You are on page 1of 14

Test Instructions Final Works Testing of

250 MW Turbogenerator
RAIGARH 1, 2, 3 & 4

HW-TG-TI-015
Page 1 of 14

TEST INSRUCTIONS
FOR
FINAL WORKS TESTING
OF
250 MW TURBOGENERATORS

PROJECT:
RAIGARH-1, 2, 3 & 4

ELECRICAL MACHINES ENGINEERING


BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED
HARIDWAR (UTTARANCHAL)

Issued: 29-Sep-06

Test Instructions Final Works Testing of


250 MW Turbogenerator
RAIGARH 1, 2, 3 & 4

HW-TG-TI-015
Page 2 of 14

WORKS TESTING PROGRAMME FOR 250 MW


(THRI 108/44 FULLY IMPREGNATED) TG
FOR RAIGARH TPP UNIT-1, 2, 3 & 4
(P.O. 10225-P-131-01, 10226-P-131-01, 10227-P-131-01, 10228-P-131-01)
S.
No.

1
a)

Details Of Tests

Test
Parameters

Nominal
Design
Value

Acceptance
Norms
(With Ref.
Standards If
Any)
Measurement of winding resistance: (Measurement during test bed
Stator Winding
D.C.
0.00085743
-Resistance
ohms at
20oC

b)

Rotor Winding

Continuity check of
RTD's

D.C.
Resistance

0.09673
ohm at
20oC
--

3
a)

D.C.
Resistance /
continuity
Measurement of Insulation Resistance:
Stator Winding
IR
--

b)

Rotor Winding

IR

---

c)

RTDs

IR

---

4
4.1

HEAT RUN TESTS:


Mechanical heat run
in hydrogen
medium at rated
pressure (without
excitation) till
temp. change from
cooling medium is
within 1o C /hour

4.2

4.3

Short circuit heat


run at 100% rated
stator current in
hydrogen medium
at rated pressure
Open circuit heat
run at rated stator
voltage in hydrogen
medium at rated
pressure

I) Temp. rise
of active
parts,
coolants and
bearing/seal
s.
II)Windage
and friction
losses
Heat up of
stator

--

assembly)
Acceptable
provided eff.
& temp. rise
limits are
met
-- DO --

--

500 M ohm at a)before start


of test run
20oC (min.)
b)before HV
test
c)after HV
test
-- DO -100 M ohm at
20oC (min.)
1M
Before start
ohm(min.)
of test run
IEC 34-1

400 kW (1)

Remarks

IEC 34-1

IEC 34-1

Rotor
Heat up of
stator core

IEC 34-1
IEC 34-1

Rotor

IEC 34-1

Test Instructions Final Works Testing of


250 MW Turbogenerator
RAIGARH 1, 2, 3 & 4
5.0
5.1
5.2

CHARACTERISTICS:
Short circuit
Short circuit
Characteristics &
losses &
losses
Charact.
No load
Core losses,
characteristics
Friction &
(OCC) and
Windage
determination of
Losses
friction, Windage &
core losses
Determination of
Reactance
Direct axis
synchronous
reactance

7
8

Shaft Voltage
Voltage balance

Phase Sequence

10
11

Residual Voltage
Rotor winding
impedance at speed
of 3000 rpm and at
stationary condition
HV test at standstill:
Stator each phase
Voltage
separately for 1 Min
(along with
bushing)
Rotor winding for
Voltage
1 Min

12
a)

b)

13

14

15
16

Efficiency by
individual losses at
100%, 80% & 60%
load (calculation)
Bearing vibration
measurement
during Mech., SC &
OC heat run
Hydrogen leakage
Tan Delta, DeltaTan-Delta &
Capacitance
measurement of
each phase
separately from
0.2Un to 1.2Un at
interval of 0.2Un

Voltage
Line
Voltages
Direction of
rotation
Voltage
Impedance

Efficiency

HW-TG-TI-015
Page 3 of 14

863 kW (1)
Ifk =1511 A

IEC 34-1

648 kW (1)
Ifoc = 957 A

IEC 34-1

Values as
per
enclosed
Technical
data
--Rated
voltage
ACW
(from TE)
-----

15 %

-----

For inf. only


For inf. only

As per Data
Sheet
-----

For inf. only

Values as per
enclosed
Technical
data

Minimum IR
as per Cl. 3a

Values as per
enclosed
Technical
data

Minimum IR
as per Cl. 3b

98.85 % at
100% load

0.1(100-)%
(min 98.735%)
(IEC-34-1)

