understanding; be ever seeing, but never perceiving. In NT John states that whom Isaiah saw was
Jesus the Son, the LORD of hosts. John 12:41 Isaiah said this because he saw Jesus' glory and spoke about him. In Acts 28:25-26: The Holy Spirit spoke
the truth to your ancestors when he said through Isaiah the prophet: Go to this people and say, You will be ever hearing but never understanding; you
will be ever seeing but never perceiving. The Divine person who sent prophet Isaiah (Go and tell this people: Be ever hearing, but never understanding; be
ever seeing, but never perceiving) was the Holy Spirit as inspired Paul tells us. All the three divine person were involved that day that is why the creature
shouted three fold Holy..Holy Holy Holy..!!!In Isaiah's vision, we know that firstly, it was Jehovah/Yahweh that Isaiah saw and secondly, the earth was
full of His glory. Then, in verse 10, Jehovah gives these words of prophecy to Isaiah: Make the heart of this people unreceptive, and make their very ears
unresponsive, and paste their very eyes together, that they may not see with their eyes and with their ears they may not hear, and that their own heart may
not understand and that they may not actually turn back and get healing for themselves. This prophecy was quoted (and fulfilled) in John 12:40. But in
verse 41, John says concerning back to the prophecy in verse 40, that: Isaiah said these things because he saw his glory, and he spoke about him;
emphasis added).Both John 12:41 and the LXX of Isaiah 6:1, 3 even use the same terms, hora ("to see") and doxa autou ("the glory of Him").
John 12:41: "These things Isaiah said because he saw [eiden--the 3rd pers. aorist of hora] His glory [doxan autou], and he spoke of Him"
Isaiah 6:1, 3: "I saw [eidon--the first pers. aorist of hora] the Lord sitting on a throne. . . . Holy, Holy, Holy, is the LORD of hosts, The whole earth is full
of His glory [doxs autou]" The NIV reads, "Isaiah said this because he saw Jesus' glory, and spoke about him" (emphasis added). The reason as to why
the translators inserted "Jesus" ("Jesus" not contained in the Gk.) is simply because of the context and our main point: We find the context of the Isaiah
prophecy (John 12:40) starting in verse 37: But although he had performed so many signs before them, they were not putting faith in him).Faith in who?
Jesus. Then in verse 39 we read: The reason why they were not able to believe is that again Isaiah said". Believe what? Jesus, "they were not putting faith
in him" (v. 37). V. 39-40: And the reason that, "they were not able to believe is that again Isaiah said":He had blinded their eyes and he has made their
hearts hard, that they should not see with their eyes and get the thought with their hearts and turn around and I should heal them (v. 40). And in verse 41,
John then tells us why Isaiah said this above: "Isaiah said these things because he saw his glory, and he spoke about him". Who then is the "him" according
to the context (see vv. 37, 39 above)? It was Jesus, whom they did not believe in. And the glory that Isaiah saw was JEHOVAH'S GLORY in Isaiah 6:1,
3. It was certainly not the Father he saw:"No one has seen God at any time; the only begotten God who is in the bosom of the Father, He has explain Him
john 1:18 (the Father is invisible, which no one has seen; cf. 1 Tim. 6:16; Col. 1:15).
30) Rev 19:4-5: The twenty-four elders and the four living creatures fell down and worshiped God, who was seated on the throne. And they cried: "Amen,
Hallelujah. And a voice came out of the throne, saying, Praise our God, all you his servants, and you that fear him, both small and great. (see Rev 4:10: the
twenty-four elders fall down before him who sits on the throne and worship him who lives forever and ever. They lay their crowns before the throne and
say:). It is obvious that the one sitting in throne is God as 24 elders and the four living creature worship Him. However a voice is heard coming from the
throne saying praise our God if interpreted literally it is the Father calling the Son as our GOD as the Father is the one sitting on the throne as 4:10 says.
However, it appears to be the Messiah sitting on his Father Throne worship and call as God. In either case it defends the deity of Christ.
B) He is the Ho On (VERB-present participle, THE EXISTING ONE)
First, in the book of Revelation Christ identifies himself as "the Being" who has eternally existed, i.e. Yahweh: Revelation 1:7-8: Look! He is coming with
the clouds; every eye will see him, even those who pierced him; and on his account all the tribes of the earth will wail. So it is to be. Amen. 'I am the Alpha
and Omega', says the Lord God, 'The Being/The One (ho on) who is and who was and who is to come, the ALMIGHTY (pantokrator). Jesus Christ, the
coming pierced One, identifies himself as "The Being" (ho on) who eternally exists, the Almighty. This is not the Father, the Father is never spoken in the
NT as coming one, it is the Son. The phrase "who is and who was" refers to the eternal nature of God, and hence implicitly affirms that Jesus is Yahweh:
This same title is used of the Father in Rev. 16:5-7: And the angels of the waters say, `You are just, O Holy One, who are (ho on) and who were, for you
have judged these things; because they shed the blood of saints and prophets, you have given them blood to drink. It is what they deserve!' And I heard the
altar respond, 'Yes, O Lord, the ALMIGHTY (pantokrator), your judgements are true and just!
Heb 1:3: Who being (ho on) the radiance of His glory and the exact representation of His nature, and upholds all things by the word of His power. When
He had made purification of sins, He sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high,
John 1:18: No one has seen God at any time; the only begotten God who is (ho on) in the bosom of the Father, He has explained Him.
Roman 9:5: whose are the fathers, and from whom is the Christ according to the flesh, who is (ho on) over all, God blessed forever. Amen.
Rev 1:18: I am the Living One (ho zon); I was dead, and now look, I am alive forever and ever! And I hold the keys of death and Hades

Note: Ho On (ho is the definite article, On is verb being absoluteness- present participle, ho on mean the absolute being or self existing one)
C) Jesus is presented as the God (ho theos)--in a religious context
John 20:28: Thomas said to Jesus (direct address) my Lord and my God(ho kurios mou kai ho theos mou), lit. The Lord of me and the God of me
Titus 2:13: the appearing of our great God and Savior and savior Jesus Christ (tou megalou theou kai stros hmn Christou Isou), lit. the great God
and Savior of us Christ Jesus. Note: in 2 Peter 1:1 is the same grammatical construction (i.e., article-noun-kai-noun): tou theou hmn kai stros Isou
Christou, lit. the God of us and Savior Jesus Christ (cf. 2 Pet. 1:11; 2:20; 3:2, 18; 2 Thess. 1:12; see Gk.)
Hebrews 1:8: But of the Son He [the Father] says, YOUR THRONE, O GOD IS FOREVER AND EVER. . . . (ho thronos sou ho theos, lit. the throne
of thee the God. . . . ).
2 Peter 1:1 righteousness of our God and Savior Jesus Christ (tou Theou hemon kai soteros Iesous Christos)The God and Savior, of Us Jesus Christ: tou
[the] theou [God] hmn [of us] kai [and] stros [Savior] Isou Christou (lit., The God of us and Savior, Jesus Christ).
1 John 5:20: And we know that the Son of God has come, and has given us understanding so that we may know Him who is true; and we are in Him who
is true, in His Son Jesus Christ. He is the true God [houtos ho althinos theos] and eternal life (emphasis added). The JWs attempt to deny this reading by
asserting that the pronoun houtos (this one) refers not to the Son, but to the FatherJehovah. Even though the grammar is somewhat unclear, there are
solid reasons that support the position of houtos referring to the Son. First, the closest antecedent to houtos is Jesus Christ. Second, although the Father is
said to possess life (cf. John 5:26 and 6:57), just as the Son does (cf. John 1:4, 6:57, 1 John 5:11), eternal life is never attributed to the Father in the NT,
but it is to the Son in John 11:25 and 14:6, precisely in the same book John call the Son as eternal life 1 John 1:2 (The life appeared; we have seen it and
testify to it, and we proclaim to you the eternal life, which was with the Father and has appeared to us). 1 john 5:20 is the Son.
John 1:18: No one has ever seen God, but the one and only Son, who is himself God (ho theos) and is in closest relationship with the Father, has made
him known.Matt 1:23: The virgin will conceive and give birth to a son, and they will call him Immanuel" (which means "God (ho theos) with us").
Note: JWs believed Jesus is not God because of the lack of definite article the (ho) in John 1:1 yet the Father is also without the in John 1:6, 12, 13 and 18
and many other places.
D) Worship is attributed to Creator God
The Greek term equivalent of Hebrew word shachah (srong 7812. for worship alone to God) is proskyn (strong 4352 (from 4314 /prs, "towards"
and kyneo, "to kiss") properly, to kiss the ground when prostrating before a superior; to worship, ready "to fall down/prostrate oneself to adore on one's
knees" (DNTT); Shachah is used in OT over 172 times to refer to worship of the one true God (Exo 20:5, 23:24, Exo 4:31 and etc etc). This Hebrew word
translated in Greek as proskyneo is used in the NT for God; example, Jesus own statement from Matt 4:10 (Then Jesus said to him, 'Begone, Satan! for it is
written, You shall worship (proskyneo) the Lord your God, and serve Him only. Jesus called himself as Lord God for Satan and used the same word
Proskyneo; other examples where this term is used is in Rev 19:10, 22:9 etc. Yet this term religious worship mean for God alone is used by early witnesses
attesting that Christ was God in flesh. Below are some biblical verses to make this claim. The doctrine of the deity of Christ is forced upon us by the word
of Christ himself and early apostles to believe that Jesus was God to be worship.
1) Only God the Creator is to be worship
Ps 148:2-5: Praise him, all his angels; praise him, all his heavenly hosts. Praise him, sun and moon; praise him, all you shining stars. Praise him, you
highest heavens and you waters above the skies. Let them praise the name of the LORD, For He commanded and they were created.
Roman 1:25: they exchanged the truth about God for a lie, and worshiped and served created things rather than the Creator--who is forever praised.
Amen.
Jer 10:11: Tell them this: 'These gods, who did not make the heavens and the earth, will perish from the earth and from under the heavens.
Rev. 14:6, 7: And I saw another angel fly in the midst of heaven, having the everlasting gospel to preach unto them that dwell on the earth, and to every
nation, and kindred, and tongue, and people, Saying with a loud voice, Fear God, and give glory to him; for the hour of his judgment is come: and worship
him that made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and the fountains of waters."
Revelation 4:1: Worthy art thou, our Lord and God, to receive glory and honor and power, for thou didst create all things, and by thy will they existed and
were created."
Acts 14:8-18: And the priest of Zeus, whose temple was in front of the city, brought oxen and garlands to the gates and wanted to offer sacrifice with the
people. But when the apostles Barnabas and Paul heard of it, they tore their garments and rushed out among the multitude, crying, Men, why are you doing
this? We also are men, of like nature with you, and bring you good news, that you should turn from these vain things to a living God who made the heaven
and the earth and the sea and all that is in them
2) Worship of any created being (men or angels) is against the law of God
Acts 10:25-26: When Peter entered, Cornelius met him, and fell at his feet and worshiped (proskyneo) him. 26. But Peter raised him up, saying, "Stand up;
I too am just a man."

Col 2:18: Do not let anyone who delights in false humility and the worship of angels disqualify you. Such a person also goes into great detail about what
they have seen; they are puffed up with idle notions by their unspiritual mind.
Rev 19:9-10: Then the angel said to me unto me (KJV has He said to me), Write, Blessed are they which are called unto the marriage supper of the Lamb.
And he saith unto me, These are the true sayings of God. Then I fell at his feet to worship him. But he said to me, "Do not do that; I am a fellow servant of
yours and your brethren who hold the testimony of Jesus; worship (proskyneo) God. For the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy." The angel spoken
in 19:9 is angel in Rev 17:1: One of the seven angels who had the seven bowls came and said to me, "Come, I will show you the punishment of the great
prostitute, who sits by many waters.
Rev 22:8-9: And I John saw these things, and heard them. And when I had heard and seen, I fell down to worship before the feet of the angel which
shewed me these things. Then saith he unto me, See thou do it not: for I am thy fellow servant, and of thy brethren the prophets, and of them which keep
the sayings of this book: worship (proskyneo) God
Acts 14:12-15: Barnabas they called Zeus, and Paul they called Hermes because he was the chief speaker. The priest of Zeus, whose temple was just
outside the city, brought bulls and wreaths to the city gates because he and the crowd wanted to offer sacrifices to them. But when the apostles Barnabas
and Paul heard of this, they tore their clothes and rushed out into the crowd, shouting: Friends, why are you doing this? We too are only human, like you.
We are bringing you good news, telling you to turn from these worthless things to the living God, who made the heavens and the earth and the sea and
everything in them.
3) God killed a created being who accept worship deserve for God alone
Acts 12:22-23: The people kept crying out, "The voice of a god and not of a man!" 23 And immediately an angel of the Lord struck him because he did
not give God the glory, and he was eaten by worms and died
4) Jesus is worship (proskyneo)-he is the Creator
Heb 1:6: And again, when God brings his firstborn into the world, he says, "Let all God's angels worship (proskyneo) him."
1 Peter 3:22: Who is gone into heaven, and is on the right hand of God; angels and authorities and powers being made subject unto him.
Luke 24:51-52: While He was blessing them (disciple), He parted from them and was carried up into heaven. 52And they, after worshiping Him, returned
to Jerusalem with great joy
Matt 28:9: And as they went to tell his disciples, behold, Jesus met them, saying, All hail. And they came and held him by the feet, and worshipped him.
Matt 14:33: Then those who were in the boat worshiped him, saying, "Truly you are the Son of God."
Matt 28:17: When they saw him, they worshiped him; but some doubted. [Mark 14:13-15: After that, He appeared in a different form to two of them
while they were walking along on their way to the country. 13They went away and reported it to the others, but they did not believe them either. Later Jesus
appeared to the Eleven as they were eating; he rebuked them for their lack of faith and their stubborn refusal to believe those who had seen him after he had
risen.]
Matt 2:11: After coming into the house they saw the Child with Mary His mother; and they fell to the ground and worshiped Him. Then, opening their
treasures, they presented to Him gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh.
John 9:35-38: Jesus heard that they had put him out; and finding him, He said, Do you believe in the Son of Man? 36 He answered and said, And who
is He, Lord, that I may believe in Him?" 37 Jesus said to him, You have both seen Him, and He is the one who is talking with you." 38 And he said, "Lord,
I believe." And he worshiped Him.
Mark 5:6: But when he (demon possessed) saw Jesus afar off, he ran and worshipped him(some version reads prostrate but it is the same word
proskyneo)
Matt 8:2: And, behold, there came a leper and worshipped him, saying, Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst make me clean.(some version reads kneel down,
prostrate himself but the term is proskyneo used for God alone)
Matt 9:18: While he spake these things unto them, behold, there came a certain ruler, and worshipped him, saying, My daughter is even now dead: but
come and lay thy hand upon her, and she shall live (some version reads kneel down, bowing himself, prostrate himself but it is proskyneo)
Mark 3:11: And unclean spirits, when they saw him, fell down before him, and cried, saying, Thou art the Son of God. The word fall before him is
prosepipton: From pros and pipto; to fall towards, i.e. (gently) prostrate oneself (in supplication or homage)
Matt 15:25: Then came she and worshipped him, saying, Lord, help me. (Some version reads kneel down, bowing himself, prostrate himself but it is
proskyneo)
Matt 20:20: Then came to him the mother of Zebedee's children with her sons, worshipping him, and desiring a certain thing of him (proskyneo).

5) From the OT God alone was to be worship


Ps 95:6: Come! Let's bow down and worship! Let's kneel before the LORD, our creator!
Exo 20:5: You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God, punishing the children for the sin of the parents
to the third and fourth generation of those who hate me
2 King 17:35 when the LORD made a covenant with the Israelites, he commanded them: Do not worship any other gods or bow down to them, serve
them or sacrifice to them.
Isaiah 42:8 I am the LORD; that is my name! I will not yield my glory to another or my praise to idols.
Exodus 34:14: Do not worship any other god, for the LORD, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God.
6) Another term Sebemai is used for worship in the NT but is used also for false deity
Sbomai according to Strong 4576: properly, personally esteem; to hold something (someone) in high respect; showing the reverence or awe (veneration)
of someone who is devout. This word is not used for true God although it is applied in some sense to God, but not strictly for God alone. We see this in
Acts 19:27: There is danger not only that our trade will lose its good name, but also that the temple of the great goddess Artemis will be discredited; and
the goddess herself, who is worshiped (Sebomai) throughout the province of Asia and the world, will be robbed of her divine majesty." And is applied
sometime for God in Matt 15:9. It is also used in Acts 13:43 (translated as proselytes), Acts 13:50 (devout), 17:4 (devout) , Acts 16:4, 17:17 etc. But unlike
the term proskyneo it is used for idols and worship of man as well.
7) Finally, another word used in the NT is Latreuo-the highest form of religious worship, the Hebrew equivalent of Pelach (Daniel 7:14, 27-to serve or
worship ministering like priest ministering in the temple). Greek lexicon 3000 latre (from latris, "someone hired to accomplish a technical task
because qualified") properly, to render technical, acceptable service because specifically qualified (equipped)-this is a word used in the NT 21 times
applied only for God. This used in Heb 8:5, 9:9, Rev 7:15 etc to minister to God in religious way.
Jesus received the highest form of worship [latreuo-highest form of religious worship deserved for God alone]
Rev 22:3-5: No longer will there be any curse. The throne of God and of the Lamb will be in the city, and his servants will serve (latreuo) Him. And they
shall see his face; and his name shall be in their foreheads. And there will no longer be any night; and they will not have need of the light of a lamp nor the
light of the sun, because the Lord God will illumine them; and they will reign forever and ever.
To prove that "HIM" refers to both the Father and Son collectively, notice the pattern of referring to the Father and the Son as though they were
one (in essence and nature):
i) The Father and the Son themselves are a single temple not two and with one light they shine, not two! Oh how this confuses Jehovah's Witnesses. 2 Cor
6:16 (What agreement is there between the temple of God and idols? For we are the temple of the living God. As God has said: "I will live with them and
walk among them, and I will be their God, and they will be my people) + Eph 2:21 (In him the whole building is joined together and rises to become a holy
temple in the Lord). = Rev 21:22 (I did not see a temple in the city, because the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are its temple).
ii) The Father and the Son, although two distinct persons are seen sitting one throne not two. (Rev 3:21: To the one who is victorious, I will give the right
to sit with me on my throne, just as I was victorious and sat down with my Father on his throne; Rev 22:1: then the angel showed me the river of the water
of life, as clear as crystal, flowing from the throne of God and of the Lamb). It says throne not "thrones." This is a fatal blow to Jehovah's Witnesses who
would logically expect there to be two thrones. They just cannot understand how the father and son are sitting on ONE throne at the same time.
iii) Christians are called, "bond-servants" (common word for slave) who serve the Father and the Son who are referred to as "Him" rather than "them." Yet
we also know that the very first statement in the book of Revelation 1:1 is that Christians are bondservants of Christ. Then again Jesus calls Christian's,
"His bondslaves". Then again in Rev 2:20 we are called bondservants of Christ. Interestingly, in Revelation 7:3 (Do not harm the land or the sea or the trees
until we put a seal on the foreheads of the servants of our God), Rev 11:18(that thou shouldest give reward unto thy servants the prophets, and to the
saints); Rev 19:2,5 (He has avenged on her the blood of his servants..vs 5. "Give praise to our God, all you His bond-servants, you who fear Him, the small
and the great) the Christians are called bondslaves of the Father. This is very significant, because when we finally get to the end of the book, we see
Christians called bondslaves of both the Father and the son USING THE SINGLULAR HIM twice in Rev 22:3 (No longer will there be any curse. The
throne of God and of the Lamb will be in the city, and his servants will serve (latreuo) Him) and Rev 22:6 (And he said to me, "These words are faithful
and true"; and the Lord, the God of the spirits of the prophets, sent His angel to show to His bond-servants the things which must soon take place); calling
the Father and the Lamb as one being HIM though distinct person; This is doubly emphasized by Rev 22:16 (I Jesus have sent my angel) and Revelation
1:1(The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave Him to show to His [Christ's] bond-servants, the things which must soon take place; and He sent and
communicated it by His angel to His [Christ's] bond-servant John); which illustrates that Rev 22:6 identifies Christ as God almighty who sent his angel
validating the used of HIM in Rev 22:3 and Rev 22:6 (Father and Lamb as one HIS in essence and unity). Revelation 2:20: But I have this against you,
that you tolerate the woman Jezebel , who calls herself a prophetess , and she teaches and leads My [Christ's] bond-servants astray so that they commit acts
of immorality and eat things sacrificed to idols .

Note:
a) In Rev 22:3 they will serve the Father and Son as "him" rather than "them".
b) It uses the singular "face" that they see, rather than faces. Yet if both are sitting on the throne, it is obvious they see the faces of both at the same time.
c) Both the Father and the Son's name is to be marked on the foreheads of Christians. (Rev 3:12; 14:1) Yet Revelation 22:4 uses the singular "His name" on
the forehead, proving it refers to both although it sounds like it refers to a single individual. Another interesting observation is that Rev 14:1 uses the plural
names (Lamb and His Father name), yet in Rev 22, where the unity is strongly emphasized, the singular name is used. This powerfully proves that both the
Father and Son are served by Christians in Rev 22:3.
iv) In Rev 22:5, The Father and Son reign forever. Yet in Rev 20:6 the singular "Him" is applied to the two of them, as though they are one.
Father Alone

Temple

Son Alone

Father and Son with collective use of


singular

2 Cor 6:16 (also of the


Temple is a metaphor for the Temple, not temples: Revelation 21:22
Holy Spirit: 1 Cor 6:19) body of Christ. We are stones,
Jesus is the corner stone: Eph 2:21

