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Six sigma.

Six Sigma is a set of techniques and


tools for process improvement. It was
introduced by engineer Bill Smith while
working
at Motorola in
1986. Jack
Welch made it central to his business
strategy
at General
Electric in
1995. Today, it is used in many industrial
sectors.
Six Sigma seeks to improve the quality of
the output of a process by identifying and removing the causes of defects and
minimizing variabilityin manufacturing and business processes. It uses a set
of quality management methods, mainly empirical, statistical methods, and creates
a special infrastructure of people within the organization, who are experts in these
methods. Each Six Sigma project carried out within an organization follows a
defined sequence of steps and has specific value targets, for example: reduce
process cycle time, reduce pollution, reduce costs, increase customer satisfaction,
and increase profits.
The term Six Sigma originated from terminology associated with statistical
modeling of manufacturing processes. The maturity of a manufacturing process
can be described by a sigma rating indicating its yield or the percentage of defectfree products it creates. A six sigma process is one in which 99.99966% of all
opportunities to produce some feature of a part are statistically expected to be free
of defects (3.4 defective features per million opportunities). Motorola set a goal of
"six sigma" for all of its manufacturing operations, and this goal became a by-word
for the management and engineering practices used to achieve it.

Methodologies
Six Sigma projects follow two project methodologies inspired by Deming's Plan-DoCheck-Act Cycle. These methodologies, composed of five phases each, bear the
acronyms DMAIC and DMADV.

DMAIC ("duh-may-ick", /d.me.k/) is used for projects aimed at


improving an existing business process.

DMADV ("duh-mad-vee", /d.md.vi/) is used for projects aimed at


creating new product or process designs.

DMAIC
The DMAIC project methodology has five phases:

Define the system, the voice of the customer and their requirements, and
the project goals, specifically.

Measure key aspects of the current process and collect relevant data;
calculate the 'as-is' Process Capability.

Analyze the data to investigate and verify cause-and-effect relationships.


Determine what the relationships are, and attempt to ensure that all factors
have been considered. Seek out root cause of the defect under
investigation.

Improve or optimize the current process based upon data analysis using
techniques such as design of experiments, poka yoke or mistake proofing,
and standard work to create a new, future state process. Set up pilot runs to
establish process capability.

Control the future state process to ensure that any deviations from the target
are corrected before they result in defects. Implement control systems such
as statistical process control, production boards, visual workplaces, and
continuously monitor the process.

Some organizations add a Recognize step at the beginning, which is to recognize


the right problem to work on, thus yielding an RDMAIC methodology.

DMADV or DFSS

The
DMADV
project
methodology,
("Design For Six Sigma"), features five phases:

known

as

DFSS

Define design goals that are consistent with customer demands and the
enterprise strategy.

Measure and identify CTQs (characteristics that are Critical To Quality),


measure product capabilities, production process capability, and measure
risks.

Analyze to develop and design alternatives

Design an improved alternative, best suited per analysis in the previous step

Verify the design, set up pilot runs, implement the production process and
hand it over to the process owner(s).

Sigma levels
A control chart depicting a process that experienced a 1.5 sigma drift in the
process mean toward the upper specification limit starting at midnight. Control
charts are used to maintain 6 sigma quality by signaling when quality professionals
should investigate a process to find and eliminate special-cause variation.
The table below gives long-term DPMO values corresponding to various short-term
sigma levels.
These figures assume that the process mean will shift by 1.5 sigma toward the side
with the critical specification limit. In other words, they assume that after the initial
study determining the short-term sigma level, the long-term Cpk valuewill turn out to
be 0.5 less than the short-term Cpk value. So, for example, the DPMO figure given
for 1 sigma assumes that the long-term process mean will be 0.5 sigma beyond the
specification limit (Cpk = 0.17), rather than 1 sigma within it, as it was in the shortterm study (Cpk = 0.33). Note that the defect percentages indicate only defects
exceeding the specification limit to which the process mean is nearest. Defects
beyond the far specification limit are not included in the percentages.

