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INTRODUCCION

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You may not have all of these programmes on board, but you can still use this booklet to

The Mooring Series is a training package made up

learn about those aspects of mooring shown in all three programmes. It is a training package

of this booklet and three video programmes

for seafarers sailing on all types and sizes of vessel and is primarily aimed at those crew

entitled:

members forming a mooring par ty to help ber th a vessel safely and efciently.

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Although the types and positions of mooring equipment can vary on different vessels, this
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training package sets out the best practice mooring procedures which should apply to any

ship, por t or terminal.

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User Guidance Main Points

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The programme may be used by individuals, or in small groups for training.

It is essential to work through the programme systematically and NOT to jump any

section. Do not proceed to the next topic until everything watched and read has been

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understood.
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If something is not understood, replay the programme section, read the relevant par t of

To fully understand the contents it will usually be necessary to watch the programme

more than once as well as re-reading the booklet.

the booklet again or consult a senior ofcer.

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Appendix 1 has questions to test your knowledge.

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Appointing a Trainer
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Appoint one person as the Trainer; preferably someone who supervises a ships mooring par

ty. To get maximum benet the Trainer should follow the instructions below as closely as

possible, remembering the main points above.

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Training Material
We recommend you read the relevant section of this booklet before watching each of the videos.

The Mooring Series : Edition 4

CONTENTS

The Mooring Series : Edition 4

INTRODUCTION

Make sure you understand it. Next, watch the programmes you have all the way through. If
you have all three, always watch them in sequence. With the time constraints on modern

Running a Training Session

vessels it
may be necessary to watch each video separately. This will give time for individuals to consider
the contents and read through and discuss the guide again if necessary.

Setting the Scene

It is impor tant, where possible that information in this training package is related to your own
vessels mooring equipment. Make sure you fully understand every aspect of the safe mooring

Tell the crew members what subject the training is about, how it will be run (timing,

procedures described in the videos and in this booklet. Learn everything you can about your own

expected interaction, practical work, etc.) and what you will expect of them once they

vessels mooring equipment using the manufacturers relevant operating and safety manuals. There

have completed

is a lot of information contained in this package so more than one training session may be

it. Make sure they understand there will be a test at the end to check their understanding

required.

of the session.

Most importantly, ensure that you have a copy of your companys Mooring Policy, the
appropriate section from your vessels Operating Procedures for reference and a copy of your

Getting their Full Attention

vessels own Mooring Plan.

Ask your audience to share their experiences of any previous mooring related accidents or
near

Preparing a Training Session

During each training session you will need pens and notepads and somewhere to write/draw,
such as a ipchar t, and different coloured marker pens, whiteboard or similar.
6

Have samples of different types of mooring line in use on board your vessel. If possible
have samples of other wire and synthetic lines the crew may have to handle on other
occasions.

Use examples of frayed or damaged lines, or other defective items of mooring equipment, such
as a par t of a winch kept from a previous repair, or a worn winch brake lining. You may also have
examples of other items used in mooring, such as stoppers, correctly and incorrectly spliced
lines, and so on.

The Mooring Series : Edition 4


INTRODUCTION

misses they may have witnessed or have been involved in. These anecdotal accounts are very
effective at promoting good interaction within a group and can usefully make everyone feel more
involved and at ease with the training session.

Encouraging Discussion

It can be easy to get distracted by a new or interesting por t, thoughts of a hear ty meal and a nice

The trainer can encourage discussion by asking leading questions, for example:

warm bed, or mail from home. Explain that often it is during shor t moments of distraction while
engaged in mooring operations that many seafarers have been injured or killed.
How does the equipment on your vessel differ to that shown in the programmes?
Were the mooring operations in the programme carried out differently to your own vessel?

Using the Case Studies

Have you seen such tasks carried out dangerously on board?


Why do you think individuals carry out mooring tasks dangerously?

Described in Appendix 3, you should photocopy the case studies you think are most relevant to your
crew members and hand them out. Ask your group to focus on the areas they think are most critical
in each case. Be prepared for differing views and always encourage everyone to par ticipate.

Practical Training
Begin by discussing the many sor ts of things which can go wrong and may cause accidents during
mooring operations. Ask the group to discuss whether any of the accidents described in the case
studies could or have ever happened to them.

Showing the Videos

Practical training can give a better understanding of safe mooring procedures and are best
carried out on deck. Examples are:

visual inspection of mooring lines for wear and tear

Show each video all the way through to the end. If you have time, run them once more, but this time
pause the programme after each scene or par t of the mooring procedure and ask your audience to
discuss what they have just seen. Use the information and diagrams in this booklet to help you direct
and broaden the discussion.

The Mooring Series : Edition 4

INTRODUCTION

marking out the snapback zones and potential danger areas around each winch identifying deck and
winch operator blind spots
examining winches for signs of potential maintenance defects (use this booklet to help with this)

How Much Information does the Group Need?