Throne

Rev 3:21

Rev 3:21

Throne, not thrones: Rev 22:1-3

Bondservant

Rev 7:3; 11:18; 19:2,5

Rev 1:1; 2:20

His, not they Rev 22:3; 22:6

Face Shines

Rev 22:3

Rev 22:3

Face not faces: Rev 22:4

Name on forehead

Reign

Father's name on forehead: Son's name on forehead: Rev


14:1
3:12, Rev 14:1
Rev 3:21

Rev 3:21

Name not names: Rev 22:4

Him not they: Rev 20:6

Many cults exclude Christ for HIM in Rev 22:3 and refer it to the Father alone. If closely examine HIM refers both the Father and the Son as one being,
object of worship. Even if HIM is to be single out it appears to be Christ not the Father. Here is the explanation: in Rev 22:3 we read: No longer will
there be any curse. The throne of God and of the Lamb will be in the city, and his servants will serve HIM) and in Rev 20:6: Blessed and holy are those
who share in the first resurrection. The second death has no power over them, but they will be priests of God and of Christ and will reign with HIM for a
thousand years. So till now Him can refers to both. If Him is to be applied to either of one then the lamb fit it perfectly as we see Rev 20:4: I saw
thrones on which were seated those who had been given authority to judge. And I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded because of their
testimony about Jesus and because of the word of God. They had not worshiped the beast or its image and had not received its mark on their foreheads or
their hands. They came to life and reigned with Christ a thousand years. Taking one step further if REV 20:4 (to reign with Christ) is the rule we are to
superimpose in Rev 22:3 which is a rule of the grammar, the one given the highest form of worship to HIM is the Lamb not the Father as we will reign
with Christ..
Conclusion:
Both Rev 20:6 and 22:3 use the singular HIM to refer to both the Father and the Son.
Now Notice Rev 20:4, "reigned with Christ for a thousand years
What this means is that Rev 20:6 sets up a precedent that when two are mentioned, if it refers to only one of either the Father or the Son, it must refer
to the Son!
This means that, based upon the example of Rev 20:6, the one we are said to serve in Rev 22:3 is Christ.
8) Jesus received the same type of worship and praises the Father received in Rev
Rev 4:9 -11: Whenever the living creatures give glory, honor and thanks to him who sits on the throne and who lives forever and ever, the twenty-four
elders fall down before him who sits on the throne and worship him who lives forever and ever. They lay their crowns before the throne and say: You are
worthy, our Lord and God, to receive glory and honor and power, for you created all things, and by your will they were created and have their being."
Rev 5:7-9: When He (Lamb) had taken the book, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell down before the Lamb, each one holding a harp
and golden bowls full of incense, which are the prayers of the saints. And they sang a new song, saying, "Worthy are You to take the book and to break its
seals; for You were slain, and purchased for God with Your blood men from every tribe and tongue and people and nation.
Comment: Here the Father is worshiped by 24 elders alone. But the SON is given praise (not given to the Father) by both the elders and the four living
creatures. The same type of word Worthy is used. Interestingly the elders and creatures sing praise to the Lamb with the prayers of incense of the saints
dedicated to Him and not the Father. He also does not bow down to the one sitting on the throne like other creatures and 24 elders.Vs 11-12: And I
beheld, and I heard the voice of many angels round about the throne and the beasts and the elders: and the number of them was ten thousand times ten

thousand, and thousands of thousands; Saying with a loud voice, Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and
strength, and honour, and glory, and blessing (praises).Comment: we see that the Father does not receive this much of praise comparing with the Son. All the angels said and worship him by giving him
power, and riches, and wisdom, and strength, and honour, and glory, and blessing. The Father received only half part (honor, glory and thanks),
Vs 13: Then I heard every creature in heaven and on earth and under the earth and on the sea, and all that is in them, saying: "To him who sits on the
throne and to the Lamb be blessing (praise) and honor and glory and power, forever and ever!" )
Comment: contextually speaking the Father did not receive riches, strength and wisdom which the Lamb received in vs 11-12. It also says every creature
which means the Lamb is not a created being. Vs 14: And the four beasts said, Amen. And the four and twenty elders fell down and worshipped him that
liveth forever and ever. (NLT has worshiped the Lamb, NIV, Aramaic and almost all read worshipped; even if KJV is correct Jesus call himself the living
one in Rev 1:17-18 not the Father.
Rev 7:9-12: After these things I looked, and behold, a great multitude which no one could count, from every nation and all tribes and peoples and
tongues, standing before the throne and before the Lamb, clothed in white robes, and palm branches were in their hands; and they cry out with a loud
voice, saying, "Salvation to our God who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb." And all the angels were standing around the throne and around the elders
and the four living creatures; and they fell on their faces before the throne and worshiped God, saying, "Amen, blessing and glory and wisdom and
thanksgiving and honor and power and might, be to our God forever and ever. Amen."Comment: So the Lamb is spoken as worshiped alongside with the Father, if taken consistently blessing and glory and wisdom and thanksgiving and
honor and power and might is given to the Lamb in Rev 5:11-12. So Rev 7:9-11 does not remove the deity of Christ.
The Old Testament says something similar: Thine, O LORD, is the greatness, and the power, and the glory, and the victory, and the majesty; for all
that is in the heavens and in the earth is thine; thine is the kingdom, O LORD, and thou art exalted as head above all." 1 Chronicles 29:11. Just a word of
praise which must be given God is also given to Christ. If the Lamb is not God, the Father is helpless spectator watching his children worshiping his
creation the Lamb.
9) Jesus received prayer (he is prayed to), he is call upon
Acts 7:59: While they were stoning him, Stephen prayed (called up-epikaloumenon), "Lord Jesus, receive my spirit. It is interesting that Stephen did not
pray to the Father instead he prayed to Jesus. The one having authority over man spirit is God himself; Psalm 31:5 (Into your hands I commit my spirit;
deliver me, LORD, my faithful God). Ecclesiastes 12:7 (and the dust returns to the ground it came from, and the spirit returns to God who gave it), Psalm
104:29: (When you hide your face, they are terrified; when you take away their breath, they die and return to the dust). Stephen knew God was the author
of his soul yet he commend his spirit to Christ which means Christ is the object of worship. The term call on the Lord is a Hebrew term used for prayer,
a submission to ones authority to be under his mercy. This phrase is used elsewhere;
Acts 9:14: And he has come here with authority from the chief priests to arrest all who call on your name."
Acts 2:21: But everyone who calls on the name of the LORD will be saved.'
Acts 22:16: And now why tarriest thou? arise, and be baptized, and wash away thy sins, calling on the name of the Lord
Romans 10:12: For there is no difference between Jew and Gentile--the same Lord is Lord of all and richly blesses all who call on him,
1 Corinthians 1:2: To the church of God in Corinth, to those sanctified in Christ Jesus and called to be his holy people, together with all those
everywhere who call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ--their Lord and ours:
The term call on the name of the LORD is a phrase used to address God; to pray to Him in times of needs. The term calling on the name of the LORD
appears 11 times in the OT. Around 250 B.C., the Hebrew Old Testament was translated into Greek by Jewish scholars. This translation is called the
Septuagint and is known by the designation LXX. The Hebrew phrase, to "call upon the name of the Lord [YHWH]," of course, was also translated into
Greek. For example, in Joel 2:32 it says, " . . . whosoever shall call on the name of the LORD [YHWH] shall be delivered . . . " This Greek translation in
the LXX is "hos an epikalesatai to onoma kuriou," literally, "whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord." When we look at this phrase in the Old
Testament, we see that "to call upon the name of the Lord" was used to designate prayer to God, to submit under Gods care and divine providence in 1
Kings 18:24, 37 and Psalm 116:4 and many other place. Clearly, the phrase is used of God in reference to prayer to Him. The phrase is never used in
reference to anyone else other than God. Remember that "call upon the name of the Lord [YHWH]" in Hebrew was translated into Greek by the Jews in
the LXX and they rendered "YHWH" into the Greek "kurios" which means "Lord." This phrase was then used of Jesus in 1 Cor. 1:2. ..epikaloumenois
to onoma tou kuriou hamon iasous kristou (calling upon the name of the of Lord Jesus). Let us see the comparison
1) Kings 18:24: And call ye on the name of your gods, and I will call on the name of the LORD [YHWH]: and the God that answereth by fire, let him be
God." vs:37-38, "Hear me, O LORD, hear me, that this people may know that thou art the LORD [YHWH] God, and that thou hast turned their heart back
again. 38 Then the fire of the LORD fell, and consumed the burnt sacrifice, and the wood, and the stones, and the dust, and licked up the water that was in
the trench."
2) Psalm 116:4, "Then called I upon the name of the LORD [YHWH]; O LORD [YHWH], I beseech thee, deliver my soul.

See below the comparisons;

"Call upon the name of the Lord"


Old Testament (LXX) (Literal translation)

New Testament(Literal translation)

Joel 2:32, call on the name of the LORD


epikalesatai to onoma kuriou
call upon the name of Lord

"with all that in every place call upon the name of Jesus Christ our Lord,
both theirs and ours,"

1 Kings 18:24, call on the name of the LORD


epikalesomai en onomati kuriou tou theou
call upon in name of lord of the of god

1 Cor. 1:2
epikaloumenois to onoma tou kuriou
calling upon the name of the of lord

Psalm 116:4, called I upon the name of the LORD


kai to onoma kuriou epekalesaman
and the name of lord call upon

hamon iasous kristou


of us Jesus Christ

As you can see in 1 Kings 18:24,37 and Psalm 116:4 above, the phrase is used to designate prayer to God. This same phrase is used in reference to Jesus
in 1 Cor. 1:2 and many other places in the NT. It is obvious that the Christian church is to call upon the name of the Lord, Jesus Christ. This is an obvious
declaration of prayer to Christ, designating His divine nature. Here are some more verses in the OT which talks about people calling the name of the
LORD (qara shem YHWH)
Ps 91:15: He will call on me, and I will answer him; I will be with him in trouble, I will deliver him and honor him
Jer 33:3: Call to me and I will answer you and tell you great and unsearchable things you do not know.'
Gen 13:4: Unto the place of the altar, which he had made there at the first: and there Abram called on the name of the LORD
Gen 21:33: And Abraham planted a grove in Beersheba, and called there on the name of the LORD, the everlasting God
Gen 4:26: Seth also had a son, and he named him Enosh. At that time people began to call on the name of the LORD
Gen 26:25: Isaac built an altar there and called (qara) on the name of the LORD. There he pitched his tent, and there his servants dug a well.
Jer 29:12: 'Then you will call upon Me and come and pray to Me, and I will listen to you
Zep 3:9: For then I will give to the peoples purified lips, That all of them may call on the name of the LORD, To serve Him shoulder to shoulder.
At the very least, this substantiates that Paul's practice was to substitute "kurios" for the tetragrammaton (YHWH) when he quoted the Old Testament.
Since we see that the phrase "call upon the name of the Lord" is used only of God in the Old Testament, it is fair to say that the phrase applies to Jesus in
Cor. 1:2. Finally, there are only two places in the entire Old Testament where the phrase "call upon the name of" ("Lord" is omitted) is used in reference to
someone other than God.
1) Kings 18:24-26, Then you call on the name of your god, and I will call on the name of the Lord, and the God who answers by fire, He is God." And all
the people answered and said, "That is a good idea. 25So Elijah said to the prophets of Baal, "Choose one ox for yourselves and prepare it first for you are
many, and call on the name of your god, but put no fire under it."

26

Then they took the ox which was given them and they prepared it and called on the

name of Baal from morning until noon saying, "O Baal, answer us." But there was no voice and no one answered. And they leaped about the altar which
they made."
2) Isaiah 44:5, "This one will say, I am the Lord's'; and that one will call on the name of Jacob." In these two cases we see that they do not affect the issue
of "call upon the name of the Lord" in any way since one is clearly about Baal, and the other is about Jacob; and the word "Lord" would not suit in the
translation of either. If we combine this with the knowledge that Paul translated the Hebrew YHWH into the Greek "kurios" (Lord), we can easily see tha
1 Cor. 1:2 is most proven fact a reference to the Old Testament phrase, "call upon the name of YHWH."
Objection Answered: An objection has been raised by Jehovah's Witnesses who state that the word "Lord" functions as a noun in a different way than
YHWH does. They say that "Call upon the name of YHWH" is a different sense than "Call upon the name of the Lord of us, Jesus Christ" because the
word "Lord" takes a possessive pronoun "of us in 1 Cor 1:2. Therefore, they say, the word "Lord" does not function as a proper noun as does "YHWH,"
and the phrase used of Christ is not the same as that used in the LXX; but, this is just an attempt to strip the phrase of its Biblical power so as to continue
teaching that Jesus is not divine. Nevertheless, the word "Lord" in the LXX phrase "Call upon the name of the Lord" is capable of taking a possessive
pronoun. This is the nature of the phrase as it appears throughout the LXX. In other words, the fact that the LXX phrase "Call upon the name of the Lord
(gk. kurios)" has the capability of receiving a possessive pronoun does not change the meaning of the phrase, whether or not a possessive pronoun "of us"
is added to it or not. We do not see "the YHWH of us;" but, we do see "the Lord of us" (our Lord). For example, in Psalm 147:5 it says, "Great is our
LORD." In the LXX it is "kurios hamon" (the Lord of us). In Neh. 10:29 of the LXX it says, " . . . of our LORD." The Greek is "kuriou hamon." The word

"kurios" can take a possessive pronoun. The fact that "of us" is added to the Greek word "kurios" does not mean that the word is no longer used in place of
God's name, nor does it invalidate the power of the phrase, "Call upon the name of the Lord of us, Jesus Christ," (1 Cor. 1:2). As I have demonstrated
earlier, the LXX substitutes YHWH for kurios in the phrase "Call upon the name of YHWH." Therefore, by the nature of the word "Lord," it is possible to
add a possessive pronoun (of us). Does this then mean that the phrase looses its power? Undoubtedly Paul knew of the phrase in the LXX. He knew that it
carried the weight of proclaiming and appealing to God, since that is how it is used in the LXX. Should we then accept the Jehovah's Witness' notion that
by adding "of us"into the end of the phrase that the phrase then somehow looses its majesty and Old Testament context? Hardly, If we look at Romans
10:13, we see the very same phrase, "Call upon the name of the LORD without of us" The only difference is that "of us" is not there. Are we to believe
that Paul who wrote Romans and 1 Corinthians used the same phrase twice but in 1 Cor. 1:2 did not mean to carry with it the Old Testament usage by
simply adding "of us" to it? Well, that is what some Jehovah's Witnesses want us to believe.
10) Jesus is the object of prayer and thanks given;
Jesus said, If you ask Me anything in My name, I will do it (John 14:14).
John 16:23: In that day you will no longer ask me anything. Very truly I tell you, my Father will give you whatever you ask in my name
1 Cor 16:23: The grace of the Lord Jesus be with you.
Acts1:24: And they prayed and said, "You, Lord, who know the hearts of all men, show which one of these two You have chosen. That he may take
part of this ministry and apostleship, from which Judas by transgression fell, that he might go to his own place vs 21: Therefore it is necessary that of the
men who have accompanied us all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among us. The Lord whom they prayed is Jesus Christ. We can see this
analogy from these verses:
a) Acts 1:2: until the day he was taken up to heaven, after giving instructions through the Holy Spirit to the apostles he had chosen.
b) Acts 15:8: God, who knows the heart, showed that he accepted them by giving the Holy Spirit to them, just as he did to us.
c) John 2:24: But Jesus did not commit himself unto them, because he knew all men,
d) John 6:64: Yet there are some of you who do not believe." For Jesus had known from the beginning which of them did not believe and who would
betray him. 70. Then Jesus replied, "Have I not chosen you, the Twelve? Yet one of you is a devil!"
Acts 22:14-21: "And he said, The God of our fathers appointed you to know his will, to see the Just One and to hear a voice from his mouth; for you
will be a witness for him to all men of what you have seen and heard. And now why do you wait? Rise and be baptized, and wash away your sins, calling
on his name. When I had returned to Jerusalem and was praying in the temple, I fell into a trance and saw him saying to me, Make haste and get
quickly out of Jerusalem, because they will not accept your testimony about me. And I said, Lord, they themselves know that in every synagogue I
imprisoned and beat those who believed in thee. And when the blood of Stephen THY WITNESS was shed, I also was standing by and approving, and
keeping the garments of those who killed him. And he said to me, Depart; for I will send you far away to the Gentiles." clearly Jesus is the object
Paul prayed to. 2 Cor12:7-9: Concerning this I plead to the Lord three times that it might leave me. 9And He has said to me, "My grace is sufficient for
you, for power is perfected in weakness." Most gladly, therefore, I will rather boast about my weaknesses, so that the power of Christ may dwell in me
Dan 9:3: So I turned to the Lord God and pleaded with him in prayer and petition, in fasting, and in sackcloth and ashes.
Romans 16:20: The God of peace will soon crush Satan under your feet. The grace of our Lord Jesus be with you.
Ephe 1:2: Grace and peace to you from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
2 John 1:3: Grace, mercy and peace from God the Father and from Jesus Christ, the Father's Son, will be with us in truth and love.
2 Cor 13:14: May the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all.
1 Cor 16:22: If anyone does not love the Lord, a curse be on him. Maranatha that is, Lord, come!
1 Theso 5:28: The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you
Gal 1:4-5: who gave Himself for our sins so that He might rescue us from this present evil age, according to the will of our God and Father,5to whom be
the glory forevermore. Amen.
2 Thessalonians 1:11-12: To this end we always pray for you, that our God may make you worthy of his call, and may fulfil every good resolve and
work of faith by his power, so that the name of our Lord Jesus may be glorified in you, and you in him, according to the grace of our God and the Lord
Jesus Christ."
2 Timothy 4:1, 8, 18: "I charge you in the presence of God and of Christ Jesus who is to judge the living and the dead, and by his appearing and his
kingdom... Henceforth there is laid up for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, will award to me on that Day, and not only
to me but also to all who have loved his appearing... The Lord will rescue me from every evil and save me for his heavenly kingdom. To him be the glory
for ever and ever. Amen."
2 Theso 2:16: Now may our Lord Jesus Christ Himself and God our Father, who has loved us and given us eternal comfort and good hope by grace
2 Timothy 4:18: The Lord will rescue me from every evil deed, and will bring me safely to His heavenly kingdom; to Him be the glory forever and
ever. Amen

2 Timothy 4:22: The Lord Jesus Christ be with thy spirit. Grace be with you. Amen.
Philemon 1:25: the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit
Hebrews 13:20-21: Now may the God of peace who brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, the great shepherd of the sheep, by the blood of the
eternal covenant, equip you with everything good that you may do his will, working in you that which is pleasing in his sight, through Jesus Christ; to
whom be glory forever and ever. Amen."
2 Peter 3:18: But grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. To him be glory both now and forever! Amen.
Rev 22:20-21:: He who testifies to these things says, "Yes, I am coming soon." Amen. Come, Lord Jesus. he grace of the Lord Jesus be with God's
people. Amen.
Acts 8:22: Therefore repent of this wickedness of yours, and pray the Lord that, if possible, the intention of your heart may be forgiven you.
1 John 5:13-15: I write these things to you who believe in the name of the Son of God so that you may know that you have eternal life. This is the
confidence which we have before Him, that, if we ask anything according to His will, He hears us. And if we know that He hears us in whatever we ask,
we know that we have the requests which we have asked from Him.
Rev 5:7-9: When He had taken the book, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell down before the Lamb, each one holding a harp and
golden bowls full of incense, which are the prayers of the saints. They sing a new song worthy are you..
In 1 Cor. 1:9 it says, "God is faithful, through whom you were called into fellowship with His Son, Jesus Christ our Lord." The word "fellowship" is the
Greek word koinonia which is also translated as the word "communion." 1 Cor. 1:9 says that we are to have an intimate fellowship with Jesus. That is
fine. But, how can we have fellowship with someone with whom we never talk? Therefore, this verse can also be used to support the idea of praying to
Jesus. James 1:5-7: If any of you lacks wisdom, you should ask God, who gives generously to all without finding fault, and it will be given to you. But
when you ask, you must believe and not doubt, because the one who doubts is like a wave of the sea, blown and tossed by the wind. That person should
not expect to receive anything from the Lord. Vs 1 James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, To the twelve tribes scattered among the nations:
Greetings
Philip 2:9-11:. Therefore God exalted him to the highest place and gave him the name (to anomati) that is above every name, so that (hina) at the name of
Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue acknowledge that Jesus Christ is Lord (Yahweh).
Revelation 1:5-6: and from Jesus Christ the faithful witness, the first-born of the dead, and the ruler of kings on earth. To him who loves us and has freed
us from our sins by his blood and made us a kingdom, priests to his God and Father, to him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen."
Father received prayer through the Son not alone
In other places, glory is given to God the Father through or in the Lord Jesus:
"to the only wise God be glory for evermore through Jesus Christ! Amen." Romans 16:27
"to him be glory in the church and in Christ Jesus to all generations, forever and ever. Amen." Ephesians 3:21
"to the only God, our Savior through Jesus Christ our Lord, be glory, majesty, dominion, and authority, before all time and now and forever. Amen."
Jude 1:25
11) Jesus is given praise and worship due to God alone
The Holy Scriptures emphatically teach that God alone is to be worshiped, and he alone is to be the Object of our prayers and sacrifices: "And God spoke
all these words, saying, I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. You shall have no other gods
before me. You shall not make for yourself a graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in
the water under the earth; you shall not bow down to them or serve them; for I the LORD your God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers
upon the children to the third and the fourth generation of those who hate me," Exodus 20:1-5. The words bow down and serve in Hebrew
are shachah and abad.

The

Greek

translation

of

the

Hebrew

Scriptures,

known

as

the

Septuagint

(LXX),

renders shachah as proskuneeseis (from proskuneo, meaning worship) and abad as latreuseis (from latreuo, meaning sacred service, especially the service
rendered by priests in connection with the Temple). The Lord Jesus used both words when referring to the worship due to God: Again, the devil took him
to a very high mountain, and showed him all the kingdoms of the world and the glory of them; and he said to him, All these I will give you, if you will
fall down and worship me (proskuneesees moi). Then Jesus said to him, Begone, Satan! for it is written, "You shall worship the Lord your God and him
only shall you serve (kurion ton theon sou proskuneeseis kai auto mono latreuseis) Matthew 4:8-10. Here is another example where proskuneo is used in
connection with worship given to God: "But if all prophesy, and an unbeliever or outsider enters, he is convicted by all, he is called to account by all, the
secrets of his heart are disclosed; and so, falling on his face, he will worship God (kai houtos peson epi prosopon proskuneesai to theo) and declare that
God is really among you." 1 Corinthians 14:24-25. Notice that in this example, part of worship includes falling down on ones face or knees in humility
before God. See also Ps 95:6: Come, let us bow down in worship, let us kneel before the LORD our Maker; Ps 72:11: Yea, all kings shall fall down
before him: all nations shall serve him. Ps138:1: Of David. I will praise you, LORD, with all my heart; before the "gods" I will sing your praise. Ps
47:6: Sing praises to God, sing praises; sing praises to our King, sing praises.

Note: So falling or kneeling is a synonym for worship and praise is given only to God.
Rev 5:7-9: When He had taken the book, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell down before the Lamb, each one holding a harp and
golden bowls full of incense, which are the prayers of the saints. And they sang a new song, saying, "Worthy are You to take the book and to break its
seals; for You were slain, and purchased for God with Your blood men from every tribe and tongue and people and nation. Vs13.Then I heard every
creature in heaven and on earth and under the earth and on the sea, and all that is in them, saying: "To him who sits on the throne and to the Lamb be
praise and honor and glory and power, forever and ever
Rev 5:11-12: And I beheld, and I heard the voice of many angels round about the throne and the beasts and the elders: and the number of them was ten
thousand times ten thousand, and thousands of thousands; Saying with a loud voice, Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive power, and riches, and
wisdom, and strength, and honour, and glory, and blessing(praise).
Ephe 5:19: speaking to one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody with your heart to the Lord; 20 always giving
thanks for all things in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ to God, even the Father
Col 3:16: Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly in all wisdom; teaching and admonishing one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs,
singing with grace in your hearts to the Lord (God in some versions)
Matt 21:15-16: But when the chief priests and the scribes saw the wonderful things that He had done, and the children who were shouting in the temple
"Hosanna to the Son of David," they became indignant16and said to Him, "Do You hear what these children are saying?" And Jesus said to them, "Yes;
have you never read, 'OUT OF THE MOUTH OF INFANTS AND NURSING BABIES YOU HAVE PREPARED PRAISE FOR YOURSELF'? (Ps 8:2:
Out of the mouth of babes and infants have you ordained strength because of your enemies, that you might still the enemy and the avenger). Jesus applied
praise given to God to himself.
Luke 19:38-40: shouting: "BLESSED IS THE KING WHO COMES IN THE NAME OF THE LORD; Peace in heaven and glory in the highest!"39Some
of the Pharisees in the crowd said to Him, "Teacher, rebuke Your disciples." 40But Jesus answered, "I tell you, if these become silent, the stones will cry
out! (Ps 118:25-26: O LORD, do save, we beseech You; O LORD, we beseech You, do send prosperity! 26. Blessed is the one who comes in the name of
the LORD; We have blessed you from the house of the LORD).
Objection answers
There are places, however, where certain individuals are said to have received proskuneo (Hebrew shachah), without implying that these persons were
being worshiped as God:
"Then David said to all the assembly, Bless the LORD your God. And all the assembly blessed the LORD, the God of their fathers, and bowed their
heads, and worshiped the LORD, and did obeisance to the king." 1 Chronicles 29:20
"Then David said to all the assembly, Bless the LORD your God. And all the assembly blessed the LORD, the God of their fathers, and bowed their
heads and paid homage to the LORD and to the king." ESV
The Lord Jesus, addressing the Church at Philadelphia, says: "Behold, I will make those of the synagogue of Satan who say that they are Jews and are not,
but lie -- behold, I will make them come and bow down before your feet (proskuneesousin), and learn that I have loved you." Revelation 3:9. It is rather
evident that in neither passage are the persons in question being worshiped as God, but were receiving reverence and homage due either to their royal
status or union with Christ. These examples provide evidence that the word(s), which translators often render as worship, does not always refer to the
worship given to God. On this basis, many critics and cultists deny that the NT ascribes to Jesus the very worship due to God alone. They reason that
Christ is receiving honor, reverence, homage, obeisance etc., much like David, but in no way does he receive the worship due only to God. This is like
saying the worship given to God is nothing more than respect given to king and even God does not deserve worship. When the bible verses indicate the
worship to God and respect given to men, it is our duty to analysis the context of the surrounding passage. Otherwise we are left even not to worship God
as the same term is used for respect to mankind contextually. In this book we will set out to prove that the Lord Jesus, according to the teaching of the NT
documents, received and must receive the very same worship that is given to God. We will present the evidence to show that Jesus didnt simply receive
the homage given to a king like David, but is given the very worship and reverence which God alone deserve
Firstly, according to the New Testament one of the many reasons why God alone is worthy of worship is because he is the Creator of all things
Roman 1:25: they exchanged the truth about God for a lie, and worshiped and served created things rather than the Creator--who is forever praised.
Amen.
Rev. 14:6, 7: And I saw another angel fly in the midst of heaven, having the everlasting gospel to preach unto them that dwell on the earth, and to every
nation, and kindred, and tongue, and people, Saying with a loud voice, Fear God, and give glory to him; for the hour of his judgment is come: and worship
him that made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and the fountains of waters."
Revelation 4:1: Worthy art thou, our Lord and God, to receive glory and honor and power, for thou didst create all things, and by thy will they existed
and were created."