Amplitude of
vibration

---

No. of make
up cylinders
used
Tan delta &
Capacitance

-----

For inf. only


For inf. only

Values of vib.
at test bed
only
for reference
Approx. 2-3
Cylinder
cylinders/ day capacity 40
liters
--For ref. Only
upto
50
micron (pkpk)

Test Instructions Final Works Testing of


250 MW Turbogenerator
RAIGARH 1, 2, 3 & 4
17
18

PI measurement of
stator winding
Estimation of full
load temp.
rise(calculations)

PI
Temp rise in
stator wdg.
& Rotor
wdg.

> 2 (Min)
Values as
per
enclosed
Technical
data

HW-TG-TI-015
Page 4 of 14

IEC 34-1
IEC 34-1

NOTES:
1) The values of individual losses that are mentioned in the test program at S. No
4.1, 5.1 and 5.2, are approximate estimated values for information. However, the
total losses in turbo generator are guaranteed as per I.E.C 34-1. The individual
losses do not form any acceptance criterion. The heat up and resistance values are
also expected values and do not form any acceptance criterion
2) K denotes difference of temperatures; oC denotes actual temperatures.

Test Instructions Final Works Testing of


250 MW Turbogenerator
RAIGARH 1, 2, 3 & 4
1.0

HW-TG-TI-015
Page 5 of 14

MEASUREMENT OF D.C.RESISTANCE

Electrical resistance of stator/rotor winding shall be measured during test bed assembly
and before any heating operation is done. However, if this is not followed, then before
carrying out the measurement, the stator / rotor should be exposed to ambient
temperature for a minimum period of 8 hours so that all parts of winding attain a uniform
ambient temperature.
1.1

Resistance of stator winding:

Stator winding resistance shall be measured for each phase separately with the help of a
Kelvin's double bridge. Minimum 3 readings are to be taken for each phase and average
value is considered as the phase resistance.
Winding temperatures shall be measured with the help of minimum 3 winding RTDs,
uniformly distributed. Average value of these readings will be taken as winding
temperature.
The resistance value thus obtained is at room temperature and is therefore to be
converted to a reference temperature of 20 OC with the help of following formula;

Rs = Rt
Where:

20 + K
Tt + K

RS

Winding resistance, corrected to reference temperature of 20 OC (ohms)

Rt

Test value of winding resistance (ohms)

Tt

Temperature of winding when resistance was measured (deg C)

Characteristic constant for winding material (235 for copper)

1.2

Resistance of Field Winding:

The ambient temperature measured near the rotor body shall be taken as rotor winding
temperature. The measured resistance shall be converted to reference temperature of
20OC as done for stator winding resistance.
The field winding resistance shall be measured when the rotor is in standstill condition by
the following method:
Kelvins Double bridge Method:
Kelvins double bridge is used for measuring the resistance of field winding. Three readings
are taken and average value is considered as the field winding resistance. The value
obtained by this method shall be used for excitation loss calculations as well as for rotor
winding temperature calculations during various heat runs.
NOTE: During SC & OC heat-run, V/I method will be used to calculate rotor winding
resistance / temperature.

Test Instructions Final Works Testing of


250 MW Turbogenerator
RAIGARH 1, 2, 3 & 4
2.0

I.R. MEASUREMENT OF STATOR AND ROTOR WINDINGS

2.1

Stator Windings:

HW-TG-TI-015
Page 6 of 14

IR of stator winding shall be measured before and after HV test and after completion of all
the routine tests at test-bed using 5000 V Meggar.
2.2

Rotor Windings:

IR of rotor windings shall be measured with the help of a 500 V Meggar. If IR of windings
is found to be low, the winding shall be suitably dried up.
3.0

IR MEASUREMENT OF RTDs AND CONTINUITY CHECK OF RTDs &


THERMOCOUPLES

IR between RTD lead and stator frame shall be measured with the help of a 500 V, hand
driven Meggar. Continuity of RTDs and thermocouples shall be checked by either meggar
or multimeter.
4.0

