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The Hyperbola is a conic whose eccentricity is greater than unity. (e > 1).

page 24 of 91

1.

x2

y2

Standard equation of the hyperbola is 2 2 = 1 ,

a

b

where b2 = a2 (e2 1).

C.A

=1+

T.A

b2

e =1+ 2

a

2

Eccentricity (e) :

S ( ae, 0).

Equations Of Directrices :

a

a

x=

&

x= .

e

e

Transverse Axis :

The line segment AA of length 2a in which the foci S & S both lie is called the

transverse axis of the hyperbola.

Conjugate Axis :

T he l i ne segm ent BB bet ween t he t wo poi nt s B (0, b) &

B (0, b) is called as the conjugate axis of the hyperbola.

Principal Axes : The transverse & conjugate axis together are called Principal Axes of the hyperbola.

Vertices :

A (a, 0)

&

A ( a, 0)

Focal Chord : A chord which passes through a focus is called a focal chord.

Double Ordinate :

A chord perpendicular to the transverse axis is called a double ordinate.

Latus Rectum ( ) :

The focal chord perpendicular to the transverse axis is called the latus rectum.

2

(C . A .)

2 b2

=

= 2a (e2 1).

=

a

T . A.

Note : (L.R.) = 2 e (distance from focus to directrix)

Centre : The point which bisects every chord of the conic drawn through it is called the centre of the

conic. C (0, 0) the origin is the centre of the hyperbola

x2

a2

y2

b2

= 1.

General Note :

Since the fundamental equation to the hyperbola only differs from that to the ellipse in having

b2 instead of b2 it will be found that many propositions for the hyperbola are derived from those for the

ellipse by simply changing the sign of b2.

Example : Find the equation of the hyperbola whose directrix is 2x + y = 1, focus (1, 2) and eccentricity

Solution. Let P 9x,y) be any point on the hyperbola.

Draw PM perpendicular from P on the directrix.

Then by definition

SP = e PM

(SP)2 = e2 (PM)2

2

2x + y 1

(x 1) + (y 2) = 3

4 +1

5 (x 2 + y2 2x 4y + 5}

= 3 (4x 2 + y2 + 1 + 4xy 2y 4x)

which is the required hyperbola.

Example :

Find the eccentricity of the hyperbola whose latus rectum is half of its transverse axis.

2

Solution.

x2

a2

y2

b2

=1

Successful People Replace the words like; "wish", "try" & "should" with "I Will". Ineffective People don't.

3.

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.

1

2b 2

= (2a)

2

a

2b2 = a2

2a2 (e2 1) = a2

2b 2

a

e=

3

2

2.

C o njug at e H y perbo l a :

( b2 = a2 (e2 1))

2e2 2 = 1

e=

3

2

3

.

2

Two hyperbolas such that transverse & conjugate axes of one hyperbola are respectively the conjugate

& the transverse axes of the other are called Conjugate Hyperbolas of each other.

x2

y2

x2

y2

&

=

1

+

= 1 are conjugate hyperbolas of each.

a2

b2

a2

b2

Note : (a)

If e1 & e2 are the eccentrcities of the hyperbola & its conjugate then e12 + e22 = 1.

(b)

The foci of a hyperbola and its conjugate are concyclic and form the vertices of a

square.

(c)

Two hyperbolas are said to be similiar if they have the same eccentricity.

(d)

Two similar hyperbolas are said to be equal if they have same latus rectum.

(e)

If a hyperbola is equilateral then the conjugate hyperbola is also equilateral.

Example : Find the lengths of transverse axis and conjugate axis, eccentricity, the co-ordinates of foci,

vertices, lengths of the latus-rectum and equations of the directrices of the following hyperbolas

16x 2 9y2 = 144.

Solution.

The equation 16x 2 9y2 = 144 can be written as

eg.

x2

y2

=1

9

16

This is of the form

x2

y2

=1

a2

b2

a2 = 9, b2 = 16

Length of transverse axis : The length of transverse axis = 2b = 8

Length of conjugate axis : The length of conjugate axis = 2a = 6

a = 3, b = 4

5

1 + a

b 2 = 1 + 16 = 4

Foci : The coordinates of the foci are (0, + be) i.e., (0, + 5)

Vertices : The coordinates of the vertices are (0, + b) i.e., (0, + 4)

Eccentricity : e =

2a 2

b

2(3)2 9

2

4

Equation of directrices : The equation of directrices are

b

y=+

e

4

16

y=+

y=+

(5 / 4 )

5

Self Practice Problems :

Find the equation of the hyperbola whose focis are (6, 4) and ( 4, 4) and eccentricity is 2.