Some sections of this booklet go into a lot of detail about equipment and procedures for mooring. For example, there is a lot
of information about the construction and proper ties of different types of mooring lines in Appendix 2. In Section 3,
Maintenance of Mooring Systems, there is some information on tug operations. Do all your crew members need to know
about each of these
aspects of mooring operations? It is for you, the Trainer, to decide. Each group will vary as to how much they need to learn
to be able to carry out their mooring duties efciently and safely. You can tailor the comprehensive information provided in
this guide to suit your requirements.

Checking Everyones Understanding

At the end of the training session hand out photocopies of the tests in Appendix 1 to each person in the group. Check the
answers to ensure everyone has fully understood everything you have told them. If anyone scores less than 80% in each
section of the test, go back over those par ts which have not been understood.

Finally, dont forget to record details of all training sessions in your Companys SMS as required by ISM.

Further Information and Reading

All crew members should be encouraged to read the documents in their on board library. Not all those listed in Section
4 will be available but every oppor tunity should be taken to update knowledge and understanding where possible.
Remember, although a book may be written by an oil related organisation such as OCIMF, much of the information it
contains will be relevant whatever type of vessel you are sailing on.

Case study 1 Killed by bad practice

A passenger ferry was preparing to leave her usual ber th for a scheduled sailing. Wind and tidal conditions were slight.

In the process of letting go the stern line, the winch operator heaved in the line instead of paying out slack. The stern line
par ted and snapped back, striking the ofcer in charge on his legs. Both legs were broken and the left leg was almost
severed.

The ofcers injuries were severe and it was difcult to control the bleeding. He was soon evacuated to hospital, where his
left leg had to be amputated. He remained in a critical condition and died 6 days later.

The second ofcer, in charge of the after mooring deck, was obliged to stand in snap-back zones near the fairleads, so that
he could relay orders to line handlers ashore and deck crew. Analysis
of the mooring line after the accident showed that its breaking load had reduced by almost half, largely due to deterioration
from sunlight. Although the vessels mooring ropes were required to be inspected, the on board procedures were informal
and no records were kept.

(TRANSLATE

MOORING SERIES EDITION 4 PAG 77)

CAPITULO 1
TEORIA DE AMARRE
Para amarrar un buque de forma segura y eficiente se requiere de
conocimientos bsicos referentes a las fuerzas y efectos externos aplicados al
barco, y como estas afectan a las lneas y equipos de maniobra asimismo.
(Enfoque General)
Cabe resaltar que debemos tener en cuenta adicionalmente las polticas y
manuales respecto a la operacin de amarre emitido por la compaa como
parte del sistema de gestin de la seguridad (sms) safety management
system) (enfoque especifico) ---- plan de amarre del buque y procedimientos
de operacin del barco plan de amarre del buque ( imagen de bt santa
clara )
Poner checklist de seguridad.. etc practicaje , preparacin para llegar a
puerto

1.-FUERZAS Y FACTORES QUE ACTUAN EN EL AMARRE DEL BUQUE:

Viento
Mareas importantes
importantes
Corrientes

----- barcos deben satisfacer estos tres criterios

Olas (y oleajes )
Marejadas por barcos que pasan cerca del nuestro amarradero
Cambios de calado trimado y escora (list or heel)
Hielo

Los sistemas de amarre de los buques comerciales del mundo deben satisfacer
los siguientes criterios ambientales estndar:
60 nudos de viento de cualquier direccin simultneamente con una corriente
de 3 nudos de la proa o el traves o una corriente de 2 nudos en 10 o 170 o
0.75 nudos de corriente de la direccin de la manga mxima ( maximium
beam current loading) buscar the mooring series 4 pag 9 videotel

1. Viento; El viento afecta con mayor fuerza a buques que tienen un mayor
francobordo, debido a que la velocidad y fuerza del viento es ms
efectiva mientras ms alto nos encontremos del nivel del mar.
2. Corrientes: Muchas veces la corriente fluye de forma paralela en los
muelles , reduciendo as el efecto sobre los barcos, pero debemos tener
en cuenta que una corriente con un pequeo ngulo de 5 grados desde
la proa podra crear una considerable fuerza transversal.
Las fuerzas de la corriente deben aadirse a la del viento cuando se
consideran los medios de amarre debido a su influencia en el espacio
libre bajo la quilla (ukc)
Como se muestra en la siguiente figura

pag 4 effective mooring

Pag 10
La diferencia entre las fuerzas de la corriente de proa y del traves
pueden ser plasmados tomando como modelo los resultados de un test
de un barco cargado de 250, 000 de dwp con un claro bajo la quilla de 2
m
Fuerza de la corriente creada por 1 nudo por proa = 5 tonnes (49kN)
Fuerza de corriente creada por 1 nudo por el travs = 230 tonnes
(2256kN)
La fuerza de la corriente juega un rol importante cuando un numero de
factores se combian :

