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On
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## This is an uncontrolled copy. Ensure use of the

most current version of the document by searching
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## Concrete Buildings Scheme Design Manual (Eurocode 2 edition)

Corrections due to Amendment 1 of the UK National Annex
The following are the technical updates applicable to the Nov 2009 revision of Concrete Buildings Scheme
Design Manual.

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

Location

Original

Amendment

Page 46,
section
3.6

Page 47,
Figure
3.3

useful)

Page 60,
top of
page

2vRd,c

Page 29,
Figure 6,
box 5.

## Determine Factor 3 (F3)

F3 = 310/s
Where s = Stress in reinforcement at serviceability
limit state (see Figure 4)
s may be assumed to be 310 MPa (i.e. F3 = 1.0)
Note: As,prov 1.5 As,reqd (UK National Annex)
Length of perimeter = 4 x 350 + 2 x 500 = 4542 mm
Radial spacing sr = 0.75 x 250 = 188 mm
Asw = (vEd 0.75 vRd,c)sr u1/(1.5 fywd,ef)
= (1.15 x 1238 x 103/(4542 x 250)) 0.75 0.75) x 188 x 4542 /(1.5
x 313)
= 1257 mm2/perimeter

## Determine Factor 3 (F3)

F3 = As,prov/As,reqd 1.5 (UK National Annex)

Page 62,
WE 4,
punchin
g shear

Page 63,
WE 4,
deflecti
on

## Increase area of steel to reduce steel stress, assume H20 @ 225

ctrs (1400 mm2)
Approximate steel stress at SLS = 236 MPa
Therefore approximate steel stress, s, when As,prov = 1400 mm2
s = 236 x 1243/1400 = 210 MPa
Increased basic l/d = 24.4 x 310/210 = 36 > 34.6 OK
Use H20 @ 225 ctrs As,prov = 1400 mm2

## Length of perimeter = 4 x 350 + 2 x 500 = 4542 mm

VEd = 1.15 x 1238 x 103/(4542 x 250) = 1.25 2 x
0.75 OK
Radial spacing sr = 0.75 x 250 = 188 mm
Asw = (vEd 0.75 vRd,c)sr u1/(1.5 fywd,ef)
= (1.25 0.75 0.75) x 188 x 4542 /(1.5 x 313)
= 1257 mm2/perimeter
Increase area of steel to reduce steel stress:
As,prov = As,req x (actual l/d)/(basic l/d)
= 1243 x 34.6/24.4 = 1763 mm2
Use H20 @ 175 ctrs As,prov = 1800 mm2

## \\tccdata\tcc\users\obrooker\Small tasks\Changes due to Amd 1 of UK NA\CBSDM corrections due to Amd 1 of UK NA.doc

Page 1 of 1

Revision

1/5

March

2010

All advice or information from The Concrete Centre is intended for those who will evaluate the significance and limitations of its
contents and take responsibility for its use and application. No liability (including that for negligence) for any loss resulting from such
advise or information is accepted by The Concrete Centre or their subcontractors, suppliers or advisors.

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

?hk^phk]mhma^>nkh\h]^+^]bmbhg
Since its publication in 2006, the Concrete building scheme design manual has proved a popular
publication and this update is intended to assist the transition to Eurocode 2 for the design of
concrete structures by showing how to carry out initial design to the Code. As before it will greatly
assist candidates for the Institution of Structural Engineers chartered membership examination
by drawing together in one place useful information including design aids that are specically
prepared for Eurocodes.

:\dghpe^]`^f^gmlmhma^klm^]bmbhg
Andrew Minson was the originator of the concept for this book, but the nal format and content
have evolved over time with input gratefully received by the author, Owen Brooker, from a
number of people. The book contains some new material but many of the ideas and much of the
data have been developed from many sources over several years. It is not possible to credit every
source; indeed many are unknown, but wherever possible, references have been made to relevant
documents.
Particular thanks are due to Jenny Burridge and Bob Wilson who have spent considerable time
reviewing and commenting on drafts and providing useful guidance on what the examiners are
expecting. Thanks are also due John Brazier, Andrew Cotter, Bryan Magee and Matt Obst, who
have commented or made useful contributions in more specialised areas.
Gillian Bond, Issy Harvey, Sally Huish and Michael Burbridge Ltd have also made essential
contributions to the production of this handbook.

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All advice or information from MPA The Concrete Centre is intended only for use in the UK by those who will evaluate
the signicance and limitations of its contents and take responsibility for its use and application. No liability (including
that for negligence) for any loss resulting from such advice or information is accepted by MPA The Concrete Centre or its
subcontractors, suppliers or advisors. Readers should note that MPA The Concrete Centre publications are subject to revision
from time to time and should therefore ensure that they are in possession of the latest version.
Printed by Michael Burbridge Ltd, Maidenhead, UK.

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

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K^_^k^g\^k^bg_hk\^f^gmkZmbh

K^bg_hk\^f^gmkZmbh_hkk^jnbk^]\hfik^llbhgk^bg_hk\^f^gm

re

K^bg_hk\^f^gmkZmbh_hkehg`bmn]bgZek^bg_hk\^f^gm

rr%rr

K^jnbk^]m^glbhgk^bg_hk\^f^gmkZmbhZehg`r&Zg]s&Zqblk^li^\mbo^er

sl

Lmk^llbgk^bg_hk\^f^gm!LEL"

sln

Ngfh]b_b^]lm^^elmk^ll!ikbhkmhZ]cnlmbg`_hk:l%ikho"

sm

M^glbe^lmk^llbgla^ZkpZee

:
 g`e^h_bgm^kgZe_kb\mbhg

f[Zk

;Zk]bZf^m^k

febgd

Ebgd]bZf^m^k

c+

? Z\mhkmh]^m^kfbg^ma^jnZlb&i^kfZg^gmoZen^h_ZoZkbZ[e^Z\mbhg

=^o^ehif^gmh_lhenmbhgl

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

* Introduction
Ma^Bglmbmnmbhgh_Lmkn\mnkZe>g`bg^^kl<aZkm^k^]F^f[^klabi>qZfbgZmbhgblab`aerk^`Zk]^]
[hmagZmbhgZeerZg]bgm^kgZmbhgZeerZg]k^jnbk^lma^\Zg]b]Zm^mhkZib]ercnlmb_rma^bkbgbmbZe
]^lb`g\hg\^iml'MablaZg][hhdblpkbmm^gli^\b\Zeer_hkmahl^pahZk^ik^iZkbg`mhlbmma^
^qZfbgZmbhg%[nmbmlahne]Zelhikho^nl^_nemhZeemahl^bgoheo^]bgik^iZkbg`hnmebg^Zg]
l\a^f^lmZ`^]^lb`glhgZ]Zr&mh&]Zr[Zlbl'

## *'* How to use this handbook

MablaZg][hhdbleZb]hnmmhk^^\mma^^qZfbgZmbhgjn^lmbhgl4mh]Zm^ma^l^aZo^_heehp^]ma^
lZf^_hkfZm'L^\mbhg*h_ma^^qZfbgZmbhgblma^]^lb`gZiikZblZeZg]mablbl\ho^k^]bgL^\mbhg+%
pab\aikhob]^l^ll^gmbZebg_hkfZmbhgk^jnbk^]mhZllblmbgZglp^kbg`mabliZkmh_ma^^qZfbgZmbhg'
L^\mbhg + h_ ma^ ^qZfbgZmbhg bl ]bob]^] bgmh mak^^ iZkml4 klmer !l^\mbhg +\" ma^k^ bl ma^
k^jnbk^f^gm mh ik^iZk^ ln_\b^gm \Ze\neZmbhgl mh ^lmZ[ebla ma^ lbs^ Zg] _hkf h_ Zee ma^
ikbg\biZelmkn\mnkZe^e^f^gml'@nb]Zg\^bl`bo^gbgL^\mbhg,h_mablaZg][hhd'
L^\mbhg+]k^jnbk^lma^\Zg]b]Zm^mhik^iZk^ieZgl%l^\mbhglZg]^e^oZmbhgl%bg\en]bg`\kbmb\Ze
]^mZbel%_hk^lmbfZmbg`inkihl^l4^qZfie^lZk^`bo^gbgL^\mbhg-'?bgZeerl^\mbhg+^k^jnbk^l
]^mZbe^] f^mah] lmZm^f^gml Zg] h_m^g Zg hnmebg^ ikh`kZff^ mh [^ ik^iZk^] Zg] mabl bl
\ho^k^]bgL^\mbhg.'
K^Z]^kllahne]Ziik^\bZm^maZmmablin[eb\Zmbhgblpkbmm^g_hkma^lmkn\mnkZe^g`bg^^kikZ\mblbg`
bgma^ND'PabelmfZgrh_ma^ikbg\bie^l\Zg[^Ziieb^]mhlmkn\mnk^lZkhng]ma^phke]%bm
fnlm[^\e^Zkerng]^klmhh]maZm^gobkhgf^gmZeZg]`^hm^\agb\Ze_Z\mhkl^g\hngm^k^]fZr
[^lb`gb\Zgmer]b__^k^gm'BmblZelhpkbmm^gpbmama^]^lb`gh_[nbe]bg`lmkn\mnk^lbgfbg]kZma^k
maZg[kb]`^lhkh__lahk^lmkn\mnk^l'Ma^k^jnbk^f^gml_hkjn^lmbhg1%lmkn\mnkZe]rgZfb\l%Zk^
ghmli^\b\Zeer\ho^k^]'
Text on a pale blue background provides information to help candidates prepare for
the examination and is not intended for use in the examination itself.

*'+ Assumptions
Bm bl Zllnf^] maZm ma^ k^Z]^kl Zg] nl^kl h_ mabl in[eb\Zmbhg Zk^ ikZ\mblbg` ^g`bg^^kl Zg] Zk^
Zek^Z]r_ZfbebZkpbmama^ikbg\bie^lh_]^lb`gmh>nkh\h]^+%IZkml**T*VZg]*+T+V'K^Z]^klpah
Zk^fhk^_ZfbebZkpbma;L1**)T,V\Zgk^_^kmhppp'\hg\k^m^\^gmk^'\hf(\[l]fmh]hpgehZ]
ma^ZiikhikbZm^l^\mbhglh_<aZim^k,Zg]:ii^g]bq;h_ma^ik^obhnl^]bmbhgh_mablL\a^f^
]^lb`gfZgnZeT-V'
Ma^phkd^]^qZfie^l`bo^gZk^bgm^g]^]mhZ\mZlZgZb]^f^fhbk%kZma^kmaZgZlZmhhe_hk
e^Zkgbg` mh ]^lb`g bg \hg\k^m^'Ma^r ikhob]^ ln_\b^gm cnlmb\Zmbhg mh ]^fhglmkZm^ maZm ma^
^e^f^gmlZk^lnbmZ[e^_hkma^ikhihl^]lbmnZmbhg'Hma^kin[eb\ZmbhglZg]]^lb`gZb]llahne][^
k^_^kk^]mh_hk^qZfie^lh__neer]^lb`g^]k^bg_hk\^]\hg\k^m^^e^f^gml'Ma^^qZfie^l`bo^g
fZr[^fhk^]^mZbe^]maZgma^^qZfbg^klphne]^qi^\mmhl^^bgZl\kbim%[nmZk^bg\en]^]
mhZb]e^Zkgbg`Zg]Zlik^iZkZmbhg_hkma^^qZfbgZmbhg'Ma^^ll^gmbZe\Ze\neZmbhglmaZmfb`am
[^ikhob]^]bgma^^qZfbgZmbhgZk^ab`aeb`am^][r[en^m^qm'<Zg]b]Zm^lpbeeg^^]mhnl^ma^bk
cn]`^f^gmbgZiierbg`ma^phkd^]^qZfie^lmhma^bklhenmbhglbgma^^qZfbgZmbhg%^li^\bZeerZl
ma^ikbg\biZe^e^f^gmlpbeeh_m^g[^fhk^\hfie^qmaZgma^^qZfie^l`bo^gbgmablaZg][hhd'
Bmbllmkhg`erk^\hff^g]^]maZmZ\hirh_>\hghfb\\hg\k^m^_kZf^^e^f^gmlT.Vblh[mZbg^]mh
Zllblmbgma^bgbmbZelbsbg`h_^e^f^gmlZlk^jnbk^]mhZglp^kl^\mbhg*h_^Z\ajn^lmbhg'Ahp^o^k%
_hk\hfie^m^g^ll%lhf^`nb]Zg\^hgbgbmbZelbsbg`aZl[^^gikhob]^]bgmablaZg][hhd'
1

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

## *', The examination

Ma^ ^qZfbgZmbhg bl bgm^g]^] mh [^ Z m^lm h_ ma^ \Zg]b]Zm^l Z[bebmr mh ]^o^ehi ]^mZbe^]
lhenmbhgl _hk \aZee^g`bg` lmkn\mnkZe ikh[e^fl' <Zg]b]Zm^l pbee g^^] mh ]^fhglmkZm^ ma^bk
ng]^klmZg]bg` h_ lmkn\mnkZe ^g`bg^^kbg` Zg] [^ Z[e^ mh ikh]n\^ mph Zem^kgZmbo^ lhenmbhgl
maZmZk^kh[nlm%lmZ[e^Zg][nbe]Z[e^'Ma^rpbeeZelhaZo^mh]^fhglmkZm^ma^bkdghpe^]`^Zg]
^qi^kb^g\^makhn`ald^m\a^l%]bZ`kZfl%\Ze\neZmbhglZg]]^l\kbimbhglh_ma^bklhenmbhgl'
Ma^^qZfbgZmbhgblab`aerk^`Zk]^]makhn`ahnmma^phke]Zg]ikhob]^lZ\aZee^g`bg`m^lm_hkma^
\Zg]b]Zm^'Ahp^o^k%mahl^pahaZo^Z`hh]Zee&khng]^qi^kb^g\^bglmkn\mnkZe^g`bg^^kbg`Zg]
pahaZo^mahkhn`aerik^iZk^]lahne][^Z[e^mhiZllma^^qZfbgZmbhgZmma^klmZmm^fim'
:mma^mbf^h_pkbmbg`!+))2"ma^\Zg]b]Zm^bl^qi^\m^]mhZglp^khg^jn^lmbhghnmh_^b`am'
Ma^mri^h_fZm^kbZe^qi^\m^]mh[^nl^]bgma^lhenmbhghkma^mri^h_lmkn\mnk^bgma^^b`am
jn^lmbhgl_heehplZk^`neZkiZmm^kg3
*' Lm^^e[nbe]bg`
+' Lm^^e[nbe]bg`
,' ;kb]`^
-' <hg\k^m^[nbe]bg`

.' <hg\k^m^[nbe]bg`
/' @^g^kZelmkn\mnk^
0' H__lahk^lmkn\mnk^
1' Lmkn\mnkZe]rgZfb\l

Dghpbg`maZmZlhenmbhgmhZiZkmb\neZkjn^lmbhgbl^qi^\m^]mhnl^Z\^kmZbgfZm^kbZefZre^Z]
ma^\Zg]b]Zm^mh\hglb]^klhenmbhglbgmaZmfZm^kbZehger'Ahp^o^k%ZlhenmbhgbgZghma^kfZm^kbZe
fZr[^^jnZeerZiieb\Z[e^Zg]bg]^^]ma^k^aZo^[^^gh\\Zlbhglbgma^iZlmpa^k^ZgZem^kgZmbo^
fZm^kbZeaZl[^^gfhk^ZiikhikbZm^'Ma^\Zg]b]Zm^lahne]ma^k^_hk^aZo^Zghi^gfbg]4ma^k^bl
ghlbg`e^lhenmbhgmhZgrh_ma^jn^lmbhgl'

*'- Timing
Ma^^qZfbgZmbhgeZlml_hkl^o^gahnkl%ienlaZe_Zgahnk_hkeng\a'Ma^k^Zk^*))fZkdlZoZbeZ[e^
Zg]ma^\Zg]b]Zm^llahne]ieZgma^bkmbf^lhmaZmZeel^\mbhglZk^\hfie^m^]'Ma^k^blghln[lmbmnm^
_hk^qi^kb^g\^%Zg]lbmmbg`Zfh\d^qZfbgZmbhgpbee^gZ[e^ma^\Zg]b]Zm^mhZiik^\bZm^paZm\Zg
[^Z\ab^o^]bgma^l^o^gahnklZoZbeZ[e^'B_ma^mbf^ZoZbeZ[e^_hk^Z\al^\mbhgblZeeh\Zm^]bg
ikhihkmbhgmhma^fZkdlZoZbeZ[e^%ma^_heehpbg`mbf^mZ[e^\Zg[^_heehp^]3
)23,)
*+3+)
*,3))
*,3,)
*-3..
*/3+)
*03))

l^\mbhg*Z!-)fZkdl"
l^\mbhg*[!*)fZkdl"
Eng\a
l^\mbhg+\!+)fZkdl"
l^\mbhg+]!+)fZkdl"
l^\mbhg+^!*)fZkdl"
?bgbla

Ma^eZk`^lmikhihkmbhgh_ma^fZkdlbl_hkl^\mbhg*ZZg]ma^\Zg]b]Zm^fZrpZgmmhikh]n\^Zg
bg]bob]nZembf^mZ[e^_hkmabll^\mbhg'

## *'. Further information

Ma^k^ bl ie^gmr h_ nl^_ne bg_hkfZmbhg Z[hnm ma^ ^qZfbgZmbhg maZm bl _k^^er ZoZbeZ[e^ _khf
ma^Bglmbmnmbhgh_Lmkn\mnkZe>g`bg^^klp^[lbm^T/V'<Zg]b]Zm^lZk^Z]obl^]mh]hpgehZ]mabl
bg_hkfZmbhgZg]lmn]rbm'

=^o^ehif^gmh_lhenmbhgl

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

## + Development of solutions (section 1)

+'* Viable structural solutions
<Zg]b]Zm^lZk^k^jnbk^]mhik^iZk^Z]^lb`gZiikZblZeh_two]blmbg\mZg]obZ[e^lhenmbhgl_hk
ma^[kb^_'BmblbfihkmZgmmaZmmphlhenmbhglZk^ik^l^gm^]4h__^kbg`hgerhg^lhenmbhgblebd^er
mhk^lnembgZ_Zbenk^';hmalhenmbhgllahne][^ik^iZk^]mhma^lZf^e^o^eh_]^mZbe'<Zg]b]Zm^l
lahne]]^fhglmkZm^mhma^^qZfbg^kma^Z[bebmrmh\hg\^bo^Zg]ik^l^gm]blmbg\mhimbhgl_hk
ma^ikhihl^]lmkn\mnk^l'
Ma^rlahne]bg]b\Zm^ma^_ng\mbhgZe_kZfbg`%ehZ]mkZgl_^kZg]lmZ[bebmrh_ma^l\a^f^l'Ma^
jn^lmbhgZldl_hkma^_ng\mbhgZe_kZfbg`[^_hk^ma^ehZ]mkZgl_^k]bZ`kZf[^\Znl^mablblma^
g^\^llZkrZg]eh`b\Zel^jn^g\^'Ma^ehZ]iZmafnlm_heehpmakhn`ama^_kZfbg`'LbfbeZker%
ma^f^Zglh_lmZ[beblbg`ma^_kZf^\Zg[^Z]]k^ll^]hgerZ_m^kma^ehZ]iZmalaZo^[^^g
b]^gmb^]'
Bg]^o^ehibg`lhenmbhglma^\Zg]b]Zm^lahne]\hglb]^kma^_heehpbg`blln^l4fhk^]^mZbebl`bo^g
makhn`ahnmmabll^\mbhg'
 ?ng\mbhgZe_kZfbg`
 EhZ]mkZgl_^k
 LmZ[bebmr
 LZ_^mr
 >\hghfr
 ;nbe]Z[bebmr
 Kh[nlmg^ll
 =nkZ[bebmr
 Lbm^\hglmkZbgml

Li^^]h_\hglmkn\mbhg
:^lma^mb\l
:\hnlmb\l
?hhm_Zee&bg]n\^]ob[kZmbhg
Ma^kfZefZll
LnlmZbgZ[bebmr
;nbe]bg`fho^f^gml
?bk^k^lblmZg\^

## +'+ Functional framing

Ma^lmkn\mnk^lahne][^b]^Zebl^]mhlahpahpbm_ng\mbhgl4mabllahne][^ik^l^gm^]ZlZld^m\a
maZm lahpl ma^ mri^ h_ \hgg^\mbhgl% ma^ lmb__g^ll h_ ma^ ^e^f^gml Zg](hk lmkn\mnk^ Zg] ma^
gZmnk^ h_ ma^ _hng]Zmbhgl Zg] Zgr k^mZbgbg` lmkn\mnk^l' >qZfie^l h_ ZiikhikbZm^ _ng\mbhgZe
_kZfbg`]bZ`kZflZk^lahpgbg?b`nk^+'*'

Ma^\Zg]b]Zm^lahne]lahpahpma^Z\mbhglhgZlmkn\mnk^Zk^mkZgl_^kk^]_khfma^ihbgmh_
Ziieb\Zmbhg mh ma^ lniihkmbg` `khng]4 Z`Zbg mabl bl fhlm \e^Zker \hgo^r^] makhn`a Z ld^m\a'
>qZfie^l Zk^ `bo^g bg ?b`nk^ +'+'Ma^ ehZ] mkZgl_^k ]bZ`kZf beenlmkZm^l ma^ pZr ma^ ]^lb`g^k
^qi^\mlma^lmkn\mnk^mh[^aZo^'
@^g^kZeerma^k^Zk^mak^^mri^lh_ehZ]mh\hglb]^k3
 O^kmb\ZeerZ\mbg`hk`kZobmrehZ]lln\aZll^e_&p^b`amZg]bfihl^]hhkehZ]bg`'
 EZm^kZeehZ]lln\aZlpbg]Zg]ma^ahkbshgmZeehZ]l]n^mh`^hf^mkb\bfi^k_^\mbhgl'
 LhbeehZ]l%pab\a\ZgaZo^^bma^ko^kmb\ZehkahkbshgmZe\hfihg^gml'