1.

Ans. 12x 2 4y2 24x + 32y 127 = 0

2.

Obtain the equation of a hyperbola with coordinates axes as principal axes given that the distances of

=

3.

3.

Ans.

x2

y2

y2

x2

= 1,

=1

16

9

16

9

x2

y2

+

= 1. Find the equation of the

25

9

2

2

hyperbola if its eccentricity is 2.

Ans. 3x y 12 = 0.

A ux i l i ary C i rc l e : A circle drawn with centre C & T.A. as a diameter is called the Auxiliary

Circle of the hyperbola. Equation of the auxiliary circle is x 2 + y2 = a2.

Note from the figure that P & Q are called the "Corresponding Points" on the hyperbola & the auxiliary

circle.

Successful People Replace the words like; "wish", "try" & "should" with "I Will". Ineffective People don't.

page 25 of 91

According to question

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.

x2

y2

a2

b2

also represents the same hyperbola.

Note that if P() (a sec , b tan ) is on the hyperbola then;

Q() (a cos , a sin ) is on the auxiliary circle.

The equation to the chord of the hyperbola joining two points with eccentric angles & is given by

the hyperbola

5.

x

y

+

+

cos

sin

= cos

.

a

2

b

2

2

The quantity S1

x12

y2

1 1 is positive, zero or negative according as the point (x 1, y1) lies inside,

a2

b2

Example :

Find the position of the point (5, 4) relative to the hyperbola 9x 2 y2 = 1.

Solution.

Since 9 (5)2 (4)2 = 1 = 225 16 1 = 208 > 0,

So the point (5,4) inside the hyperbola 9x 2 y2 = 1.

6.

Line And A Hyperbola : The straight line y = mx + c is a secant, a tangent or passes

outside the hyperbola

x2

a

7.

y2

b

Tangents :

(i)

x2

y2

= 1,

a2

b2

(ii)

xx1

a

yy1

b2

x2

a2

y2

b2

= 1.

(a sec , b tan ) is

x2

y2

= 1 at the point.

a2

b2

x sec y tan

= 1.

a

b

1 2

1 + 2

2

, y = b tan

+ 2

2

cos 1

2

If |1 + 2| = , then tangetns at these points (1 & 2) are parallel.

cos

Note : (i)

(ii)

(iii)

There are two parallel tangents having the same slope m. These tangents touches the hyperbola

at the extremities of a diameter.

Example :

Prove that the straight line x + my + n = 0 touches the hyperbola

Solution.

The given line is

or

x2

a

y2

b2

= 1 if a22 b2 m 2 = n2.

x + my + n = 0

n

y=

x

m

m

Successful People Replace the words like; "wish", "try" & "should" with "I Will". Ineffective People don't.

page 26 of 91

4.

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.

y = Mx + c

n

M=

and c =

m

m

This line (1) will touch the hyperbola

a2

n2

y2

b2

= 1 if c2 = a2M2 b2

a2 l 2

b2

m2

m2

a22 b2m 2 = n2

or

Example :

Find the equation of the tangent to the hyperbola x 2 4y2 = 36 which is perpendicular to the line

x y + 4 = 0.

Solution.

Let m be the slope of the tangent. Since the tangent is perpendicular to the line x y = 0

m 1 = 1

m=1

x 2 4y2 = 36

Since

x2

y2

a2

b2

So the equation of tangents are

y = (1) x +

y = x +

=1

x2

y2

=1

36

9

or

a2 = 36 and b2 = 9

36 ( 1)2 9

27

x+y+3 3 =0

Example :Find the equation and the length of the common tangents to hyperbola

x2

a2

y2

b2

= 1 and

y2

a2

x2

b2

= 1.

x

y

sec

tan = 1

.....(1)

a

b

Similarly tangent at any point (b tan , a sec ) on 2nd hyperbolas is

y

x

sec

tan = 1

.....(2)

a

b

If (1) and (2) are common tangents then they should be identical. Comparing the coeffecients of x and y

sec

tan

=

.....(3)

a

b

tan

sec

and

=

b

a

a

or

sec =

tan

......(4)

b

2

2

sec tan = 1

Solution.