El buque tiene un calado profundo

La corriente es del traves y hay un minimo claro bajo la quilla (ukc)


En esta situacion la corriente del traves sera ejercida alredero de la proa
y popa del bquue e incrementara de velocidad tal pase bajo la quilla .los
efectos pordian ser signifcantes y tienen que ser considerados durendte
la operacin de amarre.. pag 11

Las fuerzas del viento y la corriente son proporcionales al cuadrado de la


velocidad del viento o la corriente, por lo tanto la fuerza causada por un
viento de 60 nudos es 4 veces mayor que la causada por 30 nudos de
viento, y la fuerza ejercidad por 3 nudos de corriente es 9 veces mas que
la ejercida por un 1 nudo de corriente
Effective mooring pag 3 ocifm
La siguiente tabla muestra las fuerzas ejercidas transversalmente y
longitudinalmente en diferentes tamaos de buques , en las condiciones
de cargados y lastre.

Pag 11
MAREAS: la altas y las bajas en las mareas producen un movimiento vertical
sobre el buque ejerciendo fuerzas de tensin y cambios de ngulos sobre las
lneas de amarre. Con grandes pleas y bajas este efecto tiene que ser
cuidadosamente monitoreados para asegurar un amarre seguro del barco todo
el tiempo.
OLAS y marejadas por buques que pasan cerca del amarradero: producen un
efecto : producen un efecto que a veces son difciles de predecir y , para cual
una informacin local podra agregarse a nuestro procedimiento de amarre

para tener en cuenta las medidas pertienentes a adoptar para minimizar


riesgos sobre el sistema de amarre del buque.
Cambios de calado trimado y escora (list or heel)
Durante la operacin de carga y lastre se produce cambios de calado y
trimados cambiando susceptiblemente las fuerzas que actan sobre las lneas
de amarre, la cual deberan tambin ser cuidadosamente monitoreados y
ajustadas el sistema para mantener un amarre efectivo.
1.-heel. A ship is said to be heeled when she is inclined by an external force, for
example when the ship is inclined by the action of the waves or wind
2.-list. A ship is said to be listed when she is inclined by forces within the ship,
for example when the ship is inclined by shifting a weigth transversely within
the ship. This is a fixed angle of heel.
C.B. BARRAS D.R. DERRETT SHIP
STABILITY FOR MASTERS AND MATES 2012 PAG15
Hielo para los amarraderos situados en altas latitudes , se deben considerar
tambin los pesos que ejercen las masas de hielo impregnados sobre el buque.

CAPITULO II
COMPONENTES DE UN SISTEMA DE AMARRE

1) LINEAS DE AMARRE
En nuestros das la tecnologa ha avanzado de forma intempestiva
desarrollando nuevos
sistemas que facilitan que los barcos mercantes
operen de forma eficiente y segura para cumplir con sus fines comerciales, sin
embargo en los sistemas de amarre encontramos que las caractersticas y
equipos para realizar dicha maniobra no han tenido un cambio significativo
referente al tiempo, debido a que en la actualidad los marinos seguimos
utilizando los mismos instrumentos a la hora de hacer que el buque se
posicione en el muelle o amarradero dando resistencia a las fuerzas que actan
sobre el barco (tratadas en el captulo anterior) , principalmente con el uso de
las lneas de amarre o amarras que se conectan entre el buque y el muelle o
buque y boyas

1.1 FUNCION DE LINEAS DE AMARRE

La funcin bsica de las amarras o lneas de amarre es la de mantener sujeto


al buque en la posicin asignada,
con el mnimo de libertad en su movimiento, de tal manera que pueda
asegurar su posicin
esttica respecto a puntos fijos de tierra o del fondo. Maniobra de los buques
ricard mari sagarra pag 263
Las lneas de amarre en primera instancia sirven para hacer firme el buque con
los remolcadores, en segundo lugar establecen el primer contacto con tierra o
el amarradero a una distancia cercana razonable.
1.2.-CLASES DE LINEAS DE AMARRE
Las amarras reciben un nombre caracterstico dependiendo de la forma en que
trabajan con relacin al buque tratado de maniobra i barbudo pag 90 .
Tres tipos de lineas con un propsito especfico
encontrar en un patrn tpico de amarre.

podemos identificar o

Normalmente los buques amarran con 2 headlines and 2 aft lines 1 fore spring
and 1 aft spring , dependiendo de la situacion del clima el capitan ordenara
poner mas lineas a tierra.