Acts 14:8-18: Now at Lystra there was a man sitting, who could not use his feet; he was a cripple from birth, who had never walked. He listened to Paul
speaking; and Paul, looking intently at him and seeing that he had faith to be made well, said in a loud voice, Stand upright on your feet. And he sprang
up and walked. And when the crowds saw what Paul had done, they lifted up their voices, saying in Lycao'nian, The gods have come down to us in the
likeness of men! Barnabas they called Zeus, and Paul, because he was the chief speaker, they called Hermes. And the priest of Zeus, whose temple was in
front of the city, brought oxen and garlands to the gates and wanted to offer sacrifice with the people. But when the apostles Barnabas and Paul heard of
it, they tore their garments and rushed out among the multitude, crying, Men, why are you doing this? We also are men, of like nature with you, and bring
you good news, that you should turn from these vain things to a living God who made the heaven and the earth and the sea and all that is in them. In past
generations he allowed all the nations to walk in their own ways; yet he did not leave himself without witness, for he did good and gave you from heaven
rains and fruitful seasons, satisfying your hearts with food and gladness. With these words they scarcely restrained the people from offering sacrifice to
them."Secondly, according to these same NT documents, the Lord Jesus is the very One who created everything for himself: John 1:1-3, 10: "In the
beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God; all things were made through him, and
without him was not anything made that was made... He was in the world, and the world was made through him, yet the world knew him not."
Colossians 1:15-18: He is the image of the invisible God, the first-born of all creation; for in him all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible
and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or authorities -- all things were created through him and for him. He is before all things, and
in him all things hold together. He is the head of the body, the church; he is the beginning, the first-born from the dead, that in everything he might be preeminent." Hebrews 1:2-3, 10-12: but in these last days he has spoken to us by a Son, whom he appointed the heir of all things, through whom also he
created the world. He reflects the glory of God and bears the very stamp of his nature, upholding the universe by his word of power. When he had made
purification for sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high ... And, Thou, Lord, didst found the earth in the beginning, and the heavens are
the work of thy hands; they will perish, but thou remainest; they will all grow old like a garment, like a mantle thou wilt roll them up, and they will be
changed. But thou art the same, and thy years will never end." Jesus is, therefore, worthy of the very worship that every creature must give to God since
he is the Creator of all things that exist. Note the following syllogism carefully:
a).God is worthy of worship because he is the Creator.
b) The New Testament teaches that Jesus is the Creator. Therefore, Jesus is worthy of the same worship due to God. According to the OT, all the so-called
gods and angels must worship God: "Ascribe to the LORD, O heavenly beings, ascribe to the LORD glory and strength. Ascribe to the LORD the glory of
his name; worship the LORD in holy array." Psalm 29:1-2. And: "All worshipers of images are put to shame, who make their boast in worthless idols; all
gods bow down before him." Psalm 97:. "Let all that worship graven images be ashamed, who boast of their idols; worship him, all ye his angels." LXX.
The inspired writer of Hebrews applies the above passage to the Lord Jesus: "And again, when he brings the first-born into the world, he says, Let ALL
God's angels worship him." Hebrews 1:6. In the NT Jesus is never found to be worshiping the Father, as he did not and as received worship from others
he must be God.
Secondly, according to the New Testament one of the many reasons why God alone is worthy of worship is because he alone is to be worship
Acts 10:25-26: When Peter entered, Cornelius met him, and fell at his feet and worshiped (proskyneo) him. 26. But Peter raised him up, saying, "Stand
up; I too am just a man."
Col 2:18: Do not let anyone who delights in false humility and the worship of angels disqualify you. Such a person also goes into great detail about what
they have seen; they are puffed up with idle notions by their unspiritual mind.
Rev 19:9-10: Then the angel said to me unto me (KJV has He said to me), Write, Blessed are they which are called unto the marriage supper of the
Lamb. And he saith unto me, These are the true sayings of God. Then I fell at his feet to worship him. But he said to me, "Do not do that; I am a fellow
servant of yours and your brethren who hold the testimony of Jesus; worship (proskyneo) God. For the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy." The
angel spoken in 19:9 is angel in Rev 17:1: One of the seven angels who had the seven bowls came and said to me, "Come, I will show you the
punishment of the great prostitute, who sits by many waters.
Rev 22:8-9: And I John saw these things, and heard them. And when I had heard and seen, I fell down to worship before the feet of the angel which
shewed me these things. Then saith he unto me, See thou do it not: for I am thy fellow servant, and of thy brethren the prophets, and of them which keep
the sayings of this book: worship (proskyneo) God
Jesus was worshiped even from his childhood
Matthew 2:1-2, 7-8, 10-11: "Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king, behold, wise men from the East came to
Jerusalem, saying, Where is he who has been born king of the Jews? For we have seen his star in the East, and have come to worship him..... Then Herod
summoned the wise men secretly and ascertained from them what time the star appeared; and he sent them to Bethlehem, saying, Go and search
diligently for the child, and when you have found him bring me word, that I too may come and worship him. ... When they saw the star, they rejoiced
exceedingly with great joy; and going into the house they saw the child with Mary his mother, and they fell down and worshiped him. Then, opening their
treasures, they offered him gifts, gold and frankincense and myrrh."

Another indication that Jesus is worshiped as God is that Christ is to be revered and loved unconditionally:
"Be subject to one another out of reverence for Christ." Ephesians 5:21
"and be subject to one another in the fear of Christ." NASB
"He who loves father or mother more than me is not worthy of me; and he who loves son or daughter more than me is not worthy of me; and he who does
not take his cross and follow me is not worthy of me. He who finds his life will lose it, and he who loses his life for my sake will find it." Matthew 10:3739. Compare this with what is said about loving and reverencing God: "that you may fear the LORD your God, you and your son and your son's son, by
keeping all his statutes and his commandments, which I command you, all the days of your life; and that your days may be prolonged ... and you shall love
the LORD your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your might ... You shall fear the LORD your God; you shall serve him, and
swear by his name ... And the LORD commanded us to do all these statutes, to fear the LORD our God, for our good always, that he might preserve us
alive, as at this day." Deuteronomy 6:2, 5, 13, 24
We even find the OT predicting that the Messiah will be taken as an Object of worship and reverence: Psalm 72:1-20: "Give the king thy justice, O God,
and thy righteousness to the royal son! May he judge thy people with righteousness, and thy poor with justice! Let the mountains bear prosperity for the
people, and the hills, in righteousness! May he defend the cause of the poor of the people, give deliverance to the needy, and crush the oppressor! May he
live while the sun endures, and as long as the moon, throughout all generations! May he be like rain that falls on the mown grass, like showers that water
the earth! In his days may righteousness flourish, and peace abound, till the moon be no more! May he have dominion from sea to sea, and from the River
to the ends of the earth! May his foes bow down before him, and his enemies lick the dust! May the kings of Tarshish and of the isles render him tribute,
may the kings of Sheba and Seba bring gifts! May all kings fall down before him, all nations serve (abad) him! For he delivers the needy when he calls,
the poor and him who has no helper. He has pity on the weak and the needy, and saves the lives of the needy. From oppression and violence he redeems
their life; and precious is their blood in his sight. Long may he live, may gold of Sheba be given to him! May prayer be made for him continually, and
blessings invoked for him all the day! May there be abundance of grain in the land; on the tops of the mountains may it wave; may its fruit be like
Lebanon; and may men blossom forth from the cities like the grass of the field! May his name endure forever, his fame continue as long as the sun! May
men bless themselves by him, all nations call him blessed! Blessed be the LORD, the God of Israel, who alone does wondrous things. Blessed be his
glorious name for ever; may his glory fill the whole earth! Amen and Amen! The prayers of David, the son of Jesse, are ended."
Daniel 7:13-14:"I saw in the night visions, and behold, with the clouds of heaven there came one like a son of man, and he came to the Ancient of Days
and was presented before him. And to him was given dominion and glory and kingdom, that all peoples, nations, and languages should serve him; his
dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom one that shall not be destroyed."
Daniel 3:28: Now compare this language with what is said of Gods dominion and worship: "Nebuchadnez'zar said, Blessed be the God of Shadrach,
Meshach, and Abed'nego, who has sent his angel and delivered his servants, who trusted in him, and set at nought the king's command, and yielded up
their bodies rather than serve and worship any god except their own God.
Daniel 4:34-35: "At the end of the days I, Nebuchadnez'zar, lifted my eyes to heaven, and my reason returned to me, and I blessed the Most High, and
praised and honored him who lives forever; for his dominion is an everlasting dominion, and his kingdom endures from generation to generation; all the
inhabitants of the earth are accounted as nothing; and he does according to his will in the host of heaven and among the inhabitants of the earth; and none
can stay his hand or say to him, "What doest thou?"
Psalm 145:13: thy kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and thy dominion endures throughout all generations. The LORD is faithful in all his words, and
gracious in all his deeds." It is quite obvious that even the OT scriptures ascribe worship and sovereignty to the Messianic King!
Honor the Son
We are commanded to worship the Son just as we worship the Father: "...that all should honor the Son just as they honor the Father. He who does not
honor the Son does not honor the Father who sent Him." (John 5:23).
Our God is a jealous God: "You shall fear the LORD your God and serve Him, and shall take oaths in His name. You shall not go after other gods, the
gods of the peoples who are all around you (for the LORD your God is a jealous God among you), lest the anger of the LORD your God be aroused
against you and destroy you from the face of the earth." (Deuteronomy 6:13-14). If the Son were a creature as some claim, this demand for equal honor
would be strange indeed
12) Records of early church fathers/historians on hymns sung to Christ as God
a) Phos Hilaron (Latin-Lumen Hilare) is a hymn sung at the lighting of lamps in the evening since the first century and is sometimes known as the
'Lamp-lighting Hymn'. It is the earliest known Christian hymn recorded outside of the Bible that is still in use today. It appears to be written around 150
A.D. St. Basil the Great (329-379 AD) spoke of the singing of the Phos Hilaron as a cherished tradition of the church, the hymn being already considered
old in his day.The hymn is first recorded by an unknown author in the Apostolic Constitutions, which was written in the late 3rd or early 4th century AD.
Some fragment of the hymns is quoted here:

O Light gladsome of the holy glory of the Immortal Father,


the Heavenly, the Holy, the Blessed, O Jesus Christ,
having come upon the setting of the sun, having seen the light of the evening,
we praise the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit: God.
Worthy it is at all times to praise Thee in joyful voices,
O Son of God, Giver of Life, for which the world glorifies Thee.
b) The oldest surviving fragment of an early Christian liturgical prayer is probably "Our Lord, come" (Maranatha, I Corinthians 16:22; compare
Revelation 22:20); it implies that prayer was addressed to the risen, glorified Christ. The Aramaic title Mar or Lord (Greek Kyrios; I Corinthians 12:3)
was a term or title regularly used in religious worship. (Encyclopedia Americana, Trinity, p116)
c) Another examples of prayers to Jesus from church history, here is an example of a prayer to Jesus by one of the great Eastern Fathers of the Church,
Gregory of Nyssa, who lived in the mid-to-late 300s: I give you the name you whom my soul loves because your name is above every name and
above all understanding and there is no rational nature that can utter it or comprehend it. Therefore your name, by which your goodness is known, is
simply the love my soul has for you. How could I not love you, when you loved me so much, even though I was black, that you laid down your life for the
sheep of your flock? A greater love cannot be imagined, than exchanging your life for my salvation (A Prayer to the Good Shepherd)
d) Augustine of Hippo, perhaps the best-known church father (c. AD 400), wrote a praye that was very old during his times: You are Christ, my Holy
Father, my Tender God, my Great King, my Good Shepherd, my Only Master, my Best Helper, my Most Beautiful and my Beloved, my Living Bread . . .
my Entire Protection, my Good Portion, my Everlasting Salvation. Christ Jesus, Sweet Lord, why have I ever loved, why in my whole life have I ever
desired anything except You, Jesus my God? Where was I when I was not in spirit with You? Now, from this time forth, do you, all my desires, grow hot,
and flow out upon the Lord Jesus. . . O, Sweet Jesus, may every good feeling that is fitted for Your praise, love You, delight in You, adore You! God of
my heart, and my Portion, Christ Jesus, may my heart faint away in spirit, and may You be my Life within me! May the live coal of Your Love grow hot
within my spirit and break forth into a perfect fire; may it burn incessantly on the altar of my heart; may it glow in my innermost being; may it blaze in
hidden recesses of my soul; and in the days of my consummation may I be found consummated with You!
e) Pliny 110 AD: they (Christians) were in the habit of meeting on a certain fixed day before it was light, when they sang in alternate verses a hymn to
Christ, as to a God, and bound themselves by a solemn oath not to (do) any wicked deeds, never to commit any fraud, theft, or adultery, never to falsify
their word, nor deny a trust when they should be called upon to deliver it up; after which it was their custom to separate, and then reassemble to partake of
good foodbut food of an ordinary and innocent kind-Pliny non-Christian who was a Roman writers bears testimony that early believers worship and
adore Christ as God singing hymns and songs to him.
f) The most learned scholar ever produced in the Church of England was Joseph Bingham (1668-1723).His classic work, Dictionary of Christian
Antiquities, has never been surpassed, according to McClintock & Strong, Cyclopedia, Grand Rapids: Baker, 1968, Vol. I, 814).In this famous historical
work, Bingham introduces passage after passage from the early church fathers which demonstrate that the primitive church unhesitatingly offered
worship to Christ, in both hymns and prayers ( Antiquities, London: Henry Bohn, 1865, Vol. I, 576ff). For example, Ignatius of Antioch (c. A.D. 35-107),
in his letter to the Ephesian Christians, petitions them to pray to Christ on his behalf (Epistle, XX). At the conclusion of his work
called Paedagogus, Clement of Alexandria (c. A.D. 150-213) offered a prayer to Son and Father, both in One, O Lord (III.XII).He also has a Hymn to
Christ the Saviour, which contains these sentiments: Your simple children bring, In one, that they may sing; In solemn lays, Their hymns of praise,With
guileless lips to Christ their King.
g) Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 263-339), known as the father of ecclesiastical history, tells of the martyrdom of a Christian whose name was Porphyry,
who was burned alive for the Cause.With his final words, as he approached the flames, he was calling upon Christ the Son of God, his helper
(Ecclesiastical History,Martyrs, XI)
E) Jesus was lower than angel for a while Jesus was lower for time being (he did not cease to be God even in his flesh).
Heb 2:9: But we do see Him who was made for a little while lower than the angels, namely, Jesus, because of the suffering of death crowned with glory
and honor, so that by the grace of God He might taste death for everyone. The word translated little while is brachus -short (of time, place, quantity, or
number), more interestingly this denote time frame used in Luke 22:58, Acts 5:34 27:28, etc. KJV translated as a little lower than the angels for the
suffering of death, the purpose for his lowering was to taste death for us.
Heb 2:14-18: Since the children have flesh and blood, he too shared in their humanity so that by his death he might break the power of him who holds
the power of death--that is, the devil--and free those who all their lives were held in slavery by their fear of death. For surely He helps not the angels, but
He helps the seed of Abraham. Therefore, He had to be made like His brethren in all things, so that He might become a merciful and faithful high priest in
things pertaining to God, to make propitiation for the sins of the people. For since He Himself was tempted in that which He has suffered, He is able to
come to the aid of those who are tempted.

F) If Jesus is God why does he has God over Him?


Revelation 3:12: the one who conquers, I will make him a pillar in the temple of my God. Never shall he go out of it, and I will write on him the
name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, the new Jerusalem, which comes down from my God out of heaven, and my own new name."
Heb 1:8: But about the Son he says, "Your throne, O God, will last forever and ever; a scepter of justice will be the scepter of your kingdom. You have
loved righteousness and hated wickedness; therefore God, your God, has set you above your companions by anointing you with the oil of joy." He also
says, "In the beginning, Lord, you laid the foundations of the earth, and the heavens are the work of your hands. They will perish, but you remain; they
will all wear out like a garment. You will roll them up like a robe; like a garment they will be changed. But you remain the same, and your years will
never end."
Jer 32:27: Behold, I am the LORD, the God of all flesh: is there anything too hard for me? It is not surprising that the Second person of the Trinity has
God when he becomes flesh without ceasing to be God. This does not erase the divinity of Christ Before we address these questions we need to first quote
the verses within their entire context: Hebrews 1:1-14: Long ago, at many times and in many ways, God spoke to our fathers by the prophets, but in these
last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed the heir of all things, through whom also he created the world. He is the radiance of the glory
of God and the exact imprint of his nature, and he upholds the universe by the word of his power. After making purification for sins, he sat down at the
right hand of the Majesty on high, having become as much superior to angels as the name he has inherited is more excellent than theirs. For to which of
the angels did God ever say, You are my Son, today I have begotten you? Or again, I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son? And again,
when he brings the firstborn into the world, he says, Let all God's angels worship him. Of the angels he says, He makes his angels winds, and his
ministers a flame of fire. But of the Son he says, Your throne, O God, is forever and ever, the scepter of uprightness is the scepter of your kingdom. You
have loved righteousness and hated wickedness; therefore God, your God, has anointed you with the oil of gladness beyond your companions. And, You,
Lord, laid the foundation of the earth in the beginning, and the heavens are the work of your hands; they will perish, but you remain; they will all wear
out like a garment, like a robe you will roll them up, like a garment they will be changed. Bt you are the same, and your years will have no end. And to
which of the angels has he ever said, Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet? Are they not all ministering spirits sent out
to serve for the sake of those who are to inherit salvation
From the foregoing we can see that the text is speaking of Jesus:
1. Before his Incarnation as the Agent of Creation.
2. During his Incarnation when he became the Redeemer.
3. After his resurrection and exaltation into glory where he then began ruling on the Divine throne forever.
In other words, the entire chapter is a reflection on Jesus existence before he became a man, when he became a man, and after his resurrection and
ascension into heaven.In light of the preceding, it is quite evident that the author of Hebrews was commenting on the whole Christ event, that he was
looking at Jesus entire career retrospectively. The author wasnt focusing so much on the natures of Christ, i.e. did Christ have one or two natures, was he
God and man simultaneously etc., but on the various functions that he performed. The writer was speaking of the one eternal Person of Jesus from all his
various activities, from his role as Creator, Sustainer, Redeemer, and eternal King. With the above in mind we can now address the specific objections.
The first thing we need to realize is that Hebrews 1:8-9 is quoting Psalm 45:6-7, which is a Psalm composed in relation to the Davidic Kings wedding
ceremony. Here is the entire Psalm so that the readers can see this for themselves: "My heart overflows with a pleasing theme; I address my verses to the
king; my tongue is like the pen of a ready scribe. You are the most handsome of the sons of men; grace is poured upon your lips; therefore God has
blessed you forever. Gird your sword on your thigh, O mighty one, in your splendor and majesty! In your majesty ride out victoriously for the cause of
truth and meekness and righteousness; let your right hand teach you awesome deeds! Your arrows are sharp in the heart of the king's enemies; the peoples
fall under you. Your throne, O God, is forever and ever. The scepter of your kingdom is a scepter of uprightness; you have loved righteousness and hated
wickedness. Therefore God, your God, has anointed you with the oil of gladness beyond your companions; your robes are all fragrant with myrrh and
aloes and cassia. From ivory palaces stringed instruments make you glad; daughters of kings are among your ladies of honor; at your right hand stands the
queen in gold of Ophir. Hear, O daughter, and consider, and incline your ear: forget your people and your father's house, and the king will desire your
beauty. Since he is your lord, bow to him. The people of Tyre will seek your favor with gifts, the richest of the people. All glorious is the princess in her
chamber, with robes interwoven with gold. In many-colored robes she is led to the king, with her virgin companions following behind her. With joy and
gladness they are led along as they enter the palace of the king. In place of your fathers shall be your sons; you will make them princes in all the earth. I
will cause your name to be remembered in all generations; therefore nations will praise you forever and ever." Psalm 45:1-17. The author of Hebrews
applied this text in reference to Jesus Messianic office, an office which he received by virtue of becoming a human descendant of king David after the
Incarnation: "And the angel said to her, Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God. And behold, you will conceive in your womb and
bear a son, and you shall call his name Jesus. He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High. And the Lord God will give to him the throne
of his father David, and he will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there will be no end." Luke 1:30-33

"concerning his Son, who was descended from David according to the flesh and was declared to be the Son of God in power according to the Spirit of
holiness by his resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord," Romans 1:3-4. Putting it in another way, the writer applied Psalm 45:6-7 to Jesus in
reference to his Messianic role, that as the Son of David he perfectly fulfills all the promises God made to David and his sons that theirs would be an eternal
royal dynasty: "And I will appoint a place for my people Israel and will plant them, so that they may dwell in their own place and be disturbed no more.
And violent men shall afflict them no more, as formerly, from the time that I appointed judges over my people Israel. And I will give you rest from all your
enemies. Moreover, the LORD declares to you that the LORD will make you a house. When your days are fulfilled and you lie down with your fathers, I
will raise up your offspring after you, who shall come from your body, and I will establish his kingdom. He shall build a house for my name, and I will
establish the throne of his kingdom forever. I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son. When he commits iniquity, I will discipline him with
the rod of men, with the stripes of the sons of men, but my steadfast love will not depart from him, as I took it from Saul, whom I put away from before
you." 2 Samuel 7:10-15. As a side note, 2 Samuel 7:14 is applied to Jesus in Hebrews 1:5!. But since the only way Jesus could have ever fulfilled these
promises is by becoming a man from the line of David this implies that Hebrews 1:8-9 has Jesus Incarnation and exaltation in view. After all, if Jesus
hadnt taken on a human nature he would not have become a descendant of David and could not therefore rule on the throne as his representative.
Moreover, since Jesus became a true human being and will forever remain a man who sits on the throne as Davids representative, the Father became and
will forever remain his God. So there is no problem with Jesus having a God over him. Now does this mean that Jesus humanity is being deified, that the
human nature of Christ is being called God, since we are claiming that this text has in mind Jesus humanity which accounts for his having a God over him?
Not at all. At the Incarnation Jesus did not cease to be God, but simply added an additional nature to his Divine Person. Hebrews 1:8-9 isnt necessarily
referring to Jesus as God or Jesus as man, but does have in mind the Incarnation and subsequent resurrection and exaltation. The text is speaking of the one
Person who at this point in time was both God and man simultaneously. Putting it simply, since Hebrews 1:8-9 has Christ's post-resurrected exaltation in
view Jesus can therefore be addressed as God in reference to his Divine nature and said to have a God over him in reference to his humanity. It isnt an
either/or scenario, but a both/and situation. The Divine Father is praising his Divine Son for ruling forever on Davids throne as the God-man. Amen. May
the risen and exalted Lord, the One who is the only God-man forever, Jesus Christ, also be praised by all his creation forever and ever Amen.
As one overzealous writer puts it: Christians have come up with the weak response that this was the man nature of Jesus speaking. For argument sake we
will take this response as correct. So we are able to conclude that:
1- Jesus has 2 natures, one divine one human (Ps 45:2 you are most excellent of menGod thy God.. (Messiah is to be both).
2- The man nature eats, sleeps, prays and has a God
3- The divine nature does not sleep, pray, or has a God
However so, it may come as a surprise to many people, but however so the supposed divine Jesus also said he has a God!
So as you can see, the divine Jesus still says he has a God! This is not Jesus as man speaking anymore, but this is Jesus as divine speaking, so how can the
divine Jesus say I have a God? This clearly proves that there is no such thing as a divine Jesus, and that Jesus is not God since he has a God, even when he
is in his supposed divine state. So I would really love to see a response from the Christians on this. Why does the divine Jesus say I have a God? What
this objection erroneously assumes is that Jesus, in Revelation, is no longer man now that he is in heaven. As we noted earlier, the Holy Scriptures
explicitly affirm that Jesus hasnt ceased being human after his resurrection. In fact, the resurrection presupposes that Christ remains a true human being,
albeit a glorified human at that! Note what the following references all say regarding Jesus condition after his resurrection to immortality: As they were
talking about these things, Jesus himself stood among them, and said to them, Peace to you! But they were startled and frightened and thought they saw
a spirit. And he said to them, Why are you troubled, and why do doubts arise in your hearts? See my hands and my feet, that it is I myself. Touch me, and
see. For a spirit does not have FLESH AND BONES AS YOU SEE THAT I HAVE. And when he had said this, he showed them his hands and his feet.
And while they still disbelieved for joy and were marveling, he said to them, Have you anything here to eat? They gave him a piece of broiled fish, and
he took it and ate before them. Then he said to them, These are my words that I spoke to you while I was still with you, that everything written about me
in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms must be fulfilled. Then he opened their minds to understand the Scriptures, and said to them, Thus
it is written, that the Christ should suffer and on the third day rise from the dead, and that repentance and forgiveness of sins should be proclaimed in
his name to all nations, beginning from Jerusalem." Luke 24:36-47. In his first resurrection appearance, Jesus shows his disciples that he has a body of
flesh and bones and still eats food! "Being therefore a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him that he would set one of his
descendants on his throne, he foresaw and spoke about the resurrection of the Christ, that he was not abandoned to Hades, NOR DID HIS FLESH
SEE CORRUPTION. This Jesus God raised up, and of that we all are witnesses." Acts 2:30-32. Peter in his first sermon preached that Jesus flesh
did not see decay, which implies that Christ was raised physically from the dead. Basically, Peter was affirming that Christ was resurrected with an
immortal, physical, glorified body, thereby showing that Jesus continues to live as a man even after being raised from the dead, a point reiterated by Paul:
"The times of ignorance God overlooked, but now he commands all people everywhere to repent, because he has fixed a day on which he will judge the
world in righteousness by A MAN whom he has appointed; and of this he has given assurance to all BY RAISING HIM FROM THE DEAD. Now when
they heard of the resurrection of the dead, some mocked. But others said, We will hear you again about this." Acts 17:30-32