or

or

a2

b2

a2

tan2

tan2

b2

a2 b2

b2 a2

tan2 =

and

b2

a2

b2

a2

sec2 = 1

(1+ tan 2) = 1

b2

2

tan

=

1

+

a2

b2

a2 b2

sec2 = 1 + tan2 =

a2

a2 b2

Hence the point of contanct are

a2

b2

b2

a2

,

,

and

{from (3) and (4)}

(a 2 b 2 )

(a 2 b 2 )

(a 2 b 2 )

(a 2 b 2 )

Length of common tangent i.e., the distance between the above points is

(a 2 + b 2 )

and equation

Successful People Replace the words like; "wish", "try" & "should" with "I Will". Ineffective

don't.

(a 2 People

b2 )

page 27 of 91

x2

..........(1)

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.

x

y

=1

or

x y=+

+

(a 2 b 2 )

(a 2 b 2 )

Self Practice Problems :

Show that the line x cos + y sin = p touches the hyperbola

3.

8.

y2

=1

a2

b2

2

2

if a cos b sin = p .

Ans. p = a cos b sin

For what v alue of does the line y = 2x + touches the hyperbola 16x 2 9y2 = 144 ?

2

2.

x2

Ans. = 2 5

Find the equation of the tangent to the hyperbola x 2 y2 = 1 which is parallel to the line 4y = 5x + 7.

Ans. 4y = 5x 3

x2

y2

ORMALS: (a)The equation of the normal to the hyperbola 2 2 = 1 at the point P (x 1, y1) on it is

a

b

N

a 2 x b2 y

+

= a2 + b2 = a2 e2.

x1

y1

The equation of the normal at the point P (a sec , b tan ) on the hyperbola

(b)

is

ax

by

= a2 + b2 = a2 e2.

+

sec tan

(c)

x2

(a

+ b2 m

a 2 b2 m 2

y2

Solution.

a2

b2

drawn perpendicular to the axes meeting at P. Prove that the locus of P is the hyperbola

a2x 2 b2y2 = (a2 + b2)2.

ax cos + by cot = a + b

The normal (1) meets the xaxis in

x2

y2

2 =1

2

a

b

Example :

........(1)

x2

a2

y2

b2

= 1 is

a2 + b2

M

a2 + b2

tan

N 0, b

perpendicular to xaxis, is

a2 + b2

ax

........(2)

x = a sec or sec =

2

(a + b 2 )

and the equation of NP, the line through N and perpendicular to the yaxis is

a2 + b2

by

y = b tan or tan =

.........(3)

2

(

a

+ b2 )

The locus of the point of intersection of MP and NP will be obtained by eliminating from (2) and (3),

we have

sec2 tan2 = 1

a2 x 2

b2 y 2

2

=1

(a 2 + b 2 ) 2

(a + b 2 ) 2

2 2

2 2

2

2 2

or

a x b y = (a + b )

is the required locus of P.

Self Practice Problems :

1.

page 28 of 91

1.

(a 2 b 2 )

if

a2

b2

m

(a 2 + b 2 ) 2

n2

x2

a2

y2

b2

=1

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.

a2

(a 2 + b 2 ) 2

.

2

m2

n2

Find the locus of the foot of perpendicular from the centre upon any normal to the hyperbola

x2

y2

= 1.

b2

(x 2 + y2)2 (a2y2 b2x 2) = x 2y2 (a2 + b2)

a2

Ans.

9.

b2

Pai r of Tangent s:

The equation to the pair of tangents which can be drawn from any point (x 1, y1) to the hyperbola

2

x 2 y = 1 is given by: SS = T where :

2

2

1

a

b

y2

x

S a

1

2

b2

2

Example :

S1 =

x12

a

y12

b

1;

xx1

a

yy1

b2

1.

How many real tangents can be drawn from the point (4, 3) to the ellipse

Solution.

Given point

P (4, 3)

x2

y2

=1. Find

16

9

x2

y2

1=0

16

9

16

9

S1

1=1<0

16

9

Equation of pair of tangents is

SS1 = T 2

Hyperbola

2

x2 y2

4x 3y

1 . ( 1) =

16 9

16 9

xy

2y

x

x2

y2

x2

y2

+

+1=

+

+1

+

6

3

2

16

9

16

9

3x 2 4xy 12x + 16y = 0

4

= tan1

3

Example : Find the locus of point of intersection of perpendicular tangents to the hyperbola

Solution.

