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INTRODUCTION

"One hundred victories in one hundred battles is


not the most skillful. Seizing the enemy without
fighting is the most skillful."
Sun Tzu Sixth Century B.C
1. The nature of conflict and war has been impacted by evolution of technology. The modern day conflict is "no
contact war" (NCW) [1] with no "physical" or "kinetic" action across borders. Operations are conducted in a
covert manner using resources such as agents in the information domain to weaken or strike at an adversary to
achieve political objectives. These are clouded in ambiguity and deniability. The enemy is unseen and the
victim unsure of how and where to react.
2. Cyber Warfare a component of Information Warfare conducted in cyber domain is new form of war. Today
cyberspace is a national asset, which enables a host of business and government services to citizens. Critical
infrastructure such as energy, telecommunication, banking, stock exchanges, etc and economies of advanced
nations almost entirely depend upon technology in cyberspace. Businesses are leveraging technology to
transform their business models. Defence and Police agencies are making strategic use of technology to
modernize.

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3. Social networking platforms have enabled people to come together and change the way they interact socially.
It has not only initiated connections, but has managed to sustain the growing interconnect by engaging people
in different interests of their choice. Currently Facebook has 1 billion users, there are 1 billion tweets every
week this year with a community of 225 million users. The Arab Spring, Jasmine Revolution, Occupy Wall
Street etc have exemplified that the growing community of hundreds of thousands of people can be mobilized
for a cause through social media. In contrast, London riots were supposedly fuelled by social media. Recently
the regular failure of electricity grid in north India, the mass exodus of people all across the country to North
East and Assam riots are testimony to what cyber domain can trigger and its enormous power.
4. Given the kind of activities being carried out in the cyberspace, cyberspace merges seamlessly with the
physical world. But so do cybercrimes. Cyber attackers can disrupt critical infrastructures such as financial and
air traffic control systems, producing effects that are similar to terrorist attacks in the physical space They can
also carry out identity theft and financial fraud, steal corporate information such as intellectual property, conduct
espionage to steal state and military secrets, recruit criminals and others to carry out physical terrorist activities.
With this growing threat landscape, cyber-readiness of the security systems has been constantly put to test.
While security systems are increasingly expensive, launching cyber attacks is relatively much economical. This
growing imbalance is a game changer. It has ascertained cyberspace to be offense dominant, wherein
defenders have to defend all the time at a heavy cost, while the attacker needs to succeed only once.

5. The damage inflicted by cyber attackers may not be easily recognizable and in some cases, may even go
unnoticed. Even if an attack is successfully defended, it is possible to cover tracks and thus attribution of a
cyber attack, in some scenarios, becomes very difficult, if not impossible. Tracing a cyber attack is not easy as
Internet has no geographical boundaries and cuts across jurisdictions. There are no international
laws/agreements that could help in tracing cyber attacks. This makes it all the more difficult to fight back against
cyber warfare.
6. Cyber security is a complex issue that cuts across multiple domains and calls for multi-dimensional, multi
layered initiatives and responses. It has proved a challenge for govt, the task is made all the more difficult by
the inchoate and diffuse nature of the threats and the inability to frame an adequate response in the absence of
tangible perpetrators.
7. There is a urgent need to establish National Structure for Cyber Security which clearly defines roles and
responsibilities for every stakeholder, establishes coordination & information sharing mechanisms, focuses on
building Public Private Partnership models and creates environment for enhancing trust between the industry
and government. A fully empowered head for Cyber Security should be appointed, positioned at the highest
level within the government. Also we need to establish a Cyber Command within the defence forces to defend
the Indian Cyberspace. The Cyber Command should be equipped with defensive and offensive cyber weapons,
and manpower trained in cyber warfare.

METHODOLOGY
Statement of Problem (tujuan)
To study & analyse the need to establish unified cyber command at national level to include Services , suggest
its structure, envisaged role & capability in Cyber Warfare domain against ever increasing Cyber security threat,
to safeguard national interests.

Hypothesis
9. The present & future will see ever growing threat manifestation to national security from Cyber Space which
has become fifth dimension of warfare. India being pioneer in IT sector, can successfully secure itself from
cyber threat under a unified cyber command. Thus there is urgent need to establish unified cyber command at
national level in general & Services level in particular to counter the ever increasing cyber threat.

Justification for the Study


10. Cyber has become a fifth dimension of warfare in recent years. Due to ever increasing dependence on
information and communication technologies, especially the Internet, for delivery of services, one of the biggest
challenges the world faces is that of cyber security. Governments around the world are formulating cyber
security strategies and policies to effectively manage the risks, which are global in nature.

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11. Given the importance of cyber security because of it being closely associated with national security. The
security situation in 2020 is bound to be far more complex and dangerous. The future will see wired society with
the e-governance, communication, power and transportation networks, financial transactions, health and
medicine, all dependent on the cyber domain. Alongside will be the aspect of increased transparency and
instant dissemination or democratisation of information. All this will also create vulnerabilities and impact on
security with disastrous consequences.
12. Today, sophisticated set of nation states and non-state actors are increasingly making efforts to intrude the
networked domain of its adversaries. The known activity is fraction of adversary exploitation and there is routine
exploitation of known vulnerabilities. The targets and intentions are clearly on gaining operational information
and foothold in the networked domain. Operating in a contested environment requires situational awareness
and improved defence against cyber attacks.
13. There is urgent need felt at national level and also at services level to understand the nature of threat from
cyber warfare and also defensive and offensive cyber warfare measures to be taken. The efforts in cyber
domain can only be organised and coordinated by establishing a unified cyber command at national level. Thus
there is need to study the structure, role and capabilities of cyber command in detail.

Scope
14. This study has concentrated on taking into account the threat posed by cyber warfare and understanding
the need to establish unified cyber command to safeguard national interests. This study proposes to suggest
the structure, role and capabilities of unified cyber command of India by carrying out in depth analysis of cyber
threat environment and studies of cyber command of developed countries.

Method of Data Collection


15. The major source of information for this study has been from internet. A few books and reference material
that were available in the DSSC library have also been consulted. Besides this interaction with senior military
officer on the subject have also contributed towards the study. The bibliography of the source is appended at
the end of the text.

Organisation of the Dissertation


16. It is proposed to study the subject in the following manner:(a) Chapter 1. Introduction.
(b) Chapter 2. An overview on cyber security threats and challenges.
(c) Chapter 3. Indian Cyber space and cyber security initiatives.

(d) Chapter 4. Establishment of Unified cyber command.


(e) Chapter 5. Recommendations.
(f) Chapter 6. Conclusion.

CHAPTER 2
AN OVERVIEW ON CYBER SECURITY THREATS
AND CHALLENGES
Cyberspace and its Importance to Nations
1. Cyberspace has no boundaries, it is man-made and ever expanding. It comprises IT domain to include
computer networks, computer resources, all the fixed and mobile devices connected to the global Internet. In
the evolutionary stage of Internet, the key considerations were interoperability and availability. What started as
a closed user group involving academics from a few universities, was thrown open to the world and has grown
exponentially ever since. The rapidity in the development of information technology (IT) and the relative ease of
using applications has commercialised the use of cyberspace and its expansion dramatically in its brief
existence.
2. In todays networked world, cyberspace is considered as a national asset, it has enabled a host of business
and government services to citizens, efficient operations of critical infrastructure depends on it. In fact,
economies of many nations across the globe almost entirely depend upon technology in cyberspace. It has
become the lifeline of critical infrastructures such as energy, telecommunication, banking, stock exchanges, etc.
Businesses are leveraging technology to transform their business models. Defence and Police agencies are
making strategic use of technology to modernize.
3. Social networking has gripped the entire world and revolutionised the way people come together and change
the way they interact socially. It has not only initiated connections, but has managed to sustain the growing
interconnect by engaging people with different interests of their choice. Currently, Facebook has around 800
million users, which are expected to reach 1 billion by August 2012. Tweets on Twitter grew from 500 K in 2007
to more than 4 billion in Q1 of 2010, to over 1 billion tweets every week this year with a community of 225
million users.
The Arab Spring, Jasmine Revolution, Occupy Wall Street etc. have exemplified that the growing community of
hundreds of thousands of people can be mobilized for a cause through social media. In contrast, London riots
were supposedly fuelled by social media.

