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Original Title: Reservoir Lab Sheet

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EXPERIMENT 1

POROSITY MEASUREMENT

OBJECTIVE

To determine the porosity of reservoir rock samples.

APPARATUS

Helium Porosimeter

Mercury Porosimeter

Vanier Caliper

BASIC THEORY

a)

Porosity

Porosity is a measure of storage capacity of a reservoir. It is defined as the ratio of the

pore volume to bulk volume. In general, a core sample can have three types of

volumes, namely the pore volume, the grain volume, and the bulk volume. Thus,

porosity can determine from these equations:

Porosity

Vp

Vb

Vb Vgr

Vb

Vp

Vp Vgr

-1-

(1)

where,

Vp = pore volume

Vgr = grain volume

Vb = bulk volume

Porosity is may be expressed as either a percent or a fraction.

Two types of porosity may be measured: total or absolute porosity and effective

porosity. Absolute porosity is the ratio of all the pore spaces in the rock to the bulk

volume of the rock. Effective porosity is the ration of interconnected void spaces to

the bulk volume. Thus only the effective porosity contains fluids that can be produced

from the wells. For granular materials such as sandstone, the effective porosity may

approach the total porosity, however, for shales and for highly cemented or vugular

rocks such as some limestones, large variations may exist between effective and

absolute porosity.

1)

Absolute porosity =

Bulk volume

(2)

Effective porosity =

Bulk volume

(3)

There are several methods may be used to measure bulk density:

(a)

Determination with caliper to measure the diameter and length of core

sample, and calculate the bulk volume.

(b)

Determination with mercury displacement.

(c)

Determination with core sample immersion, and calculate the volume

using Archimedes principle.

(d)

Determination with total grain volume and pore volume.

2)

There are several methods may be used to measure bulk density:

(a)

Direct measurement using porosimeter apparatus.

(b)

Gravity method core is saturated with liquid with known density.

(c)

By subtracting grain volume from bulk volume.

-2-

3)

There are several methods may be used to measure bulk density:

(a)

Direct measurement using porosimeter apparatus.

(b)

By using Archimedes principle.

(c)

By subtracting pore volume from bulk volume.

b)

Grain Density

Sometime density of the grain is required in the porosity calculation, for example, in

the determination of grain volume if the weight of grain is known. Further more, grain

density may be also needed in the porosity calculation by density log. In equation

form

gr

Wgr

(4)

Vgr

where,

gr = grain density

Wgr = grain weight

Vgr = grain volume

BASIC THEORY OF THE EQUIPMENT

Helium porosimeter is an equipment to measure volume. It may be used to measure the grain

volume (Vgr)or the pore volume (Vb) of a rock sample. It is applying the Boyle Law of gas

expansion principle.

Some quantity of helium gas with known volume (reference cell volume) as measured at an

initial pressure is let to expand isothermally to fill the cell of the unknown volume. After

expansion, the resulted pressure is recorded. How big the value of this unknown cell volume

is further calcuted using Boyle Law.

-3-

Referring to above figure, some standard pressure (usually 100 psig) is applied between

source valve and core holder valve. When the core holder valve is opened, 100 psig pressure

will expand and fill the unknown volume (initial at 0 psig). When both pressures have

reached equilibrium, Boyle Law may be used to calculate the total unknown volume.

The processes are summarized as follow:

From Boyle Law,

P1VR P2 V P3 VR V

T1

T2

T3

where,

P1 = pressure of reference cell (core holder valve is closed), psia

P2 = pressure in the unknown volume, psia

P3 = pressure at equilibrium (core holder valve is opened), psia

VR = volume of reference cell, cm3

V = the unknown volume, cm3

T1, T2, T3 = absolute temperatures, oR or oK

Normally, P1 = 100 psig, and P2 = 0 psig.

Eqn. 5 becomes,

-4-

(5)

P1 B VR BV P3 B VR V

P1 VR BVR BV P3 VR BVR P3 V BV

P3 V VR P1 P3

P1

100

1 VR

1

P

P

3

3

V VR

(6)

where,

B = barometer pressure, psi

P1, P3 = pressure in psig

However, the values of VR and V are constant. Volume VR which is consist of Heise gauge

with bourdon tube will expand and shrink according to pressure changes. This is due to small

changes of volume in pipe and valve during pressure equilibrium process. It may be proofed

that:

P1

P B

1 3

G 100 P3

P

P

3

3

V VR

(7)

where,

G = system expansion factor, cm3/psi

EXPERINMENTAL PROCEDURES

1.