Let P(h, k) be the point of intersection of two perpendicular tangents

equation of pair of tangents is SS1 = T 2

a2

y2

b2

=1

2

x2 y2

h2 k 2

hx ky

=

a2 b2

a2 b2

2

b2

a

2 h2

k2

1 y 2 1 + ........ = 0

2

a2 b

b2 a

x2

k2

1

2

2

a

b2

b

2

2

2

2

k b h +a =0

10.

x2

Director Circle :

h2

1 = 0

a2

.........(i)

locus is x 2 + y2 = a2 b2

Ans.

The locus of the intersection point of tangents which are at right angles is known as the Director Circle

of the hyperbola. The equation to the director circle is : x 2 + y2 = a2 b2.

If b2 < a2 this circle is real.

If b2 = a2 (rectangular hyperbola) the radius of the circle is zero & it reduces to a point circle at the

origin. In this case the centre is the only point from which the tangents at right angles can be drawn to

the curve.

If b2 > a2, the radius of the circle is imaginary, so that there is no such circle & so no pair of tangents

at right angle can be drawn to the curve.

11.

Chord o f C ont ac t:

Equation to the chord of contact of tangents drawn from a point P(x 1, y 1 ) to the hyperbola

x2

a2

y2

b2

= 1 is

page 29 of 91

2.

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.

Ans.

xx1

T=

yy1

b2

Example :

x2

a2

Solution.

Let P (h, k) be the point of intersection of tangents at A & B

yk

xh

b

a

which touches the parabola

equation of tangent to parabola y2 = 4ax

a

a

y = mx

mx y =

m

m

equation (i) & (ii) as must be same

a

h

m

=

= m

m=

k

k

1

h

2

2

b

12.

hb 2

ka

ak

locus of P is y2 =

C ho rd wi t h a g i v en mi ddl e po i nt :

b4

a3

y2

b2

page 30 of 91

.............(i)

.............(ii)

b2

a

&m=

.x

ak

b2

Ans.

Equation of the chord of the hyperbola a

2

2

1

1

1

b

where S 1 =

2

x1

2

2

y1

2

1;

xx1

a2

yy1

b2

1.

Example :

Find the locus of the mid - point of focal chords of the hyperbola

Solution.

xh

a2

yk

b2

1=

h2

a2

x2

a2

y2

k2

b2

b2

= 1.

If it passes trhrough (ae, 0)

ex

x2

y2

= 2 2

a

a

b

If it passes through (ae, 0)

locus is

locus is

Example :

ex

x2

y2

= 2 2

a

a

b

Ans.

Find the condition on 'a' and 'b' for which two distinct chords of the hyperbola

Solution.

Let the line x + y = b bisect the chord at P(, b )

(b )2

y(b )

2

x

2b 2

2a 2

2b 2

2a 2

Since it passes through (a, b)

Example :

2

(b )2

(b )

2a

2a 2

2b 2

2b

1

1

1 1

2 2 2 + = 0

a

b

b a

1

= 0, =

1 1

+

a b

2a 2

y2

2b 2

=1

ab

Find the locus of the mid point of the chords of the hyperbola

x2

x2

a2

y2

b2

= 1 which subtend a

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.

T = 0, where

let (h,k) be the midpoint of the chord of the hyperbola. Then its equation is

hx

ky

x

a

b2

k2

hx ky

2 2

b

a

h2 k 2

a2 b2

or

hx

ky

h2

k2

1 h 2 k 2

1 h 2 k 2

2hk

h2 2

k2 2

2

2

y

=

x

+

xy .......(2)

2

2

2 2

2 2

4

4 y

b

b

a a

b a

a 2b 2

a

b

The lines represented by (2) will be at right angle if coefficient of x 2 + coefficient of y2 = 0

1

a2

2

h2 k 2

h 1

a2 b2

b2

a4

h2 k 2

a2 b2

x2 y2

a2 b2

2

h2 k 2

k =0

a2 b2

b4

1

1

h2

k2

2 2 = 4 + 4

b

a

a

b

(h,k) is

1

1

x2

y2

2 2 =

+

b

a

a4

b4

x2

y2

36

9

1.

2.

Find the point 'P' from which pair of tangents PA & PB are drawn to the hyperbola

3.