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4. Activities carried out in the cyberspace domain has merged cyberspace seamlessly with the physical world.
Cyberspace has provided a tool for globalisation and tool to Cyber attackers to disrupt critical infrastructures
such as financial and air traffic control systems, producing effects that are similar to terrorist attacks in the
physical space Cyber attackers and cyber criminals can also carry out identity theft, financial fraud, conduct
espionage to steal state and military secrets, recruit criminals and others to carry out physical terrorist activities.
5. Nations across the world are facing, an evolving array of cyber-based threats arising from a variety of
sources in cyberspace. The cyber threats can be intentional or unintentional. Unintentional threats can be
caused by software upgrades or defective equipment that inadvertently disrupt systems, and intentional threats
can be both targeted and untargeted attacks from a variety of threat sources. Sources of threats include
criminal groups, hackers, terrorists, organization insiders, and foreign nations engaged in crime, political
activism, or espionage and information warfare. These threat sources vary in terms of the capabilities of the
actors, their willingness
to act, and their motives, which can include monetary gain or political advantage, among others. Moreover,
potential threat actors have a variety of attack techniques at their disposal, which can adversely affect
computers, software, a network, an organizations operation, an industry, or the Internet itself. The nature of
cyber attacks can vastly enhance their reach and impact due to the fact that attackers do not need to be
physically close to their victims and can more easily remain anonymous, among other things. The magnitude of
the threat is compounded by the ever-increasing sophistication of cyber attack techniques, such as attacks that
may combine multiple techniques. Using these techniques, threat actors may target individuals, businesses,
critical infrastructures, or government organizations.
6. Cyber security is a complex issue that cuts across multiple domains and calls for multi-dimensional, multilayered initiatives and responses. It has proved a challenge for governments because different domains are
typically administered through soiled ministries and departments. The task is made all the more difficult by the
inchoate and diffuse nature of the threats and the inability to frame an adequate response in the absence of
tangible perpetrators.

Array of Cyber Threats Faced by Nation


7. The security of cyberspace, systems and networks is essential for protecting national and economic security,
national data, public health and safety, and the flow of commerce. Ineffective information security controls can
result in significant risks to security of the nation which include following:(a) Loss or theft of resources and critical data.
(b) Unauthorised access to and disclosure, modification, or destruction of sensitive information, such as
national security information, personal taxpayer information and proprietary business information.
(c) Disruption of critical operations supporting critical infrastructure, national defense and emergency services.
(d) Undermining of agency missions and its credibility due to embarrassing incidents that erode the publics
confidence in government.
(e) Use of cyber domain for unauthorized purposes or to launch attacks on other computers systems.
8. Cyber Threats. Cyber threats can be classified on the basis of the perpetrators and their motives, into four
categories. These are:-

(a) Cyber espionage.


(b) Cyber warfare.
(c) Cyber terrorism.
(d) Cyber crime.
Cyber attackers use numerous vulnerabilities existing in cyberspace to pose cyber threat. They exploit the
weaknesses in software and hardware design through the use of malware. DDOS (Dedicated Denial of
Service) attacks are used to overwhelm the targeted websites. Hacking is a most common practice of piercing
the defences of protected computer systems and interfering with their functioning. Identity theft is also most
common. The scope and nature of threats and vulnerabilities in cyber domain is multiplying with every passing
day.
Cyber Warfare. No agreed definition of cyber warfare exists, but many states are indulging in attacking the
information systems of other countries for espionage and for disrupting their critical infrastructure. The attacks
on the websites of Estonia in 2007 and of Georgia in 2008 have been widely reported in past. Although there is
no clinching evidence of the involvement of a state in these attacks, it is widely held that in these attacks, nonstate actors (e.g. hackers) may have been used by state actors. Since these cyber attacks, the issue of cyber
warfare has assumed urgency in the global media. Many a countries have set up a cyber command to counter
the threats and accepted cyberspace as fifth dimension of warfare.

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11. Cyber Crime. The increasing online population has become a happy hunting ground for cyber criminals,
with losses estimated due to cybercrime being in billions of dollars worldwide. While countries across the globe
are reporting enormous losses to cybercrime, as well as threats to enterprises and critical information
infrastructure (CII), in India insignificant number of cases has been reported, other than those relating to cyber
espionage. Though the report of the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) for 2012 reported an increase of
50% in cybercrime over the previous year. Nationally, Andhra Pradesh (349) ranked first, followed by
Maharashtra (306) and Kerala (227). In cities, Bangalore (117) reported the most incidents while
Visakhapatnam (107) and Pune (83) ranked second and third. Nationally, most cases were reported about loss
of computer resources and obscene publications online. All over the country 157 cases of hacking were
reported and 65 persons were arrested for the offence. Other offences include misuse of digital signatures,
forging digital documents, unauthorized access and breach of confidentiality [2] . The low numbers of
cybercrime cases registered could be because cyber laws have proved ineffective in the face of the complex
issues thrown up by Internet.
12. Cyber Terrorism. Cyberspace has provided most potent and cheaper tool to non-state actors for planning
terrorist attacks, for recruitment of sympathisers, or as a new arena for attacks in pursuit of the terrorists
political and social objectives. Terrorists have used cyberspace for communication, command and control,
propaganda, recruitment, training and funding purposes. From that perspective, the challenge of non-state

actors to national security is extremely grave. The government has taken a number of measures to counter the
use of cyberspace for terrorist-related activities, especially in the aftermath of the terrorist attack in Mumbai in
November 2008. Parliament passed amendments to the IT Act, with added emphasis on cyber terrorism and
cybercrime, with a number of amendments to existing sections and the addition of new sections, taking into
account these threats.
Further actions include the passing of rules such as the Information Technology (Guidelines for Cyber Cafe)
Rules, 2011 under the umbrella of the IT Act. In doing so, the government has had to walk a fine balance
between the fundamental rights to privacy under the Indian Constitution and national security requirements.
While cyber hactivism cannot quite be placed in the same class, many of its characteristics place it squarely in
the realm of cyber terrorism both in terms of methods and end goals [3] .
13. Cyber Espionage. Instances of cyber espionage are on rise with financial losses worth millions being
exfiltrated from the websites and networks of both government and private enterprises. The theft of intellectual
property from private enterprises is not an issue because R&D expenditure in India is only 0.7% of GDP, with
government expenditure accounting for 70% of that figure. Companies are also reluctant to disclose any attacks
and exfiltration of data, both because they could be held liable by their clients and also because they may suffer
a resultant loss of confidence of the public. As far as infiltration of government networks and computers is
concerned, cyber espionage has all but made the Official Secrets Act, 1923 redundant, with even the
computers in the Prime Ministers Office being accessed, according to reports. The governments currently can
only establish measures and protocols to ensure confidentiality, integrity and availability (CIA) of
data. Law enforcement and intelligence agencies have asked their governments for legal and operational
backing in their efforts to secure sensitive networks and undertake offensive against cyber spies and cyber
criminals who are often acting in tandem with each other, and probably with state backing. Offence may not,
necessarily the best form of defence in the case of cyber security, as seen in the
continued instances of servers of the various government departments being hacked and documents
exfiltrated.

Sources of Cyber Security Threats [4]


14. Bot-Network Operators. Bot-net operators use a network or bot-net of compromised, remotely controlled
systems to coordinate attacks and to distribute phishing schemes, spam, and malware attacks. The services
bot-networks are sometimes made available on underground markets (e.g. purchasing a denial-of-service
attack or services to relay spam or phishing attacks).
15. Criminal Groups. Criminal groups seek to attack systems for financial gain. Specifically, organized criminal
groups use spam, phishing, and spyware/malware to commit identity theft, online fraud and computer extortion.
International corporate spies and criminal organizations also pose a threat to the nations through their ability to
conduct industrial espionage, large-scale monetary theft and to hire or develop hacker talent.