Weight the core sample, and measure the core length and diameter using Vanier

caliper.

2.

Connect the helium gas source at the panel with all valves are closed except the core

holder valve and exhaust valve are opened. Adjust the pointer to 0 psi.

3.

Close the core holder valve, and then open the supply valve and the source valve.

Adjust the pointer of cylinder measuring gauge to 100 psi with the regulator. Slowly

tap the porosimeter so the dial reading is at 100 psi.

4.

Repeat steps 2 and 3 above several times until the stable reading is achieved.

5.

Insert core sample into the matrix cup, followed by the disk until both are at the same

level or slightly lower than the height of the cup, and tighten the lid up to maximum.

-5-

Note:

For 1.5 inch diameter core the height of the disk must be slightly lower than the height of the

cup to avoid it from touching the internal O ring (actually the O ring is for 1 inch core).

Otherwise, remove the internal O ring.

6.

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

h)

Close the Cell 1 Valve, the Cell 2 Valve and the Core Holder Valve.

Open the Supply Valve and the Source Valve.

Adjust regulator until the dial reading shows exactly at 100 psi.

Close the Source Valve, followed by the Supply Valve and the Exhaust Valve.

Open the Core Holder Valve, and observe the movement of the dial in opposite

direction from the clockwise.

When the dial stops, tap the porosimeter and record the reading of the outside

scale. This is a volume with sample (i.e. sample volume + disk volume).

Record the gauge reading.

Close the Core Holder Valve so gas is released out.

Open Exhaust Valve so the pressure in the matrix cup becomes 0 psi.

7.

Loosen up the lid and removed matrix cup from its holder. Remove the core sample

but left the disk inside and retighten the lid.

8.

Repeat steps 6(a-h). Record the reading of volume without sample (disk volume

only).

9.

For bigger unknown volume such as between 50 cc to 450 cc, open cell 1 and

repeat steps 6 to 8.

10.

For much bigger unknown volume such as between 150 cc to 880 cc, open cell 1

and cell 2, and repeat steps 6 to 8.

11.

12.

13.

-6-

Data

Room Temperature

____________________

Barometric Pressure =

____________________

1.

Basic Data

Name of

Sample

2.

Name of

Sample

Weight

(gm)

Length

(cm)

Diameter

(cm)

Volume

with

Sample

(cc)

Volume

without

Sample

(cc)

(cc)

Grain Volume

(Vgr)

(cc)

-7-

(cc)

Porosity ()

(%)

1.

Determine the values of porosity and density for the all rock samples. What type of

porosity that you are measured?

2.

Make comparison of the bulk volume of the rocks measured from mercury

displacement method and ordinary measurement method.

3.

Give three reasons why helium gas is used not other gases for this experiment.

4.

Is it possible for the helium porosimeter to be used for other than cylindrical core

samples, such as square or irregular shape core samples?

a)

b)

If yes, which shape gives the most accurate porosity result

5.

A core sample was taken from a well and porosity measurement was conducted. Is

true that the porosity measured in the laboratory is the same with the porosity of the

sample at the reservoir conditions?

6.

What are the advantages of the porosity measurement in the laboratory as compared

to from the logging tools?

7. The porosity of the rock sample can also be determined by measurement of grain

volume method. This method requires the weight and the density of the grain. Explain

the calculation procedures, and give advantages and disadvantages of this method.

EXPERIMENT 2

-8-

DETERMINING THE PERMEABILITY OF A ROCK SAMPLE USING LIQUID

Objective

Measuring absolute permeability of a rock sample using liquid as a fluid

Apparatus

1.

Liquid Permeameter

2.

Vernier Caliper

Basic Theory:

-9-

1.

Rock Permeability

Permeability is a measure of the ability of a porous media to permit fluid to pass

through it. For rocks, it describes the relative ease of the fluid to move through the

network of pores inside the rock.

If only one fluid is present inside the rock, the measured permeability is referred to as

Absolute Permeability. If more than one fluid is present, the measured permeability

will be lower and the value is now referred to as Effective Permeability.

2.

Darcy Equation

The equation used to measure rock permeability is called Darcy Equation. For a linear

system with liquid as the fluid, Darcy equation can be written as:

Q

kA P1 P2

uL

Where,

k = permeability (darcies)

A = cross sectional area of the sample (cm2)

P1 P2 = pressure difference (atmosphere)

u = viscosity (cp)

L = length of the core (cm)

Q = flow rate (cc per sec)

3.