Ma^\Zg]b]Zm^lahne][^Z[e^mhjnb\der]^m^kfbg^ma^\kbmb\Ze\hf[bgZmbhgh_ma^l^ehZ]l%[Zl^]
hgma^iZkmbZe_Z\mhkl`bo^gbg:gg^q:*h_;L>G*22)T0V'

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

Long-span roof

Stiff floor

concrete
block wall
Upstand
beam
Column

Transfer beam
Column

Shear
wall

GL

GL
Raft
b) Gable shear wall

a) Building section

Slender
columns
Retaining
wall

c) Reservoir

Tie/strut

Pilecap
Pile

## d) Precast concrete terracing

?b`nk^+'*
>qZfie^_ng\mbhgZe_kZfbg`]bZ`kZfl
=bZ`kZfl3;h[Pbelhg

=^o^ehif^gmh_lhenmbhgl

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

Deflection, bending
and shear in beam
at the end of the
beam

Wall reaction

Reinforced
concrete column

Brickwork wall

Foundation reaction

Foundation reaction

Pile cap

Pile reaction

Ground reaction

s = bearing
pressure
B
Pile
Friction reaction
1.5B

End reaction

Bulb of pressure
for s /5

Stress =

Area

?b`nk^+'+!\hgmbgn^]ho^ke^Z_"
>qZfie^ehZ]mkZgl_^k]bZ`kZfl
=bZ`kZfl3;h[Pbelhg

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

Tension

Wind
b) Plan view of diaphragm action

tio

e
Ti

Walls
displaced

ac

Hogging

Floor sag
Support
removed
Extra compression
with bending

Tension

## c) Effect of accidental impact

Surcharge

Soil at rest
GWL

GL
W1
W2

GL
Passive
resistance

Bearing pressures
d) Retaining wall
?b`nk^+'+\hgmbgn^]
>qZfie^ehZ]mkZgl_^k]bZ`kZfl
=bZ`kZfl3;h[Pbelhg

=^o^ehif^gmh_lhenmbhgl

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

+'- Stability
Bmbl^ll^gmbZemaZmma^[nbe]bg`Zg]bmloZkbhnl\hfihg^gm^e^f^gmlZk^lmZ[e^Zg]ma^\Zg]b]Zm^
blebd^ermh_Zbeb_ma^lmZ[bebmrh_ma^lmkn\mnk^blghmZ]^jnZm^er]^fhglmkZm^]'Ma^k^Zk^mph
lmZ[bebmr\kbm^kbZmh\hglb]^k4eZm^kZelmZ[bebmrZg]nieb_m]n^mhpZm^kik^llnk^'

## +'-'* Lateral stability

Ma^_heehpbg`Zk^^qZfie^lh_ehZ]lmaZmfZrbfihl^eZm^kZe_hk\^lhgma^lmkn\mnk^3
 Pbg]ehZ]l'
 >ZkmajnZd^l'
 EZm^kZeehZ]l]n^mh`^hf^mkb\bfi^k_^\mbhgl'
 AhkbshgmZe\hfihg^gmh_lhbeehZ]l'!Hnm&h_&[ZeZg\^lhbeehZ]llahne][^\hglb]^k^]hg

lehibg`lbm^l'"
 :\\b]^gmZeehZ]l'

Ma^lmkn\mnk^lahne][^]^lb`g^]mhk^lblmma^l^ehZ]lbgmphhkmah`hgZe]bk^\mbhgl'?hkZfnemb&
lmhk^r[nbe]bg`mabl\Zg[^Z\ab^o^][rnlbg`3
 La^ZkpZeel!b'^'Z[kZ\^][nbe]bg`"hk4
 Fhf^gm&k^lblmbg`_kZf^l!b'^'lpZr_kZf^"'

La^ZkpZeellahne][^ZkkZg`^]bgieZglhmaZmma^bkla^Zk\^gmk^\hbg\b]^lpbmama^k^lnemZgmh_
ma^ho^kmnkgbg`_hk\^l!l^^?b`nk^+',"'B_mablblghmihllb[e^%mpblmbg`fhf^gmlpbeeZelhh\\nkZg]
ma^Z]]bmbhgZe_hk\^lmaZmk^lnemlahne][^Z]]^]mhma^hma^k_hk\^lbg^Z\ala^ZkpZee'?nkma^k
`nb]Zg\^hg\Ze\neZmbg`ma^la^Zk\^gmk^Zg]mpblmbg`fhf^gmlbl`bo^gbgL^\mbhg,'*1'

## a) Walls resist bending in one plane,

frame action in other plane.
Good tortional stiffness.

## b) Walls resist bending in both planes.

Good tortional stiffness.

## c) Core resists bending in both

planes. Poor tortional behaviour
due to eccentricity.

## d) Cores resist bending in both planes.

Good tortional stiffness.

Movement
joint

## e) Cores resist bending on each section of the

building independently. Relative shear
displacement at movement joint.

?b`nk^+',
Mrib\Zela^ZkpZeeeZrhnml
=bZ`kZf3<bkbZK^ihkm*)+ 1

T V

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

Ma^nl^h_la^ZkpZeelZllnf^lmaZmma^hhkpbeeZ\mZlZahkbshgmZe]bZiakZ`fmhmkZgl_^kehZ]l
mhma^la^ZkpZeel'?hkbg&lbmn\hg\k^m^[nbe]bg`lmabl\ZgghkfZeer[^Zllnf^]Zg]ghhma^k
\a^\dlZk^g^\^llZkr'Ahp^o^k%_nkma^k\hglb]^kZmbhgh_ahpma^eZm^kZeehZ]lZk^mkZgl_^kk^]mh
ma^la^ZkpZeelfZr[^k^jnbk^]Zllahpgbgma^_heehpbg`^qZfie^l3
 Pa^k^ik^\Zlm\hg\k^m^hhkngbmlZk^nl^]%^li^\bZeerpa^k^ma^k^blghlmkn\mnkZemhiibg`%

^'`'\ZkiZkd]^\dhkng]^kZkZbl^]hhk'
 Pa^k^ma^ehZ]lZk^mkZgl_^kk^]Z\khllZk^eZmbo^ergZkkhplmkbi%^'`'pZedpZrebgdbg`mph

iZkmlh_ma^[nbe]bg`'
 Pa^k^ma^e^g`mah_hhkieZm^\hgg^\m^]]bk^\mermhma^la^ZkpZeelbllahkm'Mabl\Zgh\\nk

b_ma^k^Zk^eZk`^l^kob\^lkbl^klZ]cZ\^gmmhma^la^ZkpZeel'

+'-'+ Uplift
Pa^k^ma^lmkn\mnk^k^jnbk^l^q\ZoZmbhgbg`khng]maZmaZlZab`apZm^kmZ[e^%ma^pZm^kik^llnk^
fZr \Znl^ nieb_m ![nhrZg\r" h_ ma^ lmkn\mnk^'Ma^ \Zg]b]Zm^ lahne] ^glnk^ ma^k^ bl lnbmZ[e^
k^lblmZg\^ mh ma^ nieb_m _hk\^l bg ma^ gZe \hg]bmbhg% Zg] Zelh ]^m^kfbg^ paZm f^Zlnk^l Zk^
k^jnbk^]]nkbg`\hglmkn\mbhgmhZohb]nieb_m'

## +'. Concrete frame options

K^bg_hk\^] \hg\k^m^ bl Z o^klZmbe^ fZm^kbZe maZm \Zg [^ _hkf^] bg fZgr ]b__^k^gm laZi^l Zg]
_hkfl'?b`nk^+'-`bo^llbsbg`bg_hkfZmbhg_hkma^fhk^\hffhglhenmbhgl_hkhhkl'MZ[e^+'*
`bo^lZlnffZkrh_ma^\hffhg_hkflh_\hg\k^m^\hglmkn\mbhgmaZmZk^nl^]%Zg]ik^l^gml
ma^bkZ]oZgmZ`^lZg]]blZ]oZgmZ`^l'

## +'/ Foundations and retaining structures

+'/'* Ground-bearing slabs
@khng]&[^Zkbg`leZ[lZk^ZihineZkZg]^\hghfb\pZrmhlniihkmma^ehZ]lZmma^ehp^lme^o^e
bgma^[nbe]bg`'Ahp^o^k%bgma^_heehpbg`lbmnZmbhgl%lnli^g]^]leZ[lhk`khng]bfikho^f^gm
m^\agbjn^lfZr[^k^jnbk^]mhk^]n\^l^mme^f^gm3
 LeZ[llniihkmbg`ab`aehZ]l%^'`'bg]nlmkbZehhkl'
 BgZk^Zlpa^k^ma^`khng]\hg]bmbhglbg\en]^ee'
 BgZk^Zlpbmalh_m\eZr'
 Hglehibg`lbm^l%^li^\bZeerpa^k^ma^leZ[phne][^lniihkm^]hgoZkrbg``khng]

\hg]bmbhgl'
 Pa^k^mk^^l\hne]\Zg\Znl^l^mme^f^gmhka^Zo^'

## +'/'+ Foundation solutions

L^e^\mbg` ma^ \hkk^\m _hng]Zmbhg lhenmbhg bl Zg bfihkmZgm iZkm h_ ma^ ^qZfbgZmbhg4MZ[e^ +'+
`bo^lZiikhikbZm^_hng]Zmbhgl_hkZoZkb^mrh_lhbe\hg]bmbhgl'Ma^l^Zk^`^g^kZeblZmbhgl_hkmrib\Ze
[nbe]bg`lZg]Zk^ghmbgm^g]^]mh[^Zln[lmbmnm^_hk^qi^kb^g\^'D^r\hglb]^kZmbhglZm\hg\^im
lmZ`^Zk^3
 @khng]pZm^kZab`a`khng]pZm^ke^o^epbeek^jnbk^li^\bZef^Zlnk^l]nkbg`\hglmkn\mbhg

Zg]fZr\Znl^[nhrZg\rh_ma^gbla^]lmkn\mnk^'
 LaZeehp_hng]Zmbhgllahne][^cnlmmaZmlaZeehp'>q\ZoZmbg`]^^i^kmaZg,fblnlnZeerghm

^\hghfb\'

=^o^ehif^gmh_lhenmbhgl

500

Depth in mm

400

300

200

100

9
10
Span in m

11

12

13

14

15

9
10
Span in m

11

12

13

14

15

9
10
Span in m

11

12

13

14

15

600

500

Depth in mm

400

300

200

100

## b) Imposed load Qk = 5.0 kN/m2

600

500

400
Depth in mm

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

600

300

200

100

Key
Troughed slab

Flat slab

## Hybrid hollowcore and topping

One-way slab

?b`nk^+'LiZg&mh&]^ima\aZkml_hkbfihl^]ehZ]lh_+'.%.')Zg]0'.dG(f+

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?e^qb[bebmr_hkiZkmbmbhgl

Fbgbfbl^llmhk^ra^b`am

>\hghfr

Li^^]h_\hglmkn\mbhg

Ihlm&m^glbhg^]
\hg\k^m^
Fbg

FZq

Fbg

K^bg_hk\^]hk
ik^lmk^ll^]\hg\'

LiZgkZg`^

FZq

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

<hg\k^m^himbhg

>Zl^h_l^kob\^]blmkb[nmbhg

MZ[e^+'*
<hg\k^m^lhenmbhgl_hkhhkl

?eZmleZ[l
Solid at slab (Continuity improves economy)

*)

*, H

## Solid at slab with drops

*+

*-

disrupts cycle times and interferes with holes adjacent to
columns)

*)

*,

Wafe slab

*+

*- H

## Biaxial voided slab (Can be used with in-situ or with

precast soft slab, which would act as permanent
formwork)

*-

*/ H

Hg^&pZrleZ[l
Solid one-way slab with beams

*+

*-

H H

*+

*,

**

*+ H

**

*+ H

*)

*-

H H

*.

*2

## Precast crosswall and solid prestressed slab

- 0'.

Mph&pZrleZ[l
Solid two-way slab with beams

*+

*-

## Wafe slab with integral beams

**

Ar[kb]\hg\k^m^\hglmkn\mbhg!\hf[bgZmbhgh_bg&lbmnZg]ik^\Zlm\hg\k^m^"
Precast twin wall and lattic girder soft slab with
in-situ inll and topping

- 0'.

slab

*)

*+

H H

*-

*-

## In-situ columns and oor topping with precast

beams and oor units
 D^r
>q\^ee^gm

@hh]

- 0'.

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GhmZiieb\Z[e^hkghmZiikhikbZm^

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[M^fihkZkrikhilk^jnbk^]

10

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Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

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leZ[hgpZeel"

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[^Zfl

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?b`nk^+'.
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11

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

MZ[e^+'+
?hng]Zmbhglhenmbhgl
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-.)ff
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\hg]bmbhgl

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mh`k^Zm]^ima%pbmahnm
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ob\bgbmr

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ff
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ma^\eZr

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ho^klh_m\eZrmh`k^Zm]^ima

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kZ_mlfZr[^ZiikhikbZm^
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pbee[^k^jnbk^]

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I^Zm

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12

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Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

Li^\b^l

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a^b`am!f"
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## +'/'- Retaining walls

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13

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

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Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

## +'/'. Ground improvement

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15

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

## +'/'/ Remediation using soil stabilisation/solidication

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qre^g^"Zg]hma^kOH<Zg]l^fbOH<l
!oheZmbe^hk`Zgb\\hfihng]l"

I:Al!iherZkhfZmb\ar]kh\Zk[hgl"

Mk^Zmf^gmbl^gaZg\^]pbmama^nl^h_
lhk[^gml

Ia^ghel

Mk^Zmf^gmbl^gaZg\^]pbmama^nl^h_
lhk[^gml

MIA!mhmZei^mkhe^nfar]kh\Zk[hgl"
bg\en]bg`i^mkhekZg`^Zg]]b^l^ekZg`^
ZebiaZmb\l!IKHZg]=KH"

<Zk^k^jnbk^]bg]^lb`gh_[bg]^kmhhimbfbl^
ln\\^ll

:l[^lmhl

I<;l!iher\aehkbgZm^][b&ia^grel"%
i^lmb\b]^l%]bhqbgl%_nkZgl

Ln\\^llpbmai^lmb\b]^l]^i^g]lhgma^
iZkmb\neZk\hfihng]lik^l^gm

:\b]lZg]ZedZebl

KZ]bhgn\eb]^l

<hfie^m^^g\ZilneZmbhghk^f[^]f^gmbl
h_m^gnl^]pbmakZ]bhZ\mbo^pZlm^l

Lne_nkZg]lne_Zm^l

Ln\\^ll]^i^g]lhgma^mri^%gZmnk^Zg]
\hg\^gmkZmbhgh_iZkmb\neZk\hfihng]l

D^r
l Mk^Zmf^gmbl^__^\mbo^pbma]^fhglmkZ[e^Ziieb\Z[bebmr
l Mk^Zmf^gmbl^__^\mbo^Zg]ln\\^llbl]^fhglmkZ[e^'Ahp^o^k%^_\Z\rblln[c^\mmh\aZkZ\m^kblmb\lh_
\hgmZfbgZgmZg]ZiikhikbZm^]^lb`gh_L(Lmk^Zmf^gmlrlm^f'Ik^&mk^Zmf^gmfZr[^k^jnbk^][^_hk^fZbgL(L
ikh\^llblZiieb^]

16

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

=^o^ehif^gmh_lhenmbhgl
MablchbgmZiikhZ\a\Zg[^nl^]_hkZpb]^kZg`^h_]b__^k^gm\hgmZfbgZgmlZg]\Zg[^mZbehk^]
mhf^^mma^k^jnbk^f^gmlh_ma^lbm^&li^\b\kbldl!l^^MZ[e^+'/"'Ma^k^blghg^^]mhk^fho^ma^
\hgmZfbgZgmlZg]mablfbgbfbl^lma^g^^]mhmkZglihkmlihbemhZmbi%lZobg`\hlmlZg]k^]n\bg`
ma^^gobkhgf^gmZebfiZ\m'<^kmZbg\hgmZfbgZgml\Zgghm[^mk^Zm^]bgmablpZr^'`'`Zl^l'
Ma^lhbe\Zg[^mk^Zm^]nlbg`hg^h_ma^m^\agbjn^l`bo^gbgMZ[e^+'0'
MZ[e^+'0
LmZ[beblZmbhg(lheb]b\Zmbhgmk^Zmf^gmlnlbg`\^f^gmbmbhnl[bg]^kl
Bg&lbmnmk^Zmf^gm
LaZeehpmk^Zmf^gm
5)'.f

Ma^[bg]^kbllik^Z]ho^kma^lnk_Z\^h_ma^`khng]mh[^mk^Zm^]ZmZ
ik^]^m^kfbg^]]hl^kZm^Zg]ma^gfbq^]bgnlbg`khmhoZmbg`^jnbif^gm'Ma^
[e^g]^]fZm^kbZeblma^g\hfiZ\m^]Zg]ma^k^Z\mbhg[^mp^^gma^[bg]^kZg]
ma^fhblmnk^bgma^lhbeblZeehp^]mhmZd^ieZ\^'

Bgm^kf^]bZm^
mk^Zmf^gm)'..f

Ma^[bg]^kblfbq^]bgmhma^lhbenlbg`ieZgmfh]b^]mhlnbmma^li^\b\lbm^
\hg]bmbhglZg]Ziieb\Zmbhg'

=^^imk^Zmf^gm
7.f

Ma^[bg]^kblbgmkh]n\^]bgmhma^\hgmZfbgZm^]lhbeZlZ]krihp]^khklenkkr
nlbg`o^kmb\Zeaheehplm^fZn`^kl'Ma^[bg]^kblma^gfbq^]bgmhma^lhbeZlma^
Zn`^klZk^Z]oZg\^]Zg](hkpbma]kZpg'H_m^gma^ikh\^llnl^lZ`kb]h_Zn`^kl
maZmho^keZimh^glnk^`k^Zm^k^_\Z\rh_fbqbg`Zg]mk^Zmf^gm'

>q&lbmnmk^Zmf^gm
KhmhoZmhkhkhma^k
]kbo^gfh[be^ieZgm

Ma^^q\ZoZm^]lhbeblmkZglihkm^]mhZgZe]^ihlbmbhgZk^Z%pa^k^bmbllik^Z]
bgeZr^klZehg`pbmama^[bg]^kZg]fbq^]nlbg`khmhoZmbg`^jnbif^gm'Ma^
[e^g]^]fZm^kbZeblma^g\hfiZ\m^]Zg]ma^k^Z\mbhg[^mp^^gma^[bg]^kZg]
ma^fhblmnk^bgma^lhbeblZeehp^]mhmZd^ieZ\^'

Bg&]knffbqbg`

Ma^^q\ZoZm^]lhbeblieZ\^]bgZ]knf%bgmhpab\ama^[bg]^kblZ]]^]Zg]fbq^]'
Ma^k^Z\mbhg[^mp^^gma^[bg]^kZg]ma^fhblmnk^bglhbeblZeehp^]mhmZd^ieZ\^
bgma^]knf%Z_m^kpab\ama^[e^g]^]fZm^kbZeblieZ\^]'

In`fbee(
[Zm\afbq^k

Ma^^q\ZoZm^]lhbeblfbq^]pbmama^[bg]^kbgZinkihl^&[nbemieZgm!fh[be^hk
q^]"ikbhkmhmkZglihkmZmbhgmhZ]^ihlbmbhgZk^Z'Ma^[e^g]^]fZm^kbZeblma^g
\hfiZ\m^]Zg]ma^k^Z\mbhg[^mp^^gma^[bg]^kZg]ma^fhblmnk^bgma^lhbebl
Zeehp^]mhmZd^ieZ\^'

Hma^kk^f^]bZmbhgmk^Zmf^gml
:lp^eeZllhbelmZ[beblZmbhg(lheb]b\Zmbhg%hma^kf^mah]lh_mk^Zmbg`\hgmZfbgZm^]`khng]nlbg`
\^f^gmbmbhnlikh]n\mlZk^ZoZbeZ[e^'@khnmbg`\Zg[^nl^]mhmk^Zm\hgmZfbgZm^]lhbel[rk^]n\bg`
ma^bki^kf^Z[bebmr':\hgmZbgf^gm[Zkkb^k\hne]Zelh[^_hkf^]mh[eh\dma^`khng]pZm^khp
nlbg``khnmbg`hklhbefbqbg`m^\agbjn^l':em^kgZmbo^er%hma^kZiikhZ\a^lln\aZlma^\hglmkn\mbhg
h_Zl^\Zgmibe^pZeehk]bZiakZ`fpZeemhZ\mZlZ[Zkkb^kfZrZelh[^\hglb]^k^]'

## +'0 Design appraisal

<Zg]b]Zm^lZk^Zld^]mhl^e^\mma^fhlmZiikhikbZm^himbhg_khfma^mphma^raZo^ik^l^gm^]'
Ma^k^Zlhgl_hkma^l^\ahb\^llahne][^\e^Zkerl^mhnmZg]ma^_heehpbg`bg_hkfZmbhgfZr[^
nl^]mha^ei]blmbg`nbla[^mp^^gma^mphhimbhglZg]ik^iZk^ma^]^lb`gZiikZblZe'

+'0'* Safety
Ma^lmkn\mnkZe^g`bg^^klahne]\hglb]^kahpma^bk]^lb`gbfiZ\mlhglZ_^mr]nkbg`ma^_heehpbg`
lmZ`^lbgma^lmkn\mnk^leb_^3
 <hglmkn\mbhg
 Nl^
 FZbgm^gZg\^
 K^_nk[blaf^gm(Zem^kZmbhg
 =^fhebmbhg

