You are on page 1of 36

Reservoir Engineering Lab

EXPERIMENT 1
POROSITY MEASUREMENT
OBJECTIVE
To determine the porosity of reservoir rock samples.
APPARATUS
Helium Porosimeter
Mercury Porosimeter
Vanier Caliper

BASIC THEORY
a)

Porosity
Porosity is a measure of storage capacity of a reservoir. It is defined as the ratio of the
pore volume to bulk volume. In general, a core sample can have three types of
volumes, namely the pore volume, the grain volume, and the bulk volume. Thus,
porosity can determine from these equations:
Porosity

Vp
Vb

Vb Vgr
Vb

Vp
Vp Vgr
-1-

(1)

Reservoir Engineering Lab

where,
Vp = pore volume
Vgr = grain volume
Vb = bulk volume
Porosity is may be expressed as either a percent or a fraction.
Two types of porosity may be measured: total or absolute porosity and effective
porosity. Absolute porosity is the ratio of all the pore spaces in the rock to the bulk
volume of the rock. Effective porosity is the ration of interconnected void spaces to
the bulk volume. Thus only the effective porosity contains fluids that can be produced
from the wells. For granular materials such as sandstone, the effective porosity may
approach the total porosity, however, for shales and for highly cemented or vugular
rocks such as some limestones, large variations may exist between effective and
absolute porosity.

1)

Absolute porosity =

Total pore volume

Bulk volume

(2)

Effective porosity =

Bulk volume

(3)

Bulk Volume Measurement

There are several methods may be used to measure bulk density:
(a)
Determination with caliper to measure the diameter and length of core
sample, and calculate the bulk volume.
(b)
Determination with mercury displacement.
(c)
Determination with core sample immersion, and calculate the volume
using Archimedes principle.
(d)
Determination with total grain volume and pore volume.

2)

Pore Volume Measurement

There are several methods may be used to measure bulk density:
(a)
Direct measurement using porosimeter apparatus.
(b)
Gravity method core is saturated with liquid with known density.
(c)
By subtracting grain volume from bulk volume.

-2-

3)

Grain Volume Measurement

There are several methods may be used to measure bulk density:
(a)
Direct measurement using porosimeter apparatus.
(b)
By using Archimedes principle.
(c)
By subtracting pore volume from bulk volume.

b)

Grain Density
Sometime density of the grain is required in the porosity calculation, for example, in
the determination of grain volume if the weight of grain is known. Further more, grain
density may be also needed in the porosity calculation by density log. In equation
form
gr

Wgr

(4)

Vgr

where,
gr = grain density
Wgr = grain weight
Vgr = grain volume
BASIC THEORY OF THE EQUIPMENT
Helium porosimeter is an equipment to measure volume. It may be used to measure the grain
volume (Vgr)or the pore volume (Vb) of a rock sample. It is applying the Boyle Law of gas
expansion principle.
Some quantity of helium gas with known volume (reference cell volume) as measured at an
initial pressure is let to expand isothermally to fill the cell of the unknown volume. After
expansion, the resulted pressure is recorded. How big the value of this unknown cell volume
is further calcuted using Boyle Law.

-3-

The processes are illustrated in the following figure.

Referring to above figure, some standard pressure (usually 100 psig) is applied between
source valve and core holder valve. When the core holder valve is opened, 100 psig pressure
will expand and fill the unknown volume (initial at 0 psig). When both pressures have
reached equilibrium, Boyle Law may be used to calculate the total unknown volume.
The processes are summarized as follow:
From Boyle Law,
P1VR P2 V P3 VR V

T1
T2
T3
where,
P1 = pressure of reference cell (core holder valve is closed), psia
P2 = pressure in the unknown volume, psia
P3 = pressure at equilibrium (core holder valve is opened), psia
VR = volume of reference cell, cm3
V = the unknown volume, cm3
T1, T2, T3 = absolute temperatures, oR or oK
Normally, P1 = 100 psig, and P2 = 0 psig.
Eqn. 5 becomes,

-4-

(5)

Reservoir Engineering Lab

P1 B VR BV P3 B VR V
P1 VR BVR BV P3 VR BVR P3 V BV
P3 V VR P1 P3
P1
100
1 VR

1
P
P
3
3

V VR

(6)

where,
B = barometer pressure, psi
P1, P3 = pressure in psig
However, the values of VR and V are constant. Volume VR which is consist of Heise gauge
with bourdon tube will expand and shrink according to pressure changes. This is due to small
changes of volume in pipe and valve during pressure equilibrium process. It may be proofed
that:
P1
P B
1 3
G 100 P3
P
P
3
3

V VR

(7)

where,
G = system expansion factor, cm3/psi

EXPERINMENTAL PROCEDURES
1.