MECHANICAL HEAT RUN & CALCULATION OF MECHANICAL LOSSES

For this test, generator is filled with hydrogen at rated pressure. Hydrogen purity should
not be less than 98% as measured by chemical analysis method. All the flow parameters
should not exceed their rated values. These values shall be maintained throughout the
test. Machine shall be run at rated speed with zero excitation, until all temperatures get
stabilized. The temperature shall be considered as stabilized, if the value of temperature
rise of any part is not varying with a rate greater than one degree per hour.
Following observations shall be recorded;
i.
ii.

iii.

All thermocouples / RTDs readings.


Flow, pressure, inlet and outlet temperatures of :
a)
Generator bearing oil (TE & EE)
b)
Seal Oil (TE & EE)
c)
Cooling water to hydrogen coolers.
Bearing vibrations in horizontal, vertical and axial directions on both ends.

Readings at S. No. (i) & (ii) above are taken at half-hour intervals. Readings at S.No. (iii)
and of gas purity are taken once during heat run.
Once the temperature gets stabilised, input to drive motor (volt, amp., KW & frequency)
shall be recorded. Generator mechanical losses shall be computed by deducting drive
motor losses (using calibration curves of drive motor) and mechanical losses of test shaft /
bearing from the input power to the drive motor.
The mechanical losses, thus calculated shall be used for computing the generator
efficiency.
5.0

SHORT CIRCUIT HEAT RUN

For this test, hydrogen pressure in the machine should be maintained at rated value. Gas
purity should not be less than 98% as measured by chemical analysis method and shall be
maintained throughout the test. All the flow parameters should not exceed their rated
values. These values shall be maintained throughout the test. Machine shall be run at
rated speed with its terminals short circuited and with an excitation value, which causes

Test Instructions Final Works Testing of


250 MW Turbogenerator
RAIGARH 1, 2, 3 & 4

HW-TG-TI-015
Page 7 of 14

the rated stator current to flow. The machine shall be run until all temperatures get
stabilized. The temperature shall be considered as stabilized, if the value of temperature
rise of any part is not varying with a rate greater than one degree per hour.
Following observations shall be recorded;
i.
ii.

iii.
iv.

All thermocouples / RTDs readings.


Flow, pressure, inlet and outlet temperatures of :
a)
Generator bearing oil (TE & EE)
b)
Seal Oil (TE & EE)
c)
Cooling water to hydrogen coolers.
Field current, field voltage and stator current.
Bearing vibrations in horizontal, vertical and axial directions on both ends.

Readings at S. No. (i), (ii) & (iii) above are taken at half-hour intervals. Readings at S. No.
(iv) and of gas purity are taken once during heat run.
6.0

SHORT CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTIC AND SHORT CIRCUIT LOSSES

After achieving thermal stability during short circuit run at rated stator current, input to
drive motor (Volt, Amp, KW & frequency) and generator excitation shall be recorded.
Excitation shall be reduced to zero and readings for mechanical losses shall be recorded.
Again excitation shall be increased to a value, which shall cause a stator current equal to
105% of the rated stator current to flow. The corresponding excitation current shall be
recorded. After that, by decreasing excitation in steps, to obtain stator current of about
100, 75, 50 & 25% of rated value, the corresponding excitation current shall be recorded.
The rated current point shall be recorded as precisely as possible. At each reading point,
the machine shall be allowed to run for few minutes to get the stabilized reading. Short
circuit characteristic shall be plotted between stator current and excitation current as
shown in Fig. 1(a). Readings for this curve shall always be taken with decreasing
excitation.
At all the above points, input to the drive motor shall be recorded. Mechanical losses shall
be measured at the beginning as well as at the end of the test to check on the friction and
windage losses throughout each run. If the difference between the two readings of friction
and windage losses is not more than 5%, the average value shall be used as the value
during each run. When the difference is between 5% and 10%, the change in friction and
windage losses shall be prorated uniformly from the beginning to the end of the run. A run
shall be repeated if the corresponding difference in friction and windage losses is over
10%. S.C. losses at all points shall be calculated by deducting these average mechanical
losses, drive motor losses and losses of test shaft from the corresponding input to drive
motor. Short circuit loss curve shall be plotted as shown in Fig. 1(b).
7.0