It is Jesus THE MAN who will judge the world, which means that Christ continues to exist with a human nature.
"For there is one God, and there IS one mediator between God and men, THE MAN Christ Jesus," 1 Timothy 2:5
The mediator which believers have now IS (not was) THE MAN Christ Jesus! Finally:
"And one of the elders said to me, Weep no more; behold, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, has conquered, so that he can open the
scroll and its seven seals." Revelation 5:5
"I, Jesus, have sent my angel to testify to you about these things for the churches. I am the root and the descendant of David, the bright morning star."
Revelation 22:16. The only way for Christ to be a descendant of David and from the tribe of Judah even after his resurrection and ascension into heaven is
if he continues to remain a full human being..With the foregoing in mind, it should now be clear as to why Jesus in heaven could still refer to having a
God. Since Christ will forever remain human his Father will forever remain his God. Moreover, it is neither the Divine (contrary to the erroneous claim of
the Muslim) nor human Jesus who is speaking in Revelation 3:12, but rather the one Person of Christ who is both God and man that is speaking. Putting it
simply, it is Christ the God-man who speaks in this text.
Note: Jesus can refer the Father His God as much as the Father call the Son both God and LORD in Heb 8-11 and His King (Ps 2:6).
John 20:17: Jesus said, "Do not hold on to me, for I have not yet ascended to the Father. Go instead to my brothers and tell them, 'I am
ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.
Before we continue Here is the testimony of John in a nutshell:
1. There is only one God:
How can you believe, when you receive glory from one another and you do not seek the glory that is from the one and only God? John 5:44
This is eternal life, that they may know You, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom You have sent. John 17:3
2. The Father is God.
3. The risen Lord Jesus is God.
The Father and the Son are distinct Persons who love one another and have perfect fellowship with each other: But even if I do judge, My judgment is
true; for I am not alone in it, but I and the Father who sent Me. Even in your law it has been written that the testimony of TWO MEN. I am He who
testifies about Myself, and the Father who sent Me testifies about Me. So they were saying to Him, Where is Your Father? Jesus answered, You know
neither Me nor My Father; if you knew Me, you would know My Father also And He who sent Me is with Me; He has not left Me alone, for I always
do the things that are pleasing to Him. John 8:16-19, 29
John 14:31: but so that the world may know that I love the Father, I do exactly as the Father commanded Me. Get up, let us go from here.
John 17:24: Father, I desire that they also, whom You have given Me, be with Me where I am, so that they may see My glory which You have given
Me, for You loved Me before the foundation of the world. Therefore, by taking all of data into consideration the only conclusion that one can arrive at is
that according to Johns Gospel the only true God is a multi-personal Being.Now the question still remains how could the Father be Jesus God if he
himself is God, and there is only one God? The answer comes from the fact that Christ is the Word who became flesh (cf. 1:14). As such, Christ took on a
created nature that made him a part of the very creation which he brought into being (cf. 1:3, 10). This act of becoming part of creation in order to become
a man resulted in the Father becoming Jesus God as well. After all, God is said to be the God of all flesh: Behold, I am the LORD, the God of all flesh; is
anything too difficult for Me? Jeremiah 32:27. Since it was the Son who became flesh it is only natural that the Father would become his God from that
moment on. In fact, some of the OT texts which the NT writers interpret messianically confirm this point. For instance, Psalm 22 is a passage which the
NT applies to Christ. In light of this, notice what the following verses say: Psalm 22:1, 6-8, 14-16, 18, 22: My God, my God, why have You forsaken
me? Far from my deliverance are the words of my groaning But I am a worm and not a man, A reproach of men and despised by the people. All who
see me sneer at me; They separate with the lip, they wag the head, saying, Commit yourself to the LORD; let Him deliver him; Let Him rescue him,
because He delights in him. I am poured out like water, And all my bones are out of joint; My heart is like wax; It is melted within me. My strength is
dried up like a potsherd, And my tongue cleaves to my jaws; And You lay me in the dust of death. For dogs have surrounded me; A band of evildoers has
encompassed me; THEY PIERCED MY HANDS AND MY FEET. I can count all my bones. They look, they stare at me; They divide my garments among
them, And for my clothing they cast lots I will tell of Your name to my brethren; In the midst of the assembly I will praise You. With the exception of v.
16, all these references are either quoted or alluded to in the NT: When the soldiers had crucified Jesus, they took His garments and divided them into
four parts, one part for each soldier; also His tunic. But the tunic was seamless, woven in one piece from top to bottom, so they said to one another, Let us
not tear it, but cast lots for it to see whose it shall be. This was to fulfill the Scripture which says, They divided my garments among them, and for my
clothing they cast lots. So the soldiers did these things. John 19:23-24. Matthew 27:39-46: And those passing by were hurling abuse at Him, wagging
their heads and saying, You who are going to destroy the temple and rebuild it in three days, save Yourself! If You are the Son of God, come down from
the cross. In the same way the chief priests also, along with the scribes and elders, were mocking Him and saying, He saved others; He cannot save
Himself. He is the King of Israel; let Him now come down from the cross, and we will believe in Him. HE TRUSTS IN GOD; LET GOD RESCUE Him
now, IF HE DELIGHTS IN HIM; for He said, I am the Son of God. The robbers who had been crucified with Him were also insulting Him with the

same words. Now from the sixth hour darkness fell upon all the land until the ninth hour. And about the ninth hour Jesus cried out with a loud voice,
saying, Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani? that is, MY GOD, MY GOD, WHY HAVE YOU FORSAKEN ME? Hebrews 2:12: For he who sanctifies and those
who are sanctified all have one source. That is why he is not ashamed to call them brothers, saying, I will tell of your name to my brothers; in the midst of
the congregation I will sing your praise. What makes this Psalm rather significant is that the Psalmist states quite plainly that Yahweh became his God
from the time of his conception in his mothers womb: Yet You are He who brought me forth from the womb; You made me trust when upon my mothers
breasts. Upon You I was cast from birth; You have been my God FROM MY MOTHERS WOMB. Psalm 22:9-10. Here is another text which the NT
applies to the Son and which also establishes our point: Micah 5:2-4: But as for you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, Too little to be among the clans of Judah,
From you One will go forth for Me to be ruler in Israel. His goings forth are from long ago, From the days of eternity. Therefore He will give
them up until the time. When she who is in labor HAS BORNE A CHILD. Then the remainder of HIS BRETHREN Will return to the sons of Israel. And He
will arise and shepherd His flock In the strength of the LORD, In the majesty of the name of the LORD His God. And they will remain, Because at that
time He will be great To the ends of the earth. Notice the language, when she who is in labor has borne a child, his brethren, i.e. clear references to
the King's humanity. According to Matthew 2:1-6, Micah 5:2 was fulfilled in the birth of Christ: Now after Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the
days of Herod the king, behold, wise men from the east came to Jerusalem, saying, Where is he who has been born king of the Jews? For we saw his star
when it rose and have come to worship him. When Herod the king heard this, he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him; and assembling all the chief
priests and scribes of the people, he inquired of them where the Christ was to be born. They told him, In Bethlehem of Judea, for so it is written by the
prophet: And you, O Bethlehem, in the land of Judah, are by no means least among the rulers of Judah; for from you shall come a ruler who will
shepherd my people Israel. Thus, Micah 5:2 prophesied that the Messiah is God (i.e. From the days of eternity) who shall be born as a man in order to
save his fellow Israelites. Micah also testifies that the Father only became the Sons God when the latter became a man. And now for the final example
Isaiah 49:1-10: Listen to Me, O islands, And pay attention, you peoples from afar. The LORD called Me FROM THE WOMB; FROM THE BODY OF
MY MOTHER He named Me. He has made My mouth like a sharp sword, In the shadow of His hand He has concealed Me; And He has also made Me a
select arrow, He has hidden Me in His quiver. He said to Me, You are My Servant, Israel, In Whom I will show My glory. But I said, I have toiled in
vain, I have spent My strength for nothing and vanity; Yet surely the justice due to Me is with the LORD, And My reward with My God. And now says
the LORD, who formed Me from the womb to be His Servant, To bring Jacob back to Him, so that Israel might be gathered to Him (For I am honored in
the sight of the LORD, And My God is My strength), He says, It is too small a thing that You should be My Servant To raise up the tribes of Jacob and to
restore the preserved ones of Israel; I will also make You a light of the nations So that My salvation may reach to the end of the earth. Thus says the
LORD, the Redeemer of Israel and its Holy One, To the despised One, To the One abhorred by the nation, To the Servant of rulers, Kings will see and
arise, Princes will also bow down, Because of the LORD who is faithful, the Holy One of Israel who has chosen You. Thus says the LORD, In a
favorable time I have answered You, And in a day of salvation I have helped You; And I will keep You and give You for a covenant of the people, To
restore the land, to make them inherit the desolate heritages; Saying to those who are bound, Go forth, To those who are in darkness, Show
yourselves. Along the roads they will feed, And their pasture will be on all bare heights. They will not hunger or thirst, Nor will the scorching heat or sun
strike them down; For He who has compassion on them will lead them And will guide them to springs of water. The NT alludes to the language of this
particular Servant passage in the following places which is referred to Christ alone: Luke 2:30-32; 22:19-20; Revelation 1:16; 2:12, 16; 7:17; 19:15, 21.
All of the preceding OT texts confirm that the Father only became the Sons God the moment when the Son became flesh. As such, Bible-believing
Christians see no problem with Jesus having the Father as his God since they affirm the biblical proclamation that Christ is both God and Man at the same
time.
G) Jesus voluntarily gave himself ( Hauton, reflexive pronoun - third person accusative singular masculine)
Isaiah 53:12: Therefore, I will allot Him a portion with the great, And He will divide the booty with the strong; Because He poured out Himself to death,
And was numbered with the transgressors; Yet He Himself bore the sin of many, And interceded for the transgressors
1 Timothy 2:6: For there is one God, and one mediator also between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, 6. who gave Himself as a ransom for all, the
testimony given at the proper time
Ephe 5:2: and walk in the way of love, just as Christ loved us and gave himself up for us as a fragrant offering and sacrifice to God. 25. Husbands, love
your wives, just as Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her
Gal 2:20: I have been crucified with Christ and I no longer live, but Christ lives in me. The life I now live in the body, I live by faith in the Son of God,
who loved me and gave himself for me
Heb 1:3: Who being the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his person, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by
himself purged our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high;
Heb 7:27: who does not need daily, like those high priests, to offer up sacrifices, first for His own sins and then for the sins of the people, because this He
did once for all when He offered up Himself.

Heb 9:14: How much more, then, will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself unblemished to God, cleanse our consciences
from acts that lead to death, so that we may serve the living God!
Phip 2:7-9: But made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men:. Found appearance as
man he humbled Himself by becoming obedient to death-- even death on a cross!
Titus 2:13-14: looking for the blessed hope and the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior, Christ Jesus, 14. who gave Himself for us to
redeem us from every lawless deed, and to purify for Himself a people for His own possession, zealous for good deeds
1Theso 4:14: For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again (anest-verb - second aorist active indicative), even so them also which sleep in Jesus will
God bring with him.
John 2:19: Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up
Roman 14:9: For to this end Christ both died, and rose (ezsen-verb second aorist active indicative) and revived, that he might be Lord both of the dead
and living
John 10:18: No one takes it from me, but I lay it down of my own accord. I have authority to lay it down and authority to take it up again. This command
I received from my Father." (John 6:38: For I have come down from heaven not to do my will but to do the will of him who sent me.)
H) Jesus is LORD quotation from OT
Isaiah 42:8: I am the LORD; that is my name! I will not yield my glory to another or my praise to idols.
1)Roman 10:9-14: that if you confess with your mouth Jesus as Lord (Lord Jesus KJV), and believe in your heart that God raised Him from the dead,
you will be saved; For it is with your heart that you believe and are justified, and it is with your mouth that you profess your faith and are saved. For the
scripture saith, Whosoever believeth on him shall not be ashamed. For there is no difference between the Jew and the Greek: for the same Lord (LORD
Jehovah-Aramaic) over all is rich unto all that call upon him. For whosoever shall call upon the name of the LORD shall be saved. How then shall they
call on him in whom they have not believed? and how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard? and how shall they hear without a
preacher?-context is about faith and law. Joel 2:32 And everyone who calls on the name of the LORD will be saved; for on Mount Zion and in Jerusalem
there will be deliverance, as the LORD has said, even among the survivors whom the LORD calls.
2)Phil 2:11: That at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth; And that every tongue
should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.
Isa 45:21-23: Declare what is to be, present it-- let them take counsel together. Who foretold this long ago, who declared it from the distant past? Was it
not I, the LORD? And there is no God apart from me, a righteous God and a Savior; there is none but me. Turn to me and be saved, all you ends of the
earth; for I am God, and there is no other. I have sworn by myself, the word is gone out of my mouth in righteousness, and shall not return, That unto me
every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear.
Romans 14:9-12: For to this end Christ died and rose and lived again, that He might be Lord of both the dead and the living. But why do you judge your
brother? Or why do you show contempt for your brother? For we shall all stand before the judgment seat of Christ. For it is written: 'As I live, says the
LORD, Every knee shall bow to Me, And every tongue shall confess to God.' So then each of us shall give account of himself to God.").
3) 1 Cor12:3: Wherefore I give you to understand, that no man speaking by the Spirit of God calleth Jesus accursed: and that no man can say that Jesus
is the Lord, but by the Holy Ghost.
4) John 1:23: He said, I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make straight the way of the Lord, as said the prophet Esaias..
Matthew 3:3: This is he who was spoken of through the prophet Isaiah: "A voice of one calling in the wilderness, 'Prepare the way for the Lord, make
straight paths for him.'"
Mark 1:2-3: As it has been written in the prophet Isaiah: "Behold, I send My messenger before Your face, who will prepare Your way." The voice of one
crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight.
Luke 3:4: as it is written in the book of the words of the prophet Isaiah: A voice of one crying out in the wilderness: Prepare the way for the Lord; make
His paths straight!
Isaiah 40:3: A voice of one calling: "In the wilderness prepare the way for the LORD; make straight in the desert a highway for our God
Speaking about John the Baptist, the angel told Zacharias, And he will turn many of the children of Israel to the Lord their God. He will also go
before Him ['enopion auto'] in the spirit and power of Elijah, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the
just, to make ready a people prepared for the Lord." (Luke 1:16-17). Before Whom? Before "the Lord their God"!
The voice of one crying in the wilderness: 'Prepare the way of the LORD; make straight in the desert a highway for our God. Every valley shall be
exalted and every mountain and hill brought low; the crooked places shall be made straight and the rough places smooth; the glory of the LORD shall be
revealed, and all flesh shall see it together; for the mouth of the LORD has spoken...O Zion, you who bring good tidings, get up into the high mountain; O
Jerusalem, you who bring good tidings, lift up your voice with strength, lift it up, be not afraid; say to the cities of Judah, 'Behold your God!'" (Isaiah
40:3-9). Although this author's 'Isaiah-count' is off, he notes trenchantly that the very word 'gospel,' or 'good news,' comes from Isaiah 40:9,

(LXX): "The fact that the very word 'Gospel' was taken by the earliest Christians from Deutero-Isaiah (Isa. 40:9) is an indication of the
key importance of these chapters for them, as is the fact that all four evangelists highlight the way the beginning of the Gospel story, the ministry of John
the Baptist, fulfilled the beginning of Deutero-Isaiah's prophecy of the new Exodus (Isa. 40:3-4).
5) The LORD our Righteousness:
The Jehovah's Witnesses restrict the name 'Jehovah' to 'the Father-only', though there's no Biblical warrant for so doing. To the contrary, the Bible
explicitly assigns the name 'Jehovah' to the Son as well: Behold, the days are coming,' says the LORD, 'That I will raise to David a Branch of
righteousness; A King shall reign and prosper, And execute judgment and righteousness in the earth. In His days Judah will be saved, And Israel will
dwell safely; Now this is His name by which He will be called: THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS (Jeremiah 23:5-6).
The Jehovah's Witnesses nonchalantly note that Jerusalem is called by the same name (33:16), and of what significance can a name be that's so common?
But when has it been unusual for a bride to take her husband's name?: "Then I, John, saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from
God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband." (Revelation 21:2). Israel are the people of the Messiah, and their titles can be shared without
embarrassment: "The Messiah and HIs history are not presented in the Old Testament as something separate from, or superadded to, Israel. The history,
the institutions, and the predictions of Israel run up into Him. He is the typical Israelite, nay, typical Israel itself alike the crown, the completion, and
the representative of Israel. He is the Son of God and the Servant of the Lord; but in that highest and only true sense, which had given its meaning to all
the preparatory development.
Jesus lives up to His name, "THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS"...because He is the Lord, and He is our righteousness!: "For they being ignorant of
Gods righteousness, and seeking to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted to the righteousness of God. For Christ is the end of the law for
righteousness to everyone who believes." (Romans 10:3-4); "Yet indeed I also count all things loss for the excellence of the knowledge of Christ Jesus my
Lord, for whom I have suffered the loss of all things, and count them as rubbish, that I may gain Christ and be found in Him, not having my own
righteousness, which is from the law, but that which is through faith in Christ, the righteousness which is from God by faith..." (Philippians 3:8-9); "But of
Him you are in Christ Jesus, who became for us wisdom from God and righteousness and sanctification and redemption that, as it is written, 'He
who glories, let him glory in the LORD.'" (1 Corinthians 1:30-31).
8) First and the Last
Isaiah 41:4: Who hath wrought and done it, calling the generations from the beginning? I the LORD, the first, and with the last; I am he.
Isa 44:6: This is what the LORD says-- Israel's King and His Redeemer, the LORD Almighty: I am the first and I am the last; apart from me there is no
God.
Isa 48:11-13: For my own sake, for my own sake, I do this. How can I let myself be defamed? I will not yield my glory to another. Listen to me, Jacob,
Israel, whom I have called: I am he; I am the first and I am the last. My own hand laid the foundations of the earth, and my right hand spread out the
heavens; when I summon them, they all stand up together.
Rev 1:17-18: When I saw him, I fell at his feet as though dead. Then he placed his right hand on me and said: "Do not be afraid. I am the First and the
Last. and the living One; and I was dead, and behold, I am alive forevermore, and I have the keys of death and of Hades.
Rev 2:8: To the angel of the church in Smyrna write: These are the words of him who is the First and the Last, who died and came to life again
Rev 22:13: I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End.
Rev 1:8: "I am the Alpha and the Omega," says the Lord God, "who is, and who was, and who is to come, the Almighty
Rev 21:6-7: He said to me: "It is done. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End. To the thirsty I will give water without cost from the
spring of the water of life. Those who are victorious will inherit all this, and I will be their God and they will be my children.
9) King of Israel is LORD (Jesus is LORD)
Isa 41:21: Produce your cause, saith the LORD; bring forth your strong reasons, saith the King of Jacob.
Isa 43:15: I am the LORD, your Holy One, Israel's Creator, your King."
Isa 44:6: Thus saith the LORD the King of Israel, and his redeemer the LORD of hosts; I am the first, and I am the last; and beside me there is no God.
John 1:49-50: Nathanael answered Him, "Rabbi, You are the Son of God; You are the King of Israel." 50 Jesus answered and said to him, "Because I said
to you that I saw you under the fig tree, do you believe? You will see greater things than these."
John 12:13: They took palm branches and went out to meet him, shouting, "Hosanna!" "Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord!" "Blessed is the
king of Israel!
Matt 27:42: He saved others," they said, "but he can't save himself! He's the king of Israel! Let him come down now from the cross, and we will believe in
him
Matt 2:2: and asked, "Where is the one who has been born king of the Jews? We saw his star when it rose and have come to worship him."
John 19:21: The chief priests of the Jews protested to Pilate, "Do not write 'The King of the Jews,' but that this man claimed to be king of the Jews."
John 19:19: Pilate had a notice prepared and fastened to the cross. It read: jesus of nazareth, the king of the jews