Weight the core sample, and measure the core length and diameter using Vanier
caliper.

2.

Connect the helium gas source at the panel with all valves are closed except the core
holder valve and exhaust valve are opened. Adjust the pointer to 0 psi.

3.

Close the core holder valve, and then open the supply valve and the source valve.
Adjust the pointer of cylinder measuring gauge to 100 psi with the regulator. Slowly
tap the porosimeter so the dial reading is at 100 psi.

4.

Repeat steps 2 and 3 above several times until the stable reading is achieved.

5.

Insert core sample into the matrix cup, followed by the disk until both are at the same
level or slightly lower than the height of the cup, and tighten the lid up to maximum.

-5-

Reservoir Engineering Lab

Note:
For 1.5 inch diameter core the height of the disk must be slightly lower than the height of the
cup to avoid it from touching the internal O ring (actually the O ring is for 1 inch core).
Otherwise, remove the internal O ring.
6.

The volumes are determined by the following steps:

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)

Close the Cell 1 Valve, the Cell 2 Valve and the Core Holder Valve.
Open the Supply Valve and the Source Valve.
Close the Source Valve, followed by the Supply Valve and the Exhaust Valve.
Open the Core Holder Valve, and observe the movement of the dial in opposite
direction from the clockwise.
When the dial stops, tap the porosimeter and record the reading of the outside
scale. This is a volume with sample (i.e. sample volume + disk volume).
Close the Core Holder Valve so gas is released out.
Open Exhaust Valve so the pressure in the matrix cup becomes 0 psi.

7.

Loosen up the lid and removed matrix cup from its holder. Remove the core sample
but left the disk inside and retighten the lid.

8.

Repeat steps 6(a-h). Record the reading of volume without sample (disk volume
only).

9.

For bigger unknown volume such as between 50 cc to 450 cc, open cell 1 and
repeat steps 6 to 8.

10.

For much bigger unknown volume such as between 150 cc to 880 cc, open cell 1
and cell 2, and repeat steps 6 to 8.

11.

12.

13.

-6-

Reservoir Engineering Lab

Data
Room Temperature

____________________

Barometric Pressure =

____________________

1.

Basic Data
Name of
Sample

2.

Name of
Sample

Weight
(gm)

Length
(cm)

Diameter
(cm)

Volume
with
Sample
(cc)

Volume
without
Sample
(cc)

(cc)

Grain Volume
(Vgr)
(cc)

-7-

(cc)

Porosity ()
(%)

INSTRUCTIONS AND QUESTIONS

1.

Determine the values of porosity and density for the all rock samples. What type of
porosity that you are measured?

2.

Make comparison of the bulk volume of the rocks measured from mercury
displacement method and ordinary measurement method.

3.

Give three reasons why helium gas is used not other gases for this experiment.

4.

Is it possible for the helium porosimeter to be used for other than cylindrical core
samples, such as square or irregular shape core samples?
a)
b)

If yes, which shape gives the most accurate porosity result

5.

A core sample was taken from a well and porosity measurement was conducted. Is
true that the porosity measured in the laboratory is the same with the porosity of the
sample at the reservoir conditions?

6.

What are the advantages of the porosity measurement in the laboratory as compared
to from the logging tools?
7. The porosity of the rock sample can also be determined by measurement of grain
volume method. This method requires the weight and the density of the grain. Explain

EXPERIMENT 2
-8-

MEASUREMENT OF LIQUID PERMEABILITY

DETERMINING THE PERMEABILITY OF A ROCK SAMPLE USING LIQUID

Objective
Measuring absolute permeability of a rock sample using liquid as a fluid
Apparatus
1.