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16. Hackers. Hackers break into networks for varied reasons like thrill of the challenge, bragging rights in the
hacker community, revenge, stalking, monetary gain and political activism. While gaining unauthorized access
one requires a fair amount of skill or computer knowledge, hackers can now download attack scripts and
protocols from the Internet and launch them against victim sites. With advent of technology attack tools have
become more sophisticated and easier to use. The worldwide population of hackers poses a relatively high
threat of an isolated or brief disruption causing serious damage.
17. Insiders. The disgruntled organization insider is a principal source of computer crime. Insiders may not
need a great deal of knowledge about computer intrusions because their knowledge of a target system often
allows them to gain unrestricted access to cause damage to the system or to steal system data. The insider
threat includes contractors hired by the organization as well as careless or poorly trained employees who may
inadvertently introduce malware into systems.
18. Nations. Nations use cyber tools as part of their information-gathering and espionage activities. In addition,
several nations are aggressively working to develop information warfare doctrine, programs, and capabilities.
Such capabilities enable a single entity to have a significant and serious impact by disrupting the supply,
communications and economic infrastructures that support military power or impacts that could affect the daily
lives of citizens across the country. Among state actors, China and Russia are of particular concern.
19. Phishers. Individuals or small groups execute phishing schemes in an attempt to steal identities or
information for monetary gain. Phishers may also use spam and spyware or malware to accomplish their
objectives.
20. Spammers. Individuals or organizations distribute unsolicited e-mail with hidden or false information in order
to sell products, conduct phishing schemes, distribute spyware or malware or attack organizations (e.g., a
denial of service).
21. Spyware and Malware Authors. Individuals or organizations with malicious intent carry out attacks against
users by producing and distributing spyware or malware. Several destructive computer viruses and worms have
harmed files and hard drives. Some examples include the Melissa Macro Virus, the Explore.Zip worm, the CIH
(Chernobyl) Virus, Nimda, Code Red, Slammer and Blaster.
22. Terrorists. Terrorists seek to destroy, incapacitate or exploit critical infrastructures in order to threaten
national security, cause mass casualties, weaken the economy, damage public morale and confidence.
Terrorists may use phishing schemes or spyware/malware in order to generate funds or gather sensitive
information.

Types of Cyber Exploits [5]


23. Cross-Site Scripting. An attack that uses third-party web resources to run script within the victims web
browser or scriptable application. This occurs when a browser visits a malicious website or clicks a malicious
link. The most dangerous consequences occur when this method is used to exploit additional vulnerabilities
that may permit an attacker to steal cookies (data exchanged between a web server and a browser), log key
strokes, capture screen shots, discover and collect network information and remotely access and control the
victims machine.
24. Denial of Service. An attack that prevents or impairs the authorized use of networks, systems or
applications by exhausting resources.

25. Distributed Denial of Service. A variant of the denial-of-service attack that uses numerous hosts to perform
the attack.
26. Logic Bomb. A piece of programming code intentionally inserted into a software system that will cause a
malicious function to occur when one or more specified conditions are met.
27. Phishing. A digital form of social engineering that uses authentic looking, but fake, e-mails to request
information from users or direct them to a fake website that requests information.
28. Passive Wiretapping. The monitoring or recording of data, such as passwords transmitted in clear text,
while they are being transmitted over a communications link. This is done without altering or affecting the data.
29. Structured Query Language (SQL) Injection. An attack that involves the alteration of a database search in a
web-based application, which can be used to obtain unauthorized access to sensitive information in a
database.
30. Trojan Horse. A computer program that appears to have a useful function, but also has a hidden and
potentially malicious function that evades security mechanisms. For example, masquerading as a useful
program that a user would likely execute
31. Virus. A computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer without the permission or knowledge
of the user. A virus might corrupt or delete data on a computer, use e-mail programs to spread itself to other
computers or even erase everything on a hard disk. Unlike a computer worm, a virus requires human
involvement (usually unwitting) to propagate.

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32. War Driving. The method of driving through cities and neighborhoods with a wireless-equipped computer
with a powerful antenna, searching for unsecured wireless networks.
33. Worm. A self-replicating, self-propagating, self-contained program that uses network mechanisms to spread
itself. Unlike computer viruses, worms do not require human involvement to propagate.
34. Zero-Day Exploit. An exploit that takes advantage of security vulnerability previously unknown to the
general public. In many cases, the exploit code is written by the same person who discovered the vulnerability.
By writing an exploit for the previously unknown vulnerability, the attacker creates a potent threat since the
compressed timeframe between public discoveries of both makes it difficult to defend against.

Cyber Security Challenges


35. Cyberspace as described above, with its unique characteristics pose numerous challenges in cyber
security. The most critical challenge is of coordination and cooperation between different stake holders at
national and international levels. A comprehensive framework is required to ensure coordinated response,

recovery, intelligence and information sharing mechanism, clarity in roles & responsibility of various agencies
and governments. Specified role of industry in public private partnership models is also lacking at the national
level. At the international level, absence of globally accepted norms featuring cooperation across jurisdictions to
track cyber criminals and their extradition is making it difficult for the law enforcing agencies to bring cyber
criminals to justice. Lack of adequate knowledge and training of law enforcing agencies and judiciary in many
countries for understanding cyber crimes and relevance of evidence in the form of cyber forensics.
36. Protection of critical information infrastructure has emerged as a major challenge. National Security has
traditionally (for air, land and sea) been the sole responsibility of the governments. The new responsibility of
securing the critical information infrastructure against the rising number of cyber attacks has come within the
ambit of national security. This new responsibility, however, does not lie solely with the government. Private
sector has a major role to play, as majority of the critical information infrastructure is owned and operated by the
private sector. However, private sectors investment in security is driven by business requirements and not by
national security concerns. So how can government intervene? By incentivizing or regulating the private sector?
There is an ongoing debate on which direction the nations should take. Many believe that market forces cannot
deliver the required investments and efforts for ensuring public safety and national security. Whereas some
believe that too much of government intervention through regulations can undermine business innovation. No
clear universal solution to this problem has emerged presently.
37. There is yet another area of global concern, namely the ICT global supply chain. Given the increased
dependence on global ICT products, especially in operating critical sectors and growing realization of cyber
risks, countries are doubting the integrity of these products, fearing that adversaries may introduce malicious
codes / functions to do surreptitious surveillance, disrupt services, or at worst paralyze a nation. Alleviating
such doubts and fears to continue benefitting
from global ICT supply chain is one of the biggest challenges the world faces in cyber security today. Where
some countries are trying to address this challenge by building global and national capabilities to address
supply chain risks without undermining the international competiveness and legitimate trade flow; others are
focusing on developing indigenous products to reduce the dependency on foreign players.
38. Another very important challenge requiring ongoing efforts is poor awareness and education about cyber
security threats and the need to follow best practices, across different levels ranging from school children to
top government officials, and management in the corporate world. Adding to the problem is the non-serious and
reactive approach towards security. Lack of knowledge and awareness among users increases the risk
manifold. Because of poor awareness, we become vulnerable and easy victims of social engineering attacks,
phishing sites, spurious email communications, etc. Many such cyber threats can be easily mitigated if
individuals are aware and vigilant.
39. Other major difficulties in addressing problems related to cyber security at an organizational level include:
lack of high quality software development; treatment of security function as a cost centre; compliance driven
approach to security; lack of multi-departmental coordinated roadmap; treatment of security as merely a
technology issue and not a management issue; and difficulty in calculating Return on Investment (RoI) for
security investments.