375

, 12

From the points on the circle x 2 + y2 = a2, tangent are drawn to the hyperbola x 2 y2 = a2, prove that the

locus of the middle points of the chords of contact is the curve (x 2 y2)2 = a2 (x 2 + y2).

Ans. (x 2 y2)2 = a2 (x 2 + y2).

13.

Ans.

x = 2y

x2

y2

= 1 in such

25

16

Ans.

Diameter :

The locus of the middle points of a system of parallel chords with slope 'm' of an hyperbola is called its

diameter. It is a straight line passing through the centre of the hyperbola and has the equation

y =

14.

b 2 x.

a 2m

Asymptotes :

Definition : If the length of the perpendicular let fall from a point on a hyperbola

to a straight line tends to zero as the point on the hyperbola moves to infinity along the hyperbola,

then the straight line is called the Asymptote of the hyperbola.

Equations of Asymptote :

Pair of asymptotes :

NOTE : (i)

(ii)

x y

+ =0

a b

and

x y

= 0.

a b

x2 y2

2 = 0.

a2

b

The equation of the pair of asymptotes differs from the equation of hyperbola

(or conjugate hyperbola) by the constant term only.

(iii)

The asymptotes pass through the centre of the hyperbola & are equally inclined

to the transverse axis of the hyperbola. Hence the bisectors of the angles between the

asymptotes are the principle axes of the hyperbola.

(iv)

The asymptotes of a hyperbola are the diagonals of the rectangle formed by the lines

drawn through the extremities of each axis parallel to the other axis.

(v)

Asymptotes are the tangent to the hyperbola from the centre.

(vi)

A simpl e method to f ind t he co-ordinat es of the centre of the hyperbola

expressed as a general equation of degree 2 should be remembered as:

Let f (x , y) = 0 represents a hyperbola.

page 31 of 91

1=

h2

........(i)

b2

b2

a2

b2

a2

b2

a2

b2

The equation of the lines joining the origin to the points of intersection of the hyperbola and the chored

(1) is obtained by making homogeneous hyperbola with the help of (1)

2

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.

Solution.

f

f

f

f

&

.Then the point of intersection of

=0&

= 0 gives the centre of the hyperbola.

x y

x

y

Example :

Find the asymptotes xy 3y 2x = 0.

Solution.

Since equation of a hyperbola and its asymptotes differ in constant terms only,

where is any constant such that it represents two straight lines.

15.

The particular kind of hyperbola in which the lengths of the transverse & conjugate axis are equal is

called an Equilateral Hyperbola. Note that the eccentricity of the rectangular hyperbola is 2 .

It is referred to its asymptotes as axes of coordinates.

Vertices : (c, c) & ( c, c);

Foci :

) (

2 c, 2 c & 2 c, 2 c ,

Directrices : x + y = 2 c

Latus Rectum (l ) :

= 2 2 c = T.A. = C.A.

Parametric equation x = ct, y = c/t, t R {0}

Equation of a chord joining the points P (t 1) & Q(t 2) is x + t 1 t 2 y = c (t 1 + t 2).

x

x

y

+

= 2 & at P (t) is + t y = 2 c.

t

x1 y1

Equation of the normal at P (t) is x t 3 y t = c (t 4 1).

Chord with a given middle point as (h, k) is kx + hy = 2hk.

Example :

A triangle has its vertices on a rectangle hyperbola. Prove that the orthocentre of the triangle

also lies on the same hyperbola.

Solution.

Let "t 1", "t2" and "t3" are the vertices of the triangle ABC, described on the rectangular hyperbola

xy = c2.

c

Coordinates of A,B and C are ct1, ,

t1

t3 t2

1

Now lope of BC is

=

ct 3 ct 2

t 2t 3

Slope of AD is t 2t 3

Equation of Altitude AD is

c

y

= t 2t 3(x ct 1)

t1

ct 2 , and ct 3 , c

t2

t3

respectively

page 32 of 91

1

3

1

1

00 =0

0+2

2

2

2

=6

From (1), the asymptotes of given hyperbola are given by

xy 3y 2x + 6 = 0 or

(y 2) (x 3) = 0

Example :

The asymptotes of a hyperbola having centre at the point (1, 2) are parallel to the lines 2x + 3y

= 0 and 3x + 2y = 0. If the hyperbola passes through the point (5, 3), show that its equation is

(2x + 3y 8) (3x + 2y + 7) = 154

Solution.