1.2.1.-PROPOSITO ESPECFICO DE LAS LINEAS DE AMARRE:


Esprin lnea de amarre que sirve para controlar el movimiento de oscilacin o
longitudinal (ranging) del barco hacia proa y popa
Traves
lnea de amarre que sirve para controlar el movimiento lateral
perpendicular hacia el muelle del barco
Largo proa/ popa lnea que sirven para controlar ambos moviemintos laterales
y de longitudinal oscilacin del barco.e inclusive guiadas ( yawing )
Patrn tpico de amarre

1.3.-CARACTERISTICAS DE LAS LINEAS DE AMARRE


Las lneas de amarre son construidas de diferentes materiales y tamaos,
algunos estn hechos de fibras naturales, fibras sintticas y metlicas.
Las fibras son filamentos bastantes delgados que nos proporciona la naturaleza
o que son fabricados artificialmente. Existen fibras naturales como caamo,
manila, sisal. Y fibras artificales como poliamidas, polidac, politar (redes de
pesca) polietileno, polipropileno (cabos). Las fibras artificales muestran las
siguientes bondades: ms resistentes, ms dciles, ms livianas, poca o nula
absorcin de agua.
Las cuerdas utilizadas a bordo y fabricadas con fibras vegetales o
sintticas llevan el nombre genrico de cabos. Cuando estn formados por
cordones de hilo de acero y que por tanto tiene una gran resistencia se
denomina cable. TRATADO DE MANIOBRA BARBUDO 1995 87
1.31.-CABO VS CABLE
CABO
HECHO DE FIBRAS VEGETALES
NATURALES O SINTETICAS

CABLE
HECHO DE CORDONES DE HILO DE
ACERO
CONJUNTO DE ALAMBRES O TORONES
ENROLLADOS ALREDEDOR DE UN

ESTRUCTURA DE UN CABO
a)Fibra parte bsica del cabp
b)Filastica conjunto de fibras
c)Cordon conjunto de filasticas
d)Juntura pequeos canales que se
forman al enrollar el cabo
Los cabos poseen ms de tres
filasticas
Los cabos se miden por la longitud de
su circunferencia o mena,
expresada en milmetros.
En las maniobras a bordo, para
referirse a las partes de un cabo que
est amarrado a una pieza del buque
o unido a un aparejo se usa la
terminologa siguiente :
Chicote- Es el extremo del cabo que
queda libre.
Seno- Se llama as a cualquier trozo
de cabo intermedio existente
entre los dos extremos.
Firme- Como su propio nombre indica,
es el extremo del cabo que va
unido a la estructura firme del buque

Barbudo 88
CLASIFICACION DE CABOS :
1.-POR SU COLCHADO: DERECHO E
IZQUIERDO
2.-POR NUMERO DE CORDONES:

ALMA
ESTRUCTURA DE UN CABLE
a)torn
b)alambre
c)alma

GUINDALEZA(3 O 4 CORDONES)
CALABROTE (3 GUINDALEZAS)
3.-POR NUMERO DE JUNTURAS POR
METRO; COMPACTO O SUELTO
4.- CABOS COMBINADOS SON
AQUELLOS QUE TIENE
ENTRELAZADOS ENTRE SUS
CORDONES ALAMBRES
LOS CABOS SON FABRICADOS DE
ARAMIDE, POLIETILENO (HMPE) ,
POLIAMIDAS, POLIESTER,
POLIOLEFINAS Y FIBRAS NATURALES
Las caractersticas mas importantes a tomar en cuenta en un cabo o cable son
las siguientes:
MBF
ELESTICIDAD
DENSIDAS
UV RESISTENCIA
WEAR RESISTANCE
CONSTRUCCION
WATER ABSORTION
BACK LASH
CREEP LIMIT
CHEMICAL DURASBILITY
A KNOT OR SPLICE
TCLL VALUE
1.3.2 DESCRIPCION ESPECFICA DE LOS CABOS Y CABLES RESPECTO A LAS
FIBRAS CON LAS CUALES ESTAN CONSTRUIDAS
1.3.2.1 FIBRAS SINTETICASS
A)HIGH GRADE CABLES
B) POLIAMIDA

C) POLIESTER
D) POLIOLYFINES
1.3.2.2 FIBRAS NATURALES
1.3.2.3 FIBRAS METALICAS

Para cada fin de amarre existir un tipo de lnea , cabo o cable que se ajuste a
las necesidades del trabajo requerido.

Las cuerdas (cabos /cables) abordo son usadas


a.- para el amarre del buque
b.- para cargo gear
c.- in fishing and dredging
Las cuerdas utilizadas en a son generalemente hechas de cabos (fibras
naturales o sintecicas) mientras que para b y c son generalmente hechas de
acero o fibra metalicas (cables) ship knowledge a modern encyclopedia pag
208 traducido

1.4.-TIPICOS PATRONES DE AMARRE


1.4.1.-MUELLE
1.4.2.-MONOBOYAS
1.4.3.-MULTIBOYAS