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CHAPTER 3
INDIAN CYBERSPACE AND CYBER SECURITY
INITIATIVES
Indian Cyberspace
Indian cyberspace was born in 1975 with the establishment of National Informatics Centre (NIC) with an aim to
provide govt with IT solutions. Three networks (NWs) were set up between 1986 and 1988 to connect various
agencies of govt. These NWs were, INDONET which connected the IBM mainframe installations that made up
Indias computer infrastructure, NICNET (the NIC NW) a nationwide very small aperture terminal (VSAT) NW for
public sector organisations as well as to connect the central govt with the state govts and district
administrations, the third NW setup was ERNET (the Education and Research Network), to serve the academic
and research communities.
New Internet Policy of 1998 paved the way for services from multiple Internet service providers (ISPs) and gave
boost to the Internet user base grow from 1.4 million in 1999 to over 150 million by Dec 2012. Exponential
growth rate is attributed to increasing Internet access through mobile phones and tablets. Govt is making a
determined push to increase broadband penetration from its present level of about 6% [6] . The target for
broadband is 160 million households by 2016 under the National Broadband Plan. An indication in support of
the rapid pace of adaptation to the Internet in India is that, Indias top e-commerce retailer, Indian Railways, saw
its online sales go up from 19 million tickets in 2008 to 44 million in 2009, with a value of Rs. 3800 crore ($875
million) [7] .
3. Even though the Indian govt took a while to convert to computerisation, there has been an increasing thrust
on e-governance. The govts e-governance plan is seen as a cost-effective way of taking public services to the
masses across the country. Critical sectors such as Finance, Energy, Space, Telecommunications, Defence,
Transport, Land Records, Public Essential Services and Utilities, Law Enforcement and Security all increasingly
depend on NWs to relay data for both communication purpose and commercial transactions. The National egovernance Program (NeGP) is one of the most ambitious in the world and seeks to provide more than 1200
govt services online.

Indian Economy Going the e-Way


4. Post liberalization in 1991, India witnessed steady economic growth, benefiting from globalization and
information revolution. IT revolution has played a crucial role in transforming countrys GDP growth rate. As per
recent Boston Consulting Group report [8] the Internet economy of India in 2010 amounted to USD 70 billion
(4.1% of GDP) and is estimated to reach USD 242 billion (5.6% of GDP) in 2016. IT is contributing in Indias
development in following ways:-

(a) Development of Infrastructure. Airports, metros, highways and augmentation of existing infrastructure which
include power generation, financial services, telecom, transportation, defence, etc. Nations critical
infrastructure are driven and controlled by ICT and it is getting increasingly dependent on IT this includes power
grids, air traffic controller, industrial systems, stock exchanges, banking, telecom among others.
(b) e-Governance. Govt is undertaking projects driven by IT to address social, economic and development
challenges in the country. Using IT, the govt intends to improve governance by increasing transparency, curbing
corruption, time bound delivery of govt services and ensuring financial inclusion. The National e-Governance
Plan (NeGP) is designed to take a holistic view of e-Governance initiatives across the country. The purpose is
to integrate the initiatives, into a collective vision for a shared cause of delivering benefits to citizens in the
remotest parts of the country. The ultimate objective of NeGP is to bring public services closer to home to all
citizens as given in the vision statement of NeGP [9] . The NeGP comprises 27 mission mode projects (MMPs)
and 8 common core and support infrastructure including State Wide Area Networks and State Data Centres.
(c) Aadhaar. The Aadhaar number provides unique identity, which will become acceptable across India. The
project promises to eliminate duplicate and fake identities through effective verification and authentication.
Many of the govts social benefit programs are envisaged to be linked with the Aadhaar number.
(d) e-Commerce. e-Commerce industry is witnessing phenomenal growth and expected to touch USD 10
billion, an increase of 47% from 2010 [10] . e-payments in India account for 35.3% of the total transactions in
terms of volume and 88.3% in terms of value [11] , card circulation both credit and debit was around 200 million
in 2010 [12] . The e-commerce is still an untapped potential considering the fact that the Internet
penetration [13] in India is only around 8% (rising exponentially) with around 120 million Internet users [14] and
India is projected to become the third largest Internet user base by 2013 [15] . With around 894 million mobile
subscribers [16] (as on December 2011), m-commerce market is a big opportunity, especially as it promises to
bring rural India into the realm of e-commerce.

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( e) IT/BPO sector. India is emerging as the IT knowledge hub of the world with many global companies
opening their R&D and innovation centres in India. The industry has provided job opportunities to over 10
million people and accounts for 6.4% of Indias GDP. It aims to grow revenues to USD 225 billion by
2020 [17] out of which USD 175 billion will be on account of export of software and services. Cloud Computing
is a huge opportunity for India as the next wave of growth for the Indian IT industry.
(f) Modernization of Police and Defence. Defence forces & Police agencies are making strategic use of
technology to modernize. Projects such as Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems (CCTNS) and
National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID) are flagship projects for modernization of police. CCTNS will connect
14,000 police stations and 6,000 police officers to a centralized database. The goal of CCTNS is to facilitate
collection, storage, retrieval, analysis, transfer and sharing of data and information at the police station and
between the police station and the State Headquarters and the Central Police Organizations. [18] Indian Army
has also taken similar initiatives which include creation of an Army Wide Area Network (AWAN) designed to

connect all Army formations, units, training establishments and logistic installations in the country for secure
and direct information exchange [19] . Army also launched project Shakti a fully digitized and integrated
Artillery Combat Command and Control System (ACCCS), which is a network of military grade tactical
computers automating and providing decision support for all operational aspects of Artillery functions from the
corps down to a battery level. [20]
(g) Social Media. Social media is emerging as a very powerful phenomenon in Indian cyberspace with around
45 million [21] Indians using the social media and the number is increasing every day. It is revolutionizing the
way society interacts. Personal Information is becoming the economic commodity on which social networking is
thriving. Businesses, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and even the governments are using this
platform for variety of reasons which include communication, marketing, branding, awareness, etc. The social
media has also caught the attention of the governments and the regulators worldwide (for wrong reasons)
including the Indian govt and there is an on going debate on regulating the social media.

Threat Landscape
5. As nation its important for us to continue leveraging technology for overall development of the country &
improving lives of the citizens. Thus, it is crucial to comprehensively understand the risks associated with the
use of technology and operating in cyberspace. Cyberspace has become a new play field for non state actors &
it is getting increasingly linked to national security. The cyberspace is being used by terrorists to spread their
message, hire recruits, do encrypted communication, surreptitious surveillance, launch cyber attacks on govt
infrastructure, etc. Sophisticated use of technology was made by 26/11 Mumbai attackers which included
Global Positioning System equipment, satellite phones, BlackBerrys, CDs holding high-resolution satellite
images, multiple cellphones with switchable SIM cards, e-mails routed through servers in different locations,
which made it harder to trace them.
6. Cyber attacks targeted at critical information infrastructures (energy, telecom, financial services, defence,
and transportation) have the potential of adversely impacting a nations economy, public safety and citizens
lives. These critical infrastructures are mainly owned and operated by the private sector. For example, the
telecom sector is mostly owned by the private players, except Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Ltd. and Bharat
Sanchar Nigam Ltd. Bombay Stock Exchange and National Stock Exchange are private players wherein most
of the transactions are done through electronic medium. Airline industry is dominated by private players with Air
India being the only the govt enterprise, Energy & Utility sector though dominated by govt players, the
distribution is largely controlled by private partners. The banking sector has large number of private banks.
Business requirements and not national security concerns drive the investments made by these private players
in securing the infrastructure. This may leave possible security loop holes. India recently witnessed a cyber
attack on its state-of-the-art T3 terminal at New Delhi airport that made check-in counters of all airlines nonoperational causing public inconvenience. Stuxnet - the deadliest attack vector that has been designed so far &
which destroyed a nuclear reactor in Iran has reportedly infected systems in India [22] .

