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PROJECT _1

Manual Robotics essentials


Toy Car(Manual Robot)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
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9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

DC Motors (200rpm or 300rpm)(4)


Connecting wires
Wire connectors
Wheels
Soldering iron
Soldering wire
Single strand wires
Wire strippers
Power Supply(eliminator or battery) maximum 12volts regulated power supply
2 three way switches (DPDT)
Chassis(base)
Multi strand wires
Digital Multimeter

CHASIS
Chassis is an assembly for making a 4 wheel drive platform ,Where you can connect the wheels
and any kind of controller board to make your robot.

The first chassis is for wheels and the second one has wheels and a caster wheel also.
To make your own chassis use L-Clamps to fix the wheels on any kind of flat surface .
L clamps

DC MOTORS
1. These are the motors which can be controlled by D.C currents only.
2. NEED We are using D.C motors so that the bot can be controlled by batteries or eliminators
using only D.C currents.
3. It can rotate in either direction
4. Speed can be controlled according to the voltage we provide.Direction can be controlled by the
polarity .
5. Every Motor has specifications like maximum current rating as well as voltage rating.The motors
can withstand upto that level.
6. Stall Current : Maximum current drawn when motor is not allowed to rotate.
7. Stall torque : Rotation force needed to hold the motor in stall condition.
8. The power supplied by the motor is the product of the rotational velocity(w {omega}) of the shaft
connected to the motor and the torque(tau) developed in the motor.
9. So the product of tau and omega is a constant for a constant power supplied by the battery or
eliminator.

10. DC motors are generally high speed and low torque motors but the reverse are also there.
11. The high torque motors are used when there is a hand on a robot to pick something or something
like that which require slow and high pick up movements.
12. The figure shown below is a 200 rpm DC motor.

a. Zero speed at maximum load


b. Highest speed at free running
c. Highest power at half speed and half load
Switches

Electronics
specification
and
abbreviation

Expansion
of
abbreviation

British
mains
wiring
name

American
electrical
wiring
name

Description

A simple on-off switch: The


two terminals are either
connected together or
disconnected from each
other. An example is a light
switch.

SPST

Single pole,
single throw

One-way

Two-way

SPDT

Single pole,
double throw

Two-way

A simple changeover switch:


Three-way C (COM, Common) is
connected to L1 or to L2.

SPCO
SPTT, c.o.

Single pole
changeover
or
Single pole,
centre off or

Similar to SPDT. Some


suppliers
use SPCO/SPTT for
switches with a stable off
position in the centre

Symbol

DPST

Single Pole,
Triple Throw

and SPDTfor those


without.[citation needed]

Double pole,
single throw

Equivalent to
two SPST switches
controlled by a single
mechanism

Double pole

Double
pole

DPDT

Double pole,
double throw

Equivalent to
two SPDT switches
controlled by a single
mechanism.

DPCO

Double pole
changeover
or Double
pole, centre
off

Equivalent to DPDT. Some


suppliers use DPCO for
switches with a stable off
position in the centre
and DPDTfor those without.

Intermediate Four-way
switch
switch

2P6T

Two pole, six


throw

DPDT switch internally wired


for polarity-reversal
applications: only four rather
than six wires are brought
outside the switch housing.

Changeover switch with a


(COM, Common) which can
connect to L1, L2, L3, L4,
L5, or L6; with a second
switch (2P, two pole)
controlled by a single
mechanism

13. We are concerned about only DPDT for the toy car.
14. DPDTa. Double pole , double throw means it can switch for both forward and backward.It can
switch two poles at once.

b.

15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

21.
22.
23.

DPDT to motor connection .


The power supply is connected to the middle terminals and it is switched by the DPDT.
A and D terminals are connected to the motors.
At first the switch is off,the A and F as well as D and C are internally shorted.
When the switch is on,the connection from C and F automatically comes to B and E.So the motor
is now connected to the power supply of desired volts.
2motors are connected to one DPDT in parallel.(for the left wheels and right wheels)
From the above figure there are several situations to be considered for two motors
a. 1st up 2nd up forward movement
b. 1st down 2nd down backward movement
c. 1st up
2nd down right movement(sharp)
d. 1st down 2nd
up left movement(sharp)
st
nd
e. 1 up 2 off - right movement(slow)
f. 1st off 2nd up left movement(slow)
The wires should be connected properly and the wheels should be connected to the motors
properly.
The wires connected to the DPDT should be soldered properly.
Wires should be connected from the DPDT to the Motors via wire connectors.

DC POWER SUPPLY

1. It can be provided to the motor by two ways


a. Via eliminator(which converts ac signal of 220V 50 hz supply to a range of regulated DC
voltages from 6 V to 12V or even 15 V and the range can be varied depending upon the
winding and transformer used in the eliminator)
b. Simple DC batteries(9V or 12 V)
2. Eliminator Circuit Diagram

3. The transformer used is a step down transformer.It reduses the voltage to the required voltage
,but it is still an ac voltage.
4. To make it DC,a rectifier circuit is used which as we know eliminates one of the cycles of the a.c
signal by the help of 4 diodes.But the voltage is still a pulsating DC .
5. To reduce the ripples in the rectified signal a capacitor is used which has a relatively high range of
discharging time.So when the positive half of the signal is applied,the capacitor gets charged and it
discharges accordingly but the discharging time is high.So, the signal is now almost a DC signal.
6. After getting rectified without a capacitor
Output

Output with capacitor


7. Readymade Eliminator box(containing transformer,diodes,capacitor)

8.
9. The diodes can be of 1 amp, 2amp or 4 amp rating according to the maximum DC voltage we
need.

Some essentials
Soldering iron

Soldering wires

Wire connectors

Wire strippers

Zairza Technical Society ,CETb