Let the asymptotes be 2x + 3y + = 0 and 3x + 2y + = 0. Since asymptotes passes through

(1,2), then

= 8 and = 7

Thus the equation of asympotes are

2x + 3y 8 = 0 and 3x + 2y 7 = 0

Let the equation of hyperbola be

(2x + 3y 8) (3x + 2y 7) + v = 0

......(1)

It passes through (5,3), then

(10 + 9 8) (15 + 6 7) + v = 0

11 14 + v = 0

v = 154

putting the value of v in (1) we obtain

(2x + 3y 8) (3x + 2y 7) 154 = 0

which is the equation of required hyperbola.

Self Practice Problems :

1.

Show that the tangent at any point of a hyperbola cuts off a triangle of constant area from the asymptotes

and that the portion of it intercepted between the asymptotes is bisected at the point of contact.

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.

Find

t 1y c = x t 1t 2t 3 ct 12t 2t 3

Similarly equation of altitude BE is

t 2y c = x t 1t 2t 3 ct 1t 22t 3

.....(1)

......(2)

Example :

(i)

(ii)

The area of the triangle ABC

The area of the triangle formed by the tangents A, B and C.

c

Sol. Let coordinates of A,B and C on the hyperbola xy = c2 are ct1, ,

t1

c

c

ct1

ct 2

ct 3

t

t

1

1

2

(i)

Area of triangle ABC =

c +

c +

2 ct

ct

ct1

2

3

t2

t3

c

c

ct 2 , and ct 3 ,

t3

t2

c

t3

c

t1

c 2 t1 t 2 +

2 t 2 t1

c2

t2t t 2t + t t 2 t2t + t t 2 t 2t

2t 1t 2 t 3 3 3 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2

t2 t3

+

t3 t2

respectively..

t 3 t1

t1 t 3

c2

| (t 1 t 2) (t2 t 3) (t 3 t 1) |

2t 1t 2 t 3

Equations of tangents at A,B,C are

x + t 12 2ct 1 = 0

x + yt 22 2ct 2 = 0

and

x + yt 32 2ct 3 = 0

=

(ii)

1 t 12

1

2

Required Area = 2 | C C C | 1 t 2

1 2 3

1 t 32

where C1 =

1 t12

t 32

, C2 =

1 t 12

t 32

and C3 =

2ct1

2ct 2

.........(1)

2ct 3

1 t12

1

1

1 t 22

2

2

2

2

C1 = t 3 t 2 , C2 = t 1 t 3 and C3 = t22 t 12

1

4c2.(t 1 t 2)2 (t 2 t 3)2 (t 3 t 1)2

From (1)

=

2

2

2

2 ( t 3 t 2 ) ( t 1 t 32 ) ( t 22 t12 )

( t 1 t 2 ) ( t 2 t 3 ) ( t 3 t1 )

= 2c2 ( t + t ) ( t + t ) ( t + t

1

2

2

3

3

1)

( t1 t 2 ) ( t 2 t 3 ) ( t 3 t1 )

Required area is, 2c2 ( t + t ) ( t + t ) ( t + t )

1

2

2

3

3

1

Example :

Prove that the perpendicular focal chords of a rectangular hyperbola are equal.

Solution.

Let rectangular hyperbola is x 2 y2 = a2

Let equations of PQ and DE are

y = mx + c

......(1)

and

y = m 1x + c 1

.......(2)

respectively.

Be any two focal chords of any rectangular hyperbola x 2 y2 = a2 through its focus. We have to prove

PQ = DE. Since PQ DE.

mm 1 = 1

......(3)

Also PQ passes through S (a 2 ,0) then from (1),

0 = ma 2 +c

or

c2 = 2a2m 2

......(4)

Let (x 1,y1) and (x 2,y2) be the coordinates of P and Q then

(PQ)2 = (x 1 x 22) + (y1 y2)2

......(5)

Since (x 1,y1) and (x 2,y2) lie on (1)

y1 = mx 1 + c and y2 = mx 2 + c

(y1 y2) = m (x 1 x 2)

.......(6)

From (5) and (6)

(PQ)2 = (x 1 x 2)2 (1 + m 2)

.......(7)

Successful People Replace the words like; "wish", "try" & "should" with "I Will". Ineffective People don't.

page 33 of 91

c

Solving (1) and (2), we get the orthocentre t t t ,ct1t 2 t 3

12 3

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.