Ps 45:1-6: For the choir director; according to the Shoshannim. A Maskil of the sons of Korah. A Song of Love. My heart overflows with a good theme; I
address my verses to the King; My tongue is the pen of a ready writer. 3. Gird thy sword upon thy thigh, O most mighty (Gibor), with thy glory and thy
majesty. 4. In your majesty ride forth victoriously in the cause of truth, humility and justice; let your right hand achieve awesome deeds. 5. Your arrows
are sharp; The peoples fall under You; Your arrows are in the heart of the King's enemies.6. Your throne, O God, will last forever and ever; a scepter of
justice will be the scepter of your kingdom
10) The LORD of glory
1 Cor 2:8: None of the rulers of this age understood it, for if they had, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.
Ps 24:7-8:Lift up your heads, O gates, And be lifted up, O ancient doors, That the King of glory may come in!8Who is the King of glory? The LORD
strong and mighty, The LORD mighty in battle.
11) Boast in the LORD
1Cor 1:31-30- It is because of him that you are in Christ Jesus, who has become for us wisdom from God--that is, our righteousness, holiness and
redemption. Therefore, as it is written: "Let the one who boasts boast in the Lord."
Jer 9:24: but let him who boasts boast of this, that he understands and knows Me, that I am the LORD who exercises lovingkindness, justice and
righteousness on earth; for I delight in these things," declares the LORD.
12) The LORD shall appear like rain
Hosea 6:2: After two days he will revive us; on the third day he will restore us, that we may live in his presence. Let us acknowledge the LORD; let us
press on to acknowledge him. As surely as the sun rises, he will appear; he will come to us like the winter rains, like the spring rains that water the earth.
James 5:7: Be patient, then, brothers and sisters, until the Lord's coming. See how the farmer waits for the land to yield its valuable crop, patiently waiting
for the autumn and spring rains.
13) The LORDs is the earth
1 cor 10:26: or, "The earth is the Lord's, and everything in it."
Psalm 24:1 Of David. A psalm. The earth is the LORD's, and everything in it, the world, and all who live in it;
14) The LORD is the one being pierced
Zech 12:10: "And I will pour out on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the Spirit of grace and of supplication, so that they will
look on Me whom they have pierced; and they will mourn for Him, as one mourns for an only son, and they will weep bitterly over Him, like the bitter
weeping over a first-born.Rev. 1:7, "Behold, He is coming with the clouds, and every eye will see Him, even those who pierced Him; and all the tribes of the earth will mourn over
Him. Even so. Amen."
John 19:37: and again another scripture saith, They shall look on him whom they pierced..
15) The LORD is savior alone
Hosea 13:4: But I have been the LORD your God ever since you came out of Egypt. You shall acknowledge no God but me, no Savior except me.
Isaiah 60:16: You will drink the milk of nations and be nursed at royal breasts. Then you will know that I, the LORD, am your Savior, your Redeemer,
the Mighty One of Jacob.
Isa 43:11: I, I am the LORD, and besides me there is no savior.
Isaiah 45:21: Declare what is to be, present it-- let them take counsel together. Who foretold this long ago, who declared it from the distant past? Was it
not I, the LORD? And there is no God apart from me, a righteous God and a Savior; there is none but me.
1 John 4:14: And we have seen and testify that the Father has sent his Son to be the Savior of the world.
Titus 1:4: To Titus, my true son in our common faith: Grace and peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Savior.
Titus 2:13: while we wait for the blessed hope--the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ,
2 Peter 1:1Simon Peter, a servant and apostle of Jesus Christ, To those who through the righteousness of our God and Savior Jesus Christ have received a
faith as precious as ours:
2 peter 3:18: But grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. To him be glory both now and forever! Amen.
2 Peter 1:11: and you will receive a rich welcome into the eternal kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.
16) The Son is God and LORD
But unto the Son he saith, Thy throne, O God, is forever and ever: a sceptre of righteousness is the sceptre of thy kingdom. Thou hast loved
righteousness, and hated iniquity; therefore God, even thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows (Heb. 1:8-9)
Ps. 45:6-7: Thy throne, O God, is forever and ever: the sceptre of thy kingdom is a right sceptre. Thou lovest righteousness, and hatest wickedness:
therefore God, thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows Jehovah's Witnesses, 'Oneness' Pentecostals, and others who find the
thought of "the Son" addressed as "God" troubling try to water down Hebrews 1:8 by noting that the original "King" addressed in Psalm 45 wasn't really

God at all. In spite of the fact that Israel, unlike Egypt and Babylon, was monotheistic by design, and did not did not acknowledge great kings like David
and Solomon as divine, they assert that these verses really do apply, fully and completely, to their all-too-human successors. But the New Testament
reading of the Psalms is premised on the realization that the grand promises they lavish on God's Messiah aren't really about David, Solomon et al. How
do we know this? Because these promises didn't come true for David or Solomon. Psalm 16 promises that "Your Holy One" will not see corruption: "For
You will not leave my soul in Sheol, Nor will You allow Your Holy One to see corruption." (Psalm 16:10). But that never came true for David: "'Men and
brethren, let me speak freely to you of the patriarch David, that he is both dead and buried, and his tomb is with us to this day. Therefore, being a prophet,
and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him that of the fruit of his body, according to the flesh, He would raise up the Christ to sit on his throne,
he, foreseeing this, spoke concerning the resurrection of the Christ, that His soul was not left in Hades, nor did His flesh see corruption.'" (Acts 2:29-31).
So did a solemn promise of God fall to the ground? That cannot be! The apostles knew that the Psalms spoke of another, a far greater King than David or
Solomon, Who is truthfully addressed as "O God".
Grammatical analysis: Explain of Heb 1:8: Pros de(but or however) ton huion ho thronos sou ho theos, (lit. but regarding the Son [He says], the
throne of you the God. . . .). To deny the deity of the Son, many unitarian groups (esp. Oneness and Jehovahs Witnesses) contest that the articular
nominative theos (God) here cannot carries the vocative force (as represented in most translations); they suggest that the Son is not divine. The two
basic arguments mounted against the nominative for the vocative are as follows:
1. To see theos as a strict subject nominative: God is your throne (as rendered in the Watchtowers New World Translation).
2. To see, theos as a predicate: Your throne is God.
In response to the first argument, (a) nowhere in Scripture is God called someones human throne, (b) if theos were the subject, then naturally ho
theos would appear before ho thronos (the throne; cf. Reymond, Systematic Theology, 274), but it does not, and (c) the context of Hebrews chapter 1 is
drawing a sharp ontological contrast between created angels and the divine uncreated Son: For to which of the angels did He [God the Father] say . . .
But of the Son He says . . . (1:5, 8). [Even if God is your throne is correct what does it proves? It proves Jesus created the Father (Col 1:16 all things
were created visiblethrones..dominions). This will imply that Jesus the Son is above the Father and the Father is his inferior mate; the one sitting on
throne is superior than the object where he sits]. Also this contrast would be lost if the subject-nominative view was correct. In response to the second
argument, if theos were a predicate we would certainly expect theos to be anarthrous (i.e. lacking the art. o, ho, the) and appearing either before your
throne or after for ever and ever (cf. ibid.), but it does not. Clearly, both arguments put forward by Unitarians groups fall short of grammatical and
contextual probability. Therefore, to see theos as a vocative of direct address: Moreover, the ancient Targums render the passage of Psalm quoted in Heb
1:8 as an address to God Himself: Thy throne of glory, O Lord endure forever and ever. Verse 3, the targumist applies to Christ: Your beauty, O King
Messiah, surpasses that of ordinary men. In the LXX version it is even more probable that ho Theos is a vocative for the king is addressed a mighty
warrior (dunate) not only verse 4 but also in verse 6. Gird your sword on your side, you mighty one; clothe yourself with splendor and majesty. This dual
address heightens the antecedent probability, given the word order, that in the next verse ho theos should be rendered O God. One may therefore affirm
with a high degree of confidence that in the LXX text from which the author of Hebrews was quoting ho theos represents a vocatival {yhl) [Elohim]. In
Psalms (LXX) there are at least sixty-three instances where the nominative theos carries the vocative force. The articular nominative theos with the
vocative force, as in this text, is a well-established idiom in classical Greek, the Septuagint, and the New Testament (Reymond, Systematic
Theology, 272; e.g., the articular nominative theos in the parallel passages John 20:28 the God of me and the Lord of me (ho kurios mou kai ho Thoes mou)
and Rev. 4:11 (You are worthy, our Lord and God (ho Kurios kai ho Theos hemon), to receive glory and honor and power, for you created all things, and
by your will they were created and have their being.) are clearly in direct address but uses nominative functioning as vocative). In fact, in the entire New
Testament there is only one verse (Matthew 27:46-thee-vocative form of Theos) where God is addressed using the vocative case . Grammatical analysis
by Daniel B. Wallace: There are three syntactical possibilities for here: as a subject (S) (God is your throne), predicate nominative (PN) (your
throne is God), and nom. for voc (V). ("Your throne, O God"). The S and PN translations can be lumped together and set off against the nom. for voc.
approach. It is our view that the nom. for voc. view is to be preferred for the following reasons: (1) It is an over statement to argue that if a writer wanted
to address God he could have used the vocative , because nowhere in the NT is this done except in Matt 27:46. The articular nom. for voc. is the almost
universal choice. (2) This is especially the case in quoting from the LXX (as in Heb 1:8; Heb 10:7), for the LXX is equally reticent to use the voc. form,
most likely since Hebrew lacked such a form.
(3) The accentuation in the Hebrew of Ps 45:7 suggests that there should be a pause between throne and God (indicating that tradition took God as
direct address). (4) This view takes seriously the construction in vv 78, while the S-PN view does not adequately handle these conjunctions.
Specifically, if we read v 8 as your throne is God the loses its adversative force, for such a statement could also be made of the angels. Therefore the
Son called by God as God in vocative form implies the Son is God.
OJB: Heb 1:8:And Hashem says to HaBen, KIS'AHCHA ELOHIM OLAM VAED SHEVET MISHOR SHEVET MALKHUTECHA ("Your throne, O
G-d, will endure forever and ever, and the scepter of justice is the scepter of your kingdom"

Luke 18:11: The Pharisee stood by himself and prayed: 'God (ho Theos), I thank you that I am not like other people--robbers, evildoers, adulterers--or
even like this tax collector.
Mark 15:34: And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani? which is, being interpreted, My God, my God (ho
theos mou ho theos mou), why hast thou forsaken me?
I) The Son, Jesus Christ is the creators; The Work of Your Hands:
1) Hebrews 1:10-12: And: 'You, LORD, in the beginning laid (ethemelisas verb - aorist active indicative the foundation of the earth, and the heavens
are (plural verb-estin) the works (erga noun - nominative plural neuter) of Your hands. They will perish, but You remain; and they will all grow old like
a garment; like a cloak You will fold them up, and they will be changed. But You are the same, and Your years will not fail.
The above quotation is an address of the Father to the Son starting from vs 8 but unto the Son He says thy throne o God...
The writers of Hebrews quotes Psalm 102, a hymn of praise to the Creator God, Jehovah:"To declare the name of the LORD in Zion, and His praise in
Jerusalem...Of old You laid the foundation of the earth, and the heavens are the work of Your hands. They will perish, but You will endure; Yes, they will
all grow old like a garment; like a cloak You will change them, and they will be changed. But You are the same, And Your years will have no end."
(Psalm 102:21-27). That attributes and title cannot be given to mere human. Also the Father calls the Son as LORD (Yahweh). The above quotation may
slightly differ because the writer quotes it from Septuagint version. Thou, Lord (Kyrie), at the beginning you founded the earth, and the heavens are the
work of your hands." (Ps.102:25 LXX/Septuagint.) So we learn from Hebrews 1:8-12 that "the Son" is eternal God, the Creator. Not only this the OT
spoke of Yahweh alone creator, so Jesus must be the one Yahweh with the Father and the Holy Spirit (they are the one Yahweh)
2) Colossians 1:16-18:For IN (en) him ALL things (ta panta)-were created (ektisth- aorist passive indicative): things in heaven and on earth, visible
and invisible, whether thrones or powers or rulers or authorities; ALL things (ta panta-nominative plural neuter) have been created (ektistai- perfect
passive indicative) THROUGH (di) him and FOR (eis) him. He is before all things, AND IN (en) HIM ALL THINGS (tap anta) HOLD TOGETHER.
And he is the head of the body, the church; he is the beginning and the firstborn from among the dead, so that in everything he might have the
supremacy.
Note: Distinguish the Greek aorist, which precedes from the perfect tense here "have been created." In the former case the creation was viewed as a past
act at a point of time, or as done once for all; Later here it is viewed, not merely as one historic act of creation in the past, but as the permanent result
now and eternally continuing (kjv lexicon says the same) handle by the Son. The first part the ektisth- aorist passive indicative)-verb created appear as
passive because the subject is the created things not the creators. JWs added by him all other things were created (the word other in Greek is heteros
and allos; none of this two term appear in the entire chapter), if they can insert this they will have point that Jesus was created.
3) John 1:1-3: In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God [en arch n ho logos, kai ho logos n pros ton
theon, kai theos n ho logos]. He was with God in the beginning. Through him all things (panta auto) were made; without him nothing was made that
has been made. The Word who is the Son is not a created being, he is distinct from and separated from created thing, the last part without him
nothing was made that has been made itself justifies he is the creators. [Rom 8:28 used panta]
1) Jesus (the "Word" cf. v. 14) was eternal: Grammatically the verb translated "was" (n) ("In the beginning was the Word") is an imperfect tense
indicating continued existence in this context. Hence, the Word was eternal, without origin.
2) The grammar is clear: Jesus did not have a beginning nor was He created at some point in time (as JWs teach). The Word was fully God (1:1c; Theos
n ho logos (the Word was God)
3) Jesus was the Creator, (1:3). He made ALL THINGS ( panta di' autou, "all things through/by Him," ; dia with the genetive same as in Col. 1:16-17;
1 Cor. 8:6; and Heb. 1:2). In fact, the deity of Christ is so plain that the NWT had to change John 1:1c to read: "and the Word was a god."Vs 3 all
thing were made (egento is verb second aorist middle deponent indicative from ginomai) made that has been made (gegonen is second perfect active
indicative form of ginomai).The aorist refers to the fact and the point of time of the creation; the perfect to the permanent result of that fact still sustained
by the Word. Contrast was made and has been made here with was in John 1:1-2. Were made denotes the springing into life of what was once
non-existent; This, in its grand comprehensiveness and individualizing of every molecule and every force, brings the mind of the reader down from
eternity to time, from the creation to the preservation and providence of the world. Vs 10 He was in the world (cosmos), and though the world was made
(egeneto-verb - second aorist middle deponent indicative) through him, the world did not recognize him-indicates the eternality and absolute nature of
the Word who is God.
4) Heb 1:2: but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, and through (dia huo- genitive) whom also he
made (epoisen-aorist active indicative) the universe. The epoisen (aorist active indicative) which indicates the Son actually created the universes at
point in time. (Note: universes is ainas-plural neuter)
OJB: the Ketz HaYamim, Hashem spoke to us by HaBen, whom He appointed Bechor of the Bechorah, Yoresh Kol (Heir of All Things), through whom
also Hashem BARAH ES HASHOMAYIM V'ES HA'ARETZ (see Prov 30:4);

5) Ephe 3:9: and to bring to light what is the administration of the mystery which for ages has been hidden in God who created all things (ta panta accusative plural neuter); KJV has who created all things by Jesus Christ which is a majority reading.
6) Jesus is creator of Moses
Heb 3:3: For this man was counted worthy of more glory than Moses, inasmuch as he who has built the house has more honor than the house. That
is, in proportion as: the glory attained by Jesus exceeds the glory of Moses, as the honour due to the builder of the house exceeds that possessed by the
house itself.
7) The LORD made everything for his own glory
Proverb 16:4: The LORD hath made all things for himself: yea, even the wicked for the day of evil.
Isaiah 43:7: Everyone who is called by My name, whom I have created for My glory; I have formed him, yes, I have made him." (
Isaiah 43:20-21: The wild beasts will honor me, the jackals and the ostriches, for I give water in the wilderness, rivers in the desert, to give drink to my
chosen people, the people whom I formed FOR MYSELF that they might declare my praise
8) OT passages which says God (LORD) alone created the world
Isa 51:13: That you have forgotten the LORD your Maker, Who stretched out the heavens And laid the foundations of the earth..,
Zechariah 12:1: A prophecy: The word of the LORD concerning Israel. The LORD, who stretches out the heavens, who lays the foundation of the earth,
and who forms the human spirit within a person, declares:
Isa 44:24: Thus saith the LORD, thy redeemer, and he that formed thee from the womb, I am the LORD that maketh all things; that stretcheth forth the
heavens alone; that spreadeth abroad the earth by myself;
Isa 48:13: My own hand laid the foundations of the earth, and my right hand spread out the heavens; when I summon them, they all stand up together.
Isa 45:12: I have made the earth, and created man upon it: I, even my hands, have stretched out the heavens, and all their host have I commanded.
Job 38:4: Where were you when I laid the earth's foundation? Tell me, if you understand
Neh 9:6: You alone are the LORD. You have made the heavens, The heaven of heavens with all their host, The earth and all that is on it, The seas and
all that is in them. You give life to all of them And the heavenly host bows down before You
Isa 45:18: For thus saith the LORD that created the heavens; God himself that formed the earth and made it; he hath established it, he created it not in
vain, he formed it to be inhabited: I am the LORD; and there is none else
Isa 42:5: Thus saith God the LORD, he that created the heavens, and stretched them out; he that spread forth the earth, and that which cometh out of it;
he that giveth breath unto the people upon it, and spirit to them that walk therein:
Jer10:10-11: But the LORD is the true God; he is the living God, the eternal King. When he is angry, the earth trembles; the nations cannot endure his
wrath.Tell them this: 'These gods, who did not make the heavens and the earth, will perish from the earth and from under the heavens
Ps 8:2-3: From the mouth of infants and nursing babes You have established strength Because of Your adversaries, To make the enemy and the
revengeful cease. 3When I consider Your heavens, the work of Your fingers, The moon and the stars, which You have ordained
Ps 19:1: For the director of music. A psalm of David. The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of his hands
Job 9:8: Which alone spreadeth out the heavens, and treadeth upon the waves of the sea.
Jer 32:17: Ah Lord GOD! Behold, You have made the heavens and the earth by Your great power and by Your outstretched arm! Nothing is too
difficult for You,
Jer 10:12: He hath made the earth by his power, he hath established the world by his wisdom, and hath stretched out the heavens by his discretion
Isa45:5-7: I am the LORD, and there is no other; Besides Me there is no God. I will gird you, though you have not known That men may know from the
rising to the setting of the sun That there is no one besides Me. I am the LORD, and there is no other, 7The One forming light and creating darkness,
Causing well-being and creating calamity; I am the LORD who does all these.
9) For in Him through Him (Eis and Dia)-used both for the Father and the Son
The language used for the Father is used for the Son by the inspired writers of the NT
For from him and THROUGH (di) him and FOR (eis) him are all things (ta panta). To him be glory forever! Amen. Romans 11:36 NAB
In bringing many sons to glory, it was fitting that God, FOR (eis) whom and THROUGH (di') whom everything exists, should make the author of their
salvation perfect through suffering. Hebrews 2:10 NIV
Rom 8:28: And we know that God causes all things (panta) to work together for good to those who love God, to those who are called according to His
purpose. God is not simply the efficient cause (from) cause of creation, he is also the instrumental (through) and final (for) cause of it. Paul
elsewhere ascribes to Jesus the function of both instrumental and final cause of all things: yet for us there is but one God, the Father, from whom all
things came and for whom we live; and there is but one Lord, Jesus Christ, through (di') whom all things came and through (di) whom we live. 1
Corinthians 8:6 NIV.

For IN (en) him ALL things (tap anta) were created: things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or powers or rulers or
authorities; ALL things were created THROUGH (di) him and FOR (eis) him. He is before all things (ta panta), AND IN (en) HIM ALL THINGS
HOLD TOGETHER. And he is the head of the body, the church; he is the beginning and the firstborn from among the dead, so that in everything he
might have the supremacy. Colossians 1:16-18
1 Cor 1:1: Paul, called to be an apostle of Christ Jesus by (dia) the will of God, and our brother Sosthenes
2 Cor 1:1: Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, and Timothy our brother, unto the church of God which is at Corinth, with all the saints
which are in all Achaia:
Col 1:1: Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, and Timothy our brother,
1 Theso 4:8: For you know what instructions we gave you by (dia) the authority of the Lord Jesus.
J) The Son is eternal
Heb 1:8-12: But unto the Son he says, Your throne, O God, is forever and ever: a scepter of righteousness is the scepter of your kingdom..9. You have
loved (gapsas verb - aorist active indicative) righteousness, and hated iniquity; therefore God, even your God, has anointed (echrisen verb - aorist
active indicative) you with the oil of gladness above your fellows. 10. He also says, "In the beginning, Lord, you laid the foundations of the earth, and the
heavens are the work of your hands.11. they shall perish (apolountai verb - future middle indicative third person ; but you remain (diameneis verb present active indicative -to stay constantly) and they all shall grow old (palaithsontai decay: verb - future passive indicative) as does a garment; 12.
And as a clothing shall you fold them up, and they shall be changed: but you are ( verb - present indicative) - the same (ho autos), and your years shall
not fail (ekleipsousin verb - future active indicative ).
Rev 1:17-18: When I saw him, I fell at his feet as though dead. Then he placed his right hand on me and said: "Do not be afraid. I am the First and the
Last. I am the Living One (ha zon-verb - present active participle ; I was dead, and now look, I am alive (zon verb - present active participle) forever and
ever! And I hold the keys of death and Hades.
Heb 13:8: Jesus Christ is the same yesterday (echthes- in time past or hitherto -- yesterday.) and today (smeron) and forever.
Micah 5:2: .But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, Though you are little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of you shall come forth to Me the One to be
Ruler in Israel, whose goings forth are from of old, from everlasting."
John 12:34: The crowd then answered Him, "We have heard out of the Law that the Christ is to remain forever; and how can You say, 'The Son of Man
must be lifted up'? Who is this Son of Man?
John 8:35: "The slave does not remain in the house forever; the son does remain forever.
Matthew 28:20: teaching them to observe all that I commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the age.
The angel whom I saw standing on the sea and on the land raised up his hand to heaven and swore by Him who lives forever and ever, who created
heaven and the things that are in it, the earth and the things that are in it, and the sea and the things that are in it, that there should be delay no longer..."
(Revelation 10:5-6).
Immutability is another essential attribute of deity. Earthly things change, God remains the same: "For I am the LORD, I do not change; Therefore you
are not consumed, O sons of Jacob." (Malachi 3:6). The word change is shanah (shaw-naw') to fold, i.e. duplicate; by implication, to transmute
(transitive or intransitive) used in 2 Kings 25:29:Jehoiachin changed his prison clothes, Lamentations 4:1 fine gold changed! The term is used for
outward appearance so God cannot change as such he did not change to Son or Holy Spirit. All three exist from eternal as distinct person. "Now see that
I, even I, am He, and there is no God besides Me; I kill and I make alive; I wound and I heal; nor is there any who can deliver from My hand. For I raise
My hand to heaven, and say, 'As I live forever, if I whet My glittering sword, and My hand takes hold on judgment, I will render vengeance to My
enemies, and repay those who hate Me.'" (Deuteronomy 38:39-41);
Habakkuk 1:12: LORD, are you not from everlasting? My God, my Holy One, you will never die. You, LORD, have appointed them to execute
judgment; you, my Rock, have ordained them to punish.
Psalm 90:2: Before the mountains were born or you brought forth the whole world, from everlasting to everlasting you are God.
K) The Father is Lord (Kurios)
Rev 11:15: the kingdom of our Lord (Kurios) (Father) and His Christ
Luke 1:6, 16: They were both righteous in the sight of God, walking blamelessly in all the commandments and decrees of the Lord (kurios).. he was
chosen by lot, according to the custom of the priesthood, to go into the temple of the Lord (kurios) and burn incense. He will bring back many of the
people of Israel to the Lord (kurios) their God. 17. And he shall go before him in the spirit and power of Elias, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the
children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord (kurios).
Acts 17:24: God who made the world and everything in it, since he is the Lord (kurios) of heaven and earth

Acts 4:24; (Despota)Lord you are our God who made heaven and earth and the sea and all that is in them , 26: The kings of the earth rise up and the
rulers band together against the Lord (kurios) and against his anointed one.' 29 now Lord (kurios) look on their threats..through the name of your Holy
Servant Jesus
Roman 14:1-12, Lord (kurios) and God are used interchangeably. The same is in James 1: 5-7.
LORD is Kyrie
Jesus addressed the Father as Lord (kyrie) of heaven and earth in Matt.11:25.
Heb 1:10: unto the Son He said :.And, YOU, LORD (Kyrie), IN THE BEGINNING
Rev 15:2-3: And they sang the song of Moses, the bond-servant of God, and the song of the Lamb, saying, "Great and marvelous are Your works, O
Lord God, the Almighty; Righteous and true are Your ways, King of the nations! 4"Who will not fear, O Lord (kyrie), and glorify Your name? For You
alone are holy; vs 4 Lord (kyrie)
Rev 16:17: Yes, Lord God Almighty (Kyrie Ho theos pentocrator)
Rev 11:17: saying: "We give thanks to you, Lord (kyrie) God Almighty,
Roman 11:2: God did not reject his people, whom he foreknew. Don't you know what Scripture says in the passage about Elijah--how he appealed to
God against Israel: Lord (kyrie), they have killed your prophets and torn down your altars; I am the only one left, and they are trying to kill me"?
Roman 10:16: But not all the Israelites accepted the good news. For Isaiah says, "Lord (Kyrie), who has believed our message?"
The term Kyrie a vocative form is used for Jesus many times in the NT like Matt 8:25, 9:28, Luke 1:17, John 8:11 etc etc, in fact used 90% for the Son
and it is also used for the Father.
LORD God is despotes (Jesus is despote as well)
Acts 4:24; (Despota)Lord you are our God who made heaven and earth and the sea and all that is in them
Rev 6:10, The Father is called as Lord (despote) by those souls in heaven Etc etc.
Luke 2:29: Now Lord (despote), You are releasing Your bond-servant to depart in peace, According to Your word;
2 Timothy 2:21: Those who cleanse themselves from the latter will be instruments for special purposes, made holy, useful to the Master (Despote) and
prepared to do any good work
Jesus is despote: 2 Peter 2:1: But there were also false prophets among the people, just as there will be false teachers among you. They will secretly
introduce destructive heresies, even denying the sovereign Lord (despote) who bought them--bringing swift destruction on themselves.
Jude 1:4: They are ungodly people, who pervert the grace of our God into a license for immorality and deny Jesus Christ our only Sovereign (despote)
and Lord.
L) The OT LORDs (Jehovahs) attributes given to Jesus
1) The LORD is to be praise (Jesus accept the same praise)
Ps 8:2-3: From the mouth of infants and nursing babes You have established strength Because of Your adversaries, To make the enemy and the
revengeful cease
Matt 21:16: And said unto him, Do you hear what these say? And Jesus said unto them, Yea; have you never read, Out of the mouth of babes and
infants you have perfected praise?
2) Son of God
"Simon Peter answered and said, 'You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.'" (Matthew 16:16).The Jehovah's Witnesses understand this to mean to
Jesus is a lesser, subordinate being, but the Jews were far more perceptive. They understood that, in claiming to be the Son of God, Jesus was claiming
Deity: "Therefore the Jews sought all the more to kill Him, because He not only broke the Sabbath, but also said that God was His Father, making
Himself equal with God. Then Jesus answered and said to them, 'Most assuredly, I say to you, the Son can do nothing of Himself, but what He sees the
Father do; for whatever He does, the Son also does in like manner.'" (John 5:18-19).The idiom, 'son of', means 'of the order of', as in, "Now the sons of
the prophets who were at Bethel came out to Elisha, and said to him, 'Do you know that the LORD will take away your master from over you today?'"
(2 Kings 2:3);
"And the sons of the singers gathered together from the countryside around Jerusalem, from the villages of the Netophathites..." (Nehemiah 12:28). This
is an understandable idiom given that a son, unlike a creation, is of the same nature as his father; pigs beget pigs not rodents, sheep beget sheep not lice,
etc. The royal psalms speak of the King to come as the firstborn Son of God the Father:
"He shall cry to Me, 'You are my Father, My God, and the rock of my salvation.' Also I will make him My firstborn, the highest of the kings of the
earth." (Psalm 89:26-27). Is this language oriental flattery, meaning no more than when pagan peoples hymned their kings? Or is it literally true, as is
fitting to the dignity of Holy Writ?