OPEN CIRCUIT HEAT RUN:

Hydrogen pressure in the machine should be maintained at rated value. Gas purity should
not be less than 98% as measured by chemical analysis method and shall be maintained
throughout the test. All the flow parameters should not exceed their rated values. These
values shall be maintained throughout the test. All generator phase terminals shall be kept
open circuited. Machine shall be run at rated speed with an excitation value that will cause
the rated stator voltage across the generator terminals.
The machine shall be run until all temperatures get stabilized. The temperature shall be
considered as stabilized, if the value of temperature rise of any part is not varying with a
rate greater than one degree per hour.

Test Instructions Final Works Testing of


250 MW Turbogenerator
RAIGARH 1, 2, 3 & 4

HW-TG-TI-015
Page 8 of 14

Following observations shall be recorded:


i.
ii.

iii.
iv.

All thermocouples / RTDs readings.


Flow, Pressure, Inlet & Outlet temperatures of :
a) Generator bearing oil (TE & EE)
b) Seal Oil (TE & EE)
c) Cooling water to hydrogen coolers.
Field current, field voltage & stator voltage.
Bearing vibrations in horizontal, vertical and axial directions.

Readings at S. No. (i), (ii) & (iii) above are taken at half-hour intervals. Readings at S. No.
(iv) and of gas purity are taken once during heat run.
8.0

MEASUREMENT OF SHAFT VOLTAGE

This test is done with machine at rated speed and excited at rated terminal voltage under
open circuit condition.
The shaft voltage is determined by measuring the voltage from end to end of the shaft
with a high impedance voltmeter. Refer Fig. 2.
9.0

OPEN CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTIC AND CALCULATION OF IRON LOSSES

After achieving thermal stability during O.C. heat run, the open circuit characteristic shall
be plotted by recording open circuited terminal voltages and corresponding field currents,
as shown in fig.1(a). Atleast 12 readings shall be taken and distributed as indicated below:
a) 4-readings below 60% of rated voltage (1 at zero excitation)
b) 2-readings between 60% and 90% of rated voltage.
c) 4-readings between 90% and 110% of rated voltage including one reading at rated
voltage (it shall be taken as precisely as possible.)
d) 2-readings above 110% of rated voltage, including one point at the maximum value
specified in the technical data or at rated load field current, whichever is less.
e) 1-reading at the end of the test with zero excitation current.
Readings for this curve shall always be taken with increasing excitation. If for any reason,
it becomes necessary to decrease the excitation field current, the same shall first be
reduced to zero and then increased carefully to the desired value.
At each reading point, the machine shall be allowed to run for few minutes to get the
stabilized readings.
At all the points, input to the drive motor shall be recorded (voltage, current, KW and
frequency). Mechanical losses shall be measured at the beginning as well as at the end of
the test to determine the friction and Windage losses throughout each run. If the
difference between the two readings of Friction and Windage loss is not more than 5%,
the average value should be used as the value during each run. When the difference is
between 5% and 10%, the change in Friction and Windage losses should be prorated
uniformly from the beginning to the end of the run. A run should be repeated if the
corresponding difference in friction and Windage losses is over 10%. O.C. losses shall be
calculated at all points by deducting these average mechanical losses, drive motor losses
(using the calibration curves of drive motor) and losses of test shaft / bearing from the

Test Instructions Final Works Testing of


250 MW Turbogenerator
RAIGARH 1, 2, 3 & 4

HW-TG-TI-015
Page 9 of 14

corresponding input to drive motor. O.C. loss curve between terminal voltage v/s OC
losses shall be plotted as shown in fig.1 (b).
10.0

RESIDUAL VOLTAGE

The residual voltage is measured with stator terminals open circuited and rotor rotating at
rated speed without excitation. Measurement shall be done by connecting a voltmeter
directly across the stator terminals and not through PTs.
11.0

PHASE SEQUENCE TEST

The phase sequence test is conducted to verify the specified terminal markings and phase
rotation.
Phase sequence is determined by connecting the terminals of the generator to a phase
sequence indicator, whose direction of rotation is known when a given phase sequence is
applied to its terminals. Residual voltage is used for the purpose.
12.0