Liquid Permeameter

2.

Vernier Caliper

Basic Theory:

-9-

Reservoir Engineering Lab

1.

Rock Permeability
Permeability is a measure of the ability of a porous media to permit fluid to pass
through it. For rocks, it describes the relative ease of the fluid to move through the
network of pores inside the rock.
If only one fluid is present inside the rock, the measured permeability is referred to as
Absolute Permeability. If more than one fluid is present, the measured permeability
will be lower and the value is now referred to as Effective Permeability.

2.

Darcy Equation
The equation used to measure rock permeability is called Darcy Equation. For a linear
system with liquid as the fluid, Darcy equation can be written as:
Q

kA P1 P2
uL

Where,
k = permeability (darcies)
A = cross sectional area of the sample (cm2)
P1 P2 = pressure difference (atmosphere)
u = viscosity (cp)
L = length of the core (cm)
Q = flow rate (cc per sec)
3.

Measurement of Rock Permeability using Liquid

Absolute permeability is a rock property. The value can be obtained using Darcy
equation. Fluid of certain viscosity is flowed through the rock sample at certain
pressure. The resulting flow rate is measured. Based on the data, the permeability of
the rock sample can be calculated. The permeability measured using liquid flowed
through the rock is the rock permeability, so long as there is no reaction between the
rock and the liquid.

Measurement of Permeability
- 10 -

Method
1.

Measure the sample dimensions; radius and length

2.

Make sure the system is connected to the gas source through a closed _valve

3.

Insert the sample which had been saturated with the liquid into the rubber stopper

4.

Insert the rubber stopper containing the sample into the core holder

5.

Tighten the core holder underneath the apparatus and connect to the top part. Tighten
using the handle, nether too tight, nor too loose.

7.

Open by turning the discharge fill valve to fill the burette and the core holder

8.

When the liquid level inside the burette has reached the uppermost mark (with a slight
extra of 1 cm), close the core holder valve

10.

Slowly open the gas regulator valve and increase the pressure to 1.5 atm

11.

Turn the discharge fill valve to drain the liquid from the burette into the sample

12.

Use the stop watch to measure time needed for the liquid to flow from the top level to
the bottom level. Note the flow rate.

13.

15.

16

. Repeat the permeability measurement (step 14) by measuring the sample

permeability from the opposite direction

- 11 -

Reservoir Engineering Lab

L = -------------------------- cm
u = ------------------------- cp
D = ------------------------ cm
Test 1

Test 2

Test 3 ( Opposing
direction)

P1 = -------------- atm
V = -------------- cc
T1
T2
T3
Tavg
sec
sec
sec
sec

P1 = -------------- atm
V = -------------- cc
T1
T2
T3
Tavg
sec
sec
sec
sec

P1 = -------------- atm
V = -------------- cc
T1 T2 T3 Tavg
sec sec sec sec

Q = -------------- (cc/sec)

Q = -------------- (cc/sec)

Q = -------------- (cc/sec)

K = -------------- mD

K = -------------- mD

K = -------------- mD

Questions:
1.

Based on the experiment, is there any difference in the value of permeability among
the tests. Explain

2.

Explain the sources of error that might be committed during the measurements of
permeability using liquid

4.

What is the dimension for permeability, k? Show explicitly how you can obtain it.
What other units can be used for permeability?

5.

If the permeability of a sandstone core is measured using salt water, and the
permeability is measured 300 md, what will be the permeability of the same core if
fresh water is used instead? Why is that so?

6.

EXPERIMENT 3
- 12 -

OBJECTIVES:
i.

ii.

To determine the kinematic viscosity of liquids by using glass capillary at

different temperatures.

iii.

iv.

To determine the dynamic fluid viscosity at different temperatures.

THEORY :
DYNAMIC VISCOSITY
As a fluid moves, a shear stress is developed in it, the magnitude of which depends on the
viscosity of the fluid. Sheer stress () can be defined as the force required to slide one unit
area of a substance over another. Thus, is a force divided by an area and can be measured in
the unit of N/m2 ( or Pa). In a fluid such as water, oil, alcohol or other common liquids the
magnitude of the shearing stress is directly proportional to the change of velocity between
different positions in the fluid.
= ( / y)
where :

(Equation 1)

= sheer stress
= change in velocity of fluid particle
y = distance traveled by the fluid particle
= constant of proportionality, called dynamic viscosity.