3) God is King of King Lord of Lords (Jesus is the King of King and the Lord of lords)
Rev 19:16: And he hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS.
Deu 10:17: For the LORD your God is God of gods and Lord of lords, the great God, mighty and awesome, who shows no partiality and accepts no
bribes.
Rev 17:14: They will wage war against the Lamb, but the Lamb will triumph over them because he is Lord of lords and King of kings--and with him
will be his called, chosen and faithful followers."
1 Timothy 6:15: which God will bring about in his own time--God, the blessed and only Ruler, the King of kings and Lord of lords
4) LORD IS THE ROCK of stumbling block (Jesus is the rock of stumbling block)
The LORD of hosts, Him you shall hallow; Let Him be your fear, And let Him be your dread. He will be as a sanctuary, But a stone of stumbling and a
rock of offense To both the houses of Israel, As a trap and a snare to the inhabitants of Jerusalem. And many among them shall stumble; They shall fall
and be broken, Be snared and taken." (Isaiah 8:13-15).
Therefore, to you who believe, He is precious; but to those who are disobedient, 'The stone which the builders rejected Has become the chief
cornerstone,' and 'A stone of stumbling and a rock of offense.' They stumble, being disobedient to the word, to which they also were appointed." (1 Peter
2:7-8);
"...For they stumbled at that stumbling stone. As it is written: 'Behold, I lay in Zion a stumbling stone and rock of offense, and whoever believes on Him
will not be put to shame.'" (Romans 9:32-33).
5) LORD is all in all (Jesus is Lord of all)
Ephe 4:6: one God and Father of all, who is over all and through all and in all. Col 3:11: Here there is no Gentile or Jew, circumcised or
uncircumcised, barbarian, Scythian, slave or free, but Christ is all, and is in all.
Peter calls Him "Lord of all": "The word which God sent to the children of Israel, preaching peace through Jesus Christ He is Lord of all..." (Acts
10:36).
6) The LORD comes with all his saints according to OT but NT applies that to Jesus
Then you shall flee through My mountain valley, for the mountain valley shall reach to Azal. Yes, you shall flee as you fled from the earthquake in the
days of Uzziah king of Judah. Thus the LORD my God will come, and all the saints with You." (Zechariah 14:5).
And may the Lord make you increase and abound in love to one another and to all, just as we do to you, so that He may establish your hearts blameless
in holiness before our God and Father at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ with all His saints.(1 Thessalonians 3:13).
7) Sin is committed to LORD alone (Jesus is the one to whom we sin)
Sin is transgression against God: "Against You, You only, have I sinned, and done this evil in Your sight - That You may be found just when You speak,
and blameless when You judge." (Psalm 51:4)
In this case, against God the Son: "But when you thus sin against the brethren, and wound their weak conscience, you sin against Christ." (1 Corinthians
8:12)
8) The LORD alone treads the winepress (Jesus is the one who alone treads)
'I who speak in righteousness, mighty to save.' Why is Your apparel red, and Your garments like one who treads in the winepress? 'I have trodden the
winepress alone, and from the peoples no one was with Me. For I have trodden them in My anger, and trampled them in My fury; their blood is sprinkled
upon My garments, and I have stained all My robes." (Isaiah 63:1-3)
He Himself treads the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God. And He has on His robe and on His thigh a name written: KING OF
KINGS AND LORD OF LORDS." (Revelation 19:10-16)
9) The LORD is the light sources (Jesus is the source of light)
The sun shall no longer be your light by day nor for brightness shall the moon give light to you; But the LORD will be to you an everlasting light, and
your God your glory. Your sun shall no longer go down, nor shall your moon withdraw itself; for the LORD will be your everlasting light, and the days
of your mourning shall be ended." (Isaiah 60:19-20).That is to say, the Lamb will be the lamp of the new Jerusalem: "The city had no need of the sun or of the moon to shine in it, for the glory of God
illuminated it. The Lamb is its light. (Revelation 21:23)
10) Only the LORD knows all things (Jesus being God knows all things)
Matthew 9:4: Jesus knew the thoughts in men's hearts: "But Jesus, knowing their thoughts, said, 'Why do you think evil in your hearts?
Mark 9:33-35: Then He came to Capernaum. And when He was in the house He asked them, 'What was it you disputed among yourselves on the road?'
But they kept silent, for on the road they had disputed among themselves who would be the greatest. And He sat down, called the twelve, and said to
them, 'If anyone desires to be first, he shall be last of all and servant of all.

Mark 11:1-2: Now when they drew near Jerusalem, to Bethphage and Bethany, at the Mount of Olives, He sent two of His disciples; and He said to
them, 'Go into the village opposite you; and as soon as you have entered it you will find a colt tied, on which no one has sat. Loose it and bring it.
John 4:29: Come, see a Man who told me all things that I ever did. Could this be the Christ?"
John 5:20: "For the Father loves the Son, and shows Him all things that He Himself does; and He will show Him greater works than these, that you may
marvel."
John 16:30: Now we are sure that You know all things, and have no need that anyone should question You. By this we believe that You came forth
from God.
John 18:4: Jesus therefore, knowing all things that would come upon Him, went forward and said to them, 'Whom are you seeking?
John 21:17: He said to him the third time, 'Simon, son of Jonah, do you love Me?' Peter was grieved because He said to him the third time, 'Do you love
Me?' And he said to Him, 'Lord, You know all things; You know that I love You.
John 2:24-25: But Jesus, on His part, was not entrusting Himself to them, for He knew all men, He did not need any testimony about mankind, for he
knew what was in each person.
1King8:39: then hear from heaven, your dwelling place. Forgive and act; deal with everyone according to all they do, since you know their hearts (for
you alone know every human heart),
1John3:20: If our hearts condemn us, we know that God is greater than our hearts, and he knows everything.
John1:48: How do you know me?" Nathanael asked. Jesus answered, "I saw you while you were still under the fig tree before Philip called you
Luke 6:8: But Jesus knew what they were thinking and said to the man with the shriveled hand, "Get up and stand in front of everyone." So he got up and
stood there.
Luke 9:47: Jesus, knowing their thoughts, took a little child and had him stand beside him.
Jeremiah 17:10: I the LORD search the heart and examine the mind, to reward each person according to their conduct, according to what their deeds
deserve." -Rev2:23:'And I will kill her children with pestilence, and all the churches will know that I am He who searches the minds and hearts; and I
will give to each one of you according to your deeds
11) Put trust only in the LORD (Jesus is the object of our trust)
Jeremiah 17:5-8: Those who trust in man are under a curse: "Cursed is the man who trusts in man And makes flesh his strength, Whose heart departs
from the LORD. For he shall be like a shrub in the desert, And shall not see when good comes. But shall inhabit the parched places in the wilderness, In a
salt land which is not inhabited."Blessed is the man who trusts in the LORD, And whose hope is the LORD. For he shall be like a tree planted by the
waters, which spreads out its roots by the river..."
Do not put your trust in princes, nor in a son of man, in whom there is no help...Happy is he who has the God of Jacob for his help, whose hope is the
LORD his God, Who made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them..." (Psalm 146:3-6).
12) Kiss the Son It's downright perilous not to put your your trust in the Son: "Kiss the Son, lest He be angry, and you perish in the way, when His wrath
is kindled but a little. Blessed are all those who put their trust in Him." (Psalm 2:12).
But those who trust in the Son have everlasting life: "He who believes in the Son has everlasting life; and he who does not believe the Son shall not see
life, but the wrath of God abides on him." (John 3:36).
13) The LORD sent his prophets
Therefore, indeed, I send you prophets, wise men, and scribes: some of them you will kill and crucify, and some of them you will scourge in your
synagogues and persecute from city to city, that on you may come all the righteous blood shed on the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel to the blood
of Zechariah, son of Berechiah, whom you murdered between the temple and the altar.(Matthew 23:34).
Since the day that your fathers came out of the land of Egypt until this day, I have even sent to you all My servants the prophets, daily rising up early and
sending them." (Jeremiah 7:25);
"And the LORD has sent to you all His servants the prophets, rising early and sending them, but you have not listened nor inclined your ear to hear."
(Jeremiah 25:4).
14) The LORD only rides clouds (Jesus is the cloud rider)
Isa 19:1: A prophecy against Egypt: See, the LORD rides on a swift cloud and is coming to Egypt. The idols of Egypt tremble before him, and the hearts
of the Egyptians melt with fear.
Ps 68:4: Sing to God, sing in praise of his name, extol him who rides on the clouds; rejoice before him--his name is the LORD
Ps 104:3: and lays the beams of his upper chambers on their waters. He makes the clouds his chariot and rides on the wings of the wind.
Deu 33:26: There is no one like the God of Jeshurun, who rides across the heavens to help you and on the clouds in his majesty
Ps 68:33: to him who rides across the highest heavens, the ancient heavens, who thunders with mighty voice.

Rev 1:7: Look, he is coming with the clouds," and "every eye will see him, even those who pierced him"; and all peoples on earth "will mourn because of
him." So shall it be! Amen.
Dan 7:13: In my vision at night I looked, and there before me was one like a son of man, coming with the clouds of heaven. He approached the Ancient of
Days and was led into his presence.
Mark 14:62-63: And Jesus said, "I am; and you shall see THE SON OF MAN SITTING AT THE RIGHT HAND OF POWER, and COMING WITH
THE CLOUDS OF HEAVEN." 63Tearing his clothes, the high priest said, "What further need do we have of witnesses?
Matthew 24:30: "Then will appear the sign of the Son of Man in heaven. And then all the peoples of the earth will mourn when they see the Son of Man
coming on the clouds of heaven, with power and great glory.
Mark 13:26: "At that time people will see the Son of Man coming in clouds with great power and glory.
Luke 21:27: At that time they will see the Son of Man coming in a cloud with power and great glory.
15) LORD-Captivity Captive
Psalm 68 sings a song of triumph: "Let God arise, let His enemies be scattered; let those also who hate Him flee before Him...The chariots of God are
twenty thousand, even thousands of thousands; the Lord is among them as in Sinai, in the Holy Place. You have ascended on high, You have led captivity
captive; You have received gifts among men, even from the rebellious, that the LORD God might dwell there." (Psalm 68:1-18). So to the Psalmist, the
One who ascended on High is the LORD God. It's obvious to Paul who this refers to: Jesus Christ!: "Therefore He says: 'When He ascended on high, He
led captivity captive, and gave gifts to men.' (Now this, 'He ascended' -- what does it mean but that He also first descended into the lower parts of the
earth? He who descended is also the One who ascended far above all the heavens, that He might fill all things.)" (Ephesians 4:8-9).
16) Who forgives Sin
The LORD, the only savior, forgives the sins of His people:
"I have blotted out, like a thick cloud, your transgressions, and like a cloud, your sins. Return to Me, for I have redeemed you.'" (Isaiah 44:22).
"For Your names sake, O LORD, Pardon my iniquity, for it is great...Look on my affliction and my pain, and forgive all my sins." (Psalm 25:11-18).
"Blessed is he whose transgression is forgiven, whose sin is covered. Blessed is the man to whom the LORD does not impute iniquity, and in whose spirit
there is no deceit." (Psalm 32:1-2).
"Bless the LORD, O my soul, and forget not all His benefits: Who forgives all your iniquities, Who heals all your diseases...as far as the east is from the
west, so far has He removed our transgressions from us." (Psalm 103:2-12).
"I, even I, am He who blots out your transgressions for My own sake; and I will not remember your sins." (Isaiah 43:25).
"He only is my rock and my salvation; He is my defense; I shall not be moved. In God is my salvation and my glory; the rock of my strength, and my
refuge, is in God." (Psalm 62:6-7).
"To God our Savior, Who alone is wise, be glory and majesty Dominion and power, both now and forever. Amen." (Jude 1:25).
This is why the Pharisees realized the magnitude of the claim Jesus was making about Himself when He forgave the paralyzed man: "When Jesus saw
their faith, He said to the paralytic, 'Son, your sins are forgiven you.' And some of the scribes were sitting there and reasoning in their hearts, 'Why does
this Man speak blasphemies like this? Who can forgive sins but God alone?'" (Mark 2:5-7). They saw a link between sin and sickness, which the Lord
did not necessarily endorse: "Rabbi. Alexandri said in the name of R. Hiyya b. Abba: A sick man does not recover from his sickness until all his sins are
forgiven him, as it is written, Who forgiveth all thine iniquities; who healeth all thy diseases. [Psalm 103:3]" (Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Nedarim,
41a). Who can forgive sins? Who indeed?: Therefore, as the elect of God, holy and beloved, put on tender mercies, kindness, humility, meekness,
longsuffering; bearing with one another, and forgiving one another, if anyone has a complaint against another; even as Christ forgave you, so you also
must do." (Colossians 3:13)
17) Giver of Life Jehovah God is the fountain of life:
"For with You is the fountain of life; In Your light we see light. (Psalm 36:9). To get down to detail, the source of life is Jehovah the Son: "All things
were made through Him, and without Him nothing was made that was made. In Him was life, and the life was the light of men. And the light shines in
the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it." (John 1:3-5);
"For as the Father raises the dead and gives life to them, even so the Son gives life to whom He will." (John 5:21);
"Then Jesus spoke to them again, saying, 'I am the light of the world. He who follows Me shall not walk in darkness, but have the light of life.'" (John
8:12).
18) Pastoral Supply
Who gives pastors to the Church? The LORD, says Jeremiah: "And I will give you pastors according to mine heart, which shall feed you with
knowledge and understanding." (Jeremiah 3:15).
Jesus Christ, who ascended on high, says Paul: "And he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and
teachers..." (Ephesians 4:11)

19) He is Lord
Therefore God also has highly exalted Him and given Him the name which is above every name, that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of
those in heaven, and of those on earth, and of those under the earth, and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God
the Father." (Philippians 2:9-11). It cannot be thought coincidental that the title the early church gave to Jesus: 'the Lord' - is the same way they
addressed the living God: "Jesus answered him, 'The first of all the commandments is: "Hear, O Israel, the LORD our God, the LORD ['kyrios'] is one."'"
(Mark 12:29, Deuteronomy 6:4). The Jehovah's Witnesses point out that many are addressed as 'Lord' in the New Testament who are unarguably not
God, such as Pilate: "On the next day, which followed the Day of Preparation, the chief priests and Pharisees gathered together to Pilate, saying, 'Sir
['kyrios'], we remember, while He was still alive, how that deceiver said, "After three days I will rise."'" (Matthew 27:62-63), and a person Mary
Magdalene supposed to be a gardener: "...She, supposing Him to be the gardener, said to Him, 'Sir ['kyrios'], if You have carried Him away, tell me
where You have laid Him, and I will take Him away.'" (John 20:15). Unlike 'theos', non-gods like gardeners and governors are addressed as 'kyrios' in
scripture. The same is true of the English word 'Lord': there's a whole chamber-full of them over in England, called 'the House of Lords'. It should be
noted, though, that this common habit of promiscuously addressing all and sundry as 'Lord' had already met resistance from the Zealots, and would soon
meet fierce resistance from the Christian martyrs, who chose death rather than to say 'Caesar is Lord'. There is an undeniable gravity and momentum to
addressing the living God as 'Lord' which tends toward jealousy, here is a quote: ...but as to all those that fled into Egypt, and to the Egyptian Thebes, it
was not long ere they were caught also, and brought back, -- whose courage, or whether we ought to call it madness, or hardiness in their opinions,
everybody was amazed at; for when all sorts of torments and vexations of their bodies that could be devised were made use of to them, they could not get
any one of them to comply so far as to confess, or seem to confess, that Caesar was their lord; but they preserved their own opinion, in spite of all the
distress they were brought to, as if they received these torments and the fire itself with bodies insensible of pain, and with a soul that in a manner rejoiced
under them. But what was most of all astonishing to the beholders, was the courage of the children; for not one of these children was so far overcome by
these torments, as to name Caesar for their lord." (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book VII, Chapter X.1).Neither would the Christians: "Herod, the police
captain, and his father, Nicetes, came out to meet him [Polycarp]. After transferring him to their carriage and sitting down at his side, they tried to
persuade him, saying, 'Why, what harm is there in saying, "Caesar is Lord," and offering incense' (and other words to this effect) 'and thereby saving
yourself?' Now at first he gave them no answer. But when they persisted, he said, 'I am not about to do what you are suggesting to me.'" (The Martyrdom
of Polycarp, 8.2). Yet Christians confess that Jesus is Lord: "Therefore I make known to you that no one speaking by the Spirit of God calls Jesus
accursed, and no one can say that Jesus is Lord except by the Holy Spirit." (1 Corinthians 12:3) -- because He truly is!
20) Lawgiver
"For the LORD is our Judge, The LORD is our Lawgiver, The LORD is our King; He will save us..." (Isaiah 33:22).
Jehovah God gave laws to Israel: "And he said: 'The LORD came from Sinai, and dawned on them from Seir; He shone forth from Mount Paran, and He
came with ten thousands of saints; from His right hand came a fiery law for them.'" (Deuteronomy 33:2)
"There is one Lawgiver, who is able to save and to destroy. Who are you to judge another?" (James 4:12). Not many lawgivers, one lawgiver, who is,
"Amongst all the highest powers that attach to God, there is one excelled by none, the legislative. For He Himself is the lawgiver and the fountain of laws,
and on Him depend all particular lawgivers." (Philo Judaeus, The Sacrifices of Abel and Cain, Chapter XXXVIII, Loeb edition p. 189)
Jesus is the Lawgiver: "A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another; as I have loved you, that you also love one another." (John 13:34)
21) Temple Visitor
Malachi prophesied that the Lord Himself would visit His temple: "'Behold, I send My messenger, and he will prepare the way before Me. And the Lord
(ha-Adon), whom you seek, Will suddenly come to His temple, Even the Messenger of the covenant, In whom you delight. Behold, He is coming,' Says the
LORD of hosts." (Malachi 3:1). This prophecy has to be filed in the 'fulfilled prophecy' slot, because it's already happened. So Mark tells us: "As it is
written in the Prophets: 'Behold, I send My messenger before Your face, Who will prepare Your way before You.'" (Mark 1:2). Jesus identified John the
Baptist as the fore-runner of Malachi 3:1: "For this is he of whom it is written: 'Behold, I send My messenger before Your face, Who will prepare Your
way before You.'" (Matthew 11:10). So did John the Baptist prepare the way in vain, for One who wasn't coming? No, Jesus is "the Lord, whom you
seek", who suddenly came to His temple! The Temple at Jerusalem was sacred to none but the living God, Jehovah. And Jesus 'came suddenly' to "His
temple", carried as a baby, as a twelve-year old boy, and ultimately to cleanse and purify: "Then Jesus went into the temple of God and drove out all those
who bought and sold in the temple, and overturned the tables of the money changers and the seats of those who sold doves. And He said to them, 'It is
written, "My house shall be called a house of prayer," but you have made it a "den of thieves."' Then the blind and the lame came to Him in the temple,
and He healed them." (Matthew 21:12-14). The term Adon is used for human master in OT however whenever definite article Ha (the) is used it is
specifically used for God. This Ha-Adon is used for God in Exodus 23:17, Exodus 34:23, Isaiah 1:24; Isaiah 3:1; Isaiah 10:33; Isaiah 19:4, Isaiah 10:16,
etc. And here, as elsewhere, it must mean God Himself, because He is said to come to his temple, and because He is said to be He whom ye seek: i.e.,
the God of judgment (Malachi 2:17: You have wearied the LORD with your words. Yet you say, "How have we wearied Him?" In that you say,