17

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

Bg[khZ]m^kflma^]^lb`g^klahne]nl^ma^_heehpbg`ikh\^]nk^mhfbgbfbl^a^ZemaZg]lZ_^mr
kbldl3
 B]^gmb_rma^aZsZk]l
 >ebfbgZm^^Z\aaZsZk]hkk^]n\^bmlbfiZ\m
 Pa^k^mablblghmihllb[e^k^]n\^ma^kbld
 Ikhob]^bg_hkfZmbhgmhma^\hgmkZ\mhk

Bg^obmZ[er ]^\blbhgl pbee aZo^ mh [^ fZ]^ maZm lmkbd^ Z [ZeZg\^ [^mp^^g ikhm^\mbg` Z`Zbglm Z
kZg`^h_aZsZk]lZg]hma^k]^lb`gh[c^\mbo^lln\aZl3
 <eb^gml_ng\mbhgZek^jnbk^f^gml
 <hlm!bgbmbZeZg]pahe^&eb_^"
 Ikh`kZff^
 :^lma^mb\l
 ?ng\mbhgZebmr
 =nkZ[bebmr
 >gobkhgf^gmZeg^^]l

=^\blbhglfZ]^Zmma^^ZkerlmZ`^lh_ma^ikhc^\maZo^ma^`k^Zm^lmbfiZ\m%Zg]lha^ZemaZg]
lZ_^mrlahne][^`bo^gZlfn\a\hglb]^kZmbhgZlhma^k_Z\mhklpa^g\ahhlbg`[^mp^^ghimbhgl'
?nkma^kbg_hkfZmbhgmaZmfZrnl^_nepa^g\hglb]^kbg`a^ZemaZg]lZ_^mrbl`bo^gbgL^\mbhg.'*'+'

+'0'+ Economy
?hkZg^\hghfb\Zeer]^lb`g^]lmkn\mnk^ma^k^pbee`^g^kZeer[^o^krebmme^]b__^k^g\^bgma^ho^kZee
[nbe]bg`\hlm[^mp^^gZlm^^eZg]\hg\k^m^_kZf^][nbe]bg`'MablaZl[^^g\hgkf^][rk^\^gm
lmn]b^lh_[nbe]bg`\hlmlT*,*/V'
Pa^gfZdbg`Z\Zl^_hkhg^himbhghkZghma^kbmblbfihkmZgmmh\hglb]^kma^pahe^ib\mnk^'
:lp^eeZl\hfiZkbg`ma^\hlmh_ma^_kZf^%ma^\ahb\^h__kZf^fZraZo^ZgbfiZ\mhgma^
_heehpbg`Zk^Zl3
FoundationsZa^Zob^k_kZf^pbeebg\k^Zl^_hng]Zmbhglbs^Zg]ma^k^_hk^\hlm'Ahp^o^k%

ma^bg\k^Zl^bgmhmZe_kZf^\hlmblngebd^ermh[^`k^Zm^kmaZg)'.!hk)')-h_mhmZe
[nbe]bg`\hlm"Zg]pbeeh_m^g[^e^ll'
lfZee^k\eZ]]bg`Zk^Z%pab\abgmnkg\hlmle^ll':lmkn\mnkZelhenmbhgpbmaZehp^khhk&mh&
hhka^b`ampbeek^]n\^ma^ho^kZee[nbe]bg`\hlm':l\eZ]]bg`\ZgZfhngmmh+.h_ma^
[nbe]bg`\hlm%fbgbfblbg`ma^hhkmab\dg^ll\hne]lZo^ho^k*h_ma^mhmZe[nbe]bg`\hlm'
Partitionsl^Zebg`Zg]k^lmhiibg`ZmiZkmbmbhga^Z]lbllbfie^lmpbmaZmlh_ml'
Lb`gb\ZgmlZobg`lh_nimh*)h_ma^iZkmbmbhgliZ\dZ`^\Zg[^fZ]^\hfiZk^]pbmama^
^jnboZe^gm]krebgbg`iZ\dZ`^Z[nmmbg`Zikhe^]lh_mpbma]hpglmZg]l'Mabl\Zgk^ik^l^gm
nimh-h_ma^_kZf^\hlm%Zg]Zlb`gb\Zgmk^]n\mbhgbgma^ikh`kZff^e^g`ma'
Airtightness:iikho^]=h\nf^gmET*0Vk^jnbk^lik^&\hfie^mbhgik^llnk^m^lmbg`'?Zbebg`
ma^l^m^lmlf^Zglng]^kmZdbg`ma^mbf^&\hglnfbg`ikh\^llh_bgli^\mbg`chbgmlZg]
bgm^k_Z\^lZg]ma^gk^l^Zebg`ma^fpa^k^g^\^llZkr'<hg\k^m^^]`^]^mZbelZk^h_m^glbfie^k
mhl^ZeZg]ma^k^_hk^aZo^e^llkbldh__Zbenk^'
Servicesma^lh_mh_Z\hg\k^m^ZmleZ[ikhob]^lZshg^_hkl^kob\^l]blmkb[nmbhg_k^^h_
Zgr]hpglmZg][^Zfl'Mablk^]n\^l\hhk]bgZmbhg^__hkm_hkma^]^lb`gm^ZfZg]ma^k^_hk^
ma^kbldh_^kkhkl'L^kob\^lbglmZeeZmbhgbllbfie^lm[^ehpZZmlh_mZg]mabli^kfbml
fZqbfnfh__&lbm^_Z[kb\Zmbhgh_l^kob\^l'Ma^l^Z]oZgmZ`^lZk^k^^\m^]bgehp^k\hlml_hk
l^kob\^l[^g^ZmaZZmlh_m'

Ma^k^eZmbo^^\hghfb\lh_hg^mri^h_lmkn\mnk^hkZghma^kfZrZelh]^i^g]hgma^ik^oZbebg`
ieZgmabk^%eZ[hnkZg]fZm^kbZe\hlml'?hkbglmZg\^ZZmleZ[blh_m^g\ahl^gbgeh\Zmbhglpa^k^
fZm^kbZe\hlmlZk^ehpbgk^eZmbhgmheZ[hnk\hlml'Mablk^]n\^lma^eZ[hnkk^jnbk^]Zmma^^qi^gl^
h_Z]]bmbhgZefZm^kbZel'

18

=^o^ehif^gmh_lhenmbhgl

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

+'0', Buildability
H_m^g [nbe]Z[bebmr bl Z__^\m^] [r ahp ma^ lmkn\mnk^ bl \hg\^bo^] Zg] ]^mZbe^] [r ma^ ]^lb`g^k
kZma^kmaZg[^bg`bgn^g\^][rma^fZm^kbZe\ahl^g'Ma^[nbe]Z[bebmrh_Z\hg\k^m^_kZf^fZr
[^bfikho^][rma^_heehpbg`3
Using at softslbfieb^lma^_hkfphkd%_Zel^phkd%l^mmbg`hnmZg]l^kob\^lZg]\^bebg`

bglmZeeZmbhg'
Repetition of design elements_Z\bebmZm^lma^k^&nl^h__hkfphkd%^gZ[e^lkhnmbg^lmh

[^^lmZ[ebla^]fhk^jnb\der%k^]n\^lma^e^Zkgbg`\nko^Zg]mkZbgbg`k^jnbk^f^gml%bfikho^l
lZ_^mr'
Simplicationk^]n\^l\hfie^qbmrh__hkfphkdZg]gnf[^kh_ln[&\hgmkZ\mhkl':lbfie^
Zmlh_mfZd^lbm^Zlb^kmhbglmZeel^kob\^l'
Standardisation^gZ[e^l_Z\mhkrikh]n\mbhg%ab`ajnZebmrgbla^l%li^^]lni\hglmkn\mbhg%
^gZ[e^l]ZfZ`^]iZkmlmh[^jnb\derk^ieZ\^]Zg]^e^f^gml\Zg[^l^e^\m^](Ziikho^]
[^_hk^gZeqbg`'
Rationalisation of reinforcementli^^]l\hglmkn\mbhg%_Z\bebmZm^lik^_Z[kb\Zmbhg%k^]n\^l
]^mZbebg`mbf^'
 =^lb`g^e^f^gmllhma^r\Zg[^precast hk prefabricated'
Using in-situ concreteZ\\hffh]Zm^leZm^]^lb`g\aZg`^l%ikhob]^lkh[nlmg^ll_hk
ik^\Zlmlrlm^fl%Zg]blZiikhikbZm^_hk_hng]Zmbhgl'

+'0'- Robustness
:gbg&lbmn\hg\k^m^_kZf^bl`^g^kZeero^krkh[nlm[^\Znl^h_bmlfhghebmab\gZmnk^'NlnZeerma^
mrbg`k^jnbk^f^gmlmhZohb]]blikhihkmbhgZe\heeZil^Zk^f^mpbmaghkfZe]^mZbebg`h_\hg\k^m^'
IZkmb\neZkZmm^gmbhglahne][^`bo^gmhmkZgl_^klmkn\mnk^l%pa^k^\^kmZbg^e^f^gmlfZr[^\hf^
d^r^e^f^gmlZg]\hglb]^kZmbhglahne][^`bo^gmh^glnkbg`ma^k^Zk^Zem^kgZmbo^ehZ]iZmal'
Ik^\Zlm \hg\k^m^ _kZf^l k^jnbk^ li^\bZe \hglb]^kZmbhg pbma k^`Zk]l mh kh[nlmg^ll'Ma^ ik^\Zlm
^e^f^gmllahne][^mb^]mh`^ma^kmhZohb]]blikhihkmbhgZm^\heeZil^4_nkma^kZ]ob\^bl`bo^gbg
:ii^g]bq:'

+'0'. Durability
:p^ee&]^mZbe^]\hg\k^m^_kZf^bl^qi^\m^]mhaZo^Zehg`eb_^Zg]k^jnbk^o^krebmme^fZbgm^gZg\^'
Bm lahne] ^Zlber [^ Z[e^ mh Z\ab^o^ Z /)&r^Zk ]^lb`g eb_^ Zg]% pbma \Zk^_ne Zmm^gmbhg mh ma^
li^\b\Zmbhgh_ma^\ho^kZg]\hg\k^m^ikhi^kmb^l%lahne][^Z[e^mhZ\ab^o^*+)r^Zkl^o^g
bgZ``k^llbo^^gobkhgf^gml';L1.))T*1Vblma^lmZm^&h_&ma^&ZkmlmZg]Zk]hg]nkZ[bebmrZg]`bo^l
Z]ob\^_hkoZkbhnl^gobkhgf^gml!l^^L^\mbhg,',_hkfhk^bg_hkfZmbhg"'

## +'0'/ Site constraints

Ma^eh\Zmbhgh_ma^lbm^fZrbfihl^\hglmkZbgmlmaZm_Zohnkhg^lhenmbhgho^kZghma^k'Ma^l^
k^lmkZbgml\hne]bg\en]^3
 Ikhqbfbmrh_Z]cZ\^gm[nbe]bg`l%pab\afb`amZ__^\mma^]^lb`gh_ma^lmkn\mnk^Zg]ma^

m^fihkZkrphkdl'
 Lbs^h_ma^lbm^Zg]phkdbg`liZ\^%pab\afZrebfbmma^liZ\^_hklbm^h_\^lZg]lmhkZ`^

Zk^Zl'
 :\\^llmhma^lbm^%^'`'\bmr\^gmk^lbm^%pab\a\hne]ebfbmma^lbs^h_o^ab\e^lmaZm\ZgZ\\^ll

ma^lbm^'
 K^fhm^g^llh_ma^lbm^%pab\afZrieZ\^ebfbmZmbhglhgma^ZoZbeZ[e^fZm^kbZel%eZ[hnk%ieZgm

Zg]ma^lbs^h_o^ab\e^maZm\Zgk^Z\ama^lbm^'
 K^lmkb\mbhglhgphkdbg`ahnkl'
 >__^\mh_lbm^ikh\^ll^lhgg^b`a[hnklZg]`^g^kZein[eb\^'`'ma^^__^\mlh_ghbl^Zg]

iheenmbhg'L^e_&\hfiZ\mbg`\hg\k^m^fZrZllblm[r^ebfbgZmbg`ma^g^^]_hkob[kZmbhg'
 :oZbeZ[bebmrh_fZm^kbZel'<hg\k^m^blma^fhlmpb]^ernl^]\hglmkn\mbhgfZm^kbZebgma^phke]

Zg]ma^^ll^gmbZebg`k^]b^gmlZk^Zelh_hng]makhn`ahnmma^phke]'
19

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

## +'0'0 Speed of construction

Bmblh_m^gZllnf^]maZmZlm^^e_kZf^pbeeh__^kZ_Zlm^k_hkfh_\hglmkn\mbhgmaZgZ\hg\k^m^
_kZf^'Mablpbeeghmg^\^llZkber[^ma^\Zl^'Bg&lbmn\hg\k^m^aZlZfn\ak^]n\^]e^Z]&bgmbf^%
h_m^ghgero^p^^dl%lhphkd\Zgh_m^glmZkmhglbm^fhk^jnb\der%pa^k^ZlZlm^^e_kZf^fZr
aZo^Ze^Z]&bgmbf^h_*+p^^dl'Pa^k^ma^k^blmbf^_hkik^&ieZggbg`%]^lb`gZg]ik^\Zlmbg`%Z
ik^\Zlm\hg\k^m^_kZf^\Zg[^^k^\m^]jnb\der';nbe]bg`T*2VfZ`Zsbg^k^`neZkerni]Zm^lbg_hkfZmbhg
hge^Z]&bgmbf^l'
: d^r ]Zm^ hg Zgr ikh`kZff^ _hk Z [nbe]bg` bl ma^ ]Zm^ maZm bm bl p^Zma^kikhh_':emahn`a Z
ik^_Z[kb\Zm^] _kZf^ !^bma^k lm^^e hk ik^\Zlm \hg\k^m^" \Zg [^ ^k^\m^] jnb\der% bm ]h^l ghm
g^\^llZkber_heehpmaZmma^]Zm^ma^[nbe]bg`bll^Ze^]pbee[^^Zkeb^k'Mablk^eb^lhg_heehp&hgmkZ]^l%
iZkmb\neZkerma^\eZ]]bg`%pab\afZr[^Z[e^mhikh`k^llbgiZkZee^epbmaZgbg&lbmn\hg\k^m^_kZf^%
[nmpab\afZr[^]^eZr^]ngmbema^hhklZk^\hfie^m^]_hkhma^kmri^lh__kZf^'
PbmaZgbg&lbmn_kZf^%bglmZeeZmbhgh_l^kob\^lfZr[^\hff^g\^]^Zkeb^kbgma^ikh`kZff^Zl
ma^hhklZk^nlnZeer\Zlmpbmama^_kZf^%`bobg`Zgbff^]bZm^ln[lmkZm^mhpab\ama^l^kob\^l
\Zg[^q^]'B_Zmlh_mlZk^nl^]%ma^ikh`kZff^\Zg[^k^]n\^][^\Znl^ma^bglmZeeZmbhgbl
lbfie^k'
<Zg]b]Zm^lpbeeg^^]mhfZd^ma^bkhpgZll^llf^gmh_ma^k^eZmbo^li^^]h_\hglmkn\mbhg_hkma^bk
lhenmbhgl%Zg]pa^ma^kbmblZgbfihkmZgm\kbm^kbhg_hkma^\eb^gm'?nkma^k`nb]Zg\^hg\hglmkn\mbhg
i^kbh]lbl`bo^gbgL^\mbhg.'

+'0'1 Aesthetics
<hg\k^m^\Zgh__^kZie^Zlbg`Z^lma^mb\lhenmbhg%Zg]mabl\Zg[^Z\ab^o^]pbma^bma^kik^\Zlmhkbg&
lbmn\hg\k^m^'<hg\k^m^ikhob]^lma^hiihkmngbmrmh\k^Zm^ngnlnZelaZi^lZmZlfZee\hlmik^fbnf'
Mabl\Zg[^iZkmb\neZker[^g^\bZeb_\bk\neZk\henfglZk^k^jnbk^]_hkZ^lma^mb\k^Zlhglhkpa^k^
\henfglg^^]mh[^\hgmZbg^]bgpZeel%^'`'_hkZiZkmf^gml'<hg\k^m^\ZgZelh[^nl^]_hk\nko^]
[^Zfl%ngnlnZeieZglaZi^lZg]la^eelmkn\mnk^l'Ma^eZrhnmh_ma^o^kmb\Zelmkn\mnk^\Zg[^ZkkZg`^]
mhlnbmma^nl^h_ma^[nbe]bg`kZma^kmaZgaZobg`mhkb`b]er_heehpZlmkn\mnkZe`kb]'

+'0'2 Acoustics
<hg\k^m^ bl Z o^kr `hh] lhng] bglneZmhk% ^o^g pa^g ma^ lhnk\^ h_ ghbl^ bl Zg bfiZ\m hg ma^
_Z\^ h_ ma^ \hg\k^m^' ?hk mabl k^Zlhg \hg\k^m^ hhkl Zg] pZeel Zk^ h_m^g nl^] bg k^lb]^gmbZe
Z\\hffh]Zmbhg%bg\en]bg`Zml%ahm^elZg]lmn]^gmk^lb]^g\^l%mhik^o^gmma^iZllZ`^h_lhng]
[^mp^^gngbml'
<hg\k^m^\ZgZelh[^nl^]mhik^o^gmma^iZllZ`^h_lhng]bgmhhkhnmh_Z[nbe]bg`':`hh]
^qZfie^phne][^ma^nl^h_\hg\k^m^hhkl[^g^ZmaieZgmhgma^khh_h_Z[nbe]bg`mhik^o^gm
ma^ghbl^i^g^mkZmbg`ma^aZ[bmZ[e^Zk^Zl'

## +'0'*) Footfall-induced vibration

?hklhf^mri^lh_[nbe]bg`lma^\hgmkheh_ob[kZmbhglbg]n\^][ri^hie^pZedbg`Z\khllma^hhk
ieZm^Zk^bfihkmZgm'MablbliZkmb\neZkerma^\Zl^_hkahlibmZelZg]eZ[hkZmhkb^l\hgmZbgbg`l^glbmbo^
^jnbif^gm%[nm^o^gbgh_\^lehg`le^g]^kliZgl\Zg\Znl^^q\^llbo^ob[kZmbhg'
Ma^bga^k^gmfZllh_\hg\k^m^f^ZglmaZm\hg\k^m^hhkl`^g^kZeerf^^mob[kZmbhg\kbm^kbZZm
gh^qmkZ\hlmZlma^r]hghmk^jnbk^Z]]bmbhgZelmb__^gbg`'?hkfhk^lmkbg`^gm\kbm^kbZ%ln\aZl_hk
eZ[hkZmhkb^lhkahlibmZehi^kZmbg`ma^Zmk^l%ma^Z]]bmbhgZe\hlmmhf^^mob[kZmbhg\kbm^kbZbllfZee
\hfiZk^]pbmahma^klmkn\mnkZefZm^kbZel'
:gbg]^i^g]^gmlmn]rT+)Vbgmhma^ob[kZmbhgi^k_hkfZg\^h_]b__^k^gmlmkn\mnkZe_hkflbgahlibmZel
aZl \hgkf^] maZm \hg\k^m^ \Zg ghkfZeer [^ ^Zlber ]^lb`g^] _hk ma^ fhlm \hfie^m^ \hgmkhe
h_ob[kZmbhgho^kpahe^Zk^Zl%pbmahnmma^g^^]_hklb`gb\Zgmermab\d^khhkleZ[lmaZgmahl^
20

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

=^o^ehif^gmh_lhenmbhgl
nl^] _hk Z [Zlb\h_\^ lmkn\mnk^'Mabl `bo^l `k^Zm ^qb[bebmr _hk \aZg`^ bg nl^ Zg] Zohb]l ma^
\hlm i^gZemb^l h_ ikhob]bg` mabl ^qmkZ fZll Zg] lmb__g^ll' Ma^ g]bg`l Zk^ lnffZkbl^] bg
MZ[e^+'1%pab\a\hne][^nl^]ZlZgbgbmbZe`nb]^Zlmhahpfn\ama^]^imah_Zhhkphne]
aZo^ mh [^ bg\k^Zl^] mh \hgmkhe ob[kZmbhg bg Z ahlibmZe' EZ[hkZmhkb^l Zk^ ebd^er mh aZo^ fhk^
lmkbg`^gm\kbm^kbZ'
MZ[e^+'1
Bg]b\Zmbhgh_mrib\Zelmkn\mnkZe]^imalmh\hgmkheob[kZmbhgT+)V
<hg\k^m^

Lm^^e

?eZmleZ[

Ihlm&m^glbhg^]
leZ[

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ma^Zmk^

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-2

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kg/m2

% change

kg/m2

% change

kg/m2

% change

kg/m2

% change

H_\^Zk^Zl

0.,

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++0

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ma^Zmk^

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% change

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Ghm^
K^lneml[Zl^]hgZgZgZerlblh_[Zrl0'.fq0'.fbg*.q+[ZreZrhnm'