- 13 -

Reservoir Engineering Lab

For the purpose of clarity, let gives the symbol d for dynamic viscosity.
Dynamic viscosity ( d ) Units
N.s/m2, Pa.s or kg/m.s
lb.s/ft2 or slug (ft.s)
Poise = dyne.s/cm2=g/(cm.s)=0.1 Pa.s
Centipoises = poise/100 = 0.001 Pa.s = 1.0 mPa.s

Unit System
SI System
US System
cgs system

KINEMATIC VISCOSITY
Many calculations in fluid mechanics involve the ratio of the dynamic viscosity to the density
of fluid.
k = d /
where :

(Equation 2)

k = kinematic viscosity
d = dynamic viscosity
= density of fluid

Unit System
SI system
US system
cgs system

Kinematik Viscosity, ( k ) Units

m2/s
ft2/s
Centistokes = stoke/100 = 1x10-6 m2/s = 1 mm2/s

The dimension for kinematik viscosity is L2/T.

MEASUREMENT OF VISCOSITIES
The direct measurement of viscosity is based on the correlation,
= R4tP/8VL

(Equation 3)

where:
V = volume of liquid, cc
t = flowing time, second
r = radius of capillary tube, cm
L = length of pipe, cm
P = Pressure N/cm2
= absolute viscosity, poise

- 14 -

Reservoir Engineering Lab

The direct measurement of absolute viscosity is difficult. For simplicity, the measurement of
viscosity normally used the same equipment and two types of liquid. Using the following
relationship:
1/ 2 = (1 t1) / (2 t2)
where;

. (Equation 4)

= density of liquid, gm/cc

t = time taken to flow in the capillary, second
1,2 = type of liquid used

Basically the method used to measure the viscosity is by measuring the time taken for the
liquid to flow in the capillary at a given temperature.
k = c t

(Equation 5)

Where;
c = viscometer constant, cts/s
t = time of flow, s
k = kinematic viscosity

APPARATUS :
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

Bath
Thermometer bath
Stopwatch
Picknometer
Balance
Vacuum pump

- 15 -

Reservoir Engineering Lab

PROCEDURES:
a. Use water as the standard liquid.
b. Use pipette to pour 10 ml of water into the capillary glass viscometer. Put the
capillary glass viscometer into the bath. Wait until the temperature of water and
instrument is equal.
c. Using a vacuum pump, suck water in the capillary glass viscometer until the water
level is about 5 mm above the level in the viscometer.
d. Measure the time taken for the water to flow from the high level to the low level
of the viscometer. If the flowing time is less than 200 seconds , repeat the test by
using a smaller capillary.
e. Repeat the above experiment at different temperatures.
f. When the kinematic viscosity, k of water is known, the viscometer constant can
then be calculated.
Determination of Liquid Density:
a. Weigh the empty pycnometer.
b. Fill in the pycnometer with the liquid and weigh it.
c. The difference in weight is the weight of the liquid in the pycnometer.
d. By knowing the volume and density, the viscometer constant at each test
temperature can be determined.

- 16 -

Determination of Kinematic Viscosity of Liquid:

The method similar as above, but now another liquid is used instead of water.

Temperature
of Liquid, T oC

Weight of
empty
Pycnometer,
(gm)

Weight of
pycnometer fill
with the liquid,
(gm)

Volume of the
Liquid ( cc)

Density of the
liquid (gm/cc)

Temperatures of
Liquid, T oC

Constant No. of
glass capillary

Time taken to flow

from top to bottom
of glass capillary,
t (s)

Kinematic
viscosity, k in cts/s

QUESTIONS:
1. Write down the Poiseuille Equation.
2. Does the above equation applies to turbulent flow? Explain.
3. From Equation 3 , determine the dimension of unit poise in cgs system.
4. Why does in these experiments , the velocity of liquid must not be too
high?
5. What is the effect of temperature on kinematic viscosity. Plot kinematic
viscosities against temperatures. Explain your results.