Application
Six Sigma mostly finds application in large organizations. [ An important factor in
the spread of Six Sigma was GE's 1998 announcement of $350 million in savings
thanks to Six Sigma, a figure that later grew to more than $1 billion. According to
industry consultants like Thomas Pyzdek and John Kullmann, companies with
fewer than 500 employees are less suited to Six Sigma implementation or need to
adapt the standard approach to make it work for them. [Six Sigma however contains
a large number of tools and techniques that work well in small to mid-size
organizations. The fact that an organization is not big enough to be able to afford
Black Belts does not diminish its abilities to make improvements using this set of
tools and techniques. The infrastructure described as necessary to support Six
Sigma is a result of the size of the organization rather than a requirement of Six
Sigma itself.

5S (methodology)
5S is the name of a workplace organization method that uses a list of
five Japanese words: seiri, seiton, seiso, seiketsu, and shitsuke.Transliterated i
nto Roman script, they all start with the letter
"S". The list describes how to organize a work
space for efficiency and effectiveness by
identifying and storing the items used, maintaining
the area and items, and sustaining the new
order.The decision-making process usually comes
from a dialogue about standardization, which
builds understanding among employees of how
they should do the work.
In some quarters, 5S has become 6S, the sixth
element being safety.
Other than a specific stand-alone methodology, 5S is frequently viewed as an
element of a broader construct known as visual control, visual workplace, or visual
factory. Under those (and similar) terminologies, Western companies were
applying underlying concepts of 5S before publication, in English, of the formal 5S
methodology. For example, a workplace-organization photo from Tennant
Company (a Minneapolis-based manufacturer) quite similar to the one
accompanying this article appeared in a manufacturing-management book in 1986.
Many manufacturing facilities have opted to follow the path towards a 5S
workplace organizational and housekeeping methodology as part of continuous
improvement or lean manufacturing processes. The term refers to five steps sort,
set in order, shine, standardize and sustain that are also sometimes known as
the five pillars of a visual workplace.
The 5S methodology is a simple and universal approach that works in companies
all over the world. It is essentially a support to such other manufacturing
improvements as just-in-time (JIT) production, cellular manufacturing, total quality
management (TQM) or six sigma initiatives, and also is a great contributor to
making the workplace a safer and better place to spend time.

There are five 5S phases: They can be translated from the Japanese as "sort", "set
in order", "shine", "standardize", and "sustain". Other translations are possible.

Sort

Remove unnecessary items and dispose of them properly.

Make work easier by eliminating obstacles.

Reduce chances of being disturbed with unnecessary items.

Prevent accumulation of unnecessary items.

Evaluate necessary items with regard to cost or other factors.

Remove all parts or tools that are not in use.

Segregate unwanted material from the workplace.

Need fully skilled supervisor for checking on regular basis.

Don't put unnecessary items at the workplace & define a red-tagged area to
keep those unnecessary items.

Waste removal.

Straighten

Arrange all necessary items so that they can be easily selected for use
Prevent loss and waste of time by arranging work station in such a way that
all tooling / equipment is in close proximity
Make it easy to find and pick up necessary items
Ensure first-come-first-served basis
Make workflow smooth and easy
All of the above work should be done on regular basis

Shine

Clean your workplace completely

Use cleaning as inspection

Prevent machinery and equipment deterioration

Keep workplace safe and easy to work

Keep workplace clean and pleasing to work in

When in place, anyone not familiar to the environment must be able to


detect any problems within 50 feet in 5 secs.

Standardize
Standardize the best practices in the work area.
Maintain high standards in workplace organization at all times.
Maintain orderliness. Maintain everything in order and according to its
standard.
Everything in its right place.
Every process has a standard.

Sustain

To keep in proper working order.

Also translates as "do without being told".

Perform regular audits.

Training and discipline.

Training is goal-oriented process. Its resulting feedback is necessary


monthly.

Benefits of 5S workplace organisation


5S relates to workplace organisation and forms a solid foundation upon which
many organisations base their drive for continuous improvement. It is equally
applicable & successful in all sectors helping to achieve high impact results.
It is a systematic and methodical approach allowing teams to organise their
workplace in the safest and most efficient manner.

The discipline to check & repair equipment is included & adopted. The entire
process is managed through the use of team generated audit documents,
completed on an agreed frequency by responsible owners within the Gemba.

5s recovered: http://ehstoday.com/safety/5s-workplaces-when-safety-andlean-meet-0con sulted 06/08/2016

5s methodology recovered: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5S_(methodology


sulted 06/08/2016

Six sigma. recovered: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Six_Sigma h sulted


06/08/2016