IMPEDANCE OF ROTOR WINDING

The impedance of rotor winding shall be measured at standstill and upto 3000 rpm at
intervals of 200 rpm. The impedance shall be measured by applying alternating voltages
stated below. Impedance is taken as ratio of the applied voltage to the current drawn.
Applied Voltage:
a) 308 Volts from standstill upto 3000 rpm at intervals of 200 rpm.
b) 230 Volts at standstill and at 3000 rpm.
13.0

HIGH VOLTAGE TESTING OF STATOR AND ROTOR WINDINGS

High voltage tests on stator and rotor windings shall be done after all the running tests
have been completed on the machine.
13.1

Stator winding

Clean the terminal bushings to remove oil, dust, grease etc. Measure the insulation
resistance of each phase of stator winding. Subject each phase of stator winding to a high
voltage, as specified in the List of Final Works Test, for one minute with the other two
phases grounded. Note down the leakage current values at 100 % of test voltage. Repeat
measurement of insulation resistance of stator winding after completing the High Voltage
test.
13.2

Rotor winding

Remove the brush gear and slipring shaft. Measure insulation resistance of the rotor
winding. Apply high voltage as specified in the List of Final Works Test, across the rotor
winding for one minute. Repeat measurement of insulation resistance of rotor winding
after completing the high voltage test.
14.0

PI MEASUREMENT OF STATOR WINDING:

For this test, IR measurements for one-minute and ten-minutes are to be


recorded using 5 KV Motorised Meggar.
15.0

CALCULATION OF GENERATOR EFFICIENCY

Test Instructions Final Works Testing of


250 MW Turbogenerator
RAIGARH 1, 2, 3 & 4

HW-TG-TI-015
Page 10 of 14

S.
No.
1.

Parameter

Calculation

Mechanical losses

From mechanical heat run test

2.

Short circuit losses

3.

Open circuit losses

4.

Full load excitation (Ifl)

5.
6.

Excitation losses
Exciter losses

7.
8.

Total losses
Efficiency

From the curve of stator current Vs short circuit losses


corresponding to rated stator current
From the curve of stator voltage Vs open
circuit losses corresponding to rated stator
voltage
To be calculated as indicated in Ann. I,
using OCC ,SCC & Potier reactance
(Ifl)2 x Rotor resistance at 75O C
Ref. Technical data sheet with test instructions / test
results
Losses at (1+2+3+5+6) above

(Rated KW output) x 100


(Rated KW output + total losses in KW)

16.0 ESTIMATION OF FULL LOAD TEMPERATURE RISE


16.1

Stator core & stator winding

Full load temperature rise = Temperature rise during SC heat run +


Temperature rise during OC heat run
Temperature rise during mechanical heat run
Temperature rise of above parts during individual heat runs will be calculated over the
average inlet coolant temperature.
16.2

Rotor winding

Rotor winding temperature rise above average cold gas temperature shall be calculated
under OC & SC heat runs. On a graph sheet with temperature rise (above 40 OC) as
ordinate & excitation loss as abscissa, a line shall be plotted by joining points
corresponding to excitation losses at 40 OC (0 OC rise) & 75 OC (35 OC rise) for calculated
full load excitation and respective rotor winding resistance. Another line shall be plotted by
joining the points corresponding to rotor temperature rise (above 40 OC) and excitation
losses during OC and SC heat runs. This line is further extended to intersect the first line.
The temperature rise corresponding to point of intersection gives rotor temperature
rise(above 40 OC) under full load conditions.
17.0 MEASUREMENT OF HYDROGEN CONSUMPTION DURING TESTING
Hydrogen consumption shall be measured by counting the number of cylinders required at
test bed for maintaining the rated pressure and purity of hydrogen during the testing.
Addition of hydrogen cylinders shall be recorded.
18.0

DISSIPATION FACTOR AND CAPACITANCE MEASUREMENT OF STATOR


WINDING

The dissipation factor and capacitance shall be measured with the help of Schering Bridge
at a voltage from 0.2 Un to 1.2 Un in steps of 0.2Un.This test is performed after HV test is
over.