Absolute permeability is a rock property. The value can be obtained using Darcy

equation. Fluid of certain viscosity is flowed through the rock sample at certain

pressure. The resulting flow rate is measured. Based on the data, the permeability of

the rock sample can be calculated. The permeability measured using liquid flowed

through the rock is the rock permeability, so long as there is no reaction between the

rock and the liquid.

Measurement of Permeability

- 10 -

Method

1.

2.

Make sure the system is connected to the gas source through a closed _valve

3.

Insert the sample which had been saturated with the liquid into the rubber stopper

4.

Insert the rubber stopper containing the sample into the core holder

5.

Tighten the core holder underneath the apparatus and connect to the top part. Tighten

using the handle, nether too tight, nor too loose.

7.

Open by turning the discharge fill valve to fill the burette and the core holder

8.

When the liquid level inside the burette has reached the uppermost mark (with a slight

extra of 1 cm), close the core holder valve

10.

Slowly open the gas regulator valve and increase the pressure to 1.5 atm

11.

Turn the discharge fill valve to drain the liquid from the burette into the sample

12.

Use the stop watch to measure time needed for the liquid to flow from the top level to

the bottom level. Note the flow rate.

13.

15.

16

permeability from the opposite direction

- 11 -

L = -------------------------- cm

u = ------------------------- cp

D = ------------------------ cm

Test 1

Test 2

Test 3 ( Opposing

direction)

P1 = -------------- atm

V = -------------- cc

T1

T2

T3

Tavg

sec

sec

sec

sec

P1 = -------------- atm

V = -------------- cc

T1

T2

T3

Tavg

sec

sec

sec

sec

P1 = -------------- atm

V = -------------- cc

T1 T2 T3 Tavg

sec sec sec sec

Q = -------------- (cc/sec)

Q = -------------- (cc/sec)

Q = -------------- (cc/sec)

K = -------------- mD

K = -------------- mD

K = -------------- mD

Questions:

1.

Based on the experiment, is there any difference in the value of permeability among

the tests. Explain

2.

Explain the sources of error that might be committed during the measurements of

permeability using liquid

4.

What is the dimension for permeability, k? Show explicitly how you can obtain it.

What other units can be used for permeability?

5.

If the permeability of a sandstone core is measured using salt water, and the

permeability is measured 300 md, what will be the permeability of the same core if

fresh water is used instead? Why is that so?

6.

EXPERIMENT 3

- 12 -

OBJECTIVES:

i.

ii.

different temperatures.

iii.

iv.

THEORY :

DYNAMIC VISCOSITY

As a fluid moves, a shear stress is developed in it, the magnitude of which depends on the

viscosity of the fluid. Sheer stress () can be defined as the force required to slide one unit

area of a substance over another. Thus, is a force divided by an area and can be measured in

the unit of N/m2 ( or Pa). In a fluid such as water, oil, alcohol or other common liquids the

magnitude of the shearing stress is directly proportional to the change of velocity between

different positions in the fluid.

= ( / y)

where :

(Equation 1)

= sheer stress

= change in velocity of fluid particle

y = distance traveled by the fluid particle

= constant of proportionality, called dynamic viscosity.

- 13 -

For the purpose of clarity, let gives the symbol d for dynamic viscosity.

Dynamic viscosity ( d ) Units

N.s/m2, Pa.s or kg/m.s

lb.s/ft2 or slug (ft.s)

Poise = dyne.s/cm2=g/(cm.s)=0.1 Pa.s

Centipoises = poise/100 = 0.001 Pa.s = 1.0 mPa.s

Unit System

SI System

US System

cgs system

KINEMATIC VISCOSITY

Many calculations in fluid mechanics involve the ratio of the dynamic viscosity to the density

of fluid.

k = d /

where :

(Equation 2)

k = kinematic viscosity

d = dynamic viscosity

= density of fluid

Unit System

SI system

US system

cgs system

m2/s

ft2/s

Centistokes = stoke/100 = 1x10-6 m2/s = 1 mm2/s

MEASUREMENT OF VISCOSITIES

The direct measurement of viscosity is based on the correlation,

= R4tP/8VL

(Equation 3)

where:

V = volume of liquid, cc

t = flowing time, second

r = radius of capillary tube, cm

L = length of pipe, cm

P = Pressure N/cm2

= absolute viscosity, poise

- 14 -

The direct measurement of absolute viscosity is difficult. For simplicity, the measurement of

viscosity normally used the same equipment and two types of liquid. Using the following

relationship:

1/ 2 = (1 t1) / (2 t2)

where;

. (Equation 4)

t = time taken to flow in the capillary, second

1,2 = type of liquid used

Basically the method used to measure the viscosity is by measuring the time taken for the

liquid to flow in the capillary at a given temperature.

k = c t

(Equation 5)

Where;

c = viscometer constant, cts/s

t = time of flow, s

k = kinematic viscosity

APPARATUS :

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

Bath

Thermometer bath

Stopwatch

Picknometer

Balance

Vacuum pump

- 15 -

PROCEDURES:

a. Use water as the standard liquid.

b. Use pipette to pour 10 ml of water into the capillary glass viscometer. Put the

capillary glass viscometer into the bath. Wait until the temperature of water and

instrument is equal.

c. Using a vacuum pump, suck water in the capillary glass viscometer until the water

level is about 5 mm above the level in the viscometer.

d. Measure the time taken for the water to flow from the high level to the low level

of the viscometer. If the flowing time is less than 200 seconds , repeat the test by

using a smaller capillary.

e. Repeat the above experiment at different temperatures.

f. When the kinematic viscosity, k of water is known, the viscometer constant can

then be calculated.

Determination of Liquid Density:

a. Weigh the empty pycnometer.

b. Fill in the pycnometer with the liquid and weigh it.

c. The difference in weight is the weight of the liquid in the pycnometer.

d. By knowing the volume and density, the viscometer constant at each test

temperature can be determined.

- 16 -

The method similar as above, but now another liquid is used instead of water.

Temperature

of Liquid, T oC

Weight of

empty

Pycnometer,

(gm)

Weight of

pycnometer fill

with the liquid,

(gm)

Volume of the

Liquid ( cc)

Density of the

liquid (gm/cc)

Temperatures of

Liquid, T oC

Constant No. of

glass capillary

from top to bottom

of glass capillary,

t (s)

Kinematic

viscosity, k in cts/s

QUESTIONS:

1. Write down the Poiseuille Equation.

2. Does the above equation applies to turbulent flow? Explain.

3. From Equation 3 , determine the dimension of unit poise in cgs system.

4. Why does in these experiments , the velocity of liquid must not be too

high?

5. What is the effect of temperature on kinematic viscosity. Plot kinematic

viscosities against temperatures. Explain your results.

- 17 -

EXPERIMENT 4

PERMEABILITY MEASUREMENY BY GAS PERMEAMETER

Objective:

Measuring the absolute permeability of a rock sample using gas and

understanding the Klinkenberg Effect.

Apparatus:

Gas Permeameter

Vernier Caliper

Basic Theory:

1. Rock Permeability

Permeability is a measure of the ability of a porous media to permit fluid to pass

through it. For rocks, it describes the relative ease of the fluid to move through the network of

pores inside the rock.

If only one fluid is present inside the rock, the measured permeability is referred to as

Absolute Permeability. If more than one fluid is present, the measured permeability will be

lower and the value is now referred to as Effective Permeability.

- 18 -

2. Darcy Equation

The equation used to measure rock permeability is called Darcy Equation. For a linear

system with liquid as the fluid, Darcy equation can be written as:

Q

kA P1 P2

uL

Where,

k = permeability (darcies)

A = cross sectional area of the sample (cm2)

P1 P2 = pressure difference (atmosphere)

u = viscosity (cp)

L = length of the core (cm)

Q = flow rate (cc per sec)

If gas was used as the fluid, the equation used to calculate flow in porous media is as

follows:

Q

kA P1 P2

uL

or

where

Qm

Qa

L

A

P

=

=

=

=

=

cp

cm

cm2

atm

- 19 -

Permeability is a rock property. Its value can be determined using Darcy equation by flowing

fluid through the rock at a specific pressure. The measured permeability is equal to the

permeability measured using liquid. However, if gas was used, the measured permeability

value varied depend on the type of the gas and the pressure used.

As a result, if gas was used as the fluid, the measured permeability value need to be

corrected. The correction method is known as Klinkenberg Correction. Normally the

permeability value measured using gas is greater than the value measured using liquid. This is

because, if liquid was used, the liquid velocity at the pore wall is zero. On the other hand, if

gas was used, the velocity of gas at the wall is not zero. This phenomena is known as gas

slippage.

The amount of slippage depends on flowing average gas pressure and the rock characteristics.