## +'0'** Thermal mass

<hg\k^m^aZlZab`ama^kfZefZll%pab\afZd^lbmb]^Zemhnl^ZliZkmh_Z_Z[kb\^g^k`rlmhkZ`^
!?>L"lrlm^f'?>Lnmbebl^lma^ma^kfZefZllh_\hg\k^m^mhZ[lhk[bgm^kgZea^Zm`Zbgl]nkbg`Z
lnff^kl]Zrmha^eiik^o^gmho^ka^Zmbg`Zg]ikhob]bg`Zfhk^lmZ[e^bgm^kgZem^fi^kZmnk^'
Gb`am \hhebg` ink`^l ma^ Z\\nfneZm^] a^Zm _khf ma^ leZ[% ik^iZkbg` bm _hk ma^ g^qm ]Zr' ?>L
\Zg[^nl^]hgbmlhpghkZliZkmh_Zfbq^]fh]^lrlm^fmhk^]n\^ma^^g^k`rk^jnbk^f^gml'
Ma^bfihkmZgmk^jnbk^f^gmblmh^qihl^ma^lh_mh_ma^leZ[%hkZme^ZlmZeehpma^Zbk_khfma^
khhfmhhpbg\hgmZ\mpbmama^\hg\k^m^'MablbfiZ\mlhgma^lmkn\mnkZelhenmbhgZg]lahne][^
\hglb]^k^]Zmma^^ZkerlmZ`^lh_Zikhc^\m'Ma^kfZefZll\ZgZelh[^nl^]mhfZbgmZbgpZkfma
bgZ[nbe]bg`]nkbg`ma^pbgm^k'
=^lb`glhenmbhglmaZmZeehpma^lh_mmh[^^qihl^]bgZgZ^lma^mb\Zeerie^Zlbg`pZrZg]ikhob]^
_hk\hhebg`Zk^lahpgbg?b`nk^+'/'

+'0'*+ Sustainability
LnlmZbgZ[bebmrblghmcnlmZ[hnmk^]n\bg`^gobkhgf^gmZebfiZ\m4bmblg]bg`Z[ZeZg\^[^mp^^g
lh\bZe%^\hghfb\Zg]^gobkhgf^gmZe\hlmlZg][^g^ml%[hmaghpZg]bgma^ehg`m^kf'
:\hkk^\mer]^mZbe^]Zg]\hglmkn\m^]\hg\k^m^_kZf^][nbe]bg`pbeeeZlmZme^Zlm*))r^Zkl%Zg]
lahne] eZlm \hglb]^kZ[er ehg`^k' Ahp^o^k% ma^ lmkn\mnkZe _kZf^ pbee aZo^ mh ikhob]^ Z ^qb[e^
eZrhnm_hkma^[nbe]bg`b_bmblmh[^inmmhZoZkb^mrh_nl^lho^kbmleb_^mbf^':lfZeebg\k^Zl^bg
^qi^g]bmnk^mhikhob]^\e^ZkliZglghpfZraZo^Zlb`gb\Zgm[^g^mbg^gobkhgf^gmZeZg]\hlm
m^kflbgma^_nmnk^'Pbmabmlk^eZmbo^erab`al^e_&p^b`am%Z\hg\k^m^_kZf^\Zg^Zlber[^Z]Zim^]
mhhma^knl^lmaZmfZrk^jnbk^Za^Zob^kbfihl^]ehZ]'Ahe^l\Zg[^\nmmakhn`aleZ[lZg]pZeel
k^eZmbo^erlbfier%Zg]ma^k^Zk^f^mah]lmhlmk^g`ma^gma^_kZf^b_k^jnbk^]'
Pbmak^`Zk]mhma^^f[h]b^]\Zk[hg]bhqb]^\hgm^gm!b'^'ma^\Zk[hg]bhqb]^ikh]n\^]bgma^
fZgn_Z\mnk^Zg]\hglmkn\mbhgh_ma^lmkn\mnk^"%mablbl`^g^kZeero^krlfZee\hfiZk^]pbmama^
\Zk[hg]bhqb]^ikh]n\^]bga^Zmbg`Zg]eb`ambg`ma^[nbe]bg`]nkbg`bmleb_^mbf^'Ma^ehg`^kma^
[nbe]bg`eZlmlma^e^lllb`gb\Zgmma^^f[h]b^]\Zk[hg]bhqb]^[^\hf^l'
21

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

GZmnkZeo^gmbeZmbhgpbma^qihl^]lh_ml

Ng]^k&hhko^gmbeZmbhgpbma^qihl^]lh_ml

>qihl^]aheehp\hk^leZ[lpbmaf^\aZgb\Zeo^gmbeZmbhg

I^kf^Z[e^\^bebg`l

<abee^][^Zflpbma^qihl^]hkiZkmbZeer^qihl^]lh_ml

PZm^k&\hhe^]leZ[l

?b`nk^+'/
Mrib\Ze\hg\k^m^hhkllnbmZ[e^_hknl^pbma_Z[kb\^g^k`rlmhkZ`^

22

Ma^ ^g^k`r nl^] bg a^Zmbg` Zg] \hhebg` ma^ [nbe]bg` \Zg [^ ln[lmZgmbZeer k^]n\^] [r nlbg`
_Z[kb\ ^g^k`r lmhkZ`^ !l^^ L^\mbhg +'0'**"'Ma^ fZll h_ ma^ lmkn\mnk^ h_ Z ikboZm^ ahnl^ \Zg
aZo^Z\hglb]^kZ[e^bfiZ\mhgma^^g^k`rk^jnbk^f^gmlh_d^^ibg`ma^ahnl^ZmZ\hf_hkmZ[e^
m^fi^kZmnk^e^o^e!l^^?b`nk^+'0"'
Cumulative CO2 emissions

200
180
160
140

CO2 in use

## CO2 produced (tonnes)

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

=^o^ehif^gmh_lhenmbhgl

120
100
80
60
40
20
0
2000

Embodied CO2
2010

2020

2030

2040

2050

2060

2070

2080

2090

2100

Year

Key

## Heavy (cavity walls, precast concrete floors, dense block partitions)

Medium-heavy (cavity walls, precast concrete floors, block partitions)
Medium (cavity walls, timber floors, lightweight partitions)
Light (timber frame & floors, lightweight partitions)

Note
This graph assumes solar shading used and air-conditioning will be installed in homes when
temperatures become uncomfortable, but will be used with natural ventilation whenever possible.

?b`nk^+'0
Ik^]b\m^]\nfneZmbo^<H+^fbllbhgl_hk]b__^k^gmahnlbg`mri^lT+*V

Ma^^f[h]b^]^g^k`rh_bg&lbmn\hg\k^m^blfbgbfbl^][^\Znl^ma^Zo^kZ`^]^ebo^kr]blmZg\^bl
0fbe^lZg].)h_k^Z]r&fbq^]\hg\k^m^ieZgmlZk^eh\Zm^]Zmma^Z``k^`Zm^]^qmkZ\mbhglbm^'
Ma^\^f^gmbgmabl\hg\k^m^pbeeZelhaZo^[^^gikh]n\^]_khfeh\Zeerlhnk\^]fZm^kbZel'Ik^\Zlm
\hg\k^m^pbeeg^\^llZkbermkZo^e`k^Zm^k]blmZg\^Zg]ma^Zo^kZ`^]blmZg\^blcnlmho^k*))fbe^l'
Fn\ah_ma^\hg\k^m^lniieb^]bgma^NDpbee\hglblmh_^bma^k`khng]`kZgneZm^][eZlm_nkgZ\^
leZ`hkrZlaZlZk^ieZ\^f^gm_hk<>FB!IhkmeZg]<^f^gm"'Ma^l^Zk^[r&ikh]n\ml_khfhma^k
bg]nlmkb^l Zg] aZo^ ma^ [^g^m h_ k^]n\bg` ma^ ^f[h]b^] <H+ h_ ma^ \hg\k^m^ Zg] nlnZeer
bfikhobg`ma^]nkZ[bebmr'Ma^jnZgmbmb^lh_ma^l^ikh]n\ml\Zg[^bg\k^Zl^]makhn`ama^\hg\k^m^
li^\b\Zmbhg%Zemahn`ama^lb]^^__^\mblmaZmma^\nkbg`mbf^lfZr[^bg\k^Zl^]'
Bg k^bg_hk\^f^gm ikh]n\mbhg% *)) h_ ND&ikh]n\^] k^bg_hk\^f^gm _hk \hg\k^m^ bl ikh]n\^]
_khfNDl\kZilm^^e4mablZ\\hngml_hkmph&mabk]lh_Zeema^k^bg_hk\^f^gmnl^]bgma^ND'
:mma^^g]h_Z[nbe]bg`leb_^Zeema^fZm^kbZelnl^]bgZ\hg\k^m^_kZf^\Zg[^k^\r\e^]'
Ma^ln[c^\mh_lnlmZbgZ[bebmrblZ\hfie^qhg^Zg]ma^]^[Zm^bl]^o^ehibg`ho^kmbf^'Ma^eZm^lm
bg_hkfZmbhgZg]]ZmZ\Zg[^_hng]obZMa^<hg\k^m^<^gmk^p^[lbm^'

## +'0'*, Building movements

Fho^f^gmlbg\hg\k^m^[nbe]bg`l\Zg[^\Znl^][r3
 :nmh`^ghnllakbgdZ`^
 Ehg`&m^kf]krbg`lakbgdZ`^
 >Zkerma^kfZe\hgmkZ\mbhg
 M^fi^kZmnk^oZkbZmbhgl]Zberhkl^ZlhgZe^qiZglbhgZg]\hgmkZ\mbhg
 <k^^imbf^&]^i^g]^gmbg\k^Zl^bg\hfik^llbo^lmkZbg_hkZ\hglmZgm\hfik^llbo^lmk^ll

lb`gb\Zgmerbg\k^Zl^l]^^\mbhglbgma^ehg`m^kf
23

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

 L^mme^f^gm
 =^^\mbhg
 LheZkkZ]bZmbhg
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## +'2'* Car parks

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## Interbin support zone

A: 0.46 m minimum
0.8 m to 1.0 m
preferred range

3 bins
recommended minimum

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

## +'2 Typical spatial requirements

B: 3.3 m minimum
3.6 m desirable

3 x 2.4 m
bays *

Acceptable
support positions
4.8 m

4.8 m

6.0 m

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Structural
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Services
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ceiling
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a) Flat soffit
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consider universal
columns as beams

## VAV terminal box

A
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final terminal device only

## Main duct run-outs

below normal
maximum beam size
G

FFL
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b) Downstand beams
Key
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B
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D
E
F
G
H

Structural zone
50 mm deflection and tolerance
Approx. 500 mm HVAC duct or terminal device
50 mm support and tolerance
5 150 mm sprinkler zone (if required)
150 mm lighting and ceiling zone
Floor to ceiling height
Raised floor

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37

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

Engineering Consultants
99 High Street
Newtown
NW9 9AA
Our ref: 1099/OB/1.01/21-11-06

21 November 2006

FAO Mr J Client
Dear Mr Client

## Call Centre Implications of Recent Minor Seismic Activity

As we are sure you are aware there has recently been a minor earthquake in the region of the recently completed Call Centre.
We would like to address the concerns you may have regarding the strength of your building if faced with a similar event.
Initially we would like to conrm that the structure has been designed to the latest Building Regulations and Codes of
Practice. There is no requirement to explicitly consider the effects of seismic activity because historically the most signicant
horizontal forces on structures in this region are wind forces, rather than forces arising from seismic activity.
We would suggest that, before making any decisions about strengthening the structure, we wait for a consensus amongst the
experts as to whether this type of event is likely to occur more frequently in the area and what they recommend as the design
requirements. We would expect that, if changes are necessary, the Building Regulations will be revised and that clear guidance
will emerge on whether existing buildings should be strengthened. The Call Centre is just one of many buildings that could be
affected by a similar earthquake in this region.
In the meantime, we would like to reassure you that the building as it stands will have reasonable strength to resist to a
minor seismic event. It has been designed with ties to ensure that progressive collapse does not occur and these will act to
strengthen the building in the event of an earthquake. There are, however, a number of specic areas where localised damage
could occur as a result of a small earthquake; these are detailed below.
precast units and topping screed are designed to act as a stiff diaphragm. However, depending on the intensity of the
earthquake, this system may have insufcient strength to carry the forces. A design check can be carried out when
there is agreement on the design forces that should be used for an earthquake in this region.
s 4HECURRENTBUILDINGISDIVIDEDINTOTWODISCRETESTRUCTURES WITHASMALLMOVEMENTJOINTBETWEENTHEM\$URINGAN
earthquake the structures will move laterally and the width of the joint is unlikely to be sufcient to prevent the two
structures from making contact. We think there are two options for overcoming this; either the joint could be made
wider by making alterations to the existing structure, or the lateral stiffness of the building could be increased by
incorporating more stability walls. The latter would reduce the sideways sway during a seismic event. It may also be
the preferred solution if the oor diaphragm requires strengthening. We will need to have a discussion so we can nd an
acceptable solution that provides minimal disruption to your business and the minimum effect on the architecture.
s 4HEBUILDINGISFOUNDEDONWEATHEREDROCK WHICHSHOULDBESUFlCIENTLYROBUSTINTHEEVENTOFANEARTHQUAKE(OWEVER
we will need to review the strength of the foundations to resist lateral forces, for which they were not designed. The
building has a suspended ground oor, which means that there are beams tying the foundations together. This is
benecial in the event of an earthquake, because it prevents the foundations moving apart possibly causing major
damage to the frame.
s 4HE BEAM TO COLUMN CONNECTIONS ARE A CAUSE FOR CONCERN 4HERE ARE MANY WAYS TO FORM A CONNECTION AND THIS IS
generally left to the precast manufacturer to design. This is usually benecial because he can carry out the work more
efciently and to suit his working methods. On this project the manufacturer has used a billet type connection, which
is perfectly adequate for the job it was designed to do. However, it offers less spare capacity to resist the forces from
an earthquake and strengthening may be required.
s 4HETWO STOREYGLAZEDENTRANCEAREAWILLREQUIRESOMESTRENGTHENINGMEASURES4HELATERALMOVEMENTTHATWILLOCCUR
during an earthquake is almost certain to damage the glazing. The current glazing is laminated glass, which means
that it will not break into small pieces. However, there is a risk that whole panes will come away from their xings with
the potential to cause loss of life. To overcome this, strengthening of the columnto-roof beam connections will be
necessary to reduce lateral sway.
We cannot be certain about how design guidance will change as a result of the earthquake, but the above comments should
give you an appreciation of the preventive measures that are likely to be necessary. If you would like to discuss the situation

Yours sincerely

?b`nk^+'*/
>qZfie^e^mm^k

38

=^lb`g\Ze\neZmbhgl

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

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39

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44

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Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

,'.'+ Beams
;^Zfllahne][^ikhob]^]pbmala^Zkk^bg_hk\^f^gmZg]ma^oZkbZ[e^lmknmbg\ebgZmbhgf^mah]h_
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_hkZiierbg`mablf^mah]bl`bo^gbg?b`nk^,'*'

START

## Determine vEd where:

vEd = design shear stress [vEd = VEd/(bw z) = VEd/(0.9 bwd)]

## Determine the concrete strut capacity vRd,max cot y = 2.5

from Table 3. 7

Is
vEd < vRd,max cot y = 2.5?

Yes

No

Is
vEd < vRd,max cot y = 1.0?
(see Table 3.7)

(cot y = 2.5)

No

Redesign
section

Yes
Determine y from:
vEd
y = 0.5 sin-1
0.20 fck (1 fck/250)

Asw
=
s

vEd bw
fywd cot y

## Check maximum spacing for vertical shear reinforcement: sl,max = 0.75 d

?b`nk^,'*
Procedure for determining vertical shear reinforcement

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45

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h[mZbg^]_khf?b`nk^,'+'

36
34
fck = 50
fck = 45
fck = 40
fck = 35
fck = 32
fck = 30
fck = 28
fck = 25
fck = 20

32
30
Span to depth ratio (l/d)

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

,'/ Deection

28
26
24
22
20
18
16
14
12
0.40%

0.60%

0.80%

1.00%

1.20%

1.40%

1.60%

1.30%

2.00%

## Percentage of tension reinforcement (As,req /bd)

Notes
1 For two-way spanning slabs, the check
should be carried out on the basis of the
shorter span.
2 This graph assumes simply supported span
condition (K = 1.0).
K = 1.5 for interior span condition
K = 1.3 for end span condition
K = 1.2 for flat slabs
K = 0.4 for cantilevers
3 Compression reinforcement, r',
has been taken as 0.

## 4 Curves based on the following expressions:

l
1.5 fck r 0
+ 3.2
= K 11 +
r
d

fck

1.5
r0
1
r

( )]

where r r0
and
l
1.5 fck r 0
+
= K 11 +
d
( r r ')

fck
12

r'
r0

where r > r0

?b`nk^,'+
Basic span-to-effective-depth ratios

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46

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## Beams and slabs

Flat slabs

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320
Approximate steel stress at SLS for As,req, ssu

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

MZ[e^,'1
=^_e^\mbhg_Z\mhkmhmZd^Z\\hngmh__eZg`^]l^\mbhgl

300
280
260
240
220
200
180
1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

Ratio Gk/Qk
c2 = 0.8, gG = 1.35

c2 = 0.6, gG = 1.25

c2 = 0.6, gG = 1.35

c2 = 0.3, gG = 1.25

c2 = 0.3, gG = 1.35

c2 = 0.2, gG = 1.25

c2 = 0.2, gG = 1.35
To determine stress in the provided reinforcement (ss ), calculate the ratio Gk/Qk,
read up the graph to the appropriate curve and read across to determine ssu.
ss can be calculated from the expression: ss = ssu f

As,req
As,prov

1
d

pf p

?b`nk^,',
Determination of steel stress

47

## ,'0 Estimating reinforcement quantities

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

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,'1'* Maximum and minimum areas of reinforcement
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## ,'1'+ Minimum spacing of bars

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48

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Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

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## ,'1', Maximum spacing of bars

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maZg*.)ffhk]_khfZo^kmb\Zee^`'

## ,'2 Design of beams

,'2'* Governing criteria
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49

,'2'+ Analysis
Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

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?nkma^k`nb]Zg\^hg]^m^kfbgbg`[^g]bg`fhf^gml\Zg[^_hng]bgL^\mbhg,','

## ,'2', Flanged beams

:Zg`^][^ZffZr[^mk^Zm^]ZlZk^\mZg`neZk[^Zf%h__neepb]ma%[%pa^gma^g^nmkZeZqblblpbmabg
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50

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OB

Worked example 1
Transfer beam

<a^\d^][r

CCIP - 018
La^^mgh'

MS
<eb^gm

TB1
=Zm^

TCC

Aug 09

9.0 m

1.5 m

Initial sizing

## Shear stress not to exceed 4 N/mm2

(to avoid reinforcement congestion).
Ultimate load = 1.35 x 1500 + 1.5 x 1000 = 3525 kN
(ignoring self-weight)
Take b = 600
3
V
=d = Ed = 3525 x 10 = 1469 mm
vEdb
4 x 600

Section 2.10.2

Bending

## Mmax = 3525 x 1.5 = 5288 kNm

For Mmax = 5288, b = 600, d = 1550, fck = 32 N/mm2
K
= 0.115, As = 8858 mm2 (z = 1297 mm)
Use 8 H40 (10100 mm2) in 2 layers.

Shear

Figure 3.1

## Assuming the strut is at 45

Asw
s

4.21 x 600
435 x cot 45

5.81 mm

8H40bars

Slab
reinforcement

Table 3.7

1650

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

Ikhc^\m]^mZbel

Figure 3.1

s = 452/5.81 = 78 mm
Say 4 H12 links @ 75 mm ctrs
@ 75 ctrs

600

## Remember to check headroom beneath the beam

H40 bars will be heavy; if there is no reasonable alternative, ensure
that the contractor is aware so he may take steps to safeguard
the health and safety of the steel xers.