- 17 -

Reservoir Engineering Lab

EXPERIMENT 4
PERMEABILITY MEASUREMENY BY GAS PERMEAMETER
Objective:
Measuring the absolute permeability of a rock sample using gas and
Apparatus:
Gas Permeameter
Vernier Caliper

Basic Theory:
1. Rock Permeability
Permeability is a measure of the ability of a porous media to permit fluid to pass
through it. For rocks, it describes the relative ease of the fluid to move through the network of
pores inside the rock.
If only one fluid is present inside the rock, the measured permeability is referred to as
Absolute Permeability. If more than one fluid is present, the measured permeability will be
lower and the value is now referred to as Effective Permeability.

- 18 -

Reservoir Engineering Lab

2. Darcy Equation
The equation used to measure rock permeability is called Darcy Equation. For a linear
system with liquid as the fluid, Darcy equation can be written as:
Q

kA P1 P2
uL

Where,
k = permeability (darcies)
A = cross sectional area of the sample (cm2)
P1 P2 = pressure difference (atmosphere)
u = viscosity (cp)
L = length of the core (cm)
Q = flow rate (cc per sec)

If gas was used as the fluid, the equation used to calculate flow in porous media is as
follows:
Q

kA P1 P2
uL

or

where
Qm

Qa

L
A
P

=
=
=
=
=

cp
cm
cm2
atm

- 19 -

3. Measuring rock permeability using gas

Permeability is a rock property. Its value can be determined using Darcy equation by flowing
fluid through the rock at a specific pressure. The measured permeability is equal to the
permeability measured using liquid. However, if gas was used, the measured permeability
value varied depend on the type of the gas and the pressure used.
As a result, if gas was used as the fluid, the measured permeability value need to be
corrected. The correction method is known as Klinkenberg Correction. Normally the
permeability value measured using gas is greater than the value measured using liquid. This is
because, if liquid was used, the liquid velocity at the pore wall is zero. On the other hand, if
gas was used, the velocity of gas at the wall is not zero. This phenomena is known as gas
slippage.
The amount of slippage depends on flowing average gas pressure and the rock characteristics.
Mathematically the relationship between actual permeability and the measured permeability
can be shown as;

Where
=

permeability measured using Darcy equation with gas as the flowing

fluid
actual permeability, when measured using liquid

=
=

constant, varies according actual permeability, rock characteristics and

type of gas
=

average permeability

Fig 2 shows example of various relationship different gases and average pressures for a rock
sample. A lighter gas will have bigger slope, which mean greater slippage effect. All the lines
extrapolated to 1/Pm equal to zero will meet at one point. The value of permeability at this
point is the real absolute permeability, , ie the permeability value measured using liquid.

- 20 -

Reservoir Engineering Lab

Fig 2. Variation in gas permeability with mean pressure and type of gas
Procedure
1. Measure the length and the diameter of the core and calculate the cross-sectional
area. Use cgs unit.
2. Put the core into the rubber stopper and then into the core holder and tighten it.
3. Adjust the variable valve to large position. Turn on pressure regulator slowly until
0.1 atm.
4. Record the gas flow rate using Wet Test Flow meter by recording the volumes at
various times

5. Repeat the procedure for pressure different of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 atm, and record the
volumes and times.
Note:
a. Outlet pressure P2 is 1 atmosphere (1 atm).
b. Pressure gauge reading is the pressure different (P)
c. Inlet pressure P1 = Gauge reading + 1 atm
d. Average pressure Pm = (Pinlet + Poutlet)/2 =

- 21 -

Question
1.

2.

3.

4.

Determine liquid permeability (kl) = absolute permeability sample.

5.

6.

7.

