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Java Programming

Unit 2

Unit 2

Basics of Java

Structure
2.1

Introduction
Objective

2.2

Keywords

2.3

How does it work?


Self Assessment Questions

2.4

How to include comments


Self Assessment Questions

2.5

Data Types in Java


2.5.1

Primitives Data Types

2.5.2

Abstract/Derived Data Types


Self Assessment Questions

2.6

Variables in Java
2.6.1

Naming Variables
Self Assessment Questions

2.7

Using classes in java


2.7.1

Standard for coding


Self Assessment Questions

2.8

Declaring methods in java


Self Assessment Questions

2.9

Code to display Test Value

2.10

The main method

2.11

Invoke methods
Self Assessment Questions

2.12

How to Save a Java Program

2.13

Compiling Java Programs

2.14

Executing a Java Program

2.15

Summary

2.16

Terminal Questions

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Java Programming

Unit 2

2.1 Introduction
The English language has a vocabulary a set of words that have certain
meaning. It also provides us with rules for using the vocabulary English
grammar. The Java language also provides a vocabulary and a set of rules
to use the vocabulary. The vocabulary is represented through a set of
keywords and the grammar is the syntax of the language.
This lesson explains how to write object-oriented program using the Java
language syntax.
Objectives
In this chapter, you will learn about the:

Java Keyword
Data types in Java
Variable naming conventions
Initializing Variables.
Literals

2.2 Keywords
Keywords are special words that are of significance to the Java compiler.
You cannot use keywords to name classes or variables. The table below
contains a list of Java keywords.
Abstract

boolean

break

byte

case

Catch

Char

Class

const

continue

Default

Do

Double

else

extends

Final

Finally

Float

for

Goto

If

Implements

Import

instanceof

Int

interface

Long

Native

new

Package

Private

protected

Public

return

Short

Static

Super

Switch

synchronized

This

Throw

throws

Transient

try

Void

Volatile

While

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Java Programming

Unit 2

2.3 How does it work?


A compiler converts the Java program into an intermediate language
representation called Bytecode which is platform independent. A Java file
will have the extension .java, similar to a word file having the extension .doc,
a pascal file has the extension .pas and a text file has the extension .txt.
Let us assume there exists a Java file named Hello. java. When this file is
complied we get a file called as Hello. class
This class file is run using an interpreter as and when necessary. The figure
2.1 shows the java program saved as Hello. java

Figure 2.1

The step of compiling and running the program is shown in figure 2.2. The
program is stored in a subdirectory called java. The above program when
run prints the message Hello! How are you?

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Java Programming

Unit 2

Figure 2.2

The concept of write once, run anywhere is possible in Java. The Java
program can be compiled on any platform having a Java compiler. The
resulting bytecodes can then be run on Window NT or Solaris or Macintosh
or any other machine. The machine should have a Java platform to run Java
code. Java platform consists of Java Virtual Machine (JVM) and a package
of ready made software components. This package is known as The Java
Application Programming Interface (Java AP!). The compiled Java program
can run on any hardware platform having Java Virtual Machine (JVM)
installed on it.
Self Assessment Questions
1. A compiler converts the Java program into an intermediate language
representation called ____________.
2. The concept of _________________ is possible in Java.

2.4 How to include comments


Comments can be included in a Java program as follows:
Type 1
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Java Programming

Unit 2

/* Comments go here
More comments here
*/
Type 2
// this information is ignored by the compiler till the end of the line.
Type 3
/* documentation comment */
In the first type comments can spread over multiple lines. In the second type
the information written after // is ignored by the compiler. The third type of
comment is used by a tool called javadoc for automatic generation of
documentation.
Self Assessment Questions
1. The third type of comment is used by a tool called ___________ for
automatic generation of documentation.

2.5 Data Types in Java


There are two kinds of data types in Java

Primitives/standard data types.

Abstract/derived data types.