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7. As the dependency of critical information infrastructure on technology increases in future and if such
infrastructures remain vulnerable, it is possible that adversaries may use cyber attacks on critical information
infrastructure to produce impact similar to that in physical attacks / accidents, at worst leading to physical harm
like collision of aircrafts because of manipulation with Air Traffic Controlling system, train accidents due to
signal malfunctioning or could adversely affect the national economy. Failure of telecommunication services,
power grids, oil production and distribution, breakdown of stock markets and banking infrastructure.
8. Given the increased usage of Internet in the country, India is witnessing sharp rise in cyber crimes. Data
released by National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) in 2010 shows this trend. 966 cyber crimes cases were
registered in 2010 under the IT Act across India (an increase of around 128% over 2009 and 235% over 2008)
and 799 persons in 2010 were arrested (an increase of around 177% over 2009 and around 349% over 2008)
for cyber crimes included hacking, obscene transmission, tampering, etc. Cyber attackers have also been
repeatedly defacing Indian websites especially government websites. In January 2012 alone, 1425 websites
were defaced, with 834 target websites being hosted on .in domain [23] . Many high profile cyber espionage
attacks targeting systems of senior Indian bureaucrats have been reported in the media [24] .

Indias Cyber Security Initiative


9. Having visualised the cyber security threat & its impact on national security, Indian govt has taken many
initiatives to protect the critical infrastructure driven by IT within Indian cyberspace domain. Some of the
initiatives are as follows:(a) Legal Framework to include enactment of IT Act (Amendment) 2008.
(b) Policy Initiatives.
(c) Cyber Security Initiatives.
10. IT Act (Amendment) 2008. Information Technology Act (IT Act) was enacted in year 2000 to provide legal
recognition for transactions carried out by means of electronic data interchange and other means of electronic
communication. To establish a robust cyber security and data protection regime in the country, the IT Act was
amended in year 2008. It provides a comprehensive definition of the computer system & tries to ascertain
liability based on the type of cyber crime committed (Hacking, spamming, tampering, identity theft,
impersonation, cyber terrorism, pornography, child pornography). The act introduces the concept of sensitive
personal information and fixes liability of the body corporate to protect the same through implementation of
reasonable security practices. In case a body corporate fails to do so, it can be fined upto Rs. 5 crore (approx.
USD 1.2 million) by the Adjudicating Officer and civil court can fine amount greater than Rs. 5 crore. The rules
issued under the Act, also require body corporates to follow privacy principles such as notice, choice & consent,
access & correction, disclosure to third party, etc. The amended Act provides provision for legal action against a
person for the breach of confidentiality and privacy, under lawful contract. Critical systems can be declared as
protected systems under the Act. Security breaches of such systems attract higher prison sentences. The
amended Act also enables setting up of a nodal agency for critical infrastructure protection and strengthens the
role of CERT-In. This Act creates provision for the central government to define encryption policy for
strengthening security of electronic communications. Presently, encryption of upto 40 bits is allowed under the
telecom policy. Cyber Appellate Tribunal, which is now operational, is expected to expedite legal proceeding of
cyber crime cases. Overall, the IT (Amendment) Act, 2008 is an omnibus and comprehensive legislation which

includes provisions for digital signatures, e-governance, e-commerce, data protection, cyber offences, critical
information infrastructure, interception & monitoring, blocking of websites and cyber terrorism [25] .
11. Policy Initiatives. The draft version of National Cyber Security Policy was released by the DIT in March 2011
for public consultation. The draft policy has been aimed to enable secure computing environment and adequate
trust and confidence in electronic transactions. The draft policy tries to layout the cyber security ecosystem for
the country. It covers the following:(a) Based on the key policy considerations and threat landscape, the draft policy identifies priority areas for
action.
(b) Identifies PPP as a key component.
(c) Identifies key actions to reduce security threats and vulnerabilities

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(d) Establishment of National Cyber Alert System for early watch and warning, information exchange,
responding to national level cyber incidents and facilitating restoration.
(e) Defines role of sectorial CERTs and establishment of local incident response teams for each critical sector
organization.
(f) Implementation of best practices in critical information and government infrastructure protection through
creation, establishment and operation of Information Security Assurance Framework.
(g) Establishes framework for Crisis Management Plan for Countering Cyber Attacks and Cyber Terrorism.
(h) Identifies priorities for action for legal framework and law enforcement capability development.
(j) Defines priorities for international cooperation for information sharing.
(k) Identifies indigenous Research & Development as an essential component of cyber security and enlists
thrust areas for R&D.
(l) Identifies major actions and initiatives for user awareness, education, and training (capacity building).
(m) Defines responsible actions for network service providers, large corporates and small/medium & home
users to secure information and systems.
(n) Identifies various stakeholders (ministries and government departments only) in cyber security and their
responsibilities.
12. The Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (MCIT), Govt of India, is formulating a
combination of three interdependent and synergistic policies for IT, Telecom and Electronics "Triad of Policies to
Drive a National Agenda for Information & Communications Technology and Electronics (ICTE)". The three
policies are as below:

(a) National Policy on Electronics, 2011.


(b) National Policy on Information Technology, 2011.
(c) National Telecom Policy, 2011.
13. The integrated policy has twin goals:(a) To facilitate the application of new, technology-enabled approaches to overcome developmental challenges
in education, health, skill development, employment generation, financial inclusion, governance etc and to
enhance efficiency, convenience and access.
(b) To harness the power and capability of India in ICT to meet global demand.
14. Cyber Security Initiatives. Govt and IT industry have taken various initiatives in cyber security. However,
much more needs to be done in this area. Major initiatives are summarized below:(a) CERT-In. In 2003, Govt set up a the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) under DIT,
MCIT as a nodal agency for responding to cyber security incidents. The IT (Amendment) Act, 2008, recognizes
CERT-In as a nodal agency for security incident management and provides it the authority to call for information
on security incidents from organizations. CERT-In charter involves collection, analysis, dissemination of
information on cyber security incidents through a dedicated infrastructure. It monitors and investigates threats
that affect computer systems and forecasts and generates alerts for cyber security incidents. It collaborates
internationally for the incident response, tracks incidents affecting both public and private sector and issues
security guidelines and advisory on vulnerabilities. It provides technical assistance to organizations in resolving
security incidents. It has helped establish sectoral CERTs in defence and banking sectors. To test
preparedness of organizations operating critical information infrastructure, CERT-In conducts cyber security
drills in partnership with the public and private sector. To help law enforcing agencies (LEAs) solve cyber
crimes, CERT-In has developed standard operating procedures for cyber crime investigations. It organizes
regular trainings and funds research and other projects in security to academic institutes and industry. It also
engages with its counterparts in other countries for increased collaboration and information sharing. CERT-In
has developed 12th five year plan on cyber security.
(b) Information Security Education and Awareness. To make up the shortfall of cyber security professionals in
the country, DIT initiated the Information Security Education Awareness (ISEA) program in 2005. To spread
awareness on cyber security in the country, ISEA program aims at capacity building by introducing information
security courses at graduate, post-graduate and doctoral levels, establishing education exchange programs,
training system administrators and government officers.
(c) LEA Capacity Building Programs. To address the challenges that Indian LEAs face in handling cyber crimes
such as poor knowledge of technology and cyber crime investigation techniques/ tools and cyber forensics, lack
of state-of-the-art technical infrastructure, insufficient training facilities & forensics labs in the country. Govt has
taken some key initiatives. These initiatives are aimed at building the capacity of LEAs in cyber forensics and
cyber crime investigation to curb rising cyber crimes and ensure speedier trials. Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA)
will be launching the Cyber Crime Investigation Program (CCIP), which will establish a Cyber Crime Police
Station and a Cyber Crime Investigation and Forensic Training Facility in each State and Union Territory and a
central National Centre of Excellence for Cyber Forensics Services. The CCIP will create a network of cyber
police stations across the country, equipped with state-of-the-art technology and well trained police officers,
which can collaborate to benefit from each others experiences. The National Centre of Excellence will act as
the guiding force, providing thought leadership to the Cyber Crime Police Stations and Cyber Crime
Investigation and Forensic Training Facilities by conducting advanced research & development. Under the
Directorate of Forensic Science, under MHA, three Central Forensic Labs (CFSLs) have developed capabilities

in cyber forensics. Also, there are 28 State Forensic Labs (SFSLs) that are acquiring capabilities in cyber
forensics techniques and skills. Resource Centre for Cyber Forensics (RCCF) at Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
under Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (CDAC) has been established to develop cyber forensic
tools and to provide technical support and necessary training to LEAs in the country [26] .