What is the dimension for permeability (k)? Show clearly the derivation of the
dimension.
Measurement of permeability by using gas will usually gives permeability value that
is different compared to the one by using liquid. Describe the reason for this
phenomena.
Permeability of a rock sample measured using gas is given by the following equation;

where
Qm

Qa

L
A
P

=
=
=
=
=

cp
cm
cm2
atm

- 22 -

Length of core sample

(cm) =
Core diameter (cm)
=

P1 (atm)
P inlet

P2(atm)
P outlet

Pm (atm)
P average

P (atm)
P = P12-P22
Paverage

- 23 -

Q
(cc/sec)

K
(Darcy)

K x 103
(mdarcy)

Reservoir Engineering Lab

EXPERIMENT 5
API GRAVITY MEASUREMENT
Objective:
To determine the API gravity of oil by using hydrometer and picknometer.
Apparatus:
Hydrometer
Bigham Pycnometer

Basic Theory:
Determination of density or specific gravity of petroleum liquid is important for the
calculation of volume and weight of the petroleum. For crude oil, gravity also shows the
quality of the crude oil. Further more, it is also a sign of the composition and the heat of
combustion of a particular petroleum material.

- 24 -

Specific gravity and API gravity

Specific gravity is defined as the ratio of a liquid density to the density of water, both
measured at the same pressure and temperature.

For English Unit system:

o = lb/cubic foot oil
w = lb/cubic foot water
Sometimes, specific gravity of a liquid is stated as SG at

density were measured at 60 oF (15.56 oC) and atmospheric pressure.

For petroleum industry, is is also known that the unit API gravity (oAPI) is defined as
follows:

With
This unit is always used to state the specific gravity of stock tank oil.
Example
The density of crude oil in a stock tank at 60 oF is 50.0 lb/cu.ft. Calculate the SG and the API
gravity of the oil.
1.

Calculate SG
SG = 50.00/62.37 = 0.8017

2.

Calculate API gravity

API = 141.5/0.8017 - 131.5 = 45o

Note:
API = American Petroleum Institute, is a national commercial institution that leads the
petroleum industry in standardizing equipments for drilling and production. It was
established in 1920.

- 25 -

Measurement of API by using hydrometer.

Apparatus
1. Hydrometer
a. Cylinder must be tall enough to provide at 25 mm space between the bottom of
the floating hydrometer and the base of the cylinder.
b. The minimum diameter of the cylinder must be at least 25 mm greater than the
diameter of the bulb of the hydrometer,
3. Thermometer
4. D 1250 Petroleum Measuring Table
Measuring principle
This method is based on the principle that a floating body in a liquid will have part if its body
submerge in the liquid. The depth of the submerged part is inversely proportional to density
or gravity of the liquid. In this principle the floating body is the API Hydrometer which is a
hydrometer with API gravity scale.
Experimental Procedure
1. Pour a sample into the graduated cylinder. Prevent any formation of bubble. Put the
hydrometer into the sample.
2. Stir the sample with the thermometer, record the thermometer reading.
3. Take out the thermometer and leave the hydrometer freely floating in the sample.
Push the hydrometer into the sample for about 2 scale unit and then release it. Wait
until the hydrometer is exactly stationary. Read the scale to the nearest 0.0001 for SG,
and to the nearest 0.5 for oAPI.
Procedure to read the hydrometer scale
1. For transparent liquid - meniscus across the liquid surface
2. For opaque liquid above the meniscus, and use meniscus correction Table 1.
4. Record the temperature again. Calculate the average temperature. If the temperature
difference is greater than 0.5 oC from the first reading, the measurement of gravity
need to be repeated.

- 26 -

Reservoir Engineering Lab

Result
1. Make correction on hydrometer readings by converting the API to standard .gravity
(60 oF) using Table 5 ASTM D1250
2. Report the corrected hydrometer reading as oAPI.

Sample

Temperature
of Sample oF

API Gravity
from(Hydrometer)

- 27 -

SG Gravity
( 60/60 oF )
Refer ASTM
( table 3)

API Gravity
refer ASTM
( table 5)

Reservoir Engineering Lab

Determination of Density
Procedure :
1. Thoroughly clean the pycnometer and stopper with a cleaning fluid, rinse well
with distilled water. Finally rinse with acetone and dry.
2. Weight the dry pycnometer with stopper at room temperature
3. Fill the pycnometer with liquid at the same room temperature.
4. Put on the stopper and be sure there is no gas bubble inside, and then dry the exterior
surface of the pycnometer by wiping with a lint-free cloth or paper.
5. Weight the filled pycnometer.
Weight of empty
Pycnometer (gm)

Weight of
Pycnometer fill
with the liquid
(gm)

Volume of the
Liquid
( cc)

Density of the
liquid
(gm/cc )

Question
1. Other than bubble problem, state other problems encountered during the measurement
which may lead to error in the measurement.