2.5.1 Primitives Data Types


Primitive data types (also know as standard data types) are the data types
that are built into the Java language. The Java compiler holds details
instructions on each operation the data types that are built into the Java
language. The Java compiler holds detailed instructions on each legal
operation the data type supports. There are eight primitive data types in
Java.

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Java Programming

Data Type
byte

Unit 2

Size/Form
at (bits)
8

Description

Range

Byte-length integer

-128 to 128 (signed)


0 to 255 (unsigned)

short

16

Short integer

-2

15

to 2

15

-1

int

32

integer

-2

31

to 2

31

-1

63

to 2

63

-1

long

64

Long integer

-2

float

32

Single precision floating


point

+/- about 10

39

double

64

Double precision floating


point

+/- about 10

317

char

16

A single character

Boolean

A boolean value (true or


false)

The data types byte, short, int, long, float and double are numeric data
types. The first four of these can hold only whole numbers whereas the last
two (float and double) can hold decimal values like 5.05. All these data
types can hold negative values. However, the keyword unsigned can be
used to restrict the range of values to positive numbers. Amongst others,
boolean can hold only the value true or false and char can hold only a single
character.
2.5.2 Abstract/Derived Data Types
Abstract data types are based on primitives data types and have more
functionality that the primitive data types. For example, String is an abstract
data type that can store alphabets, digits and other characters like /, (); :$#.
You cannot perform calculations on a variable of the string data type even if
the data stored in it has digits.
Self Assessment Questions
1. What are the different type of data types in java ?
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2.6 Variables in Java


When you learned algebraic equations in school, you used x and y to
represent values in equations. Unlike pi which has a constant value of 3.14,
the values of x and y are not constant in equations. Java provides constants
and variables to store data in programs.
Java allocates memory to each variable and constant you use in your
program. As in algebra, the values of variables may change in a program,
but the values of constants, as the name suggests, do not change. You
must assign unique names to variables and constants. Variable names are
used in a program in much the same way as they are in ordinary Algebra.
Each variable used in a program must be declared. That is to say, the
program must contain a statement specifying precisely what kind of
information (data type) the variable will contain. This applies to every
variable used in the program, regardless of the type.
2.6.1 Naming Variables
A program refers to a variable using its name. Certain rules and conventions
govern the naming of variables. You must adhere to rules. Conventions help
improve the readability of the program, but following them is not mandatory.
Rules for Naming Variables in Java
A variable name:

Must not be a keyword in Java.

Must not begin with a digit.

Must not contain embedded spaces.

Can contain characters from various alphabets, like Japanese, Greek,


and Cyrillic.

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Java Programming

Unit 2

Syntax for Defining Variables


All the attributes of a class are defined as data members. The syntax used
to declare a class variable is:
<data_type> <variable_name>
As the braces { } are used to mark the beginning and end of a class, a
semicolon ; is used to mark the end of a statement.
Self Assessment Questions
1. What are the rules for naming variable in Java?

2.7 Using classes in java


The data members and methods of a class are defined inside the class body.
In java, braces { } mark the beginning and end of a class or method.
Any program that you write in Java can be written using a simple text editor.
We will use Windows Notepad for writing programs.
Public class Employee
{
}
2.7.1 Standard for coding
By following coding standards and conventions, you can write code that is
easy to read and understand.
One of the conventions is indentation. Notice that the code written below
clearly indicates the data members defined in the class.
public class Employee
{
String employeeName;
String employeeAddress;
}
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Java Programming

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2.8 Declaring methods in java


<access_specifier><return_type><method_name> ([argument_list])
{
}
access_specifier
An access specifier defines where a method can be accessed. A public
specifier allows the method to be executed from another class. A private
provides access to methods for only the current class.
return_type
The return_type of a method is the data type of the value that is returned by
the method.
public void displayEmpName (); // returns no value, therefore, the return
// type of the method is void.
public float calculateAllowance (); // returns a value of float data type
// therefore, the return type of the method is
// float
Self Assessment Questions
1. What do you mean by access specifier?