or

x 2 (mx + c)2 = a2

or

(m 2 1) x 2 + 2mcx + (a2 + c2) = 0

2mc

x1 + x2 =

and

x 1x 2 =

m 1

(x 1 x 2)2 = (x 1 + x 2)2 4x 1x 2

=

=

4m 2c 2

(m 2 1)2

a2 + c 2

m2 1

4(a 2 + c 2 )

page 34 of 91

(m 2 1)

4 {a 2 + c 2 a 2m2 }

(m2 1)2

4a 2 (m 2 + 1)

{ c2 = 2a2m 2}

(m 2 1)2

From (7),

m2 + 1

(PQ)2 = 4a2 2

m 1

Similarly,

m12 + 1

2

2

(DE) = 4a 2

m1 1

1 1 + 1

m

2

= 4a 1 2

m 1

( mm 1 = 1)

m2 + 1

= 4a 2

m 1

= (PQ)2

Thus (PQ)2 = (DE)2 PQ = DE.

Hence perpendicular focal chords of a rectangular hyperbola are equal.

2

15.

Important Results :

x2

y2

2 = 1 upon any tangent

2

a

b

is its auxiliary circle i.e. x 2 + y2 = a2 & the product of these perpendiculars is b2.

The portion of the tangent between the point of contact & the directrix subtends a right angle at the

corresponding focus.

The tangent & normal at any point of a hyperbola bisect the angle between the focal radii. This spells

the reflection property of the hyperbola as "An incoming light ray " aimed towards one focus is

reflected from the outer surface of the hyperbola towards the other focus. It follows that if an ellipse and

a hyperbola hav e the same foci, they cut at right angles at any of their common point.

Locus of the feet of the perpendicular drawn from focus of the hyperbola

x

y

x2 y2

2

+ 2 = 1 & the hyperbola 2

= 1 (a > k > b > 0) are confocal

2

2

a

b

a k

k b2

and therefore orthogonal.

The foci of the hyperbola and the points P and Q in which any tangent meets the tangents at the

vertices are concyclic with PQ as diameter of the circle.

If from any point on the asymptote a straight line be drawn perpendicular to the transverse axis, the

product of the segments of this line, intercepted between the point & the curve is always equal to the

square of the semi conjugate axis.

Perpendicular from the foci on either asymptote meet it in the same points as the corresponding

directrix & the common points of intersection lie on the auxiliary circle.

Note that the ellipse

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.

x2

y2

The tangent at any point P on a hyperbola 2 2 = 1 with centre C, meets the asymptotes in Q and

a

b

R and cuts off a CQR of constant area equal to ab from the asymptotes & the portion of the tangent

intercepted between the asymptote is bisected at the point of contact. This implies that locus of the

centre of the circle circumscribing the CQR in case of a rectangular hyperbola is the hyperbola itself

& for a standard hyperbola the locus would be the curve, 4 (a2x 2 b2y2) = (a2 + b2)2.

x2

y2

If the angle between the asymptote of a hyperbola 2 2 = 1 is 2 then the eccentricity of the

a

b

hyperbola is sec .

A rectangular hyperbola circumscribing a triangle also passes through the orthocentre of this triangle.

c

t

1

2

3

If a circle and the rectangular hyperbola xy = c2 meet in the four points t 1, t 2, t 3 & t 4, then

(a)

t1 t2 t3 t4 = 1

(b)

the centre of the mean position of the four points bisects the distance between the

centres of the two curves.

(c)

the centre of the circle through the points t1, t 2 & t 3 is :

c

1 c1 1 1

2 t1 + t 2 + t 3 + t t t , 2 t + t + t + t1 + t 2 + t 3

1 2 3

2

3

1

Example :

A ray emanating from the point (5, 0) is incident on the hyperbola 9x 2 16y2 = 144 at the point P with

abscissa 8. Find the equation of the reflected ray after first reflection and point P lies in first quadrant.

Solution.

Given hyperbola is

9x 2 16y2 = 144. This equation can be

x2

y2

=1

16

9

Since x coordinate of P is 8. Let y

coordinate of P ia .

rewritten as

......(1)

64

2

=1

16

9

2 = 27

a=3 3

Its equation is y 3

or

13y 39 3 = 3 3 x 24

or

3 3 x 13y + 15 3 = 0.

3 =

03 3

(x 8)

58

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.

page 35 of 91

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