"Everyone who does evil is good in the sight of the LORD, and He delights in them," or, "Where is the God of justice?). In fact Jos 3:11, 13 has Adon
without article but still is referring God alone.
22) Lord Willing
"But I will come to you shortly, if the Lord wills, and I will know, not the word of those who are puffed up, but the power." (1 Corinthians 4:19).
"Instead you ought to say, If the Lord wills, we shall live and do this or that.'" (James 4:15).
Here and in 1 Corinthians 4:19, the Jehovah's Witnesses' New World Translation inserts the Divine Name 'Jehovah', thinking that when people say, 'Lord
willing and if the creek don't rise,' they mean the living God: "But I will come to YOU shortly, if Jehovah wills..." (1 Corinthians 4:19 NWT). But upon
what 'Lord's' will was Paul waiting? The Lord Jesus Christ: "Now the Lord spoke to Paul in the night by a vision, 'Do not be afraid, but speak, and do not
keep silent; for I am with you, and no one will attack you to hurt you; for I have many people in this city. (Acts 18:9-10).
"But the following night the Lord stood by him and said, 'Be of good cheer, Paul; for as you have testified for Me in Jerusalem, so you must also bear
witness at Rome. (Acts 23:11). Another instance where the New World translators seem willing to give away the store is 1 Peter 3:15 as compared with
Isaiah 8:12: "However, the object of their fear do not you fear, neither become agitated. But sanctify the Christ as Lord in your hearts, always ready to
make a defense before everyone that demands of you a reason for the hope in you. . . " (1 Peter 3:14-15, New World Translation).Incredibly, the editors
themselves draw attention to the similarity of this passage with Isaiah 8:12, giving this as a cross-reference for verse 14b: ". . .and the object of their fear
you men must not fear, nor must you tremble at it. Jehovah of armies he is the One whom you should treat as holy, and he should be the object of your
fear, and he should be the One causing you to tremble.'" (Isaiah 8:12-13 New World Translation). There certainly is a very notable resemblance here,
especially in comparing Peter's Greek with the Greek of the Septuagint. So much so that it's difficult to avoid the conclusion that the party 'sanctified' is
the same: (LXX Isaiah 8:13), versus (1 Peter 3:15). Although the modern versions generally suit
the Jehovah's Witnesses purposes better than does the majority text, here is a case where it's difficult to avoid the impression that Peter, who has already
quoted Isaiah 8:12, is explicitly and intentionally identifying Jesus as the Lord, Jehovah.
23) The Eyes of the Blind
Isaiah gives signs of the times, showing how people will recognize the advent of their God: "Say to those who are fearful-hearted, 'Be strong, do not fear!
Behold, your God will come with vengeance, with the recompense of God; He will come and save you.' Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the
ears of the deaf shall be unstopped. Then the lame shall leap like a deer, and the tongue of the dumb sing. For waters shall burst forth in the wilderness,
and streams in the desert." (Isaiah 35:4-6). Which is why, when the disciples of John the Baptist inquired who Jesus was, He drew their attention to these
very signs, then being shown right before their eyes: (Luke 7:20-22: When the men had come to Him, they said, 'John the Baptist has sent us to You,
saying, "Are You the Coming One, or do we look for another?"' And that very hour He cured many of infirmities, afflictions, and evil spirits; and to many
blind He gave sight. Jesus answered and said to them, 'Go and tell John the things you have seen and heard: that the blind see, the lame walk, the lepers
are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead are raised, the poor have the gospel preached to them. And blessed is he who is not offended because of Me. The
Qumran covenanters had noticed these same signs of the Messianic era, ". . .For the heavens and the earth shall listen to His Messiah and all which is in
them shall not turn away from the commandments of the holy ones. . .For he will honor the pious upon the throne of His eternal kingdom, setting
prisoners free, opening the eyes of the blind, raising up those who are bowed down." (Dead Sea Scrolls, Michael Wise, Martin Abegg, Jr., and Edward
Cook, Fragment 4Q521, p. 421)
24) New Jerusalem's Lamp
The glory of the Lord will light the new Jerusalem:
"Run, speak to this young man, saying: 'Jerusalem shall be inhabited as towns without walls, because of the multitude of men and livestock in it. For I,'
says the LORD, 'will be a wall of fire all around her, and I will be the glory in her midst.'" (Zechariah 2:4-5);
"The sun shall no longer be your light by day nor for brightness shall the moon give light to you; But the LORD will be to you an everlasting light, and
your God your glory. Your sun shall no longer go down, nor shall your moon withdraw itself; for the LORD will be your everlasting light, and the days
of your mourning shall be ended." (Isaiah 60:19-20).
That is to say, the Lamb will be the lamp of the new Jerusalem: "The city had no need of the sun or of the moon to shine in it, for the glory of God
illuminated it. The Lamb is its light. " (Revelation 21:23). The Lamb, the light source of the new Jerusalem, is the LORD, Israel's Light: "So the Light of
Israel will be for a fire, and his Holy One for a flame..." (Isaiah 10:17).
25) Prosecutors' Indictment
While a prosecutor's charge can be a biased document, sometimes there's a grain of truth to it. Jesus' hearers heard Him teach every day in the temple:
"When I was with you daily in the temple, you did not try to seize Me. But this is your hour, and the power of darkness." (Luke 22:53). And they were
fully convinced He was claiming to be God:
"The Jews answered Him, saying, 'For a good work we do not stone You, but for blasphemy, and because You, being a Man, make Yourself God. (John
10:33);

"Therefore the Jews sought all the more to kill Him, because He not only broke the Sabbath, but also said that God was His Father, making Himself
equal with God." (John 5:18).
There is independent confirmation the charge involved "apostasy": Jesus was hanged on Passover Eve. Forty days previously the herald had cried, 'He is
being led out for stoning, because he has practiced sorcery and led Israel astray and enticed them into apostasy.'" (Sanhedrin 43a, Talmud, quoted p. 152,
Paul Barnett, Jesus and the Rise of Christianity). Given that the scribes and Pharisees who were fully acquainted with His teaching did indeed believe He
was claiming to be God, it seems unlikely such claims only arose later through out-of-context misinterpretations.
26) John is Elijah and Christ is the LORD
After the transfiguration, the puzzled disciples, wondering at what they'd seen, asked, And His disciples asked Him, saying, 'Why then do the scribes
say that Elijah must come first?' Jesus answered and said to them, 'Indeed, Elijah is coming first and will restore all things. But I say to you that Elijah
has come already, and they did not know him but did to him whatever they wished. Likewise the Son of Man is also about to suffer at their hands.' Then
the disciples understood that He spoke to them of John the Baptist." (Matthew 17:11-13). If John the Baptist was the Elijah who was prophesied to come,
then before whom was he preparing the way? Jesus was quoting Malachi, "Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and
dreadful day of the LORD. And he will turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the hearts of the children to their fathers, lest I come and strike
the earth with a curse.'" (Malachi 4:5-6). It's before the "great and dreadful" day of Jehovah that Elijah/John the Baptist prepares the way. Since John was
the fore-runner to Jesus, this leaves Jesus to fit into the slot of fulfilled prophecy...of the LORD, meaning Jesus is the LORD whom John coming in the
Elijah spirit shall testifies.Speaking about John the Baptist, the angel told Zacharias, "And he will turn many of the children of Israel to the Lord their
God. He will also go before Him ['enopion auto'] in the spirit and power of Elijah, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to
the wisdom of the just, to make ready a people prepared for the Lord." (Luke 1:16-17). Before Whom? Before "the Lord their God"
27) Thirty Pieces of Silver
The Jehovah's Witnesses' own New World Translation renders Zechariah 11:12-13 like so: Then I said to them: 'If it is good in your eyes, give [me] my
wages; but if not, refrain.' And they proceeded to pay my wages, thirty pieces of silver. At that, Jehovah said to me: 'Throw it into the treasury - the
majestic value with which I have been valued from their standpoint.. And who was it who was appraised at this price? Jesus Christ: "Then one of the
twelve, called Judas Iscariot, went to the chief priests and said, 'What are you willing to give me if I deliver Him to you?' And they counted out to him
thirty pieces of silver." (Matthew 26:14-15, Matthew 27:9).
28) Testator is God himself
The letter to Hebrews tells of a new "covenant" (the Greek word is the same as is used for "testament" in 9:16): "Because finding fault with them, He
says: 'Behold, the days are coming, says the LORD, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah...For this is
the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the LORD: I will put My laws in their mind and write them on their hearts;
and I will be their God, and they shall be My people.'" (Hebrews 8:8-10). This is a quote of Jeremiah 31:31-33: "Behold, the days are coming, says the
LORD, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah -- not according to the covenant that I made with their
fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, though I was a husband to them,
says the LORD. But this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the LORD: I will put My law in their minds, and
write it on their hearts; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people." Can there be any doubt in Chapter 8 that the testator, the party who
undertakes to enter into the New Testament, is Jehovah God? But we learn in Chapter 9 that that testator had to die before this new covenant could come
into force: "For where there is a testament, there must also of necessity be the death of the testator. For a testament is in force after men are dead, since it
has no power at all while the testator lives." (Hebrews 9:16-17). This is Jesus Christ: "And to the angel of the church in Smyrna write, 'These things says
the First and the Last, who was dead, and came to life...'" (Revelation 2:8). The testator who died is the owner, not an agent for the owner. Unlike Moses
who was faithful in the house of another (Numbers 12:7), the Son owns the place: "...but Christ as a Son over His own house, whose house we are if we
hold fast the confidence and the rejoicing of the hope firm to the end." (Hebrews 3:6). Jesus Christ is the householder in whose presence men ate and
drank: "When once the Master of the house has risen up and shut the door, and you begin to stand outside and knock at the door, saying, Lord, Lord,
open for us, and He will answer and say to you, I do not know you, where you are from, then you will begin to say, We ate and drank in Your
presence, and You taught in our streets. (Luke 13:25-26).
29) The Blood of God
"Therefore take heed to yourselves and to all the flock, among which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to shepherd the church of God which He
purchased with His own blood." (Acts 20:28).
It is not in the nature of things for God to bleed. When did He take on this characteristic? When He took on the nature of Abraham's children: "Therefore,
in all things He had to be made like His brethren..." (Hebrews 2:17)

30) Omnipresence
God is omnipresent: "Where can I go from Your Spirit? Or where can I flee from Your presence? If I ascend into heaven, You are there; if I make my
bed in hell, behold, You are there. If I take the wings of the morning, and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea, even there Your hand shall lead me, and
Your right hand shall hold me." (Psalm 139:7-10).
Jesus Christ is omnipresent:
"For where two or three are gathered together in My name, I am there in the midst of them." (Matthew 18:20).
"No one has ascended to heaven but He who came down from heaven, that is, the Son of Man who is in heaven." (John 3:13).
"Jesus answered and said to him, 'If anyone loves Me, he will keep My word, and My Father will love him, and We will come to him and make Our
home with him." (John 14:23).
God fills all things: "'Can anyone hide himself in secret places, So I shall not see him?' says the LORD; 'Do I not fill heaven and earth?' says the LORD."
(Jeremiah 23:24). Jesus Christ fills all things: "He who descended is also the One who ascended far above all the heavens, that He might fill all things.)"
(Ephesians 4:10).
31) Not of Man
"Paul, an apostle (not from men nor through man, but through Jesus Christ and God the Father who raised Him from the dead)...But I make known to
you, brethren, that the gospel which was preached by me is not according to man. For I neither received it from man, nor was I taught it, but it came
through the revelation of Jesus Christ." (Galatians 1:1-12). The distinction upon which Paul is here insisting would be unclear if Jesus Christ were, as
some claim, Himself a mere man.
32) Only Holy
All men are called to holiness, but have fallen short of the glory of God. John even ventures to say that only One is Holy: "Who shall not fear You, O
Lord, and glorify Your name? For You alone are holy. For all nations shall come and worship before You, For Your judgments have been manifested."
(Revelation 15:4). 'Holy One' is a title of God in the Old Testament,: "Are You not from everlasting, O LORD my God, my Holy One? We shall not die."
(Habakkuk 1:12), and also in the New: "But you have an anointing from the Holy One, and you know all things." (1 John 2:20). The Messiah too is called
the Holy One: "But you denied the Holy One and the Just, and asked for a murderer to be granted to you..." (Acts 3:14), a shared title suggesting the deity
of the Messiah.
33) Sole Proprietor
There is only one owner around here, we all are just His tenants:
"Yours, O LORD, are the greatness, the power, the glory, the victory, and the majesty; for all that is in the heavens and on the earth is yours; yours is the
kingdom, O LORD, and you are exalted as head above all. Riches and honor come from you, and you rule over all. In your hand are power and might;
and it is in your hand to make great and to give strength to all." (1 Chronicles 29:11-12).
"For every wild animal of the forest is mine, the cattle on a thousand hills. I know all the birds of the air, and all that moves in the field is mine. If I were
hungry, I would not tell you, for the world and all that is in it is mine." (Psalm 50:10-12). Who is the owner, again?
"And all Mine are Yours, and Yours are Mine, and I am glorified in them." (John 17:10)
"All that the Father has is mine. For this reason I said that he will take what is mine and declare it to you." (John 16:15).
Is there a law-suit in the making...or is Jesus Christ God?
34) Priests
"Over such the second death has no power, but they shall be priests of God and of Christ, and shall reign with Him a thousand years." (Revelation 20:6).
'Priests' are they who have been consecrated and devoted to God. One can be a 'minister' or 'servant' of a mortal king, but not his 'priest.' But believers are
"priests" "of Christ;" therefore, Christ is God.
35) Walk on the Water
The mighty deeds that Jesus did were not a collection of random marvels. Rather, they were "signs," as John calls them (John 20:30), revealing who He is.
Jesus walked upon the water:
"Now in the fourth watch of the night Jesus went to them, walking on the sea." (Matthew 14:25). To be sure this is a demonstration of power, but why
walk on the water? Why not walk through fire, or lift a heavy stone? Because of Who walks on water:
"He alone spreads out the heavens, and treads on the waves of the sea. . ." (Job 9:8). In the Greek Septuagint, "Who alone has stretched out the heavens,
and walks on the sea as on firm ground." (Job 9:8 Brenton LXX). Jehovah, the Lord, walks on the sea.). There is no naturalistic explanation for this
marvel: "Admitting that Jesus, by means of his etherealized body, could walk on the water, how could he command Peter, who was not gifted with such a
body, to do the same? or if by a mere word he could give the body of Peter a dispensation from the law of gravitation, can he have been a man? and if a
God, would he thus lightly cause a suspension of natural law at the caprice of a man? or, lastly, are we to suppose that faith has the power instantaneously

to lessen the specific gravity of the body of a believer?" (David Friedrich Strauss, The Life of Jesus Critically Examined, pp. 501-502). He was a man
indeed, and not, heaven forbid, "a God," but God. As with walking on the water, likewise with stilling the storm:
"Then He arose and rebuked the wind, and said to the sea, 'Peace, be still!' And the wind ceased and there was a great calm." (Mark 4:39). It takes power
to stop the wind and waves, but this also is a meaningful sign, 'symbolic speech' if you will. Who is master of wind and wave?: "The floods have lifted
up, O LORD, The floods have lifted up their voice; The floods lift up their waves. The LORD on high is mightier Than the noise of many waters, Than
the mighty waves of the sea." (Psalm 93:3-4).
"He lays the beams of His upper chambers in the waters, Who makes the clouds His chariot,
Who walks on the wings of the wind. . ." (Psalm 104:3).
The Lord is identifying Himself in doing these things:
"The voice of the LORD is upon the waters: the God of glory thundereth: the LORD is upon many waters. .
.The LORD sitteth upon the flood; yea, the LORD sitteth King for ever." (Psalm 29:3-10).
"Thy way is in the sea, and thy path in the great waters, and thy footsteps are not known." (Psalm 77:19).
"He rebuked the Red Sea also, and it dried up; so He led them through the depths, as through the wilderness." (Psalm 106:9).
"Thus saith the LORD, which maketh a way in the sea, and a path in the mighty waters;. . ." (Isaiah 43:16).
"His way is in whirlwind and storm, and the clouds are the dust of his feet." (Nahum 1:3).
"You walked through the sea with Your horses, through the heap of great waters." (Habakkuk 3:15).
It is the LORD who stills the waters: "He maketh the storm a calm, so that the waves thereof are still." (Psalm 107:29); "You who still the noise of the
seas, the noise of their waves, and the tumult of the peoples. (Psalm 65:7); "Thou rulest the raging of the sea: when the waves thereof arise, thou stillest
them." (Psalm 89:9).
35) Israelite tempted Christ in the OT
1Cor 10: 4. 9and drank the same spiritual drink; for they drank from the spiritual rock that accompanied them, and that rock was ChristNeither let us
tempt Christ, as some of them also tempted, and were destroyed of serpents.
Num 21:5-6: The people spoke against God and Moses, "Why have you brought us up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness? For there is no food and no
water, and we loathe this miserable food." 6The LORD sent fiery serpents among the people and they bit the people, so that many people of Israel died. At
a certain place the people tempted "the LORD:"
Wherefore the people did chide with Moses, and said, Give us water that we may drink. And Moses said unto them, Why chide ye with me? wherefore
do ye tempt the LORD? And the people thirsted there for water; and the people murmured against Moses, and said, Wherefore is this that thou hast
brought us up out of Egypt, to kill us and our children and our cattle with thirst? And Moses cried unto the LORD, saying, What shall I do unto this
people? they be almost ready to stone me. . .And he called the name of the place Massah, and Meribah, because of the chiding of the children of Israel,
and because they tempted the LORD, saying, Is the LORD among us, or not? (Exodus 17:2-7).
Ps 78:20-31: Behold, he smote the rock, that the waters gushed out, and the streams overflowed; can he give bread also? can he provide flesh for his
people?.. When the LORD heard them, he was furious; his fire broke out against Jacob, and his wrath rose against
Israel, 31.The wrath of God came upon them, and slew the fattest of them, and smote down the chosen men of Israel.35. They remembered that God was
their Rock, that God Most High was their Redeemer
Jesus was the Angel of the Covenant
Mal 3:1: I will send my messenger, who will prepare the way before me. Then suddenly the Lord you are seeking will come to his temple; the messenger
of the covenant, whom you desire, will come," says the LORD Almighty.
Exo 23:20-23: Behold, I send an Angel before thee, to keep thee in the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared. Beware of him, and
obey his voice, provoke him not; for he will not pardon your transgressions: for my name is in him. If you listen carefully to what he says and do all that I
say, I will be an enemy to your enemies and will oppose those who oppose you. My angel will go ahead of you and bring you into the land of the
Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, Canaanites, Hivites and Jebusites, and I will wipe them out.
Exo 33:1-2: Then the LORD spoke to Moses, "Depart, go up from here, you and the people whom you have brought up from the land of Egypt, to the
land of which I swore to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, saying, 'To your descendants I will give it.' 2"I will send an angel before you and I will drive out the
Canaanite, the Amorite, the Hittite, the Perizzite, the Hivite and the Jebusite.
Number 20:16: but when we cried out to the LORD, he heard our cry and sent an angel and brought us out of Egypt. "Now we are here at Kadesh, a town
on the edge of your territory.
Isa 63:8-9: For He said, "Surely, they are My people, Sons who will not deal falsely." So He became their Savior. 9In all their affliction He was afflicted,
And the angel of His presence saved them; In His love and in His mercy He redeemed them, And He lifted them and carried them all the days of old.
Judges 2:1: The angel of the LORD went up from Gilgal to Bokim and said, "I brought you up out of Egypt and led you into the land I swore to give to

your ancestors. I said, 'I will never break my covenant with you, It is thi Angel the second person also called LORD that make covenant with them in Exo
34:10, Deu 31:20, Gen 17:6-11, Lev 26:42 etc.
Isa 9:6: For a child is born to us, and a son is given to us, whose government is upon his shoulder: and his name is called the Messenger of great counsel:
for I will bring peace upon the princes, and health to him (LXX).
Jude 1:5: I will therefore put you in remembrance, though ye once knew this, how that the Lord, having saved the people out of the land of Egypt,
afterward destroyed them that believed not. (Lord is Jesus as vs 4 says ... only Master and Lord, Jesus Christ.)
M) Begotten-coronation
a) Begotten is used for priestly and king coronation to their office
1Chrncle17:13: I will be his father, and he will be my son. I will never take my love away from him, as I took it away from your predecessor
2chrncle22:10: I will be his father, and he will be my son. I will never take my love away from him, as I took it away from your predecessor
2Sam7:14: I will be his father, and he will be my son. When he does wrong, I will punish him with a rod wielded by men, with floggings inflicted by
human hands
Ps 2:7: I will proclaim the LORD's decree: He said to me, "You are my son; today I have begotten-you (yelidtika-yalad).
Acts13:33-34: that God has fulfilled this promise to our children in that He raised up Jesus, as it is also written in the second Psalm, 'YOU ARE MY
SON; TODAY I HAVE BEGOTTEN (gegeneka-genao- verb - perfect active indicative -)YOU. Paul explicitly ties the decree of Psalm 2:7 to the
resurrected Jesus and places the begetting mentioned in the text not back in eternity, but after the resurrection and ascension. Paul is using the text exactly
the same way as the Hebrew text does, namely as a metaphor for installation into an office or function and is arguing that after the resurrection of Jesus,
there was an installation ceremony to His kingship as prophesied in Psalm 2, and which fulfilled the ancient promise of the permanent messianic Davidic
king. Both the installation context, with its metaphorical use of the birthing language, and the chronological timing of the pronouncement to the ascended
Christ exclude this text as a basis for concluding that there was some kind of pre-creation begetting of Christ by the Father. Psalm 2:7 says nothing about
a begetting back in eternity. Roman 1:4: and who through the Spirit of holiness was appointed the Son of God in power by his resurrection from the dead:
Jesus Christ our Lord. Decalred-horz (from horos, "boundary, limit") properly, to set boundaries (limits) literally, "determine horizons" (boundaries)
Heb 5:5-6: In the same way, Christ did not take on himself the glory of becoming a high priest. But God said to him, "You are my Son; today I have
begotten-you (gegeneka-genao-Present active-indicative." And he says in another place, "You are a priest forever, in the order of Melchizedek."
Heb 1:5: For unto which of the angels said he at any time, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee (gegeneka-genao verb - perfect active
indicative)? And again, I will be to him a Father, and he shall be to me a Son?
1Cor 4:15: For though ye have ten thousand instructors in Christ, yet have ye not many fathers: for in Christ Jesus I have begotten (gegeneka-genao-verb
- aorist active indicative) you through the gospel.
Philemon1:10: I beseech thee for my son Onesimus, whom I have begotten (gegeneka) in my bonds
Note: The word translated as Begotten in KJV cited above does not mean the Son is a created being, in fact this term is used for kings and priests
coronation to their office in the Hebrew thought. Since, Hebrew does not have a specific term for coronation they used the equivalent term yalad (bring
forth-to produce) symbolically this is translated in Greek as gegeneka rooted from genao (verb). Begotten translated from gegeneka itself does not mean
creating at specific in time, it is term used for coronation and respected term used to describe ones office. If Begotten (gegeneka-Heb; yalad) means
created at some point in time it implies that angels are eternal uncreated as God said Heb 1:5: For unto which of the angels said he at any time, Thou art
my Son, this day have I begotten thee. Also in Gen 22:2, 16 Isaac is called one and only Son (yachid) [beloved] which LXX translated this as agapetos
which is reinforced in Heb 11:17 as monogenes.
Jer 2:27: Who say to a tree, 'You are my father,' And to a stone, 'You gave me birth.' For they have turned their back to Me, And not their face; But in the
time of their trouble they will say, 'Arise and save us.
b) Another term used in the NT translated as begotten by KJV is monogenes. This is completely different word and it is not a verb but adjective. See the
examples cited below; The New Testament uses monogens nine times. It occurs three times in Lukes Gospel, always in reference to only children (7:12;
8:42; 9:38) and also in John 1:14, 18, John 3:16, 18, Hebrew 11:17, 1 John 5:9.
1John4:9: This is how God showed his love among us: He sent his one and only Son (Monogenes-begotten-in KJV- adjective - nominative singular
masculine-monos-genos-family) into the world that we might live through him. The same is used in John 3:16 (God send his only begotten Son)
Heb11:17: By faith Abraham, when he was tried, offered up Isaac; and he that had received the promises offered up his ONLY BEGOTTEN (one and
only son) (monogenes) son.--- But is Isaac the ONLY son begotten by Abraham? No; look at Galations 4:22: "For it is written that Abraham had two
sons, one by the bondwoman and one by the free woman." Ishmael was also begotten by Abraham. In fact, Scripture shows that Abraham had several
other sons. Therefore, Isaac was NOT the ONLY begotten son of Abraham. Any version of Scripture that says so is actually contradicting itself! Some
modern translations (e.g., NIV, NET, NLT), recognizing the lexical meaning, render monogens as one and only. The compound word monogens is
derived from monos meaning alone, or one (Bauer, 2000: 658) and genos meaning class or kind (Bauer, 2000: 194-95). Hence, monogens huios

