Sie sind auf Seite 1von 10

CBSE Class 10

Social Notes Civics

CBSE Class 10 Social Notes Civics

Table of Contents
1. Power Sharing ............................................................................................................................. 2
Important Points ......................................................................................................................... 2
2. Federalism .................................................................................................................................. 3
Important Points ......................................................................................................................... 3
3. Democracy and Diversity ............................................................................................................ 4
Important Points ......................................................................................................................... 4
4. Gender, Religion and Caste ........................................................................................................ 5
Technical Terms .......................................................................................................................... 5
Important Points ......................................................................................................................... 5
5. Popular Struggles and Movements ............................................................................................. 6
Technical Terms ...........................................................................................................................7
Important Points ..........................................................................................................................7
6. Political Parties ........................................................................................................................... 8
Technical Terms .......................................................................................................................... 8
Important Points ......................................................................................................................... 8
7. Outcomes of Democracy ............................................................................................................. 9
Technical Terms .......................................................................................................................... 9
Important Points ......................................................................................................................... 9

NCERT Solutions

CBSE Sample Papers

RD Sharma Solutions

CBSE Class 10 Social Notes Civics

1. Power Sharing
Important Points
Power Sharing: Power sharing is necessary to ensure the stability of political order in a
democracy. It is desirable to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups. It ensures
stability of government and unity of the nation.

Forms of Power Sharing: Power sharing can be between


(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

Organs of government
Governments at different levels
Social groups
Political parties and Pressure groups.

Majoritarianism: It means a belief that the majority community should be able to rule a
country in its own way. They can disregard the views and wishes of the minority. It exists in Sri
Lanka where Sinhala people (74%) constitute the majority and Tamils (about 18%) constitute
the minority.

Community Government: A form of government which is elected by the people belonging to


one language community. This type of government exists in Belgium where Dutch, French and
German speaking people, no matter where they live in the country, elect their government.

Coalition Government: When no single party is able to get an absolute majority in the
legislature, two or more parties join to form the government. Such a government is known as
coalition government. The present UPA government in India, with S. Man Mohan Singh as
Prime Minister, is a coalition government.

Civil War: A war like conflict between two opposite groups in a country (between Sinhala and
Tamils in Sri Lanka) is known as civil war.

NCERT Solutions

CBSE Sample Papers

RD Sharma Solutions

CBSE Class 10 Social Notes Civics

2. Federalism
Important Points
Federalism: is a system of government in which powers of the government are divided
between the central government and the governments of the constituent units (States or
Provinces) of the country.

Unitary: form of government is a government in which all the powers of government are
concentrated into the hands of one central government and all the units are subordinate and
under the central government.

Coming Together Federation: It is a federation in which several independent states come


together on their own to form a union in order to increase their security and maintain their
identity against a common enemy. U.S.A. and Australia are such Federation.

Holding Together Federal: It is a type of federation in which a large country decides to divide
power between the central government and the governments of the units. India and Spain are
such federations.

How India is a Federation: India is a federation as powers of government are divided by the
Constitution into three lists
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

Union list
State list and
Concurrent list. Residuary powers have been given into the hands of union
(central) government.

Unitary as well as Federal: Although the Constitution of India contains all the features of a
federation, yet it also has certain unitary features. That is why it is called federal in form but
unitary in spirit.

Indian federation: Have 29 States and 7 Union Territories. Union Territories are the areas
which are administered by the union government.

Linguistic States: India is multilingual state where people speak different languages. Out of
them 22 languages have been recognized as Scheduled languages by the Constitution. The
states in India have been organized mainly on linguistic basis.

Local Government: Besides the central and state governments, another lower level of
governments has been established in India to look after and administer the local problems of the
areas. In the rural areas, Gram Panchayats, Panchayat Samitis and Zila Parishads have been
established whereas in big cities and towns, Municipal Corporations and Municipal Councils
have been set up.

NCERT Solutions

CBSE Sample Papers

RD Sharma Solutions

CBSE Class 10 Social Notes Civics

3. Democracy and Diversity


Important Points
Social Division: Social division is the division of society on the basis of language, caste,
religion, sex or region.

Social Differences: Social differences are the situations where people are discriminated against
on the basis of social, economic and racial inequality.

Minorities: It refers to those communities who are less than half the total population of the
country.

Homogeneous Society: A society that has similar kinds of people, especially where there are
no significant ethnic differences.

NCERT Solutions

CBSE Sample Papers

RD Sharma Solutions

CBSE Class 10 Social Notes Civics

4. Gender, Religion and Caste


Technical Terms
Sexual division of labour: A system in which all work inside the home is either done by the
women of the family, or organized by them through the domestic helpers.

Feminist: A woman or a man who believes in equal rights and opportunities for women and
men.

Patriarchy: Literally, rule by father, this concept is used to refer to a system that values men
more and gives them power over women.

Family Laws: Those laws that deal with family related matters such as marriage, divorce,
adoption, inheritance, etc. In our country, different family laws apply to followers of different
religions.

Urbanization: Shift of population from rural areas to urban areas.