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(d) Security in e-Governance projects. The National e-Governance Division (NeGD), under DIT, is the Program
Management Office of NeGP. Among its various activities, including facilitating implementation of NeGP by
various Ministries and State governments, the agency is also responsible for issuing cyber security and data
security standards and guidelines for all the e-Governance projects under NeGP. For securing e-Governance
projects, Standardization Testing and Quality Certification Directorate (STQC) has developed e-Governance
Security Assurance Framework (e-SAFE), which provides list of security controls based on the risk
categorization of particular assets.
(e) Common Criteria Certification Scheme. This scheme has been set up by DIT to evaluate and certify IT
Security Products and Protection Profiles against the requirements of Common Criteria Standards ver 3.1 R2,
at Evaluation Assurance Levels EAL 1 through 4. Presently, the scheme provides national certification. The
scheme would also provide a framework for international certification through the National Mutual Recognition
Arrangement with the other member countries of Common Criteria Recognition Arrangement (CCRA). Along
with 24 other countries, India has already become a member of CCRA as a certificate consuming nation and
soon will be recognized as a certificate producing nation. STQC is a certification body of the country with STQC
IT, Kolkata centre as the Common Criteria Test Lab [27] .
(f) Sectoral Security. Critical sectors such as banking and telecommunication are strongly regulated through
Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and Department of Telecommunications (DoT)/ Telecom Regulatory Authority of
India (TRAI) respectively. The regulators keep issuing security guidelines, mandating the companies to
implement the same. For example, RBI constituted a working group on information security, electronic banking,
technology risk management, and cyber frauds, which provided a set of guidelines to banks, covering areas
such as IT governance, information security (including electronic banking channels like Internet banking, ATMs,
cards), IT operations, IT services outsourcing, information system audit, cyber frauds, business continuity
planning, customer education and legal issues. These guidelines serve as a common minimum standard for all
banks to adopt. [28] DoT made amendments to the Unified Access Service License Agreement (UASL) in 2011,
incorporating security related measures and made the Licensee (Telecom Service Providers) "completely and
totally responsible for security."

CHAPTER 4

ESTABLISHMENT OF UNIFIED CYBER


COMMAND
Cyber Commands Around The World
1. The cyber warfare threat has not been well appreciated or sufficiently understood. The term Cyber warfare
has been loosely used to describe almost all events in cyberspace, irrespective of perpetrator, motive or scale.
Cyber warfare forms a part of Information War (IW), which extends to every form of media and inter alia
includes aspects of propaganda and perception management. Cyberspace has grown exponentially beyond
internet usage and increasingly linked by convergence to every communication device. With increasing
connectivity, this divide is narrowing and every citizen or aspect of life is vulnerable. It is also an important
constituent of NCW. The scope for exploitation by inimical elements, ranging from mischievous hackers, to
criminals, terrorists, non-state actors as also nation states, is thus unlimited. The damage could be immense
and countries around the world are pressing ahead and taking steps to build capabilities and capacities for
defending themselves, as also taking offensive action in cyberspace.
2. US was the first country to formally declare cyberspace as the fifth domain of warfare. It has also formally
classified the use of cyberspace as a "force", a euphemism for offensive capability. In mid 1990s the Chinese
adopted the concept of "informationalisation" and have relentlessly built up structures and operations in this
domain. Consequent to the raising of the US Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM) [29] , South Korea followed
with the creation of a Cyber Warfare Command in Dec 2009. This was also in response to North Koreas
creation of cyber warfare units. The British Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) has begun
preparing a cyber force, as also France. The Russians have actively been pursuing cyber warfare. In 2010
China overtly introduced its first department dedicated to defensive cyber warfare and information security in
response to the creation of USCYBERCOM. The race is thus on. India is a target. There have been numerous
incidents of sensitive government and military computers being targeted.

Proposed Structure for Cyber and Information War


(CIW) [30]
3. The national controlling and coordinating agency for CIW should be delegated to NSA with the NSCS . An
omnibus board could be created in the NSCS along with a CIW Executive Committee(CIWEC). These could be
established by the NIB. Recommended composition and roles of these two bodies is as under:-

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4. Composition of CIW Board. The suggested composition of CIW board is as under:(a) Chairman. NSA.
(b) Members Govt. Cabinet Secretary, DG RAW, Secy DIT, Representatives from MHA, MEA, I&B, Ministry of
Power.
(c) Members MoD. CIDS(Or CDS when created) and DG DRDO.
(d) Private Sector. Chairman NASSCOM / DSCI.
(e) DG CIW.
(f) Member Secretary(Secy). Dy NSA.
5. Charter of CIW Board. The charter will include following tasks:(a) Overall review and formulation of policy for CIW.
(b) Formulation of strategy for meeting emerging threats.
(c) Ensure necessary coordination between all public and private agencies at the national level as also monitor
implementation of all aspects of CIW.
(d) Enuring all international treaties and agreements are vetted in keeping with needs of national security.
6. Composition of CIW Executive Committee (CIWEC). Dy NSA who is the Secy of the CIW board could chair
the CIWEC, DG CIW will be the Secy with support from the NSCS. He will be responsible to ensure day to day
coordination and follow up on all CIW issues and report to the apex body through Dy NSA. The composition of
this CIWEC could include:(a) Members Public Agencies. Chairman NTRO, DG CERT, Reps from MHA, RAW, CSIR, DIT, Public IT related
services, ie Finance, Railways, Telecom, Civil Aviation, Power, HR and I&B. Also reps from Rep from MEA who
is an expert on international agreements.
(b) Members MoD. Reps of Cyber Command & DRDO.
(c) Private Sector. Reps from NASSCOM / DSCI.
7. Charter of CIWEC. The charter will include issueing policy guidelines and monitoring all activities on a
regular basis. It will look into specific aspects such as proactive defence or protection of critical infrastructure.
The CSIWEC will meet at least once a month to oversee and report progress on all issues which include:(a) International cooperation and all agreements on IT with respect to needs of national security.
(b) Technology development for protection of NWs and systems, as
also proactive defence.
(c) Installation of systems, monitoring and response, especially for emergencies.
(d) Development of HR and public awareness. Recommendations for funding in this regard both in the public
and private spheres.
(e) Standardization and certification. This will include creation of test beds.
8. Organisation & Functioning. CIWEC should be an empowered body. DG CIW should ensure executive action
and compliance by agencies. All public agencies like the DRDO, HQ IDS, NTRO, DIT, National CERT, CSIR,
NIC are represented and could constitute its executive arms. For necessary coordination and follow up, the

office of DG CIW in NSCS must comprise of security, legal and technical experts. Policy and conduct of
offensive cyber operations could also be coordinated in consultation with unified cyber command.

Proposed Structure Unified Cyber Command.