simply means one and only Son, unique Son, or one of a kind Son, lacking any notion of origin or beginning. Warfield (1950: 56) says of the term:
The adjective only begotten conveys the idea, not of derivation and subordination, but of uniqueness and co-substantiality: Jesus is all that God is, and
He alone is this. The lexical support is undeniable and overwhelming (cf. Moulton and Milligan, 1930: 416-17; Liddell et al, 1996: 1144; Thayer, 1996:
417-18; Bauer, 2000: 658). As noted, the term monogens is a compound word, monos, alone/one + genos, class/kind. Erroneously assuming that
second part of the word (genos) comes from genna, which does mean to beget or to give birth (or to bring forth; Bauer, 193-94), Oneness teachers
grossly misinterpret the term, asserting that the Son had a beginning (cf. Magee (1988:25). Quite the opposite, the second part of the word is not genna,
but genos. Notice the two nus (nn) in genna, compared to the one nu (n) in genos. It is genos, not genna, which forms the second part of monogens.
This shows that the derivation of genos is from a different word than that of genna. The derivation of genos is from gignesthai/ginomai, and genna is
from gennasthai (cf. White: 1998: 202). Etymologically, Harris (1992: 86-87) observes, monogens is not associated with begetting (gennasthai) but
with existence (gignesthai) This leads us to conclude that monogens denotes the only member of a kin or kind. Hebrews 11:17 provides even more
clarification as to a proper understanding of the term. In this passage, Abrahams son Isaac is called, ho monogens. Yet, Isaac was not his first or only son
(cf. Gen. 16:15-17). Thus, Isaac was the unique son or one of a kind son from whom Gods covenant would be established (Gen. 17:19-21). For Gods
covenant was with Abrahams monogens son Isaac, not with his first son Ishmael. So when Jesus is called begotten Son like in John 3:16, it simply
means unique kind or only and only unique kind sharing the same nature or the same genus with Father (both are of the same kind).
Is monogenes one and only Son (unique) or only Begotten?
One of the first verses to puzzle me was the verse that is perhaps the best-known verse in the New Testament, John 3:16: "For God so loved the world that
He gave His only begotten [monogenes] Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life" (NKJV). Why does the text say,
"only begotten Son" and not "one and only son" as the NIV renders it? "Only begotten son" is not a term that modern English-speakers normally use. To
begin with, can we say that Jesus is the "one and only son of God"? While many people might at first say, "Yes," the answer is actually both "Yes and
No." In the Gospel of Luke 3:23-38: the genealogy of Jesus is listed beginning with Joseph and going backward to Adam, "the son of God." In Biblical
terms, we are all children (sons) of God. For example, in John 8:41 the Jewish audience that Jesus was addressing said to him, "We have one Father-God"
(NKJV). Also, in Isaiah 43:3-7 God called his people his sons and daughters. So, if we are all sons of God, how can Jesus be the "one and only son," as
the NIV renders the text? And if the text should be properly rendered "only begotten son," what does this awkward expression mean? The answer is found
in Scripture and an ancient Midrash (Jewish commentary on Scripture). To understand what "only begotten son" means we must look at several ways it is
used in Scripture and at the way the term "begot" is used in the Midrash. We also find the term "only begotten son" in Hebrews 11:17: "By faith Abraham,
when he was tested, offered up Isaac, and he who had received the promises offered up his only begotten son" (NKJV). Now, it is clear that Abraham had
more than one son. His firstborn son was Ishmael, but the Book of Hebrews calls Isaac his "only begotten" son. Obviously there is a meaning to this term
that is different from simply "only son." However, in Genesis 22:1-2 at the beginning of the story of the Akedah (the binding of Isaac), God told Abraham,
"Take now your son, your only son, Isaac, whom you love, and go to the land of Moriah, and offer him there as a burnt offering" (NKJV). In this text God
referred to Isaac as Abraham's "only"[yahid] son. Is it possible that God was confused, or that he had forgotten about Ishmael? One clue is in the way that
the term "only"(yahid) is used in the Hebrew Scriptures. Normally yahid meant "only" and referred to an only child (Gen. 22:2, 12, 16; Judg. 11:34; Jer.
6:26; etc.). It also sometimes meant "lonely" or "solitary" (Ps. 25:16; 68:6), or "precious" (Ps. 22:20; 35:17). It is perhaps in this last sense that the
Septuagint (the second-century B.C. Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures) rendered yahid agagapetos (beloved), instead of the
usual monogenes (only begotten) in Genesis 22:2, 12, 16. The Septuagint's rendering is significant because this is the word used by God for Jesus at the
Mount of Transfiguration according to Matthew 17:5: "This is my beloved [agapetos] Son" (NKJV). In these examples we see that "only [one]" is the one
who is unique and especially loved. Another meaning of "only son" [yahid] is found in the story of Abraham and his relationship with Ishmael. Genesis
21:9 states that Sarah saw Ishmael "mocking" [mezahek]. Abraham subsequently expelled Ishmael from his home providing him with nothing but bread
and water. Abraham was a rich man. Why would he have sent his firstborn son out of his home with nothing but bread and water? In Exodus Rabbah 1 (on
Gen. 21:9), we find the Midrash's answer: What did Ishmael do? When he was fifteen years old, he commenced to bring idols from the street, toyed with
them and worshipped them as he had seen others do. So "when Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, whom she had borne unto Abraham, making
sport" [mocking] (the word mezahek being always used of idolatry as in "And they rose up to make merry" [Ex. 32:6] [i.e., to worship the Golden Calf]....)
(trans. Soncino). The commentary goes on to explain that Abraham expelled Ishmael because Ishmael had fallen into idolatry, and to prevent him from
leading Isaac astray, Abraham sent him away. He treated Ishmael as though he had died. Even to this day, in some Orthodox Jewish families if a child
becomes an apostate the family holds the son or daughter's funeral. This is similar to the story of "the prodigal son." The son had become apostate and
upon his return the father said, "For this my son was dead and is alive again; he was lost and is found" (Lk. 15:11-32). In this sense Isaac was Abraham's
only son since Ishmael was the same as dead, even as God warned Adam and Eve that if they sinned they would die (Gen. 2:17). Isaac was indeed the
"beloved" son of Abraham and Sarah's old age, and due to Ishmael's idolatry, their "only" son. Thus, we can understand "only" (yahid) as both unique and
especially beloved. This brings us to the terms "begot" and "begotten." In Genesis 25:19 it is written: "This is the genealogy of Isaac, Abraham's son.
Abraham begot [holid-from yalad] Isaac." Genesis 25:12 reads: "Now this is the genealogy of Ishmael, Abraham's son, whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah's

maidservant, bore [yaldah] to Abraham." The Bible records that Abraham "begot (yalad)" Isaac, but it never says that Abraham "begot" Ishmael. The
Bible states that Ishmael was the son of Abraham, but the text never uses "begot" in connection with Abraham and Ishmael. The verb yalad is used in
connection with Hagar, but not with Abraham. The commentary to Genesis 25:19 in Exodus Rabbah 1 explains the text in this way: "And it is written:
'And these are the generations of Isaac, Abraham's son: Abraham begot Isaac,' to teach you that he was like his father in all things: in beauty, wisdom,
riches, and good deeds" (trans. Soncino). Accordingly, "begot" means "to have the full nature of and to be exactly like." This understanding comes from
the biblical text itself. In Genesis 5:3 it is written: "And Adam lived one hundred and thirty years, and begot a son in his own likeness, after his image, and
named him Seth." Similar are Jesus' sayings in John 14:9 ("He who has seen me has seen the Father") and John 8:39-47 ("They answered and said to him,
'Abraham is our father.' Jesus said to them, 'If you were Abraham's children, you would do the works of Abraham... You are of your father the devil, and
the desires of your father you want to do'"). In this sense, "begot" and "begotten" convey, "to be the complete image and representation of the father."
Both Isaac and Jesus can be said to be unique and especially beloved of their father: each was the exact likeness and image of his father, and the full
nature of his father was in each. Hence, each was called "the only begotten son" of his father. In the above sense we could say that Jesus is the only son of
God, who is the exact image of God and in whom the full nature of God dwells, as it is written: "For in Him dwells all the fullness of the Godhead bodily"
(Col. 2:9, NKJV). Although, in one sense, we all are sons of God, only Jesus was God's unique and especially beloved son who bore the exact image and
likeness of God the Father. Lastly, there is another understanding of the terms "begot" and "begotten." The terms are used metaphorically where no literal
birth is intended, for example in Job 15:34-35: "For the company of hypocrites will be barren, and fire will consume the tents of bribery. They conceive
trouble and bring forth [yalad] futility; their womb prepares deceit" (NKJV). Here the meaning of "begot" is "to bring forth." Again in Psalm 7:14:
"Behold, the wicked brings forth iniquity; yes, he conceives trouble and brings forth falsehood" (NKJV). It is in the sense of "to bring forth" that Psalm
2:7 employs yalad: "I will declare the decree: The LORD has said to Me, You are My Son, today I have begotten You" (NKJV), or, as The Complete
Biblical Library translates the word, "I have brought you forth." This is the sense of Hebrews 5:4-5 where Psalm 2:7 is quoted referring to Jesus as called
and appointed by God as High Priest of the line of Melchizedek. In a positive image, the messianic prophesy of Psalm 2:7 speaks of God bringing forth
the Messiah. In a kingly sense, the son who was to take over the kingship would be brought forth and presented to the people as a co-regent. In this way,
full authority was given, preventing violent struggles for the throne. (The Complete Biblical Library, Hebrew-English Dictionary, p. 564). Biblical words
can have extremely deep meanings. How true it is of the words of John 3:16, "For God so loved the world that he gave his only begotten son." It appears
from the above sources that the writer of John understood "only begotten" in a far deeper sense than simply "only son." For John, Jesus was proclaimed by
God to be the one and only unique and dearly beloved son who alone was the express and exact image of God the Father, in whom dwelt the fullness of
God's nature, and who was the one true and faithful son that was proclaimed by God to be king and co-regent at his baptism (Mt. 3:17). Therefore
Monogenes translated as only begotten or one and only Son by KJV and other versions are both accepted and theologically sound. The translators of
KJV when they used only Begotten simply convey the idea of relationship between the Son and the Father, but not as a reference to point of giving birth.
Likewise Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words discusses the meaning of monogenes on page 822. He says: "It is translated "only
begotten". We can only rightly understand the term "only begotten" when used of the Son, in the sense of unoriginated relationship. The "begetting" is not
an event of time, however remote, but a fact irrespective of time. The Christ did not become, but necessarily and eternally is the Son. He, a Person,
possesses every attribute of pure Godhood."
N) Firstborn does not mean first created
The Greek word, prtotokos, translated "firstborn" or pre-existing one is not a noun, but an adjective. If it were really referring to being born, the verse is
theologically incorrect. Adam was the firstborn man of creation (although he wasn't really born) Cain was actually the first to be actually born into the
creation. Jesus was not born until thousands of year later. The word "firstborn" in this verse does not refer to a physical birth, but refers to Jesus' position
to inherit the creation. In Jewish law, the firstborn inherited the lion's share of his father's estate. Jesus is to inherit the creation. It has nothing to do with
being created. Verse 18 of col 2 Colossians goes on to directly contradict Jesus being created describing Him as existing in "the beginning." And he is the
head of the body, the church; he is the beginning and the firstborn from among the dead, so that in everything he might have the supremacy. This same
verse describes Jesus as being the "firstborn from the dead" and defines Jesus as having "first place in everything," demonstrating that "firstborn" refers to
position and importance and not creation. Vs 15 The Son is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation He is listed not in the category
of creation.
The Jehovah Witnesses should take note of the term "firstborn" as it is used elsewhere in the Bible as a statement of position, For example:
a. Firstborn of death - the most fatal, deadly disease (Job. 18:13).
b. Firstborn of the poor - pre-eminent in poverty (Isa. 14:30).
c. Israel is called by God as my firstborn - pre-eminent in purpose (Exod. 4:22).
d. Make him the firstborn - highest, etc. (Psa. 89:27).
e. Firstborn ones - to the church of the firstborn, whose names are written in heaven(Heb. 12:23).
f. Jesus the first born among many brethren (Rom. 8:29).

g. Firstborn of the dead (Rev. 1:5).


h) Psalm 89:27: David is called Firstborn although he was the youngest.
i) Jer 31:9: and Ephraim is my firstborn son. Ephraim has elder brother Manasseh (Gen 41:50-52). In the case of Hebrews 12:23, the plural use of
"firstborn" is significant because it illustrates that "pre-eminence of position" is the primary meaning of the word. If "firstborn" means "first created" as
the Jehovah Witnesses claim, then we have the impossible situation of all saved people being the firstborn into the church (Heb 12:23). Firstborn in
Greek is prototokos. It does not mean first created being; it simply means the pre-existing one and having overall authority. The Firstborn literally
means the one that has authority above all even within the same context: And he is the head of the body, the church: who is the beginning, the
firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the pre-eminence (Colosian 1:18). He is the first person to defeat death by his resurrection and
as such he is the firstborn from the death and has over all the pre-eminence for newly resurrected person in spiritual world. If Paul means to say that
Jesus was the first created being he could have used the Greek word for First created being as protoktisis orprotoioton but he did not for he knew
Jesus is the Creator himself becoming the Firstborn (pre-eminence) of his own creation.
O) Revelation 3:14 . These things saith the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning (arche) of the creation of God (KJV). This verse is
modified by Jehovah Witnesses asthe creation by God. The word BY (hypo) is not present in all Greek texts. Jehovah witnesses had added it
wrongly. In many versions it simply says ruler of Gods creation (NIV) or originator of Gods creation in Holman Bible, Aramaic bible etc. Often this
passage is sought by many cults to say that Jesus is the first created being as Jesus called himself as the Beginning (arche). But the actual message
presented here is not about creation account of Genesis 1:1-31. If this passage is cited to disproof Christ divinity, then the Father himself said he is the
Alpha and Omega, the beginning (arche) and the end in Rev 21:6, like the Son is in Rev 22:13 and Rev 1:8. The passage in Rev 3:14 is not talking about
created being but the new creation of God in Christ. The Beginning is Arche which is also translated as ruler or chief or originator in many places.
Literally, the passage is saying Jesus is the originator or having authority over all the creation. He is called the beginning of creation of God (not created
being) because Jesus is the beginning of this new creation - the first to live, die and to receive life for evermore (Rev. 1:18). As Paul puts it: "And he is
the head of the body, the church: who is the beginning (arche), the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the pre-eminence
(Colossian 1:18). The beginning (arche) is used to signify his pre-eminence or authority by his death and resurrection as the firstborn from the dead. John
plainly tells us that he is the Arche (Beginning or the ruler) in a sense of authority by his resurrection from the dead: Rev 1:5: from Jesus Christ, who is
the faithful witness, the firstborn from the dead, and the ruler (arche) of the kings of the earth. . This can be deduced by noting that Rev. 1:18: I am he
that liveth, and was dead; and behold, I am alive for evermore, Amen. In addition, Beginning is referred to authority or ruler as we can see from Luke
20:20: ... so as to turn him over to the arche (ruler) and to the authority of the governor. Colossians 1:16: ... whether they are thrones or lordships or
archai (governments archai is a plural form of arche) or principalities or power). The word Arche occur 56 times in the NT and basically has
authority or rulership in general meaning such as Luke 12:11, Rom 8:38 (principalities), 1Cor 15:24 (ruler), Ephe 1:12 (rulers), 3:10 (rulers) 6:12
(rulers) Col 2:10 etc. So, it is clearly seen that Rev. 3:14 (Begining of God creation) refers to the creation which commenced with Christ's death and
resurrection as Jesus said I am the firstborn from the death (Rev 1:5), and not about creation of the world in Genesis. Example, the following verses
talks about new creation in Christ: Eph. 2:10, 15 (new man). 4:23 (renew in Spirit), 24; Col. 3:9 (put off the old man), 10 (put on the new man); Gal. 6:15
(new creation in Christ); James 1:18 (we may be a kind of First fruit of his creation); 2 Cor. 5:17 (anyone in Christ is a new creation). This word used in
the context of Rev suggests the rulership or authority over the creation or beginner or originator of creation not about the time of creation.
P) Jesus' Two Natures: God and Man
Jesus is the most important person who has ever lived since He is the Savior, God in human flesh. He is not half God and half man. He is fully divine and
fully man. In other words, Jesus has two distinct natures: divine and human. Jesus is the Word who was God and was with God and was made flesh
(John 1:1, 14). This means that in the single person of Jesus He has both a human and divine nature, God and man. The divine nature was not changed
when the Word became flesh (John 1:1, 14). Instead, the Word was joined with humanity (Col. 2:9). Jesus' divine nature was not altered. Also, Jesus is
not merely a man who "had God within Him," nor is He a man who "manifested the God principle." He is God in flesh, second person of the
Trinity. "The Son is the radiance of God's glory and the exact representation of his being, sustaining all things by his powerful word," (Heb. 1:3). Jesus'
two natures are not "mixed together" (Eutychianism), nor are they combined into a new God-man nature (Monophysitism). They are separate yet act as a
unit in the one person of Jesus. This is called the Hypostatic Union. Down through the centuries, leaders of the Christian church have been challenged to
defend the truth of Jesus' dual nature against beliefs to the contrary. Whatever the challenge, the Holy Spirit has eventually led the church back to the
scriptural truth that Jesus is both fully God and fully human. The church council that met in Chalcedon in A.D. 451 produced one of the most complete
statements of this doctrine. It reads in part: "Our Lord Jesus Christ is one and the same God, perfect in divinity, and perfect in humanity, true God and
true human ... Christ, Son, Lord, Only-begotten, manifested in two natures without any confusion, change, division or separation. The union does not
destroy the difference of the two natures, but on the contrary the properties of each are kept, and both are joined in one person" (Justo L. Gonzalez, The
Story of Christianity, volume 1, Harper San Francisco, 1984).

Q) OT passages referred in NT to multiple person representatives:


Ezekiel 28:12-17, Son of man, take up a lament concerning the king of Tyre and say to him: 'This is what the Sovereign LORD says: "'You were the
seal of perfection, full of wisdom and perfect in beauty. You were in Eden, the garden of God; every precious stone adorned you: carnelian, chrysolite
and emerald, topaz, onyx and jasper, lapis lazuli, turquoise and beryl. Your settings and mountings were made of gold; on the day you were created they
were prepare. You were anointed as a guardian cherub, for so I ordained you. You were on the holy mount of God; you walked among the fiery stones.
You were blameless in your ways from the day you were created till wickedness was found in you. Through your widespread trade you were filled with
violence, and you sinned. So I drove you in disgrace from the mount of God, and I expelled you, guardian cherub, from among the fiery stones. Your
heart became proud on account of your beauty, and you corrupted your wisdom because of your splendor. So I threw you to the earth; I made a spectacle
of you before kings. This a section that deals with the fall of the devil. Verse 13 describes how he was in the garden of Eden. Verse 14 says he was the
anointed cherub, (v. 15), etc., but the context of this section begins with an address to the king of Tyre (v. 12). Yet, right after Ezekiel is told to write to
the King of Tyre, he then goes on to describe what the great majority of theologians agree with--a description of the devil's fall.
Hosea 11:1: When Israel was a young child I loved him, and from Egypt I called my son. But the more they were called, the more they went away from
me. They sacrificed to the Baals and they burned incense to images.-Matt 2:25: where he stayed until the death of Herod. And so was fulfilled what the
Lord had said through the prophet: "Out of Egypt I called my son- The history of Israel is regarded as typical of the Messiahs life. He alone gives
significance to that history. He is the true seed of Abraham. In Him the blessing promised to Abraham finds its highest fulfillment. Exo 4:22-23: Then
say to Pharaoh, 'This is what the LORD says: Israel is my firstborn son. and I told you, "Let my son go, so he may worship me." But you refused to let
him go; so I will kill your firstborn son.
Isaiah 49:1-10: Listen to Me, O islands, And pay attention, you peoples from afar. The LORD called Me FROM THE WOMB; FROM THE BODY OF
MY MOTHER He named Me. He has made My mouth like a sharp sword, In the shadow of His hand He has concealed Me; And He has also made Me a
select arrow, He has hidden Me in His quiver. He said to Me, You are My Servant, Israel, In Whom I will show My glory. But I said, I have toiled in
vain, I have spent My strength for nothing and vanity; Yet surely the justice due to Me is with the LORD, And My reward with My God. And now says
the LORD, who formed Me from the womb to be His Servant, To bring Jacob back to Him, so that Israel might be gathered to Him (For I am honored in
the sight of the LORD, And My God is My strength), He says, It is too small a thing that You should be My Servant To raise up the tribes of Jacob and
to restore the preserved ones of Israel; I will also make You a light of the nations So that My salvation may reach to the end of the earth. Thus says the
LORD, the Redeemer of Israel and its Holy One, To the despised One, To the One abhorred by the nation, To the Servant of rulers, Kings will see and
arise, Princes will also bow down, Because of the LORD who is faithful, the Holy One of Israel who has chosen You. Thus says the LORD, In a
favorable time I have answered You, And in a day of salvation I have helped You; And I will keep You and give You for a covenant of the people, To
restore the land, to make them inherit the desolate heritages; Saying to those who are bound, Go forth, To those who are in darkness, Show
yourselves. Along the roads they will feed, And their pasture will be on all bare heights. They will not hunger or thirst, Nor will the scorching heat or
sun strike them down; For He who has compassion on them will lead them And will guide them to springs of water.
The NT alludes to the language of this particular Servant passage in the following places which is referred to Christ alone: Luke 2:30-32; 22:19-20;
Revelation 1:16; 2:12, 16; 7:17; 19:15, 21.
Jesus is sometime call apostles: Hebrews 3:1: Therefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our
confession, Christ Jesus..."
Manhood of Christ
1Timothy 2:5: For there is one God and one mediator between God and mankind, the man Christ Jesus,
Heb 4:14: Therefore, since we have a great high priest who has ascended into heaven, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold firmly to the faith we profess.
Heb. 6:20: where Jesus has entered as a forerunner for us, having become a high priest forever according to the order of Melchizedek,"
Heb. 7:25): "Hence, also, He is able to save forever those who draw near to God through Him, since He always lives to make intercession for them,"
1 John 2:1: My dear children, I write this to you so that you will not sin. But if anybody does sin, we have an advocate with the Father-Jesus Christ, the
Righteous One
Col 2:9: For in Christ all the fullness of the Deity lives in bodily form,

Greek poem quoted in NT


a) Acts 17:28: For in him we live and move and have our being.' As some of your own poets have said, 'We are his offspring. The connection is ties
with vs 23-24 to unknown god. Aratus, probably of Tarsus (circ. B.C. 272), had written a didactic poem under the title of Phenomena, comprising the
main facts of astronomical and meteorological science as then known. It opens with an invocation to Zeus, which contains the words that St. Paul quotes.
Like words are found in a hymn to Zeus by Cleanthes (B.C. 300). Both passages are worth quoting: 1) From Zeus begin; never let us leave His name
unloved. With Him, with Zeus, are filled All paths we tread, and all the marts of men; Filled, too, the sea, and every creek and bay; And all in all things
need we help of Zeus,-For we too are his offspring.Aratus, Phnom. 15.
2)Most glorious of immortals, many-named, Almighty and forever, thee, O Zeus, Sovran oer Nature, guiding with thy hand All things that are, we
greet with praises. Thee Tis meet that mortals call with one accord, For we thine offspring are, and we alone Of all that live and move upon this earth,
Receive the gift of imitative speech. Cleanthes, Hymn to Zeus. The apostle applies to the Jupiter, Jove the poem to whom it was written to true
Jehovah, the Creator of all men, by whom, and after whose image, they are made, and so are truly his offspring; upon which the apostle argues as
follows. Acts 17:23: For as I walked around and looked carefully at your objects of worship, I even found an altar with this inscription: to an unknown
god. So you are ignorant of the very thing you worship--and this is what I am going to proclaim to you. The God who made the world and everything in it
is the Lord of heaven and earth and does not live in temples built by human hands.
b) Titus 1:12: One of themselves, even a prophet of their own, said, The Cretians are alway liars, evil beasts, slow bellies.:- The verse quoted is an
hexameter, written by the famous Epimenides, of Gnossus, in Crete. He flourished some 600 years B.C., and is said to have lived to the strange age of 150
years or more. He appears to have deserved the title of prophet in its fullest sensePlato speaking of him as a divine man, and Cicero coupling him
with the Erythan Sibyl. Epimenides was a poet priest and prophet of Gnossus in Crete, who was invited to Athens about 596 b.c. to purify the city after
the pollution of Cylon, and is said to have died at Lacedaemon soon after, aged 150 years. This hexameter verse is from his Oracles, and the first part
was quoted by Callimachus in his Hymn to Zeus Cretans are always liars; thy grave has been claimed by the Cretans, Thine, O King immortal, who
livest and reignest for ever. Mendax, venter iners, semper mala bestia Cres est, and it would run in English Cretans are always liars, are wild beasts, donothing gluttons.

Ch Jamkhokai Mate
Scientist (ARS)
Govt. of India