Mathematically the relationship between actual permeability and the measured permeability

can be shown as;

Where

=

fluid

actual permeability, when measured using liquid

=

=

type of gas

=

average permeability

Fig 2 shows example of various relationship different gases and average pressures for a rock

sample. A lighter gas will have bigger slope, which mean greater slippage effect. All the lines

extrapolated to 1/Pm equal to zero will meet at one point. The value of permeability at this

point is the real absolute permeability, , ie the permeability value measured using liquid.

- 20 -

Fig 2. Variation in gas permeability with mean pressure and type of gas

Procedure

1. Measure the length and the diameter of the core and calculate the cross-sectional

area. Use cgs unit.

2. Put the core into the rubber stopper and then into the core holder and tighten it.

3. Adjust the variable valve to large position. Turn on pressure regulator slowly until

0.1 atm.

4. Record the gas flow rate using Wet Test Flow meter by recording the volumes at

various times

5. Repeat the procedure for pressure different of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 atm, and record the

volumes and times.

Note:

a. Outlet pressure P2 is 1 atmosphere (1 atm).

b. Pressure gauge reading is the pressure different (P)

c. Inlet pressure P1 = Gauge reading + 1 atm

d. Average pressure Pm = (Pinlet + Poutlet)/2 =

- 21 -

Question

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

What is the dimension for permeability (k)? Show clearly the derivation of the

dimension.

Measurement of permeability by using gas will usually gives permeability value that

is different compared to the one by using liquid. Describe the reason for this

phenomena.

Permeability of a rock sample measured using gas is given by the following equation;

where

Qm

Qa

L

A

P

=

=

=

=

=

cp

cm

cm2

atm

- 22 -

(cm) =

Core diameter (cm)

=

P1 (atm)

P inlet

P2(atm)

P outlet

Pm (atm)

P average

P (atm)

P = P12-P22

Paverage

- 23 -

Q

(cc/sec)

K

(Darcy)

K x 103

(mdarcy)

EXPERIMENT 5

API GRAVITY MEASUREMENT

Objective:

To determine the API gravity of oil by using hydrometer and picknometer.

Apparatus:

Hydrometer

Bigham Pycnometer

Basic Theory:

Determination of density or specific gravity of petroleum liquid is important for the

calculation of volume and weight of the petroleum. For crude oil, gravity also shows the

quality of the crude oil. Further more, it is also a sign of the composition and the heat of

combustion of a particular petroleum material.

- 24 -

Specific gravity is defined as the ratio of a liquid density to the density of water, both

measured at the same pressure and temperature.

o = lb/cubic foot oil

w = lb/cubic foot water

Sometimes, specific gravity of a liquid is stated as SG at

For petroleum industry, is is also known that the unit API gravity (oAPI) is defined as

follows:

With

This unit is always used to state the specific gravity of stock tank oil.

Example

The density of crude oil in a stock tank at 60 oF is 50.0 lb/cu.ft. Calculate the SG and the API

gravity of the oil.

1.

Calculate SG

SG = 50.00/62.37 = 0.8017

2.

API = 141.5/0.8017 - 131.5 = 45o

Note:

API = American Petroleum Institute, is a national commercial institution that leads the

petroleum industry in standardizing equipments for drilling and production. It was

established in 1920.

- 25 -

Apparatus

1. Hydrometer

2. Graduated cylinder

a. Cylinder must be tall enough to provide at 25 mm space between the bottom of

the floating hydrometer and the base of the cylinder.

b. The minimum diameter of the cylinder must be at least 25 mm greater than the

diameter of the bulb of the hydrometer,

3. Thermometer

4. D 1250 Petroleum Measuring Table

Measuring principle

This method is based on the principle that a floating body in a liquid will have part if its body

submerge in the liquid. The depth of the submerged part is inversely proportional to density

or gravity of the liquid. In this principle the floating body is the API Hydrometer which is a

hydrometer with API gravity scale.

Experimental Procedure

1. Pour a sample into the graduated cylinder. Prevent any formation of bubble. Put the

hydrometer into the sample.

2. Stir the sample with the thermometer, record the thermometer reading.

3. Take out the thermometer and leave the hydrometer freely floating in the sample.

Push the hydrometer into the sample for about 2 scale unit and then release it. Wait

until the hydrometer is exactly stationary. Read the scale to the nearest 0.0001 for SG,

and to the nearest 0.5 for oAPI.

Procedure to read the hydrometer scale

1. For transparent liquid - meniscus across the liquid surface

2. For opaque liquid above the meniscus, and use meniscus correction Table 1.

4. Record the temperature again. Calculate the average temperature. If the temperature

difference is greater than 0.5 oC from the first reading, the measurement of gravity

need to be repeated.