9. While cyber warfare is on going activity during peacetime, however it will form an essential part of
preparation of the battlefield in any future conflict. Thus there is a dire need to develop this capacity for a
warlike situation. Cyber warfare in a manner is NCW and cyber attacks may also precede the kinetic war.
Building this capability will take time and must remain covert and ambiguous. This should be the responsibility
of the Armed Forces (HQ IDS) along with the DRDO and other experts. Detailed discussions and consultations
in this regard need to be initiated. India must raise a Unified Cyber Command [31] . This will comprise not only
the three services but personnel from the DRDO, scientific and technological community. It could work with the
space command because many aspects overlap and would economise on resources. It will oversee all
activities undertaken during peacetime, as also plan for offensive cyber operations as required, to include
preparation of the battlefield. It must work in close concert with the NTRO.
10. To determine the structure it would be prudent to study the mission and objectives of USCYBERCOM as a
guide. USCYBERCOM mission is to plan, coordinate, integrate, synchronise and conduct activities to "direct the
operations and defense of specified Department of Defense information NWs and prepare to, and when
directed, conduct full spectrum military cyberspace operations in order to enable actions in all domains, ensure
US/Allied freedom of action in cyberspace and deny the same to our adversaries." The Command is charged
with pulling together existing cyberspace resources, creating synergy and synchronising war-fighting effects to
defend the information security environment. It comes under the Strategic Command, which also has the Space
Command as a constituent. A similar structure for India could be considered, especially as the US has evolved
its structure based on experience and also because it functions as an open democracy. India already has the
Strategic Forces Command, which could be augmented with both Space and Cyberspace Wings. These may
be of smaller size to start with and will develop in accordance with threats and needs. Each service has its own
requirements. The structure therefore has to be need-based and flexible.

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11. Mission of Unified Cyber Command. To plan, coordinate, integrate, synchronize, direct and conduct network
operations and defense of all defense forces networks. When directed, conduct cyberspace operations in
support of Unified Land Operations to ensure freedom of action in cyberspace and to deny the same to our
adversaries.
12. Tasks of Unified Cyber Command. Based on the mission, the tasks of unified cyber command will be as
under:(a) Conduct Cyberspace Operations (CO).

(i) Defensive Cyberspace Operations (DCO).


(ii) Offensive Cyberspace Operations (OCO).
(b) Conduct Information Operations (IO).
(i) Provide IO support to defence forces.
(ii) Provide trained & ready IO capability.
(iii) Provide IO reach back support for planning and analysis.
(iv) Provide operational IO training standards to recruit IO forces.
(c) Cyberspace Force Modernisation Proponent. Capabilities development.
13. Role of Various Components of Unified Cyber Command. The envisaged role of various components of is
as follows:(a) Armed Forces CERTs. These would monitor traffic, disseminate information, ensure remedial measures to
ensure ongoing security to NWs and systems. They would also in a manner be charged with protection of
critical infrastructure of each service, i.e. communication backbone, power systems, high-priority NWs. The
structure thus envisages a Defence CERT which works in concert with each service CERT.
(b) DIA. Defence Intelligence Agency exists under HQ IDS. Its cyber and information operations elements could
work with this command. Intelligence gathering is an accepted reality and cyberspace possibly provides the
best scope for this as also information operations.
(c) DRDO. DRDO should conduct specialised research for the armed forces to provide necessary military
hardware for conduct of offensive cyber operations and also hardware immune to hostile cyber attacks, which is
more relevant due to embedded hardware supplied by our adversaries.
(d) DIARA. Each service has its special requirements and own communication directorates. Joint operations,
strategic communications as also high-security NWs need to be coordinated under HQ IDS and the proposed
Cyber Command. Cyber operations which are required for preparation of the battlefield. This again would be a
tri-service organisation, with additional experts from the DRDO or any other such institution. This would
facilitate information assurance & conduct R&D to ensure safety of communication NWs.
(e) Territorial Army (TA). Battalions for Cyber Warfare While cyber warfare is ongoing, there are periods of
heightened threat. A recent example was the Commonwealth Games, when NWs were subjected to attacks.
There is therefore need to create and maintain a "surge capacity" for crisis or warlike situations. Young IT
professionals constitute a vast resource base and a large number would be willing to loyally serve the nation
when required. This resource must be capitalised by raising of cyber warfare TA battalions similar to those for
Railways and ONGC, which could be embodied when required. In addition to purely "defence" requirements
these could also provide for protection of critical infrastructure.
14. Envisaged Capabilities of Unified Cyber Command. The unified cyber command is envisaged to have
following capabilities when fully operational:(a) Capability to protect all defence assets integrated through ICT.
(b) Capability to undertake offensive cyber warfare in NCW environment.
(c) Capability to integrate various service components for effective cyber deterrence to our adversaries.
(d) Significant contribution to operational cyber planning.

(e) Integrate cyberspace operations in major military exercises.


(f) Collaboration with civilian institutions to develop best cyber practices.
(g) Work with vendors on specific requirements of defence forces in cyber domain.
15. Establishment of unified cyber command within the defence forces with cyber warfare capabilities is must in
the interest of national security within cyber domain.
Appreciating that cyberspace is offense dominant, the Cyber Command should be equipped with defensive and
offensive cyber weapons and manpower trained in cyber warfare. The command needs to build capabilities in
countering cyber espionage and deny the enemy any benefits if it succeeds in breaking defences.
16. The govt needs to provide funds and resources to establish the unified cyber command at the earliest as
such a capacity may not be available at present with the defence forces. The industry should provide the govt
with expertise on a long term basis to help in establishment of unified cyber command and also training the
defence forces personnel in cyber warfare.

CHAPTER 5
THE WAY AHEAD
General Recommendations
1. The rapidity & scale of cyber security threats is likely to grow manifold. This threat will pose a challenge to
national security. Thus there is urgent need for the government to adopt a cyber security policy & create a
organisation specifically to look into the cyber security of the nation. The govt should immediately adopt such a
policy so that urgent actions in a coordinated fashion can be taken to defend Indias economy and society
against cyber attacks.

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2. Cyber security should be regarded as an integral component of national security. Urgent attention should be
given to the issues of cyber crime, cyber terrorism, cyber warfare and CII protection.
3. Establishing National Structure for Cyber Security. The Indian govt need to lay down a well structured and
positioned organization for designing, implementing, driving, monitoring and coordinating cyber security
initiatives in the country. The envisaged structure should enable effective and efficient decision making which
involves consultation across multiple stakeholders policy makers, various ministries, state governments,
defence, intelligence, LEAs, private sector among others. The roles and responsibilities for every stakeholder

needs to be defined and should clearly establish coordination and information sharing mechanisms, focus on
building PPP models and create environment for enhancing trust between the industry and government. The
increasing linkage between cyber security and national security and the involvement of multiple stakeholders, it
is very crucial that the cyber security in India is positioned at the highest level within the govt. This will give
cyber security the much needed impetus and will help address inter-agency concerns and improve
coordination.
4. The NSA, through NIB, should be made in charge of formulating and overseeing the implementation of the
countrys cyber security policy within the ambit of a larger national security policy. This body should be serviced
by the NSCS for policy measures and DIT and other departments (e.g. Telecom, space, etc.) for operational
measures.
5. Establishing of Cyber Coordination Centre. Cyber coordination centre at the operational level, should be
staffed by personnel from the relevant operational agencies. This centre would serve as a clearing-house,
assessing information arriving in real time and assigning responsibilities to the agencies concerned.
(a) Nodal Agency for Cyber Terrorism and Cyber Crime. MHA should be the nodal agency for handling cyber
terrorism as well as cyber crime. To handle cyber terrorism need to implement measures ranging from
monitoring and surveillance, investigation, prosecution, etc. Cyber terrorism should be part of the nations
overall counter terrorism capabilities. The National Counter Terrorism Centre being set up should have a strong
cyber component. NIB, with MHA as the nodal agency, should be tasked with the responsibility of formulating
and implementing a policy to deal with cyber terrorism. The issues of ethical hacking and immunity for defence
and intelligence officers should be considered. In dealing with cyber crime, some of the measures needed will
overlap with those required to deal with cyber terrorism but extra effort will be required to ensure greater
awareness, strengthening of the legal framework, law enforcement, prosecution, etc. Particular focus to be
placed on awareness and enforcement MHA.
(b) Nodal Agency for Cyber Warfare. Headquarters IDS should be the nodal agency for preparing the country
for cyber warfare in all its dimensions. Unified cyber command should be created in a time-bound manner with
both offensive and defensive components. Since cyberspace remains integral, there should be an appropriate
interface between defence and civilian departments.
(c) Cyber Security Education, R&D and Training. It should form an integral part of the national cyber security
strategy. The govt should set up a well-equipped National Cyber Security R&D Centre to do cutting edge cyber
security R&D. This could be a PPP endeavour. Cyber security research should also be encouraged in public
and private universities and institutions. DIT should formulate a roadmap for cyber security research in the
country. The countrys strengths in ICT should be leveraged. DRDO should conduct specialised research for
the armed forces and NTRO should do so for the countrys intelligence agencies.
(d) CERT for Cyberspace Situational Awareness. DITs CERT should be the nodal agency to create and share
cyberspace situational awareness in the country. DIT should make public awareness of risks, threats and
vulnerabilities in cyberspace and measures to mitigate it. Disaster management and recovery must be an
integral part of any national cyber security strategy. The DIT should coordinate its efforts with NDMA and also
other govt departments as well as private bodies.