Occupational Mobility: Shift from one occupation to another, usually when a new generation
takes up occupations other than those practiced by their ancestors.

Caste hierarchy: A ladder like formation in which all the caste groups are placed from the
highest to the lowest castes.

Important Points
Democracy: Indian democracy is the largest democracy in the world. Government is
forefending by the representatives who are elected by the people.

Representation of Women: The participation of women in the elections is very low. The
number of women in Indian Parliament has always been less than 10 per cent. Same is the
position in state legislatures.
In local government institutions, however, one-third of the seats have been reserved for
women. In Delhi and Haryana, this ratio has been raised to 50 percent.

Casteism: The role of casteism in Indian politics is very significant. A large number of voters
vote for the candidate belonging to their own caste. In the distribution of tickets by various
political parties, caste is always a consideration.

NCERT Solutions

CBSE Sample Papers

RD Sharma Solutions

CBSE Class 10 Social Notes Civics


Cormmunalism: Communalism means to distinguish people on the basis of religionto treat
the people belonging to ones own religion as friends and others as enemies. Communalism also
plays an important role in Indian political system.

Secularism: India is a secular state. There is no state religion. The state cannot discriminate
against any citizen on the basis of his/her religion.

5. Popular Struggles and Movements

NCERT Solutions

CBSE Sample Papers

RD Sharma Solutions

CBSE Class 10 Social Notes Civics


Technical Terms
Maoists: Those communists who believe in the ideology of Mao, the leader of the Chinese
revolution. They seek to overthrow the government through an armed revolution so as to
establish the rule of workers and peasants.

Political Part: A political party is an organized group of people who share same economic and
political views, and whose aim is to capture power (form the government) by peaceful and
constitutional means he through elections.

Sectional Interest Groups: Those interest groups which seek to promote the interests of a
particular section of the people.

Public Interest Groups: Those groups which represent some public or common interest and

seek to promote them. They are also called Promotional Groups as they promote collective or
public good and not selective good.

Important Points
Movement: It means a struggle on collective action aimed at achieving a certain aim or aims.
SPA: SPA is a Seven Parties Alliance formed by all the major political parties of Nepal to
struggle for the abolition of monarchy and establishment of democracy. The alliance has already
been successful in its aim. It has captured power in Nepal and has abolished monarchy and
established democracy in Nepal.

Fedecor: Fedecor was an organization which comprised of local professionals, including


engineers and environmentalists. The movement against the privatization of water in Bolivia
was led by this organization.

Interest Group: When people belonging to a common interest organize themselves, they form
an interest group.

Pressure Group: When any interest group starts seeking government help or exerts pressure
on government for the promotion of its interests, it turns into a Pressure group.

Public Opinion: It is an opinion of the public on certain issues of public importance or interest.

NCERT Solutions

CBSE Sample Papers

RD Sharma Solutions

CBSE Class 10 Social Notes Civics

6. Political Parties
Technical Terms
Partisan: A person who is strongly committed to a party, group or faction. Partisanship is
marked by a tendency to take a side and inability to take a balanced view on an issue.

Defection: Changing party allegiance from party on which a person got elected (to a legislative
body) to a different party.

Affidavit: A signed document submitted to an officer, where a person makes a sworn statement
regarding her personal information.

Important Points
Political Party: A political party is an organized group of persons who have common views on
the social and economic problems and their solutions. They try to capture power i.e.,
government by constitutional means i.e., through elections.

Ruling Party: Ruling party is the party that forms the government and runs the administration.
Opposition: The political party or a group of parties that are a part of the legislature, but not a
part of the government.

Election Commission: It is an independent multi-member body (at present 3 members) which


is constituted for the superintendence, direction and conduct of elections in the country.

Multiple Party System: A political system when a country has more than two political parties
who contest election to come to power.

Regional Political Party: The party which originates in a particular state or a region and works
for it and its people is called Regional Political Party.

NCERT Solutions

CBSE Sample Papers

RD Sharma Solutions

CBSE Class 10 Social Notes Civics

7. Outcomes of Democracy
Technical Terms
Democracy: is a form of government in which the power of governance resides in the hands of
the people. They exercise their power directly or through the representatives elected by them.

Outcomes means: Resultssuccesses or failures of democracy. Democracypolitical and


economic equality, social justice and dignity of the individual.

Dictatorship: is a form of government in which the power of the government is in the hands of
one person or party and no opposition to the dictator is tolerated.

Rule of law: means that everyone is equal in the eyes of law, no one is above law and anyone
who violates law will get the same punishment irrespective of his official or financial status.

Transparency: It means that a citizen can know about the process of decision-making and can
examine it also.

Accountable: means that in democracy government is responsible and accountable to the


people.

Civil Liberties: Civil liberties are rights and privileges of the people which are considered
necessary for the functioning of democracy.

Important Points
Legitimate Government: Legitimate government is a government which is chosen legally.
Responsive Government : A government in which people have the right to know the decisions
taken by the government and also have the right and means to examine the process of decisionmaking

NCERT Solutions

CBSE Sample Papers

RD Sharma Solutions