2.9 Code to display Test Value


The System class
To communicate with the computer, a program needs to use certain system
resources such as the display device and the keyboard.
Java makes use of all these resources with the help of a class called
System, which contains all the methods that are required to work with these
resources.
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System is one of the most important and useful classes provided by Java. It
provides a standard interface to common system resources like the display
device and the keyboard.
The out Object
It is an object encapsulated inside the System class, and represents the
standard output device. This object contains the println () method.
The println () method
The println () method displays the data on the screen.
Example
System.out.println (Hello World);
Will display Hello World on the screen.

2.10 The main method


In a Java application, you may have many classes. Within those classes,
you may have many methods. The method that you need to execute first
should be the main () method.
Syntax for the main () method
Public static void main (String args [])
{
}
The main () method should exist in a class that is declared as public.
Rules for the main () method
The primary name of the file in which the code is written, and the name of
the class that has the main () method should be exactly the same.
If you try to execute a Java application that does not have a main () method,
the following error message will be printed:
Exception in thread main Java.lang.NoSuchMethodError: main

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Java Programming

Unit 2

2.11 Invoke methods


Creating an Object of a class
The new operator is used to create a class object.
Example
Employee emp = new Employee ();
Invoking a Method
To invoke a method, the method name must be followed by parentheses
and a semicolon. One method of a class can invoke another method of the
same class using the name of the method.
Example
Public class Employee
{
String employeeName;
String employeeAddress;
Public Employee ()
{
employeeName=Preetam;
EmployeeAddress = Orissa ;
}
public void display ()
{
System.out.println (Name: +employeeName);
System.out.println (Address: + employeeAddress);
}

public static void main (String arg [])


{
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Employee emp =new Employee ();


emp.display ();
}
}
Self Assessment Questions
1. _____________ operator is used to create an object.

2.12 How to Save a Java Program


The programs that you write in Java should be saved in a file, which has the
following name format:
<class_name>.java

2.13 Compiling Java Programs


A program is a set of instructions. In order to execute a program, the
operating system needs to understand the language. The only language an
operating system understands is in terms of 0s and 1s i.e. the binary
language. Programs written in language such as C and C++ are converted
to binary code during the compilation process. However, that binary code
can be understood only by the operating system for which the program is
compiled. This makes the program or application operating system
dependent.
In Java, the program is compiled into bytecode (.class file) that run on the
Java Virtual Machine, which can interpret and run the program on any
operating system. This makes Java programs platform-independent.
At the command prompt, type
javac <filename>.java

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Java Programming

Unit 2

2.14 Executing a Java Program


When the code is compiled and error-free, the program can be executed
using the command:
java <filename>

2.15 Summary
Creating Classes Using Java
The data members and methods of a class are defined inside the class
body. In java, braces {} mark the beginning and end of a class or method.
The class keyword is used to declare a class.
Coding Methods of a class
Methods provide functionality to classes. In Java, methods are declared
in the class body.
Declaring Objects
The new operator is used to create a class object.
Displaying Data on Screen
The System class is one of the most important and useful classes
provided by java. It provides a standard interface to common system
resources like the display device and the keyboard.
The println () method displays the data on the screen.
Compiling a Java Program
In Java, the program is compiled into bytecode (.class file) that runs on
the Java Virtual Machine, which can interpret and run the program on
any operating system. This makes Java programs platform-independent.

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Unit 2

Executing a Java program


When the code is compiled and error-free, the program can be executed
by issuing the following command:
java <filename>

2.16 Terminal Questions


1. The Candidate class for the employee referral process has the following
attributes and behaviors:
Candidate
CandidateName
CandidateAddress
CandidatePosition
displayDetails()
Create the candidate class with its attribute and methods.
2. What do you mean by the statement :
System.out.println( );
3. How do you compile a Java program?
4. How do you execute a Java program?

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