Specific Recommendations
6. Building Technical and Hardware Capability. Adequate emphasis on building adequate technical capabilities
in cryptology, digital signatures, testing for malware in embedded systems, operating systems, fabrication of

specialised chips for defence and intelligence functions, search engines, artificial intelligence, routers, new
materials, SCADA systems, etc. Cyber security should be mandatory in computer science curriculum and even
separate programmes on cyber security should be contemplated.

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7. Best Practices and Cyber Audit. Emphasis need to be placed on developing and implementing standards
and best practices in govt as well as private sector functioning. Cyber security audits should be made
compulsory for networked organisations. The standards should be enforced through a combination of
regulation and incentives to industry.
8. National Mission in Cyber Forensics. The govt should launch a National Mission in Cyber Forensics to
facilitate prosecution of cyber criminals and cyber terrorists.
9. International Cooperation. International cooperation is crucial
to handle cyber crime, cyber terrorism and in managing risks in cyberspace.
It is necessary to participate in multilateral discussions on rules of behaviour in cyberspace. The govt should
also consider joining the European Convention on Cyber crime. A 24x7 nodal point for international cooperation
with cyber authorities of other countries should be set up. The Indian agencies should also participate in
regional fora on cyber security. Engagement of Indian cyber authorities with internationally renowned cyber
professional bodies should be encouraged.
10. Understanding Arena of Social Networking. The impact of the emergence of new social networking media,
and convergence of technologies on society including business, economy, national security should be studied
with the help of relevant experts, including political scientists, sociologists, anthropologists, psychologists, and
law enforcement experts. It should be ensured that the issues of privacy and human rights are not lost sight of
and a proper balance between national security imperatives and human rights and privacy is maintained.
11. Cyber Warfare Doctrine. There is urgent need to enunciate Indias cyber warfare doctrine which defines
objectives and cyber warfare policy. Some of the relevant policy matters should include following in cyber
warfare doctrine:(a) Formulation of proactive cyber defence policy with emphasis on actions taken in anticipation to prevent an
attack against computers and NWs.
(b) Raise a Cyber Command and build up offensive capabilities.
(c) Create a pool of trained people such as Cyber TA Battalions to provide "surge capacity" to bolster the
countrys resources during critical periods or in the event of hostilities
(d) Need to critically analyse the impact of social NWs with respect to national security and perception
management, especially during crisis.

12. Critical Infrastructure. Govt should initiate and create critical infrastructure to ensure implementation of
practices and provide necessary budgetary support for the same. Some of the steps to strengthen the
infrastructure should include following:(a) Develop security expertise for protection of CII by providing hands on training to professionals, especially
from the govt sector.
(b) Establish a mechanism for measuring preparedness of critical sectors such as security index, which
captures preparedness of the sector and assigns value to it. Operationalise the mechanism for routinely
monitoring preparedness.
(c) Govt should incorporate IT Supply Chain Security as an important element of e-security plan to address
security issues.
(d) Govt should promote R&D in private industry through active govt support for industry-led research projects
in the areas of security. Establish enabling mechanisms to facilitate this.
(e) Govt need to focus on creating a workforce of security professionals in the country keeping in view the
requirements of the future.
(f) PPP model should be explored for taking security to the regions and industry sectors.
(g) Strengthening telecom security is the key pillars of cyber security, especially through development of
standards and establishment of testing labs for telecom infrastructure (equipment, hardware).
(h) Capacity building in the area of cyber crime and cyber forensics in terms of infrastructure, expertise and
availability of HR and cooperation between industry, LEAs and judiciary.
13. Legal. Legal framework with regards cyber aspects in the country needs to be strengthened and awareness
with regards to cyber laws needs to be created. The following actions will strengthen the legal aspects in
cyberspace:(a) Need for trained and qualified experts to deal with the highly specialised field of cyber security. Awareness
with regard to the threat to ICT infrastructure needs to be created and the necessary legal provisions to ensure
cyber safety must be developed.
(b) Substantive laws dealing with illegal access, illegal interception, data interference, misuse of devices,
computer-related forgery, child pornography, etc. must be implemented.
(c) Procedural laws need to be in place to achieve cooperation and coordination of international organisations
and govts to investigate and prosecute cyber criminals.
(d) The police must work closely with both govt and non-govt agencies, Interpol and the public at large to
develop a comprehensive strategy to address the problems.
(e) Lobbying at an international level for the harmonisation of existing national legislation to ensure that such
laws provide a fair measure of deterrence to cyber criminals and cyber terrorists, thereby making cyberspace a
safer place for national and international transactions.
(f) Government must put in place necessary amendments in existing laws or enact a new legislation like a Data
Protection/Privacy Act so as to safeguard against the misuse of personal information by various govt agencies
and protect individual privacy.
14. Miscellaneous. The following miscellaneous recommendations also need to be studied and analysed
thoroughly to ensure full proof cyber security at national level:-

(a) Examine the impact of cloud computing and wireless technologies and formulate appropriate policies.
(b) Make it a mandatory requirement for all govt organisations and private enterprises to have a designated
Chief Information Security Officer (CISO) who would be responsible for cyber security.
(c) Establishment of a cyber range to test cyber readiness.
(d) More powers to sectoral CERTs.
(e) Establish an online mechanism for cyber crime-related complaints to be recorded.

CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION
1. Cyber security, today forms integral part of national security and will continue to be on the govts policy
agenda. As the threat scenario evolves and the fifth dimension is becoming a complex gambit, there is need for
critical information infrastructure protection, government services delivery, public sector services along with
industry and national defence will have to respond with appropriate cyber security policies that will involve
implementation and testing of security practices.
2. Cyberspace being the fifth common space, it is imperative that there be coordination, cooperation and
uniformity of legal measures among all nations with respect to cyberspace. The exponential growth of
cyberspace is possibly the greatest development of the current century. Unfortunately, this development has
also led to the near-simultaneous growth of the misuse of cyberspace by cyber criminals and in recent times.
Cyberspace has been vulnerable to a large number of attacks on crucial information infrastructure by cyber
terrorists.
3. LEAs will require upgradation of training and cyber forensics tools; R&D in cutting edge security technology
will be essential. All of these and many other projects of national importance will be conceptualised and
implemented in PPP. The policy scenario will evolve too. This calls for a vibrant relationship between the
government and the industry. To protect own cyberspace and create vulnerabilities for the hostile nations, it will
be a vital step to establish unified cyber command at national level. Various models already exist and stood
tests of time, thus we need to understand the urgent requirement of creating a structure to pose a credible
minimum deterrence as far as cyberspace is concerned. Though establishment of cyber command only, is not
going to solve the problem, but a wholesome approach will be required at national level to include all stake
holders in curbing cyber crime and cyber terrorism. To meet this end, it is the need of the hour that nations of
the world cooperate and make constructive efforts to reduce vulnerabilities, threats and risks to manageable
levels
4. It is time that the countries of the world, including India, realise that a well protected cyberspace would only
be an asset to developing and developed nations alike. With regard to the present legal situation in India,
certain commendable advances have taken place that have placed India in a relatively strong position.
However, there are still gaping loopholes not only in legislation but also investigation and enforcement that have
allowed India to become prey to cyber crime.