51

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

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52

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Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

OB

Worked example 2
One-way slab

<a^\d^][r

CCIP - 018
La^^mgh'

MS
<eb^gm

OW1
=Zm^

TCC

6000

6000

6000

6000

Aug 09

## Imposed load = 2.5 kN/m2

= 1.5 kN/m2
Concrete class C28/35
cnom = 25 mm

Initial sizing

## From Economic concrete frame elements 167

or 6000/32 = 187.5, say 200 mm

Bending

## Check rst support from end

M =  0.086Fl
=  0.086 x 12.5 x 62
=  38.7 kNm

Section 2.10

Table 3.14

## For b = 1000, d = 200 25 10 = 165, fck = 28

Then K = 0.051, As, req = 567 mm2 (z = 157 mm)
Use
Shear

V
45.0 x 103
vEd = Ed =
= 0.27 N/mm2
bd 1000 x 165

Table 3.14

## 100 As = 100 x 646 = 0.39

bd
1000 x 165

Deection

= vRd,c = 0.57
vEd < vRd,c = no shear links required

Table 3.6

## Maximum sagging moment = 0.075 Fl

= 0.075 x 12.5 x 62 = 33.75 kNm

Table 3.14

## For fck = 28, d = 165, b = 1000

Then K = 0.044, As,req = 494 mm2 (z = 157 mm)
r = As,req/bd = 494 x 100/(1000 x 165) = 0.30%
Basic l/d = 35.2 x 1.3 = 45.8 (K = 1.3 for end span condition)
actual l/d = 6000/165 = 36.4 =OK

Figure 3.2

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53

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

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54

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55

Ma^fZqbfnfla^Zk_hk\^i^kngbmpb]mabl`bo^g[rma^_heehpbg`^jnZmbhgl3

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

o lq6b oqge q
o lr 6b or ge q
Ma^\h^_\b^gmlboqZg]borZk^h[mZbg^]_khfMZ[e^,'*1'

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## ,'*+ Flat slabs

,'*+'* Governing criteria
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56

=^lb`g\Ze\neZmbhgl
Ikhc^\m]^mZbel

<Ze\neZm^][r

Ch[gh'

Worked example 3
Two-way slab

<a^\d^][r

CCIP - 018
La^^mgh'

MS
<eb^gm

TW1
=Zm^

9000

TCC

Aug 09

cnom = 25 mm

l y = 9000

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

OB

l x =7200

7200

7200

7200

Initial sizing

## From Economic concrete frame elements: 213 mm

or 9000/36 = 250 mm say 250 mm

## Check short span

d = 250 25 8 = 217 mm

Section 2.10

ly 9.0
=
= 1.3
lx 7.2
bsx = 0.069 and bsx = 0.051
Support moment
critical in bending

Table 3.17

= 64.4 kNm/m
msx = bsx n lx = 0.069 x 18.0 x
For msx = 64.4, b = 1000, d = 217, fck = 28
2

7.22

## Then As = 718 mm2/m (K = 0.049 & z = 206 mm)

Use H12s @ 150 ctrs (As,prov = 754 mm2/m)
Shear

bvx = 0.50

Table 3.18

Vsx = bvx n lx
= 0.5 x 18.0 x 7.2
= 64.8 kN/m width
3
V
vEd = Ed = 64.8 x 10 = 0.30 N/mm2
bd 1000 x 217
100 As = 100 x 754 = 0.35
bd
1000 x 217
= vRd.c = 0.57 N/mm2 > 0.30 = no shear links required
Deection

Table 3.6

## Maximum sagging moment = 0.051 x 18.0 x 7.22 = 47.6 kN/m

For b = 1000, d = 217, fck = 28
Then K = 0.036, As req = 531 mm2 (z = 206 mm)
r = As,req/bd = 531 x 100/(1000 x 217) = 0.24%
Basic l/d = 35.2 x 1.3 = 45.8 (K = 1.3 for end span condition)
actual l/d = 7200/217 = 33.2
=OK

Figure 3.2

## =Use H12 @ 200 ctrs As,prov = 566 mm2

57

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Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

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58

Internal column
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ly
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Column
strip
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Middlestrip = lx dropsize

Ignore drop if
dimension < ly/3

Drop

Drop

ly

Column strip =
dropsize

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

lx (longerspan)

Column strip =
dropsize

Ignore drop if
dimension < ly/3

lx

## b) Slab with drops

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59

Ma^Zk^Zh_ing\abg`la^Zkk^bg_hk\^f^gmi^ki^kbf^m^kbl`bo^g[r3

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

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60

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=^lb`g\Ze\neZmbhgl

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

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## ,'*, Ribbed slabs

,'*,'* Governing criteria
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T
H

y
Z

c
x

R
25
Self-weight = x c y (W + Z) + T

b
+ H (a + b ) kN/m

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Worked example 4
Flat slab

<a^\d^][r

CCIP - 018
La^^mgh'

MS
<eb^gm

FS1
=Zm^

TCC

Aug 09

7000

## Imposed load = 5 kN/m2

= 1.5 kN/m2
Concrete class C28/35

7000

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

OB

cnom = 30 mm
9000

9000

9000

9000

Supported by 350 mm
square columns

Initial sizing

Bending

M = 0.086Fl
Centre strip
critical

Section 2.1

Table 3.20
Table 3.21

## For b = 3500, d = 300 30 10 = 260 mm, fck = 28

Then K = 0.108, As = 7110 mm2
Centre column strip = 4740 mm2 (2708 mm2/m)
Use T20 @ 100 ctrs (As,prov = 3140 mm2/m)
Outer column strip = 2370 mm2 (1354 mm2/m)
Use T20 @ 200 ctrs (As,prov = 1570 mm2/m)

Punching shear

## VEd = 19.65 x 7.0 x 9.0 = 1238 kN

bV
1.15 x 1238 x 103
At column face, vEd = u d Ed =
= 4.07 < 4.98
4 x 350 x 250
i eff

=
= 1.26%
bd
1000 x 250

## =vRd,c = 0.75 MPa

Area of steel at rst control perimeter, 2d = 2 x 250 = 500 mm from column
face.
Length of perimeter = 4 x 350 + 2Q x 500 = 4542 mm
Radial spacing sr = 0.75 x 250 = 188 mm
Asw = (vEd 0.75 vRd,c)sr u1/(1.5 fywd,ef)
3

## = d1.15 x 1238 x 10 0.75 0.75m x 188 x 4542 /(1.5 x 313)

4542 x 250
=1257 mm2/perimeter
Using 10 mm dia. links, no of links = 1257/78.5 = 16,
spacing = 4542/16 = 284 < 1.5d
Deection

62

## Maximum sagging moment = 0.075 Fl

= 0.075 x 19.65 x 7 x 92
= 836 kNm

Table 3.22

=^lb`g\Ze\neZmbhgl

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

Centre strip
critical

## Design moment = 0.55 x 836 = 460 kNm

For b = 3500, d = 260 and fck = 28
K = 0.069, As = 4351 mm2 Or As = 1243 mm2/m
r = As,req/bd = 1243 x 100/(1000 x 260) = 0.48%
Basic l/d = 20.3 x 1.2 = 24.4 (K = 1.2 for at slab condition)
Figure 3.2
actual l/d = 9000 / 260 = 34.6
Increase area of steel to reduce steel stress, assume H20 @ 225 ctrs (1400 mm2)
Approximate steel stress at SLS = 236 MPa
Figure 3.3
Therefore approximate steel stress, ss, when As,prov = 1400 mm2
ss = 236 x 1243/1400 = 210 MPa
Increased basic l/d = 24.4 x 310/210 = 36 > 34.6
=OK
=Use H20 @ 225 ctrs As,prov = 1400 mm2

## 1. The design in the orthogonal direction has not been included.

2. For the design of the strips across two panels only, coefcients from
Table 3.20 are not appropriate.

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Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

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64

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Worked example 5
Ribbed slab

<a^\d^][r

CCIP - 018
La^^mgh'

MS
<eb^gm

RS1
=Zm^

TCC

Aug 09

## Imposed load = 2.5 kN/m2

= 1.5 kN/m2
Concrete class: C28/35

750

cnom = 26 mm
Topping thickness = 100 mm
1000
7200

Initial sizing

## Using Economic concrete frame elements: 255 mm

or 7200/29 = 248 mm, say 250 mm
Assume self-weight = 4.0 kN/m2

Table 2.9c

Bending

## Check sagging moment in end bay

d = 250 26 6 8 = 210 mm
Effective length = 6.2 + 2 x 1/2 x 0.210 = 6.41 m

BS EN 1992-1-1:
Fig 5.4

Table 3.20

## For b = 750, d = 210, fck = 28

K = 0.030, As,req = 291 mm2 (z = 200 mm)
x = 2.5 (210 200) = 25 mm


Deection

## r = As,req/Ac = 291 x 100/(125 x 110 + 750 x 100) = 0.33%

Reduction factor for anged section = 1 0.1 x ((750/125) 1) = 0.5 = use 0.8.
Basic l/d = 0.8 x 33 x 1.3 = 34.3 (K = 1.3 for end span condition)
actual l/d = 7200 / 210 = 34.3 =OK

Table 3.25

100

A142 mesh

150

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

OB

H6
H16
10

125

10
65

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

## ,'*- Wafe slabs

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b
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c H

25
Self-weight = xy

xyH - N

c 2
a + b 2 + a 2b2
3

## kNm2, N = number of waffles

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Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

## ,'*-'. Reinforcement in the topping

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68

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Worked example 6
Wafe slab

<a^\d^][r

CCIP - 018
La^^mgh'

MS
<eb^gm

WS1
=Zm^

TCC

Aug 09

## Imposed load = 2.5 kN/m2

7200

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

OB

= 1.5 kN/m2
Concrete class: C28/35
cnom = 26 mm

9000

Initial sizing

## Using Economic concrete frame elements: 425 mm thick

(i.e. 325 moulds + 100 topping)
or 9000/20 = 450, say 425 thick

Section 2.9

## n = 1.35 (7.3 + 1.5) + 1.5 (2.5) = 15.6 kN/

Table 2.9c
m2

There is a substantial beam along the column strips, which can therefore
resist torsion at the corners. Design as a two-way spanning slab.
ly 9.0
=
= 1.25
lx 7.2
Interpolating for a corner panel
Hogging moments bsx = 0.066, Sagging moments bsx = 0.049

Table 3.17

Bending at support  Msx = bsx nlx2 = 0.066 x 15.6 x 7.22 = 53.4 kN/m width
For ribs @ 900 ctrs
M = 53.4 x 0.9 = 48.0 kNm/rib
For d = 425 26 6 8 = 385 mm, b = 900, fck = 28
Then As,req = 299 mm2 (Taking z = 0.95d and therefore N.A. is in ange)
Deection

## r = As,req/Ac = 299 x 100/(180 x 285 + 900 x 100) = 0.21%

Deection not critical by inspection

Figure 3.2

## Use 2 x H16 per rib (As,prov = 402)

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69

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

a) Proposed

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d) Final
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70

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Worked example 7
Post-tensioned slab

<a^\d^][r

CCIP - 018
La^^mgh'

MS
<eb^gm

PT1
=Zm^

TCC

Aug 09

7000

## Imposed load = 5 kN/m2

= 1.25 kN/m2

7000

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

OB

9000

9000

9000

9000

Initial sizing

Geometry

## Area of concrete, Ac = 7000 x 250 = 1750 x 103 mm2

Second moment of area, Ic = 7000 x 2503/12 = 9.11 x 109 mm4
Distance to extreme bres from neutral axis, yb = yt = 125 mm
Section modulus, Zb = Zt = 9.11 x 109/125 = 72.9 x 106
Strand diameter = 12.9 mm
125
Minimum cover = 20 mm
125
Distance to centre of strand = 60 mm
Tendon profile for end span (most critical):

Table 2.22

60
a

60
Idealised tendon
a = 250 60 60 65 = 98
shape for initial
2
design only

Number of

## Characteristic value of maximum force, 186 kN

strands required

Initial prestress = 0.8 x 186 = 149 kN (allow for 80% of characteristic force)

Table 3.29

Prestress in service condition = 0.7 x 149 = 104 kN (allow for 10% loss
at transfer and 20% loss at service, check in detailed design)
P = ws2/(8a) = 7 x 6 x 92/(8 x 0.098) = 4339 kN

Section 3.16.2

## =No. of tendons required = 4339/104 = 41.7, try 9 x 5 strands per duct

Total force = 4680 kN
Moments (SLS)

## Applied loads wa = 7 x (6.25 + 1.25 + 5) = 87.5 kN/m

Balancing load wb = 8aP/s2 = 8 x 0.098 x 4160 / 92 = 40.2 kN/m
Balanced moment M (wa wb) l2/10 = (87.5 40.2) x 92/10 = 383.1 kNm

Mid-span stresses

st =

## P + M = 4680 x 103 + 383.1 x 106 = 2.7 + 5.3 = 8.0 N/mm2

Act Zt 1750 x 103 72.9 x 106

Table 3.30

## P M = 4680 x 103 383.1 x 106 = 2.7 5.3 = 2.6 N/mm2

sb =
Act Zb 1750 x 103 72.9 x 106

Section 3.16.3

Table 3.30

## Stresses at the support and punching shear should also be checked

at this stage for a at slab (see 3.12.3)
It is assumed that deection, the ULS requirements and transfer
requirements can be met with passive reinforcement in detailed design,
as is usually the case.

72

Section 3.16.3

=^lb`g\Ze\neZmbhgl

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

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73

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

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Worked example 8
Column

<a^\d^][r

CCIP - 018
La^^mgh'

MS
<eb^gm

C1
=Zm^

TCC

Aug 09

7500

## Imposed load = 5 kN/m2

300

= 1.5 kN/m2
Concrete class: C32/40
cnom = 35 mm

7500

Column

9000

9000

N = 4952 kN
Initial sizing

Column design

## NEd/bhfck = 4952 x 103/(4502 x 32) = 0.76

Take minimum moment as 4952 x 0.02 = 99 kNm (assume column is
not slender)
MEd/bh2fck = 99 x 106/(4503 x 32) = 0.03
d2
= 35 + 8 +16 = 59 mm
d2/h
= 59/450 = 0.13
Use column graph for d2/h = 0.15
Asfyk/bhfck = 0.35
As = 0.35 x 4502 x 32/500 = 4536 mm2
Use 6 H32 (As,prov = 4830 mm2)
@ 300 ctrs

450

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

OB

H25

450

75

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

## ,'*0', Fire resistance

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## ,'*1 Shear walls

,'*1'* Design issues
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76

=^lb`g\Ze\neZmbhgl

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

:l\6Zk^Zh_o^kmb\Zek^bg_hk\^f^gmi^kngbme^g`mah_pZee
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## ,'*1'+ Walls with unequal stiffness

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centre

?b`nk^,'*+
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lmZ[bebmrpZeel

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77

Ikhc^\m]^mZbel

<Ze\neZm^][r

Ch[gh'

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

OB

Worked example 9
Shear walls

<a^\d^][r

CCIP - 018
La^^mgh'

MS
<eb^gm

SW1
=Zm^

TCC

Q k,w
gk = 35 kN/m

40 kN

Aug 09

## Assume critical combination is 1.0 Gk + 1.5 Qk,w where Qk,w is

Assuming the oor load is 4000 kN supported on
8 columns, the horizontal action due to imperfections
= 0.25% x 4000 = 10 kN

3.0 m
gk = 35 kN/m

75 kN
3.0 m

gk = 35 kN/m

75 kN

ft

=N M
Lt (tL2/6)

## MEd = 1.5((40 + 10) x 12 + (75 + 10)(9 + 6 + 3)) = 3195 kNm

ft

3.0 m
gk = 35 kN/m

75 kN

500 x 103
3195 x 106
2500 x 200 (200 x 25002/6) ?b`nk^,'**

= 1.0 15.3

La^Zk\^gmk^_hk
lmZ[bebmrpZeel

= 14.3 N/mm2

3.0 m

200 mm
thick wall

2.5 m

As =

0.5 ft Lt t
fyd

## = 0.5 x 14.3 x 1000 x 200 = 3287 mm2 or 1644 mm2/face

435
Use T20s @ 175 ctrs
Comment

(1800 mm2/face)

This design assumes that the base is sufcient to resist overturning. When designing the base
for overturning the EQU category should be used rather than STR as used here.

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## ,'*1'- Fire resistance

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78

=^lb`g\Ze\neZmbhgl
Ikhc^\m]^mZbel

<Ze\neZm^][r

Ch[gh'

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

OB

Worked example 10
Shear walls with varying stiffness

<a^\d^][r

CCIP - 018
La^^mgh'

JB
<eb^gm

SW2
=Zm^

TCC

Dec 06

60.0
y

## Floor-to-oor height = 3.6 m

5.0
W4
W2

Shear
centre

8.0
25.0

W1
10.0

W3
5.0

e
Wind force, take as 1.0 kN/m2

The relative stiffness of the walls can be calculated as follows (note as the
walls are rectangular and the same thickness we can use the depth only)
W1
W2

= 103
= 83
Total

= 1000 m3
= 512 m3
= 1512 m3

## y = 0.1 x 1000 + 59.9 x 512 = 20.3 m

1512
Eccentricity, e = 30 20.3 = 9.7 m
Twisting moment, Mt = 9.7 x 1.0 x 60 x 3.6 = 2095 kNm per oor
In the worst case this moment can be resisted by the walls W3 and W4 only,
the force (F) in each wall is:
F = 2095/24.8 = 84.5 kN per oor
To check for the critical case the direct design force on the walls W3 and W4
from the wind parallel to these walls = 1.0 x 3.6 x 25/2 = 45 kN, and
therefore the forces imposed by the twisting action are more onerous and
should be used for design.

## This layout is not particularly eccentric and yet still imposes

large torsional forces.

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Ghm^l
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+ M a^kZmbhh_]^lb`g_bk^ehZ]mhghkfZem^fi^kZmnk^]^lb`gehZ]%_b%fZr\hgl^koZmbo^er[^mZd^gZl)'0'

79

## ,'*2 Ground-bearing slabs

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

?hkma^inkihl^h_]^lb`g%`khng]&[^Zkbg`leZ[l\Zg[^]bob]^]bgmhmph\Zm^`hkb^l3
1GhkfZeerehZ]^]leZ[l_hk`^g^kZenl^_hkpab\alakbgdZ`^blma^`ho^kgbg`\kbm^kbhg'
2A^ZoberehZ]^]leZ[l_hkbg]nlmkbZenl^'
Bg]nlmkbZe `khng] hhkl Zk^ ghm \hglb]^k^] _nkma^k bg mabl aZg][hhd% Zg] k^_^k^g\^ lahne] [^
fZ]^mhMK,-%<hg\k^m^bg]nlmkbZe`khng]hhklT+1V'
?hkghkfZeerehZ]^]leZ[lpbmaZgbfihl^]ehZ]nimh*)dG(f+ma^_heehpbg``nb]Zg\^\Zg[^
nl^]3
 Nl^\hg\k^m^<eZll<+.(,)'
 LeZ[lahne][^ieZ\^]hgZlebif^f[kZg^!^'`')'+ffiherma^g^la^^m"'
 Nl^Zp^ee&\hfiZ\m^]ln[&[Zl^ghme^llmaZg*.)ffmab\d'
 BlheZmbhgchbgmlmh[^ikhob]^]Zmma^cng\mbhgpbma^qm^kgZepZeelZg]Zkhng]bgm^kgZe

\henfgl'L^^?b`nk^-'.'
 =^ima%k^bg_hk\^f^gmZg]chbgmliZ\bg`k^jnbk^f^gml\Zg[^]^m^kfbg^]_khfMZ[e^,',0'

Ghm^maZmma^mab\d^kma^leZ[ma^\ehl^kma^fho^f^gmchbgmllahne][^'
MZ[e^,',0
FZqbfnfliZ\bg`h_fho^f^gmchbgml_hk`khng][^Zkbg`leZ[l!f"
?Z[kb\k^bg_hk\^f^gm

LeZ[mab\dg^ll!ff"
*+.

*.)

*0.

+))

:*-+

+.

+*

*1

*/

++.
*-

:*2,

,-

+1

+.

+*

*2

:+.+

--

,0

,*

+1

+.

:,2,

/2

.1

-2

--

,1

Ngk^bg_hk\^]

## ,'+) Shallow foundations

,'+)'* Key considerations
 L^mme^f^gmh_m^g\hgmkhelma^]^lb`g'
 ?hng]Zmbhglbg\eZr%lbemZg]\aZedlahne][^_hng]^]Zm-.)ffhk[^ehpmhZohb]]ZfZ`^

]n^mh_khlmZ\mbhg'
 ?hng]ZmbhglbglakbgdZ[e^\eZrlahne][^_hng]^]Zm2))ffhk[^ehpmhikhm^\mZ`Zbglm

lakbgdZ`^(a^Zo^'Pa^k^mk^^lZk^ik^l^gmmabl]^imafZraZo^mh[^bg\k^Zl^]%l^^MZ[e^+','
 Ma^`khng]pZm^ke^o^epbee[^\kn\bZebgma^]^lb`g4Zab`a`khng]pZm^ke^o^epbeek^]n\^ma^

lhbe[^Zkbg`\ZiZ\bmrZg]fZrfZd^ma^lmkn\mnk^[nhrZgm'Ma^e^o^eZ]cZ\^gmmhkbo^klZg]
ma^l^Z\Zg[^^qi^\m^]mhn\mnZm^'

## ,'+)'+ Allowable bearing pressure

:g^lmbfZm^h_ZeehpZ[e^[^Zkbg`ik^llnk^l_hkmrib\Zelhbel_hng]bgma^ND\Zg[^h[mZbg^]_khf
MZ[e^l,',1mh,'-*Zg]?b`nk^,'*,_hk`kZgneZklhbel'

80

=^lb`g\Ze\neZmbhgl
MZ[e^,',1
Ik^lnf^]ZeehpZ[e^[^Zkbg`oZen^lng]^klmZmb\ehZ]bg`!;Zl^]hgmZ[e^*h_;L1))-T+2V"

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

<Zm^`hkr

Mri^h_lhbe

Ik^lnf^]ZeehpZ[e^
[^Zkbg`oZen^!dG(f+"
7/))
5+))mh/))

Ghg&\ha^lbo^ =^gl^`kZo^e%hk]^gl^lZg]Zg]`kZo^e
lhbel
F^]bnf]^gl^`kZo^e%hkf^]bnf
]^gl^lZg]Zg]`kZo^e
Ehhl^`kZo^e%hkehhl^lZg]Zg]`kZo^e 5+))
<hfiZ\mlZg]
7,))
F^]bnf]^gl^lZg]
*))mh,))
Ehhl^lZg]
5*))
O^krlmb__[hne]^k\eZrZg]aZk]\eZr
,))mh/))
<ha^lbo^
lhbel
Lmb__\eZr
*.)mh,))
?bkf\eZr
0.mh*.)
Lh_m\eZrZg]lbem
50.
O^krlh_m\eZrZg]lbem
GhmZiieb\Z[e^
Ghm^l
* Ma^l^oZen^lZk^_hkik^ebfbgZkr]^lb`ginkihl^lhger'
+ :eehpZ[e^[^Zkbg`ik^llnk^lZk^`^g^kZeeraZeo^]bgma^ik^l^g\^h_pZm^k'

K^fZkdl
Pb]mah__hng]Zmbhgghme^ll
maZg*f'@khng]pZm^ke^o^e
Zllnf^]mh[^[^ehpma^[Zl^
h_ma^_hng]Zmbhg'

Lnl\^imb[e^mhehg`&m^kf
\hglheb]Zmbhgl^mme^f^gm

MZ[e^,',2
Ik^lnf^]ZeehpZ[e^[^Zkbg`oZen^l_hkab`aihkhlbmr\aZed
@kZ]^
OB
O
BO

BBB
BB

;kb^_]^l\kbimbhg
>qmk^f^erlh_mlmkn\mnk^e^ll\aZed\hgmZbgbg`lfZeeenfilh_bgmZ\m
\aZed
Lmkn\mnk^e^llk^fhne]^]\aZed\hgmZbgbg`enfilh_bgmZ\m\aZed'=kr
\aZedZ[ho^ma^pZm^kmZ[e^
Kn[[er%iZkmp^Zma^k^]\aZedpbma[^]]bg`Zg]chbgmbg`'
Chbgml*)ffmh/)ffZiZkm%hi^gmh+)ff%Zg]h_m^gbgee^]
pbmak^fhne]^]\aZedZg]_kZ`f^gml
Kn[[ermh[eh\drng^Zkma^]\aZed'Chbgml/)ffmh+))ffZiZkm%
hi^gmh,ff%Zg]lhf^mbf^lbgee^]pbma_kZ`f^gml
;eh\drf^]bnfaZk]!p^Zd"\aZed'Chbgmlfhk^maZg+))ffZiZkm
Zg]\ehl^]
:l_hk`kZ]^BB%[nmaZk]!fh]^kZm^erp^Zd"Zg][kbmme^

*
Ghm^
?hk_nkma^kbg_hkfZmbhgl^^PZk]^mZe'T,)V'

Ik^lnf^][^Zkbg`oZen^dG(f+
L^^<e'+'+'+','*'1h_;L1))*+.+.)
+.).))