Test Instructions Final Works Testing of


250 MW Turbogenerator
RAIGARH 1, 2, 3 & 4

HW-TG-TI-015
Page 11 of 14

ANNEXURE - I
CALCULATION OF FULL LOAD EXCITATION CURRENT:
The full load excitation current is calculated using OCC, SCC and the Potier reactance, as
explained below:

ep

Ifa

In.Xp
Ifp

Ifn
Un

At the rated power factor angle X, draw the rated voltage vector Un. The vector of the
Potier reactance voltage drop at the rated armature current (In.Xp) is drawn from the end
of the voltage vector, as a perpendicular to the X-axis, as shown. The vector sum of the
rated voltage and the Potier reactance voltage drop gives the emf vector ep.
Excitation current Ifp, corresponding to emf ep, is determined from the OCC and is laid
off from the origin at an angle of 900 to the emf vector ep.
The excitation current component (Ifa), compensating the armature reaction at the rated
armature current, is determined as the difference between the excitation current
corresponding to the rated armature current in the SCC and the excitation current
corresponding to voltage drop In.Xp on the OCC. The vector Ifa is laid off from the end of
vector Ifp, parallel to the current vector (X-axis). The rated excitation current Ifn is the
vector sum of Ifp and Ifa.

Test Instructions Final Works Testing of


250 MW Turbogenerator
RAIGARH 1, 2, 3 & 4

HW-TG-TI-015
Page 12 of 14

HW-TG-TI-015
Page 13 of 14

Fig. 2: SHAFT VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT

Test Instructions Final Works Testing of


250 MW Turbogenerator
RAIGARH 1, 2, 3 & 4

Test Instructions Final Works Testing of


250 MW Turbogenerator
RAIGARH 1, 2, 3 & 4

HW-TG-TI-015
Page 14 of 14

RAIGARH UNIT1, 2, 3 & 4


TECHNICAL DATA OF TG (THRI 108/44 FULLY IMPREGNATED) FOR TESTING
S.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

Description

Qty

Unit

Rating
Voltage
Current
Power factor
Frequency
No load excitation
SC excitation
Full load excitation
Full load Exct. Volt
Short circuit ratio
(SCR)
Mechanical losses

250
16.5
10291
0.85
50
957
1511
2497
300
0.63

MW
kV
A

Iron losses (no load)

SC losses
Rotor cu loss
Exciter const loss
Exciter var. Loss
Total losses
Efficiency(at 100%
load)

21

Description

Qty

Unit

R20 (Stator Winding)


R20 (Rotor Winding)
Potier reactance
R2
X2 (Unsat)
R0
X0 (Unsat)
CAPACITANCE/PH
Xd (Sat)
Xd (unsat)

0.00085743
0.09673
0.241
0.0284
0.196
0.0022
0.112
0.35
165
0.239

PU
PU
PU
PU
PU
F
%
PU

Xd (unsat)
(I2)2*T
Hydrogen pressure (g)
Brg oil flow per bearing
Seal oil flow per seal
Rated water flow
through 4 Gas Coolers
Gas volume of gener.
GD2 of Gen. Rotor

0.187
10
4.0
10.08
12.0
280

PU

Stator Wdg. Temp. rise


(IEC)
Rotor Wdg. Temp. rise
(IEC)
Stator core temp. rise

58

74

400
648
863
734
207
40

kW
kW
kW
kW
kW
kW

33
34
35
36
37
38

2892
98.85

kW
%

39
40

19
20

Hz
A
A
A
V

S.
No
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

41
Phase sequence

U-V-W

42

82
21320

Dir. of rotation
ACW
43
58
observed from TE)
22
Current with one
45
6860
A
44 Cold H2 gas temp.
cooler out of
(contract value)
circuit
OTHER INSTRUCTIONS:
A
TAKE SCC UPTO
105 % OF RATED STATOR CURRENT
B
TAKE OCC UPTO
130% OF RATED STATOR VOLTAGE @
C
STATOR HV AT
34.0 kV
D
ROTOR HV AT
3.0 kV
@ Minimum value down to 20% rated stator voltage to be recorded.

PLAN OF TERMINAL ARRANGEMENT

Kg/cm2

m3/hr
m3/hr
m3 /hr
m3
KG-M2

O
O