- 28 -

EXPERIMENT 6

Purpose

Determination of relative density of gases

Equipment

Schilling Effusiometer

Theory
Determining the density of gas relative to air at the same ambient temperature and pressure.

gas

gas
air

Method of Measurement
This method based on the Graham Law of diffusion. This method based on the fact that the
times taken by equal volumes of gases to flow under the same conditions through a small
orifice are proportional to the square roots of the densities of gases.
Relative Density

gases
air

2
t gases
2
tair

- 29 -

where t = times taken by equal volumes of gases to flow, (second).

Equipment
Schiling Effusiometer ( Figure 1)
Stop Watch
Thermometer
Material
Air
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Carbon Dioxide
Other gases
Instruction
1. Fill the outer cylinder with water at ambient temperature and open the side cock to let
the water enter in the measuring tube.
2. Pour water in the outer cylinder till the level arrives above the upper mark of the
measuring tube.
3. The central 3-way cock being closed, blow air through the side cock till the water
reaches the lower mark on the measuring tube.
4. Wait the few minutes to equilibrate the water and insuffled aim temperatures.
5.

Open the 3-way stopcock and let high ten the water level through the calibrated orifice
from the lower to the upper mark. Take the elapsed time.

6. Repeat the test several times at the same temperature. Should the time values differ
from more than 2/5 seconds? Check the calibrated orifice eventually clean it with the
help of compressed air.
7. Calculate the average obtained value, according to the number of tests carried out.
8. Clean the measuring tube with the gas to be tested. Run several tests on the same
temperature as this one of the used air and calculate the average flow time. Repeat
several determinations with air at the same temperature after having completely blowed
out the gas. This operation serves to check the eventual presence for impurities.

- 30 -

Reservoir Engineering Lab

Question
1. Determine the relative density of gases. Make conclusion based on differentiation of
molecular weight of gases was used.
2. If experiment conducted at high temperature, what happen for gas flowing time and value
of gas density?

Gas

Time
1

Gas Gravity
3

- 31 -

Average

Valve 1

Valve 2

Upper mark

Outer
cylinder

Measuring
tube

Inner
cylinder

Lower mark

- 32 -

Reservoir Engineering Lab

EXPERIMENT 7

SMOKE POINT
2.0

OBJECTIVE
To determine the smoke point of oil samples such as jet A-1 and kerosene by burning
the oil samples in an enclosed smoke point lamp so that the height of the fire tongue
can be estimated.

3.0

APPARATUS
Smoke point lamp, wick, beaker, oven and graduated cylinder. Refer Fig. 1.

THEORY/INTRODUCTION
Please refer ASTM D1322 for this information and other publish materials.

- 33 -

METHODOLOGY
1.

2.

3.

Insert the 125 mm soaked wick into lamp cover.

4.

Fill the lamp with 20 ml oil sample. The lamp should have already cleaned
and dried.

5.

Screw the lamp cover to the socket. Cut wick to level with the wick guide.
Pull the wick to 6 mm above the end of the wick guide.

6.

Light the wick for 5 minutes at flame height approximately 10 mm.

7.

Adjust wick (extent the wick) until the flame produces smoke.

8.

Reduce the length of the wick slowly until smoke disappear.

9.

Measure the maximum height of the flame tongue in mm (this is the smoke
point). The measurement should be done at point B as shown by Fig 2.

10.

Repeat the experiment 3 times for each sample to get the accurate average
value.
Use new clean and dry wick for new oil sample.

11.

RESULT
a)

b)

Calculate the average smoke points for each sample.

DISCUSSION
a)

Write an explanation on the result of the measured smoke point for the 2
different samples.

b)

What are the characteristics the can be inferred from the different values of
smoke points for different samples.

- 34 -

Reservoir Engineering Lab

CONCLUSION
State the conclusion of this experiment.

Sample 1
No.

Sample 2
Height of flame tongue
( mm)

No.

Average

Average
- 35 -

( mm)

- 36 -