.))0.)
0.)*)))
*)))*.))

MZ[e^,'-)
Ik^lnf^]ZeehpZ[e^[^Zkbg`oZen^l_hkD^ni^kFZke
=^`k^^h_
Shg^
p^Zma^kbg`
Fully weathered BO[

Partially
weathered

BOZ

BBB

BB

Unweathered

B

=^l\kbimbhg

Ghm^l

Ik^lnf^][^Zkbg`
oZen^!dG(f+"
FZmkbqhger
<Zg[^\hg_nl^]pbmalhebn\mbhg L^^<e'+'+'+','*'2h_
hk]kb_m]^ihlbml%[nm\hgmZbglgh ;L1))-
i^[[e^l'IeZlmb\leb`amerlbemr\eZr'
FZr[^llnk^]
FZmkbqpbmah\\ZlbhgZe\eZr&
Ebmme^hkghmkZ\^h_hkb`bgZe
*+.+.)
lmhg^i^ee^mle^llmaZg,ff
!shg^*"lmkn\mnk^%mahn`a\eZr
bg]bZf^m^k[nmfhk^nlnZeer
fZr[^llnk^]'Ehp^ki^kf^Z[bebmr
\hZkl^lZg]lbs^
maZgng]^kerbg`eZr^kl
FZmkbqpbma_k^jn^gmebmahk^eb\ml PZm^k\hgm^gmh_fZmkbq`k^Zm^k +.).))
nimh+.ff':lp^Zma^kbg`
maZgmaZmh_ebmahk^eb\ml
ikh`k^ll^lebmahk^eb\ml[^\hf^
e^llZg`neZk
:g`neZk[eh\dlh_ngp^Zma^k^] Lia^khb]Zep^Zma^kbg`'FZmkbq
.))0.)
fZkepbmaobkmnZeerghfZmkbq
lmZkmbg`mh^g\khZ\aZehg`chbgml3
klmbg]b\Zmbhglh_\a^fb\Ze
p^Zma^kbg`
Fn]lmhg^!h_m^gllnk^]"
PZm^k\hgm^gmoZkb^l]n^mh
0.)*)))
]^ihlbmbhgZeoZkbZmbhgl

Ghm^
?hk_nkma^kbg_hkfZmbhgl^^<aZg]e^kT,*V

81

MZ[e^,'-*
Ng]kZbg^]la^Zklmk^g`mah_\ha^lbo^fZm^kbZel!;Zl^]hgmZ[e^/h_;L1))-"
?b^e]bg]b\Zmbhgl

Ng]kZbg^]!bff^]bZm^"
la^Zklmk^g`madG(f+
7*.)

O^krlmb__

O^krlmb__hkaZk]

;kbmme^hko^krmhn`a

Lmb__

Lmb__

<Zgghm[^fhne]^]bgma^g`^kl

?bkfmhlmb__

*))*.)
0.*))

?bkf
Lh_mmhkf

<Zg[^fhne]^]bgma^g`^kl[r
lmkhg`ik^llnk^

Lh_m

Lh_m

>Zlberfhne]^]bgma^g`^kl

+)-)

O^krlh_m

O^krlh_m

>qn]^l[^mp^^gma^g`^klpa^g
ljn^^s^]bgma^lm

5+)

?bkf

.)0.
-).)

700

## Allowable bearing pressure (kN/m2)

to limit settlement to 25 mm

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

<hglblm^g\r
BgZ\\hk]Zg\^pbma Pb]^ernl^]
;L.2,)
]^l\kbimbhgl

600
Very dense
500
Dense

N = 50

400
N = 40
300
N = 30

Medium dense
200

N = 20
100
Loose
0

N = 10
3

## Foundation width (m)

Ghm^
G6lmZg]Zk]i^g^mkZmbhgm^lmG&oZen^l
?b`nk^,'*,
<aZkm_hk^lmbfZmbg`ZeehpZ[e^[^Zkbg`ik^llnk^hg`kZgneZkfZm^kbZenlbg`lmZg]Zk]i^g^mkZmbhgm^lm
=bZ`kZf3M^ksZ`abZg]I^\d

## ,'+* Piled foundations

,'+*'* Pilecap design
Ma^k^Zk^mph`^g^kZeerZ\\^im^]f^mah]l_hkibe^\Zi]^lb`g3
 Nlbg`[^g]bg`ma^hkr%bgpab\a\Zl^ma^rfZr[^]^lb`g^]ZlZ[^Zf!l^^L^\mbhg,'2"'
 Nlbg`mknllZgZeh`r%pab\ablik^l^gm^]bgMZ[e^,'-+_hkmph&%mak^^&Zg]_hnk&ibe^ibe^\Zil'

?hkeZk`^kibe^\Zil[^g]bg`ma^hkrlahne][^nl^]Zg]ma^ibe^k^Z\mbhgl\Zg[^\Ze\neZm^]nlbg`
?b`nk^,'*-'

82

=^lb`g\Ze\neZmbhgl
The force in pil e a is given by :


a 







where
N = number of pi le s in g roup
P = t otal lo ad appli ed
M = bendi ng moment a ppli ed
y = local di stan ce of the pi l e
fr om the n eutral axis of the group
ya = loc al di stan ce of pi l e a
from the n eutral axis of the g roup

?b`nk^,'*-
Ibe^_hk\^l_hkeZk`^ibe^\Zil
MZ[e^,'-+
MknllZgZeh`r_hkibe^\Zi]^lb`g
Ibe^\ZieZrhnm

M^glbhg_hk\^bgk^bg_hk\^f^gm
?m6Ie(!+]"
pa^k^
I6ehZ]bgma^\henfg
e6]blmZg\^_khf\henfgmhibe^!l^^]bZ`kZf"
2l

]6^__^\mbo^]^ima

?m!:;"6?m!;<"6?m!:<"
6+Ie(!2]"
pa^k^

2l

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

ya

I6ehZ]bgma^\henfg
e6]blmZg\^_khf\henfgmhibe^!l^^]bZ`kZf"
]6^__^\mbo^]^ima
2l


?m!:;"6?m!:<"6?m!;="6?m!<="
6Ie(!-]"

?hk\^bgehg`bmn]bgZeZg]mkZglo^kl^]bk^\mbhg3
?m6Ie(!+]"

2l

pa^k^
I6ehZ]bgma^\henfg
D

e6]blmZg\^_khf\henfgmhibe^!l^^]bZ`kZf"
]6^__^\mbo^]^ima

2l
Ghm^l
*Pa^k^\henfglbs^blmZd^gbgmhZ\\hngmma^k^fZr[^^_\b^g\b^lmh[^`Zbg^]'
+BmblnlnZemhliZ\^ibe^lZmmak^^mbf^lma^bk]bZf^m^k'

## ,'+*'+ Piles in cohesive material

Ma^ZeehpZ[e^[^Zkbg`\ZiZ\bmrh_Zibe^bg\ha^lbo^fZm^kbZebl`bo^g[r3
JZ 6

Jl J [
a \ :l
\ G :
\$
6
\$ n \ [
gl
g[
gl
g[
83

pa^k^
Jl 6 ehZ]\Zkkb^]hgma^laZ_m
J[ 6 ehZ]\Zkkb^]hgma^[Zl^
a 6 Z]a^lbhg_Z\mhk'?hk[hk^]ibe^lnl^)',_hka^Zoberllnk^]\eZrZg])'-._hkkf
mhlmb__\eZr'?hk]kbo^gibe^lnl^Ghk]eZg]lZ]a^lbhg_Z\mhkl!l^^?b`nk^,'*."
\ 6 Zo^kZ`^ng]kZbg^]la^Zklmk^g`maho^kma^e^g`mah_ma^ibe^
:l 6 lnk_Z\^Zk^Zh_ma^ibe^!p ]e%pa^k^ ] 6]bZf^m^kh_ibe^Zg] e6e^g`mah_ibe^"
gl 6 _Z\mhkh_lZ_^mrhgma^laZ_m!nl^,')"
\n 6 ng]blmnk[^]la^Zklmk^g`maZmma^[Zl^h_ma^ibe^
G\ 6 F^r^kah_l[^Zkbg`\ZiZ\bmr_Z\mhk!nl^2')"
:[ 6 Zk^Zh_ma^ibe^[Zl^!p k+"
g[ 6 _Z\mhkh_lZ_^mrhgma^[Zl^!nl^+'."
MZ[e^,'-,\Zg[^nl^]mhehhdnima^[Zl^\ZiZ\bmr'
1.00

L < 10B

Sand or
sandy
gravel

0.75
L = 20B
0.50
B

L > 40B

0.25

50

100

L Stiff clay

200

150
2

1.00

L > 20B
0.75

Soft clay

0.50

L = 10B

L Stiff clay

0.25

50

100

150

200
2

## Undrained shear strength, cu (kN/m )

1.00

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.




0.75

L > 40B

0.50

L
L = 10B

0.25

50

100

150

200
2

## Undrained shear strength, cu (kN/m )

?b`nk^,'*.
Ghk]eng]lZ]a^lbhg_Z\mhkl_hk]kbo^gibe^l

84

Stiff clay

=^lb`g\Ze\neZmbhgl

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

MZ[e^,'-,
:eehpZ[e^ibe^[Zl^\ZiZ\bmb^l\ n G \ : [ (g [ !dG"
Ibe^]bZf^m^k%ff
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,))

0/

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,).

-00

/10

Ghm^
G\62Zg]g[6+'.'

## ,'+*', Group action bored piles in clay

?hkZ`khnih_[hk^]ibe^lbgZ\ha^lbo^fZm^kbZema^_heehpbg`^qik^llbhg\Zg[^nl^]3
JZ%`khni6gJZ>_
pa^k^
g 6gnf[^kh_ibe^lbg`khni
JZ 6\ZiZ\bmrh_Zlbg`e^ibe^
>_ 6`khni^_\b^g\rkZmbh

## 6* mZg*= f!g*"\$g!f*"

l2)fg
pa^k^
= 6ibe^]bZf^m^k
l 6ibe^liZ\bg`
f 6gnf[^kh_ibe^lbghg^]bk^\mbhg
g 6gnf[^kh_ibe^lbghkmah`hgZe]bk^\mbhg
B_l6,=
*1'-,f!g*"\$g!f*"
>_6*
2)fg
Ma^oZen^lh_>_\Zg[^h[mZbg^]_khfMZ[e^,'--'
85

Ikhc^\m]^mZbel

<Ze\neZm^][r

Ch[gh'

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

OB

Worked example 11
Bored pile in clay

<a^\d^][r

CCIP - 018
La^^mgh'

JB

BP1

<eb^gm

=Zm^

TCC

0m

c u = 70 kN/m

Dec 06

## Find safe working load of a 450 mm diameter bored pile in clay

Qf = ac As + cu Nc Ab
gs
gb
Qf = 0.45 (70 + 170)/2 p x 0.45 x 10 + 170 x 9 x p x 0.2252
3.0
2.5
= 254 + 97.3

10 m

c u = 170 kN/m

= 351 kN

MZ[e^,'-OZen^l_hk>
>__hkibe^lliZ\^]Zmmak^^mbf^l]bZf^m^k
Gnf[^kh_ibe^l%f

Gnf[^kh_ibe^l% g
+

)'2)

)'1/

)'1.

)'1-

)'1,

)'1)

)'0/

)'0-

)'0,

)'0,

)'0,

)'0*

)'0)

)'/2

)'/2

)'/1

)'/1

)'/0

)'/0

)'//

Ghm^
?hkhma^k\hf[bgZmbhglnl^)'/.'

## ,'+*'- Piles in granular soil

Ma^ZeehpZ[e^[^Zkbg`\ZiZ\bmrh_Zibe^bg`kZgneZkfZm^kbZebl`bo^g[r3
Gj#:[jh \$ :ljh%f^ZgdlmZg d
g_
pa^k^
Gj# 6ibe^[^Zkbg`\ZiZ\bmr_Z\mhk!l^^MZ[e^,'-."
:[
6Zk^Zh_ma^ibe^[Zl^
jh
6^__^\mbo^ho^k[nk]^gik^llnk^
:l
6lnk_Z\^Zk^Zh_ma^ibe^laZ_mbgma^`kZgneZklhbe
jh%f^Zg
6f^Zgho^k[nk]^gik^llnk^
%
dl
6ahkbshgmZe\h^_\b^gmh_^Zkmaik^llnk^!l^^MZ[e^,'-/"
d
d
6Zg`e^h__kb\mbhg[^mp^^gma^lhbeZg]ma^ibe^_Z\^!l^^MZ[e^,'-/"
g_
6_Z\mhkh_lZ_^mr!+'.mh,')"
JZ6

MZ[e^,'-.
Mrib\ZeoZen^lh_ibe^[^Zkbg`\ZiZ\bmr_Z\mhk% Gj#
:g`e^h_bgm^kgZe
_kb\mbhg%f
f !"

86

KZmbhh_ibe^e^g`ma(ibe^]bZf^m^k
.

+)

+.

*/

**

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0

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;Zl^]hg\aZkml[r;^k^sZgml^o_hk Gj

=^lb`g\Ze\neZmbhgl

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

MZ[e^,'-/
Mrib\ZeoZen^l_hkd
d Zg]d
dlbg`kZgneZkfZm^kbZe
:g`e^h_
bgm^kgZe
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f!"

:g`e^h__kb\mbhg[^mp^^g
ma^lhbeZg]ma^ibe^_Z\^%
d!"

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Bg&lbmn
\hg\k^m^
ibe^l

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Bg&lbmn\hg\k^m^ EZk`^]kbo^g
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+1

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+.'+

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)',21)'//,

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)'+22)'-21

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)'+/2)',1-

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+0')Z

)'+.))',.0

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-*

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D^r
a Bmblk^\hff^g]^]maZm dlahne][^[Zl^]hgehhl^\hg]bmbhgl_hkik^\Zlmibe^l
d
MZ[e^,'-0
Lhbeikhi^kmb^l_hk`kZgneZklhbel
=^l\kbimbhg

LIMG[ehpl

>__^\mbo^Zg`e^h_
bgm^kgZe_kb\mbhg%f
f !"

;ned]^glbmr!dG(f,"

O^krehhl^

)-

+/+1

5*/

Ehhl^

-*)

+1,)

*/*1

F^]bnf]^gl^

*),)

,),/

*1*2

=^gl^

,).)

,/-+

*2+*

O^kr]^gl^

7.)

-+-/

+*

## ,'+*'. Piles in chalk

Ma^ZeehpZ[e^[^Zkbg`\ZiZ\bmrh_Zibe^bg\aZedbl`bo^g[r3
JZ 6 :l JZ%l \$ :l JZ%[
pa^k^
:l
JZ%l
:[
JZ%[

6lnk_Z\^Zk^Zh_ma^ibe^laZ_mbgma^lhbe
6ZeehpZ[e^\ZiZ\bmrh_ibe^laZ_mldbg_kb\mbhg!l^^MZ[e^,'-1"
6Zk^Zh_ma^ibe^[Zl^
6ZeehpZ[e^\ZiZ\bmrh_ma^ibe^[Zl^!l^^MZ[e^,'-1"
87

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

MZ[e^,'-1
OZen^l_hkZeehpZ[e^\ZiZ\bmrh_ibe^laZ_mldbg_kb\mbhg% JZ%lZg]ZeehpZ[e^\ZiZ\bmrh_ma^ibe^
[Zl^% JZ%[_hkibe^lbg\aZed
LIMG[ehpl Ibe^laZ_mldbg_kb\mbhg\ZiZ\bmr
Ng_Z\mhk^]% ?Z\mhkh_
Jn%l
lZ_^mr%g
gl

:eehpZ[e^%
JZ%l

Ibe^[Zl^\ZiZ\bmr
Ng_Z\mhk^]% ?Z\mhkh_
Jn%[
lZ_^mr%g
g[

:eehpZ[e^%
JZ%[

*)

,.

*1

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*.

0)

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,0.)

2-)

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.)))

*/0)

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*0)

1.

/+.)

+)1)

,)

+.)

*+.

0.))

+.))

,.

+.)

*+.

00.)

+.1)

-)

+.)

*+.

1)))

+/0)

## ,'+*'/ Piles into rock

:g ZiikhqbfZm^ ^g]&[^Zkbg` \ZiZ\bmr _hk ibe^l [^Zkbg` hgmh kh\d bl `bo^g bgMZ[e^ ,'-2'Ma^
lmkn\mnkZe\ZiZ\bmrh_ma^ibe^fZrp^ee`ho^kgma^ho^kZeeibe^\ZiZ\bmrZg]lahne][^\hglb]^k^]%
^li^\bZeerpa^g[^Zkbg`hgmho^krlmkhg`kh\d'Ma^oZen^lbgMZ[e^,'-2Zk^hgerZiikhikbZm^pa^g
ma^k^blZlhng][^Zkbg`hgmhma^kh\dZg]ma^kh\daZlghm[^^gp^Zma^k^]Zg]blghmp^Zd^g^]
hk[khd^gbgZgrpZr'
MZ[e^,'-2
:iikhikbZm^oZen^l_hk^g][^Zkbg`h_ibe^lbgkh\d%dG
Kh\dmri^

Ibe^]bZf^m^k!ff"
,))

-.)

/))

Lmkhg`b`g^hnlZg]
+.),.)Z
`g^bllb\kh\dlbglhng]
\hg]bmbhg

*.)

*)))*-))Z

++.),)))Z

-)))..))Z

Lmkhg`ebf^lmhg^lZg] *))*.)
lmkhg`lZg]lmhg^l

-))..)

*)))*+.)

*0.)++.)

,))-))

0))2.)

*+.)*0.)

+)),))

.))/))

0.)*)))

L\ablmlZg]leZm^l

0.*))

Lmkhg`laZe^l%lmkhg` .)0)
fn]lmhg^lZg]lmkhg`
lbemlmhg^l

D^r
a Ma^\ZiZ\bmrh_\hg\k^m^ibe^blebd^ermh`ho^kg
Ghm^
Ma^l^oZen^lZllnf^maZmma^kh\dblghmp^Zma^k^]%p^Zdhk[khd^g'

## ,'+*'0 Basement construction

Bm bl `^g^kZeer \hglb]^k^] maZm Z \hg\k^m^ [Zl^f^gm pZee lahne] [^ Zm e^Zlm ,)) ff mab\d'
<hg\k^m^\Zg[^]^lb`g^]mhik^o^gmma^bg`k^llh_pZm^k%Zemahn`aZmm^gmbhgmh]^mZbeblk^jnbk^]
Zmchbgml'<hg\k^m^\Zgghm[^]^lb`g^]mhik^o^gmma^iZllZ`^h_pZm^koZihnk'
Ma^pZm^kikhhg`h_Z[Zl^f^gmblZgbfihkmZgm\hglb]^kZmbhg%Zg]ma^lmZkmbg`ihbgmblma^
bgm^g]^]nl^'@nb]Zg\^bl`bo^gbg;L1*)+T,+VZg]<BKB:*,2T,,V'MZ[e^,'-2bl[Zl^]hgmZ[e^*h_
;L1*)+Zg]mZ[e^+'*h_<BKB:*,2%ni]Zm^]mhk^^\mma^mkZglbmbhgmh>nkh\h]^l'
Ma^k^Zk^mak^^`^g^kb\mri^lh_\hglmkn\mbhg`bo^gbgMZ[e^,'-2'Mri^:blMZgdbg`%Mri^;bl
Lmkn\mnkZebgm^`kZeikhm^\mbhgZg]Mri^<bl=kZbg^]\Zobmrikhm^\mbhg'Ma^l^Zk^]bl\nll^]bg
fhk^]^mZbe[^ehpZg]mrib\Ze]^mZbelZk^bg\en]^]bgL^\mbhg-'

88

=^lb`g\Ze\neZmbhgl
Ikhc^\m]^mZbel

<Ze\neZm^][r

Ch[gh'

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

OB

Worked example 12
Bored pile in sand

<a^\d^][r

CCIP - 018
La^^mgh'

JB
<eb^gm

BP2
=Zm^

TCC

Dec 06

0m

Qa =

## Nq* Ab qo + As qo,mean ks tand

gf

= Nq* 41

Medium
dense
sand

Qa =

## 41 x p x 0.2252 x 18 x 10 + p x 0.45 x 10 x 18 x 5 x 0.387 x tan 33

3

Qa =

1174 + 320
3

= 498 kN

10 m

MZgdbg`!Mri^:"
MZgdbg` ikhob]^l Z \hgmbgnhnl [Zkkb^k lrlm^f% pab\a ^q\en]^l pZm^k Zg](hk oZihnk' Bm \Zg [^
^bma^kZf^f[kZg^hkebjnb]Ziieb^]%Zg]\Zg[^bglmZee^]bgma^_heehpbg`ieZ\^l3

HgmhZg^qm^kgZelhnk\^h_lniihkm!k^o^kl^]"
Hgma^^qm^kbhk_Z\^h_pZeelZg]hhkl!^qm^kgZe"
Pbmabgma^\hglmkn\mbhg!lZg]pb\a^]"
Hgma^bgm^kbhkh_ma^pZeel!bgm^kgZe"

Ma^lrlm^flk^erhg`hh]chbgmlbgma^f^f[kZg^lrlm^fl%ikhm^\mbhg_khf]ZfZ`^Zg][^bg`
Z]^jnZm^er[hg]^]mhma^ln[lmkZm^'Bgm^kgZelrlm^flfZr[^ngZ[e^mhk^lblmma^ar]khlmZmb\
ik^llnk^l'

Lmkn\mnkZebgm^`kZeikhm^\mbhg!Mri^;"
Lmkn\mnkZe k^bg_hk\^] \hg\k^m^ pZeel Zg] hhkl \Zg [^ ]^lb`g^] Zg] \hglmkn\m^] mh ikhm^\m
Z`Zbglm pZm^k i^g^mkZmbhg'Ma^ \hg\k^m^ lahne] [^ ab`a jnZebmr [hma bg m^kfl h_ ]^lb`g Zg]
\hglmkn\mbhg':mm^gmbhglahne][^iZb]mhik^o^gmbg`\kZ\dl_khf_hkfbg`Zg]mh]^mZbebg`lbfie^
chbgmlmhZohb]ikh[e^flpbmaphkdfZglabi'Ma^]^lb`glahne][^mh;L>G*22+,T,-V _hk`kZ]^
+mh-^gobkhgf^gmlZg]fZr[^mh;L>G*22+**T*V _hk`kZ]^*^gobkhgf^gml'
Fhlm\hglnemZgml\hglb]^kmaZmmablhimbhgblZab`a&kbldlmkZm^`r%^li^\bZeer_hk`kZ]^,Zg]-
^gobkhgf^gml'Ma^k^ Zk^ oZkbhnl \hg\k^m^ Z]]bmbo^l% pab\a ma^ fZgn_Z\mnk^kl \eZbf pbee fZd^
\hg\k^m^pZm^kmb`am%Zg]lhf^\hf^pbmaehg``nZkZgm^^l'FZgr\hglnemZgmlZk^ik^iZk^]mhnl^
ma^l^ikh]n\mlpa^k^ma^kbldlZk^mkZgl_^kk^]mhma^fZgn_Z\mnk^kh_ma^ikh]n\m'

=kZbg^]\Zobmrikhm^\mbhg!Mri^<"
=kZbg^]\Zobmrlrlm^flZk^]^lb`g^]mh\hee^\mfhblmnk^maZm]h^li^g^mkZm^ma^k^mZbgbg`pZee'
Ma^k^mZbgbg`pZeelahne]lmbee[^]^lb`g^]mhfbgbfbl^pZm^ki^g^mkZmbhg'Ma^\Zobmrbl_hkf^][r
bgmkh]n\bg`Zgbgg^kghgehZ]&[^Zkbg`pZee%pab\afZrg^^]mh[^]^lb`g^]Zl_k^^lmZg]bg`mh
ik^o^gmfhblmnk^iZmalZ\khll\Zobmrmb^l'Fhblmnk^bl\hee^\m^]bgZlnfiZg]infi^]ZpZr'

89

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

=kZbg^]lrlm^flZk^ikh[Z[erma^fhlm^qi^glbo^%Zg]Zelhk^]n\^ma^nlZ[e^hhkZk^Z'Ma^k^bl
Zelhma^k^jnbk^f^gmmhkngZg]fZbgmZbgma^infil%Zg]ma^]bl\aZk`^h_ma^pZm^kk^jnbk^lZ
eb\^g\^_khfma^pZm^kZnmahkbmr'Ahp^o^k%ma^rZk^\hglb]^k^]mh[^ma^fhlmkh[nlmlhenmbhg
[^\Znl^ phkdfZglabi% Zemahn`a bfihkmZgm% bl e^ll \kbmb\Ze mh ma^bk ln\\^ll'Ma^k^ bl Zelh ma^
hiihkmngbmr mh \Zkkr hnm k^f^]bZe f^Zlnk^l mh ma^ k^mZbgbg` pZee mh k^]n\^ lb`gb\Zgm pZm^k
i^g^mkZmbhg[^_hk^ma^bgg^kpZeebl\hglmkn\m^]'
MZ[e^,'.)
@nb]^mhe^o^eh_ikhm^\mbhgmhlnbm[Zl^f^gmnl^
@kZ]^
!]^l\kbimbhg"

;Zl^f^gmnlZ`^

I^k_hkfZg\^e^o^e

?hkfh_\hglmkn\mbhg

<hff^gm

* ![Zlb\nmbebmr"

<ZkiZkdbg`4ieZgmkhhfl
!^q\en]bg`^e^\mkb\Ze
^jnbif^gm"4phkdlahil

Lhf^l^^iZ`^Zg]]Zfi
iZm\a^l\Zg[^mhe^kZm^]

Mri^;K^bg_hk\^]\hg\k^m^
]^lb`gbgZ\\hk]Zg\^pbma
;L>G*22+**

?hkZphkdlahimh
\hfierpbmama^;nbe]bg`l
K^`neZmbhglmable^o^eh_
ikhm^\mbhgblngebd^ermh[^
lnbmZ[e^'
Ma^\kZ\dpb]malahne][^
e^llmaZg)',ff'

+ ![^mm^knmbebmr"

PhkdlahilZg]ieZgm
khhflk^jnbkbg`]kb^k
^gobkhgf^gm4k^mZbe
lmhkZ`^Zk^Zl

GhpZm^ki^g^mkZmbhg
[nmfhblmnk^oZihnk\Zg
[^mhe^kZm^]

Mri^: MZgdbg`
Mri^;K^bg_hk\^]\hg\k^m^
]^lb`gbgZ\\hk]Zg\^pbma
;L>G*22+,

:ab`ae^o^eh_lni^koblbhg
blk^jnbk^]]nkbg`
\hglmkn\mbhg'I^k_hkfZg\^
k^eb^lhgma^phkdfZglabi

,!aZ[bmZ[e^"

O^gmbeZm^]k^lb]^gmbZeZg] =kr^gobkhgf^gm
phkdbg`Zk^Zlbg\en]bg`
h_\^l%k^lmZnkZgml^m\'%
e^blnk^\^gmk^l

Mri^: MZgdbg`
Mri^;Pbmak^bg_hk\^]
\hg\k^m^]^lb`gmh
;L>G*22+,
Mri^< PbmapZeeZg]hhk
\ZobmrZg]=IF

Ab`almZg]Zk]h_
phkdfZglabik^jnbk^]'
:]]bmbhgZeikhm^\mbhg
k^\hff^g]^]pbmaMri^;
\hglmkn\mbhg

-!li^\bZe"

:k\abo^lZg]lmhk^l
k^jnbkbg`\hgmkhee^]
^gobkhgf^gm

Mri^:MZgdbg`
Mri^;Pbmak^bg_hk\^]
\hg\k^m^]^lb`gmh
;L>G*22+,ienlZoZihnk
ikhh_f^f[kZg^
Mri^<Pbmao^gmbeZm^]pZee
\ZobmrpbmaoZihnk[Zkkb^kmh
bgg^kldbgZg]hhk\Zobmr
pbma=IF

Ab`almZg]Zk]h_
phkdfZglabik^jnbk^]'
:\hf[bgZmbhgh_Mri^;
Zg]Mri^<\hglmkn\mbhgpbee
`bo^ma^[^lmikhm^\mbhg

90

MhmZeer]kr^gobkhgf^gm

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

## -Plans, sections, elevations and critical

details (section 2d)
Ma^ jn^lmbhg Zldl _hk ieZgl% l^\mbhgl Zg] ^e^oZmbhgl mh lahp ma^ ]bf^glbhgl% eZrhnm Zg]
]blihlbmbhg h_ ma^ lmkn\mnkZe ^e^f^gml Zg] \kbmb\Ze ]^mZbel _hk ^lmbfZmbg` inkihl^l' Ma^
bfihkmZgmZli^\mlmhghm^_khfma^jn^lmbhgZk^maZmbmblnlnZeerg^\^llZkrmhbg\en]^fhk^
maZghg^ieZglahpbg`ma^_heehpbg`ZlZiikhikbZm^3
 ?hng]Zmbhgl
 ;Zl^f^gm
 @khng]hhk
 Lnli^g]^]hhkl

Bmblghmg^\^llZkrmhlahpma^_nee^qm^gmh_^o^krhhk4pa^k^ma^k^bllrff^mkrhkk^i^mbmbhg
hgerZihkmbhgg^^]lmh[^]kZpgZehg`pbmaZ\e^Zkghm^'Ma^]kZpbg`llahne][^]kZpghg
ma^:,`kZiaiZi^kikhob]^]4ma^rlahne]ehhdikh_^llbhgZeZg]bg\en]^]bf^glbhglZg]ma^
lmkn\mnkZe`kb]':_neea^b`am\khll&l^\mbhgbl`^g^kZeer^ll^gmbZeZg]lhf^mbf^lZehg`bmn]bgZe
l^\mbhgblk^jnbk^]mhh':g^e^oZmbhglahne][^bg\en]^]pa^k^bmbl`hbg`mh\hgo^rZ]]bmbhgZe
bg_hkfZmbhgln\aZlma^\eZ]]bg`lniihkml'
Ma^k^blZmfhlm1.fbgnm^lmhZglp^kmabll^\mbhg%lhma^\Zg]b]Zm^pbeeg^^]mhphkdlpb_mer
mh\hfie^m^ma^]kZpbg`lZg]ma^k^blghln[lmbmnm^_hk^qi^kb^g\^'HgeraZe_ma^fZkdlpbee
[^ZpZk]^]_hkma^ieZgl%lhZohb]ma^mkZih_li^g]bg`mhhfn\ambf^hgma^ieZglZmma^
^qi^gl^h_ma^hma^kk^jnbk^f^gml'

## -'* Plans, sections and elevations

:mrib\Ze^qZfie^h_ZhhkieZgZg]l^\mbhg_hkZk^bg_hk\^]\hg\k^m^[nbe]bg`bllahpgbg?b`nk^-'*'
IeZglZg]\khll&l^\mbhgl_hk_hng]Zmbhgllahne][^lahpgbgZlbfbeZke^o^eh_]^mZbe'
Bm bl Zllnf^] maZm Z \hlm ^lmbfZm^ pbee [^ ik^iZk^] nlbg` ma^ ]kZpbg`l Zg] lh ma^ _heehpbg`
bg_hkfZmbhglahne][^ikhob]^]hgma^ieZgl3
 <hg\k^m^\eZll
 K^bg_hk\^f^gm^lmbfZm^l_hkZee^e^f^gml%^li^\bZeerngnlnZe^e^f^gml
 Mri^h_k^bg_hk\^f^gm
 <hg\k^m^gbla^l
 =bf^glbhglmh`kb]lZg]lmkn\mnkZelbs^l
 <eZ]]bg`lniihkml
 Fho^f^gmchbgml
 PZm^kikhhg`]^mZbel%bg\en]bg`\hglmkn\mbhgchbgml_hkpZm^kmb`am\hg\k^m^
 :grhma^kbg_hkfZmbhgk^jnbk^]mh^gZ[e^Z\hlm^lmbfZm^mh[^ik^iZk^]

## -'+ Critical details

Ma^\kbmb\Ze]^mZbelikhob]^]a^k^Zk^[rghf^Zglma^\hfie^m^kZg`^h_]^mZbelmaZmfZr
[^^g\hngm^k^]'F^k^erk^ikh]n\bg`ma^l^bgma^^qZfbgZmbhgpbeeghm]^fhglmkZm^
rhnk \hfi^m^g\r mh ma^ ^qZfbg^kl4 ma^ ]^mZbel pbee g^^] mh [^ Z]Zim^] mh ma^
iZkmb\neZk\bk\nflmZg\^lh_rhnk]^lb`g'Ma^jn^lmbhgnlnZeerghm^lma^\kbmb\Ze]^mZbel
Zk^ _hk ^lmbfZmbg` inkihl^l4 lh bg ma^ mbf^ ZoZbeZ[e^ rhn lahne] ^glnk^ maZm rhn ikhob]^
ma^]^mZbelmaZmpbeeaZo^ma^fhlm^__^\mhgma^\hlmh_ma^ikhc^\m%ghmma^]^mZbelmaZmZk^
^Zlb^lmmhikh]n\^'
91

150

150

4250

150

3750

600 dp x 300

150

300 dp x 250

150

3450

SFL = 112.150

1650

600 dp x 300

200
wall

Down

Up
150

400 dp x 300

150

1100

7000

600 dp x 300

200

500

250

150

Column
500 x 300

600 dp x 300

3000

400 dp x 300

150

600 dp x 300
3

150

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

FLOOR LAYOUT
All columns 300 x 300, centred on grid unless noted otherwise

SFL = 112.150
600

600

600
300

SECTION X - X

?b`nk^-'*
>qZfie^h_`^g^kZeZkkZg`^f^gm]kZpbg`_hkZ\hg\k^m^lmkn\mnk^

92

150

IeZgl%l^\mbhgl%^e^oZmbhglZg]\kbmb\Ze]^mZbel

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

-'+'* Foundations
MZ[e^-'*
Mrib\Zeibe^\Zilbs^l!ff"
=bZf^m^k

=^ima

E^g`ma%E

+&ibe^
ZkkZg`^f^gm
[k^Z]ma%;

,&ibe^ZkkZg`^f^gm
;k^Z]ma%;

S

,))

0))

*.))

/))

*-))

..)

/))

./)

-.)

*)))

+*))

0.)

*2))

0))

0.)

0/)

/))

*-))

+0))

2))

+-.)

1.)

2))

20)

0.)

*1))

,,))

*).)

,)))

*)))

*).)

**0)

2))

++))

,2))

*+))

,..)

**.)

*+))

*,0)

*+))

,)))

.*))

*.))

-.2)

*-.)

*.))

*01)

*.))

,1))

/,))

*1))

.//)

*0.)

*1))

+*2)

Ghm^
=bf^glbhglE%;%Q%RZg]SZk^`bo^gbg?b`nk^-'+'
Y

B
Z

X
L

?b`nk^-'+
Mrib\Zeibe^\ZieZrhnml

## L-bars to provide anchorage,

attached to pile reinforcement
with couplers

Top of
pilecap

## Pile cut down to

cut-off level
Damp-proof
membrane
75 mm

Blinding

75 mm

Pile reinforcement

## b) Pile and pilecap connection for

large diameter bars

?b`nk^-',
Ibe^Zg]ibe^\Zi\hgg^\mbhgl

:]Zimma^l^]bZ`kZflmhlnbm&=HGMcnlmk^ikh]n\^ma^f'@bo^]bf^glbhglpa^k^ZiikhikbZm^'
93

Internal wall

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

In-situ concrete
Screed

Mesh reinforcement

Damp-proof
course

FFL

Insulation

In-situ RC
slab

Damp-proof
membrane

Insulation

Damp-proof
membrane

Blinding

Blinding
Well compacted
sub-base

Well compacted
sub-base

Blinding
Blinding
a) Internal strip foundation

In-situ screed

## In-situ RC slab on sub-base

Damp-proof
course

Reinforcement
TOC
Insulation

Top of pilecap

Damp-proof
course
100 mm
Precast hollowcore unit

Damp-proof
membrane
Blinding
Well compacted
sub-base

Blinding

Blinding

slab interface

Existing
column

## d) Strip foundation supporting pre-cast unit

New RC column
Resin-anchored starter bars

RC slab
Damp-proof
membrane
Blinding
Sub-base
Existing
concrete
foundation

New concrete
foundation

450
min

75

Resin-anchored dowel
bars

## f) Connection of column to pad foundation

?b`nk^-'LaZeehp_hng]Zmbhgl*

:]Zimma^l^]bZ`kZflmhlnbm&=HGMcnlmk^ikh]n\^ma^f'@bo^]bf^glbhglpa^k^ZiikhikbZm^'
94

IeZgl%l^\mbhgl%^e^oZmbhglZg]\kbmb\Ze]^mZbel
Longitudinal joint

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

Reinforced
concrete column

Reinforced concrete
Outline of column
base below slab

Isolation joint
(See Section
A A below)

Transverse joint
(where provided)

Sub-base

DPC

## Compressible filler board 20 mm wide

a) Isolation joint around concrete column: plan

## d) Wall isolation joint

RC wall
Longitudinal joint
Outline of base
below slab
A

Existing
masonry
wall

Concrete foundation

Damp-proof
membrane

Transverse joint
(where provided)

Isolation joint

Blinding

Assumed foundation
to existing wall
b) Isolation joint at steel stanchion: plan

## Compressible filler board

20 mm wide, joint sealed
with proprietary sealant

Concrete surround to
stanchion baseplate
constructed to finished
floor level

Mass concrete

## e) New structure allowed to load existing building

foundations

20 mm soft joint

Existing
masonry wall

Foundation
Damp-proof
membrane

Compressible
material
Mass concrete

Sub-base

Damp-proof
membrane
Blinding

c) Section A

Blinding
Mass concrete
50 mm soft joint
filled with
compressible
material

Assumed foundation
to existing wall

## f) New structure isolated from existing building

foundations

?b`nk^-'.
LaZeehp_hng]Zmbhgl+

:]Zimma^l^]bZ`kZflmhlnbm&=HGMcnlmk^ikh]n\^ma^f'@bo^]bf^glbhglpa^k^ZiikhikbZm^'
95

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

## -'+'+ Retaining walls

300 mm wide
granular backfill

Water-bar

Weep hole
Drainage pipe

if required

if required

x
Precast concrete

y
Mass concrete

In-situ concrete
base

d
z

## d) Mass concrete gravity wall

?b`nk^-'/
K^mZbgbg`lmkn\mnk^l

:]Zimma^l^]bZ`kZflmhlnbm&=HGMcnlmk^ikh]n\^ma^f'@bo^]bf^glbhglpa^k^ZiikhikbZm^'
96

IeZgl%l^\mbhgl%^e^oZmbhglZg]\kbmb\Ze]^mZbel
-'+', Basement walls
Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

Superstructure
Ground floor slab

Superstructure

Reinforced
concrete
ground beam

King post

## Ground floor slab

Reinforced concrete
column

Secant pile
wall

Y
Reinforced concrete
basement wall

## In-situ concrete to give

flush surface for
waterproofing system

Waterproofing to internal or
external surface of basement
wall as required

Precast concrete
lagging panels

Basement slab

Basement slab

Pile
Connection between basement slab
and secant wall if required
a) Secant pile wall used as part of permanent structure

In-situ concrete
Superstructure

Reinforced
concrete
capping beam

Secant pile
wall

## Ground floor slab

Reinforced concrete
column

Section X X

Reinforced
concrete
basement wall

Waterproofing to internal
or external surface of
basement wall as
required
Section Y Y

Contiguous
pile wall
Basement slab
In-situ
concrete
infill
Pile

## b) Temporary contiguous pile wall

Section Z Z


?b`nk^-'0
;Zl^f^gmpZeel

:]Zimma^l^]bZ`kZflmhlnbm&=HGMcnlmk^ikh]n\^ma^f'@bo^]bf^glbhglpa^k^ZiikhikbZm^'
97

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

-'+'- Waterproong

External
concrete
wall

In-situ
concrete
wall

Bitumen sheeting

## DPM applied to inner

face of external wall

Fillet

board

Structural wall
and floor
50 protective
screed

600 mm zone
of selected
backfill

Concrete floor
300 mm
zone of
selected
backfill

## 150 min sealed

overlap
Horizontal DPM protected
with 50 screed

Concrete
base
drainage
material

Fillet

Sub-base

225 min
Drainage pipe

Drainage
pipe

## c) Externally applied bitumen sheet tanking

Blinding
concrete

DPM

Sub-base

material
a) Internal damp proof membrane
In-situ concrete wall

40 space flushed
up with mortar

Masonry wall
or protective
board

DPM applied to
mortar render

600 mm zone
backfilled with
selected fill

## In-situ concrete floor

Horizontal DPM
protected with
50 screed

Asphalt

Blinding concrete

drainage
material

Sub-base

Drainage pipe

50 protective screed
on insulating layer

Outer
wall

200
min

Fillet

Fillet

## b) Example of damp proof membrane applied externally

?b`nk^-'1
MZgd^]pZm^kikhhg`himbhgl
!Mri^:"

98

:]Zimma^l^]bZ`kZflmhlnbm&=HGMcnlmk^ikh]n\^ma^f'@bo^]bf^glbhglpa^k^ZiikhikbZm^'

IeZgl%l^\mbhgl%^e^oZmbhglZg]\kbmb\Ze]^mZbel

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

Protection
Tanking
Fillet
Fillet
150
Stabilising beam

Pile cap
Isolated pile groups

?b`nk^-'2
MZgd^]\hg\k^m^[Zl^f^gm\Zkkb^]hgibe^l

Slab reinforcement
Cavity drain former

Column

50

## Cavity former cut

around columns

Blockwork wall
Cavity drainage former
Screed

Screed
TOC

SSL
Reinforced
concrete wall

Laid to falls

100 mm min.

Foundation
Pile

Drainage gulley

## b)Junction of floor and wall cavitiy systems

?b`nk^-'*)
Mrib\Ze\Zobmr]kZbgZ`^!Mri^<"
Drainage channel
Floor finishes
Reinforced in-situ
concrete
Blinding
Waterproof
render

Chamfer at internal
and external corners
Selected backfill
Tanked waterproofing
system

Blinding

Drainage pipe

?b`nk^-'**
Lpbffbg`ihhepZm^kikhhg`

:]Zimma^l^]bZ`kZflmhlnbm&=HGMcnlmk^ikh]n\^ma^f'@bo^]bf^glbhglpa^k^ZiikhikbZm^'
99

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

Horizontal restraint
brackets

panel

Shims
RC frame

## Fixing between bracket

and RC frame
Precast
concrete
panel
Shims for vertical
tolerance
Horizontal restraint
bracket
panel fixed to RC frame
a) Cladding panel fixed to reinforced concrete upstand

## b) Precast concrete cladding supported by concrete beam

Serrated face for vertical

for vertical and horizontal

Precast concrete

Precast concrete
RC concrete
Cast-in socket
with cross pin
(or vertical cast-in channel)

Soft joint

panel

## Expansion anchor or cast-in

channel and serrated cleat,
and plate washer for lateral

## d) Load bearing and horizontal restraint fixing

In-situ concrete frame

panel
Range of
movement

Precast concrete

## f) Fixing detail to allow movement

Note: any steel connected to external elements should be galvanised or, more durably, stainless steel.

?b`nk^-'*+
Mrib\Zeqbg`]^mZbel_hk
ik^\Zlm\hg\k^m^iZg^el

100

:]Zimma^l^]bZ`kZflmhlnbm&=HGMcnlmk^ikh]n\^ma^f'@bo^]bf^glbhglpa^k^ZiikhikbZm^'

IeZgl%l^\mbhgl%^e^oZmbhglZg]\kbmb\Ze]^mZbel

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

In-situ concrete
Insulation

Insulation
Tie

In-situ concrete
Retained

Fixing to
RC frame

Cavity tray

Lateral
restraint
fixing

Soft joint
Lateral
Continuous formed
restraint fixing
angle brickwork
support system
Fixing to frame allows
(stainless steel)
vertical movement

Soft joint

Tie into
brickwork

## a) Brickwork supported at floor level

?b`nk^-'*,
?bqbg`h_fZlhgkr_ZZ]^l

-'+'/ Waterstops

Outside

Inside

Blinding

## a) Construction floor joint

with external waterstop

## b) Construction wall joint

with external waterstop

Recess cast in
concrete

Hydrophilic
strip

## c) Construction joint with

hydrophilic strip

## d) Floor-to-wall joint with

external waterstop

?b`nk^-'*Mrib\ZeZiieb\Zmbhglh_pZm^klmhil

:]Zimma^l^]bZ`kZflmhlnbm&=HGMcnlmk^ikh]n\^ma^f'@bo^]bf^glbhglpa^k^ZiikhikbZm^'
101

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

Non-absorbent
joint filter

Sealing compound

No steel
continuity

Shear connector
Expansion type
waterstop

## Initial gap for

expansion

a) Expansion joint

Joint sealing
compound

## d) Movement joint in a suspended slab with shear transfer

No concrete continuity
and no initial gap
Reinforced
concrete
column
No steel
continuity
Soft joint

Waterstop

Sealant
e) Movement joint at column location

## b) Complete contraction joint

Joint sealing
compound

No concrete continuity
and no initial gap

for traffic
Sealant

Steel
continuity
50%

Sealant
Soft joint

Waterstop
Waterstop

## f) Movement joint suitable for traffic

?b`nk^-'*.
Fho^f^gmchbgml

:]Zimma^l^]bZ`kZflmhlnbm&=HGMcnlmk^ikh]n\^ma^f'@bo^]bf^glbhglpa^k^ZiikhikbZm^'
102

IeZgl%l^\mbhgl%^e^oZmbhglZg]\kbmb\Ze]^mZbel

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

-'+'1 Superstructure

## a) Reinforced beam to column connection

Screed
New RC slab
X

Existing column
15 mm soft joint
New reinforced
concrete slab

10 mm steel plate
Section X X

Plan

Structural topping

Hollowcore unit

## Reinforcement projecting from

in-situ beam bent down into
structural topping

Reinforcement to
2 cores per unit

Minimum 100 mm
bearing
In-situ beam

## d) Precast unit supported on in-situ beam (hybrid construction)

?b`nk^-'*/
Lni^klmkn\mnk^]^mZbel

:]Zimma^l^]bZ`kZflmhlnbm&=HGMcnlmk^ikh]n\^ma^f'@bo^]bf^glbhglpa^k^ZiikhikbZm^'
103

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

## . Method statement and programme

(section 2e)
.'* Method statement
Ma^ f^mah] lmZm^f^gm lahne] [^ pkbmm^g _hk ma^ iZkmb\neZk \bk\nflmZg\^l h_ ma^ ikhc^\m4
ma^ ^qZfbg^kl Zk^ ehhdbg` _hk f^mah] lmZm^f^gml maZm ]^fhglmkZm^ Zg ng]^klmZg]bg` h_
ma^\hglmkn\mbhgikh\^llZg]ahpmh[nbe]lZ_^er'Ma^f^mah]lmZm^f^gmZg]ikh`kZff^
mh`^ma^k Zk^ phkma cnlm *) h_ ma^ fZkdl% lh ma^k^ bl `^g^kZeer ghm fn\a mbf^ ZoZbeZ[e^
mh\hfie^m^mabliZkmh_ma^jn^lmbhg'<Zg]b]Zm^lm^g]mhknglahkmh_mbf^Zmma^^g]h_
ma^^qZfbgZmbhgZg]lhmabliZkmblnlnZeerghmp^ee^q^\nm^]'G^o^kma^e^llma^k^Zk^fZkdl
ZoZbeZ[e^Zg]^o^kr^__hkmlahne][^fZ]^mhikhob]^Z\e^Zkf^mah]lmZm^f^gm'

## .'*'* General contents of the method statement

Ma^f^mah]lmZm^f^gmlahne]]^l\kb[^ahpma^\Zg]b]Zm^\hglb]^klmaZmma^li^\b\[nbe]bg`bg
ma^jn^lmbhg\Zg[^lZ_^er\hglmkn\m^]'Ma^_heehpbg`hnmebg^fZrikho^nl^_ne3

Ik^ebfbgZkb^l
Ma^lbm^l^m&nilahne][^hnmebg^]4iZkmb\neZkblln^lmh\hglb]^kZk^3
 Bgm^k_Z\^lpbmama^in[eb\
 Bgm^k_Z\^lpbmaZ]cZ\^gmikhi^kmb^l
 Lbm^eh`blmb\l
 AZg]ebg`h_fZm^kbZel
 IeZgmZg]^jnbif^gmmh[^ikhob]^]%^'`'\kZg^l

L^jn^g\^h_phkd
 B]^gmb_rma^l^jn^g\^h_phkdZg]ma^]^i^g]^g\b^l[^mp^^g^Z\aZ\mbobmr
 ;kb^r]^l\kb[^^Z\aZ\mbobmr
 Eblmma^Z\mbobmb^lbgZeh`b\Zehk]^k
 Ab`aeb`amd^rk^lmkZbgmlZg]ahpma^r\Zg[^ho^k\hf^
 L^\mbhg+'0'*ab`aeb`am^]ahpa^ZemaZg]lZ_^mrkbldllahne][^fbgbfbl^]'F^mah]l_hk

k^]n\bg`Zgrk^fZbgbg`kbldllahne][^bg\en]bg`a^k^

## .'*'+ Detailed considerations

Ma^]^lb`g^k\Zgbgn^g\^ma^a^ZemaZg]lZ_^mrkbldlhgZikhc^\m[r\hglb]^kbg`ma^blln^lZmZg
^ZkerlmZ`^4ma^_heehpbg`eblmblZgbg]b\Zmbhgh_Zk^Zlpa^k^]^lb`g^kl\ZgaZo^Zgbgn^g\^3
 K^]n\^ma^k^jnbk^f^gmmhwork at height'
 K^]n\^ma^k^jnbk^f^gmmhphkdbgexcavationsZg]conned spaces%^'`'fbgbfbl^ma^

]^imalh__hng]Zmbhgl'
 :ohb]ma^li^\b\Zmbhgh_fZm^kbZelmaZmZk^difcult to handle^'`'ehg`e^g`malh_-)ff

]bZf^m^kk^bg_hk\bg`[Zk'
 <e^Zker\hgo^rma^eZm^kZestability requirements_hkma^i^kfZg^gmphkdl'
 :ohb]ma^li^\b\Zmbhgh_m^\agbjn^lmaZm`^g^kZm^noise'
 Fbgbfbl^ma^nl^h_m^\agbjn^lmaZm\Znl^vibration'
 <hglb]^kma^]^imah_ma^groundwaterbgma^]^lb`g'
 K^]n\^ma^kbldh_\hgmZ\mpbmacontaminants^'`'li^\b_rmahkhn`albm^bgo^lmb`Zmbhgb_

ma^k^blZkbldh_\hgmZfbgZmbhgb]^gmb^]bgZ]^ldlmn]r'
 B]^gmb_rma^eh\Zmbhgh_utility services'
 <hglb]^kbuoyancy]nkbg`\hglmkn\mbhg'

104

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

F^mah]lmZm^f^gmZg]ikh`kZff^
Refurbishment h_^qblmbg`ikhi^kmb^l'
Weight of elements mh[^eb_m^]'
 Mri^lh_lifting equipment ^goblZ`^]_hkma^ikhc^\m'
Temporary propping k^jnbk^f^gml'

.'+ Programme
:lpbmaf^mah]lmZm^f^gml%ma^\Zg]b]Zm^blnlnZeerng]^kmbf^ik^llnk^ZmmabllmZ`^h_ma^
^qZfbgZmbhg[nm%Z`Zbg%bmblZghiihkmngbmrmh]^fhglmkZm^rhnkdghpe^]`^'Ma^bg_hkfZmbhg
ikhob]^] a^k^ bl k^Zeer bgm^g]^] _hk bgbmbZe ikh`kZffbg` hger% not Zl Z ]^mZbe^] `nb]^ hg
\hglmkn\mbhgi^kbh]l'
Mrib\Ze\hglmkn\mbhgkZm^l\Zg[^h[mZbg^]_khfMZ[e^.'*hk?b`nk^.'*'
MZ[e^.'*
Mrib\Ze\hglmkn\mbhgkZm^l
<hglmkn\mbhgmri^

<hglmkn\mbhgkZm^

>lmZ[eblalbm^

+p^^dl

;hk^](<?:ibe^]!/))ff]bZ'q,)f
ehg`"

0i^k]Zr

=kbo^gik^\Zlmibe^l

?khf+))f(]ZraZk]`khng]mh*)))f(]Zrlh_m`khng]

Ghm^
KZm^l`bo^gZk^`^g^kb\Zg]bgm^g]^]hger_hk`nb]Zg\^'

Column/slab construction

Start
on site
12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

## Speed on site (weeks/1000 m2/crane)

1
2
3

Flat slab
Ribbed slab
Waffle slab
One-way slab and band beam
Two-way beam and slab
P/T flat slab

## Hybrid beam and slab

Wall/slab construction
Hybrid twin wall
Precast crosswall
Tunnel form

?b`nk^.'*
E^Z]&bgmbf^lZg]li^^]h_\hglmkn\mbhg

105

?b`nk^l.'+mh.'-lahpma^eZrhnmZg]\hglmkn\mbhgikh`kZff^l_hkma^lmkn\mnkZehimbhgl_hkZ
\hff^k\bZe[nbe]bg`maZmaZo^[^^gmZd^g_khf<hff^k\bZe[nbe]bg`l&\hlmfh]^elmn]rT*,V'
Ma^[nbe]bg`blmak^^lmhk^rlab`aZg]eh\Zm^]hgZ`k^^g&^e]lbm^%bmaZl[^^gZllnf^]maZmhg^
\kZg^aZl[^^gnl^]_hkmabl\hglmkn\mbhg'
A

B
7500

D
7500

7500

7500
E

7500

7500

F
7500

G
7500

H
7500

7500

7500
4

7500
5

7500

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

## .'+'* Example programmes

?b`nk^.'+
IeZgh_,&lmhk^r\hff^k\bZe[nbe]bg`

Activity

Duration

Site set up

2 weeks

Substructure

8 weeks

## Remove topsoil and reduced level dig

2 weeks

4 weeks

Underslab drainage

3 weeks

## Ground floor slab

3 weeks

Superstructure

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

10 weeks

3 weeks

4 weeks

3 weeks

4 weeks

3 weeks

3 weeks

## Roof upstands and bases

2 weeks

?b`nk^.',
<hglmkn\mbhgikh`kZff^_hkZZmleZ[lhenmbhg

106

F^mah]lmZm^f^gmZg]ikh`kZff^

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

Activity

Duration

Site set up

2 weeks

Substructure

8 weeks

## Remove topsoil and reduced level dig

2 weeks

4 weeks

Underslab drainage

3 weeks

3 weeks

Superstructure

13 weeks

2 weeks

2 weeks

1 week

2 weeks

2 weeks

1 week

2 weeks

2 weeks

1 week

## Roof upstands and bases

2 weeks

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

?b`nk^.'<hglmkn\mbhgikh`kZff^_hkZar[kb]\hg\k^m^lhenmbhg

107

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

## :ii^g]bq:3 Robustness requirements

for precast concrete frames
Ma^k^jnbk^f^gml_hkZkh[nlmik^\Zlm\hg\k^m^_kZf^\Zg[^f^m[r]^lb`gbg`_hkma^fbgbfnf
mb^_hk\^l`bo^gbg>nkh\h]^+Zg]ma^NDGZmbhgZe:gg^q'Ma^_heehpbg`mb^llahne][^ikhob]^]
!l^^Zelh?b`nk^:'*"3
 ?ehhkmb^l\hgg^\mbg`hhklho^kZgbgm^kgZelniihkm'
 I^kbf^m^khhkmb^l\hgg^\mbg`hhklmhZi^kbf^m^klniihkm'
 Bgm^kgZemb^lho^kZgbgm^kf^]bZm^lniihkmi^ki^g]b\neZkmhma^liZgh_ma^hhk'
 I^kbia^kZemb^lZkhng]ma^i^kbf^m^kh_ma^hhk'
 O^kmb\Zemb^l\hgg^\mbg`o^kmb\ZepZeelhk\henfglmhikhob]^\hgmbgnbmr'
Floor ties either uniformaly
distributed or collected
at columns

Internal ties

Continuous
peripheral
gable tie
Continuity tie

## Ties anchored into

columns where
continuity cannot
be provided

## Perimeter floor ties

(everywhere)

Continuous
peripheral
tie(s)

?b`nk^:'*
?ehhkmb^l_hkZik^\Zlm\hg\k^m^_kZf^T,.V

Ma^mb^l\Zg[^^bma^kk^bg_hk\^f^gm!^'`'A*+"hka^eb\Zeik^lmk^llbg`lmkZg]!]^lb`glmk^g`ma
*.1)G(ff+"%pab\ableZb]mZn`am[nmghmik^lmk^ll^]'Ma^[ZklhklmkZg]lahne][^Z]^jnZm^er
eZii^]Zg]^f[^]]^]bgbg&lbmn\hg\k^m^pbmaZfbgbfnf]bf^glbhgh_Zme^Zlmh\$+AZ``\$*)
ff !b'^' nlnZeer Zm e^Zlm .) ff"' *) ff Z``k^`Zm^ bl h_m^g nl^] mh fbgbfbl^ ma^ lbs^ h_ ma^
\hg\k^m^bgee'Ma^mb^lfZr[^k^bg_hk\^f^gmZek^Z]rikhob]^]mhl^ko^Zghma^kinkihl^Zg]ma^
]^lb`g_hk\^lZk^bgeb^nh_ma^ghkfZe]^lb`g_hk\^l'

## :'* Horizontal ties

Mrib\ZeahkbshgmZemb^]^mZbelZk^lahpgbg?b`nk^l:'+mh:'2'Ma^_heehpbg`lahne][^ghm^]3
 Ma^hi^gbg`nih_Z]cZ\^gm\hk^lbgaheehp\hk^ngbmllahne][^Zohb]^]'
 Ma^k^\hff^g]^]fZqbfnfe^g`mah_Zghi^g\hk^bgZaheehp\hk^ngbmbl/))ff'

## :'+ Vertical ties

O^kmb\Zemb^llahne]k^lblmma^Z\\b]^gmZe]^lb`glbmnZmbhgh_ma^hhklniihkm^][rma^\henfg
ZmmaZme^o^e'
108

:ii^g]bq:3Kh[nlmg^ll

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

Concrete topping

Support

Precast hollowcore
unit

Note
Not suitable for Class 2B and Class 3 buildings in accordance
with Approved Document A [36]

?b`nk^:'+
Bgm^kgZehhkmb^lpbmabg
\hg\k^m^mhiibg`

In-situ concrete

?b`nk^:',
Bgm^kgZehhkmb^lpbmabgaheehp\hk^ngbmlT,*V

In-situ
concrete

?b`nk^:'I^kbf^m^khhkmb^lpbmabgaheehp\hk^ngbmlT,*V

109

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

Floor
Gable
beam
Tie bar

slab

Edge beam

In-situ concrete

In-situ
concrete

Reinforcement anchored
into precast column
using alternatives shown
in Figure A.9

Minimum  + 2Hagg + 10 mm

## Tie bar diameter 

Gable beam

?b`nk^:'.
=^mZbebg`Zm\hkg^k\henfglT,*V

?b`nk^:'/
Ihlbmbhgh_hhkmb^pbmabg
ehg`bmn]bgZechbgmlh_
aheehp\hk^ngbml

Projecting bars

In-situ
infill

## At least one (often two) core(s)

opened for approximately 300 m m

## Plug in open cores

a) Plan

b) Section

?b`nk^:'0
I^kbf^m^kmb^lpa^k^aheehp\hk^ngbmlliZgiZkZee^emh^]`^[^ZfT,*V

110

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

:ii^g]bq:3Kh[nlmg^ll

## Site-placed bars positioned

inside projecting loops

?b`nk^:'1
Bgm^kgZemb^lmZd^gmakhn`aik^\Zlm\henfgT,*V

Anchor plate

Fully anchored
cast-in-socket

Grouted sleeve

?b`nk^:'2
:em^kgZmbo^ZkkZg`^f^gml_hk
bgm^kgZemb^lZmik^\Zlm\henfg
ihlbmbhg

111

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

## :ii^g]bq;3 Design aids

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0.591
0.598
0.447

0.656
0.344
0.656
0.344

0.422
0.656
0.656
0.422

0.625
0.375
0.500
0.625
0.500
0.375

0.437
0.605
0.646
0.646
0.605
0.437

0.545
0.455
0.634
0.366
0.634
0.366
0.455
0.545

0.589
0.651
0.433
0.628
0.433
0.651
0.589
0.628

0.468
0.631
0.369
0.500
0.532
0.631
0.468
0.500
0.532
0.369

0.434
0.614
0.595
0.649
0.622
0.649
0.595
0.614
0.622
0.434

0.313
0.688
0.313
0.688

0.688
0.406
0.406
0.688

0.650
0.350
0.500
0.650
0.500
0.350

0.625
0.425
0.675
0.425
0.625
0.675

0.339
0.446
0.661
0.554
0.339
0.661
0.554
0.446

0.607
0.681
0.420
0.654
0.681
0.607
0.654
0.420

0.460
0.658
0.342
0.540
0.500
0.658
0.460
0.500
0.540
0.342

0.615
0.679
0.647
0.636
0.421
0.679
0.615
0.636
0.647
0.421

0.333
0.667
0.667
0.333

0.667
0.417
0.667
0.417

0.367
0.633
0.500
0.633
0.367
0.500

0.433

0.357
0.548
0.643
0.452
0.643
0.452
0.548
0.357

0.429
0.637
0.595
0.661
0.661
0.595
0.637
0.429

0.640
0.500
0.360
0.465
0.535
0.640
0.465
0.360
0.500
0.535

0.621
0.631
0.602
0.659
0.430
0.659
0.602
0.621
0.631
0.480

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0.611
0.611

0.656
0.433

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Moment
0.277

0.277
0.025

0.223

0.025

2l

0.277
0.109

0.257

0.277
0.109

2l

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1.000

0.223
0.777

1.000

0.777
0.223

0.466

1.000

0.534
0.466

0.534

1.000

0.373

0.311
0.311
0.273

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2l

2l

Moment

Uniformly distributed

Licensed copy from CIS: hyder, Hyder Consulting, 12/07/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

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0.311

0.311

0.186

0.357

2l

0.357
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0.845
1.155

1.155
0.500
0.500

0.864
0.845

1.136

0.500
1.136
0.500

0.864

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w 2 2
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V B1 = w a
V B2

V1
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Moment

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2
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## a) Beam overhanging one support - uniformly distributed load

a
C

wa
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RA = VA =

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V B = wa

VB
VA

wa
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Mmax

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wa
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24EI

Moment
b) Beam overhanging one support - uniformly distributed load on overhang
a

P
A

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Pa
l

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VB

VA

VB = P
Mmax = Pa
2

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Mmax

3EI

Moment
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:ii^g]bq;3=^lb`gZb]l

Deflected
shape

Assumed pin
connection

## a) Frame and deflections

F1
F1
4

F1
4

F1
2

F1
2

F1
4

F1
4

F2
F1 + F2
4

F1 + F2
4

F1 + F2
2

F1 + F2
2

F1 + F2
4

F1 + F2
4

F3
F1 + F2 + F3
4

/F

F1 + F2 + F3
2

/F

F1 + F2 + F3
4

/F

4
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/F

/F

4
(3F 1 +2 F 2 + F 3 )h
2b

4
(3F 1 + 2 F 2 + F 3 )h
2b

b) Forces

MA

MA

MA

MB

MA

MA

MA
MD

MC
2

MD

MC
2

MD

MC
MB

MD

MF

MF

ME
2

ME
MC

MF

MF

MC
2

MA

MC
2

M A = F1 h / 8
M B = F1 h /4
M C = ( F1 + F2 ) h /4
M D = (2 F1 + F2) h /8
M E = (F + F + F )h /4
1
2
3
M F = (2 F1+ 2 F 2 + F3 )h / 8

ME
2

c) Moments
Note
Columns and beams have equal stiffness
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121

0.20

MEd /bd2fck

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0.10

25 fck
30 fck
35 fck
40 fck
50 fck

x
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d
z < 0.95d
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## Ratio d/h = 0.5

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NEd /h2fck

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127

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References
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128

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+0 ;KHHD>K%H^mZe'Ahpmh]^lb`g\hg\k^m^lmkn\mnk^lnlbg`>nkh\h]^+%<<BI&))/'
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129

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Index
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131

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