- 26 -

Result

1. Make correction on hydrometer readings by converting the API to standard .gravity

(60 oF) using Table 5 ASTM D1250

2. Report the corrected hydrometer reading as oAPI.

Sample

Temperature

of Sample oF

API Gravity

from(Hydrometer)

- 27 -

SG Gravity

( 60/60 oF )

Refer ASTM

( table 3)

API Gravity

refer ASTM

( table 5)

Determination of Density

Procedure :

1. Thoroughly clean the pycnometer and stopper with a cleaning fluid, rinse well

with distilled water. Finally rinse with acetone and dry.

2. Weight the dry pycnometer with stopper at room temperature

3. Fill the pycnometer with liquid at the same room temperature.

4. Put on the stopper and be sure there is no gas bubble inside, and then dry the exterior

surface of the pycnometer by wiping with a lint-free cloth or paper.

5. Weight the filled pycnometer.

Weight of empty

Pycnometer (gm)

Weight of

Pycnometer fill

with the liquid

(gm)

Volume of the

Liquid

( cc)

Density of the

liquid

(gm/cc )

Question

1. Other than bubble problem, state other problems encountered during the measurement

which may lead to error in the measurement.

- 28 -

EXPERIMENT 6

Purpose

Equipment

Schilling Effusiometer

Theory

Determining the density of gas relative to air at the same ambient temperature and pressure.

gas

gas

air

Method of Measurement

This method based on the Graham Law of diffusion. This method based on the fact that the

times taken by equal volumes of gases to flow under the same conditions through a small

orifice are proportional to the square roots of the densities of gases.

Relative Density

gases

air

2

t gases

2

tair

- 29 -

Equipment

Schiling Effusiometer ( Figure 1)

Stop Watch

Thermometer

Material

Air

Nitrogen

Oxygen

Carbon Dioxide

Other gases

Instruction

1. Fill the outer cylinder with water at ambient temperature and open the side cock to let

the water enter in the measuring tube.

2. Pour water in the outer cylinder till the level arrives above the upper mark of the

measuring tube.

3. The central 3-way cock being closed, blow air through the side cock till the water

reaches the lower mark on the measuring tube.

4. Wait the few minutes to equilibrate the water and insuffled aim temperatures.

5.

Open the 3-way stopcock and let high ten the water level through the calibrated orifice

from the lower to the upper mark. Take the elapsed time.

6. Repeat the test several times at the same temperature. Should the time values differ

from more than 2/5 seconds? Check the calibrated orifice eventually clean it with the

help of compressed air.

7. Calculate the average obtained value, according to the number of tests carried out.

8. Clean the measuring tube with the gas to be tested. Run several tests on the same

temperature as this one of the used air and calculate the average flow time. Repeat

several determinations with air at the same temperature after having completely blowed

out the gas. This operation serves to check the eventual presence for impurities.

- 30 -

Question

1. Determine the relative density of gases. Make conclusion based on differentiation of

molecular weight of gases was used.

2. If experiment conducted at high temperature, what happen for gas flowing time and value

of gas density?

Gas

Time

1

Gas Gravity

3

- 31 -

Average

Valve 1

Valve 2

Gasket

Upper mark

Outer

cylinder

Measuring

tube

Inner

cylinder

Lower mark

- 32 -

EXPERIMENT 7

SMOKE POINT

2.0

OBJECTIVE

To determine the smoke point of oil samples such as jet A-1 and kerosene by burning

the oil samples in an enclosed smoke point lamp so that the height of the fire tongue

can be estimated.

3.0

APPARATUS

Smoke point lamp, wick, beaker, oven and graduated cylinder. Refer Fig. 1.

THEORY/INTRODUCTION

Please refer ASTM D1322 for this information and other publish materials.

- 33 -

METHODOLOGY

1.

2.

3.

4.

Fill the lamp with 20 ml oil sample. The lamp should have already cleaned

and dried.

5.

Screw the lamp cover to the socket. Cut wick to level with the wick guide.

Pull the wick to 6 mm above the end of the wick guide.

6.

7.

Adjust wick (extent the wick) until the flame produces smoke.

8.

9.

Measure the maximum height of the flame tongue in mm (this is the smoke

point). The measurement should be done at point B as shown by Fig 2.

10.

Repeat the experiment 3 times for each sample to get the accurate average

value.

Use new clean and dry wick for new oil sample.

11.

RESULT

a)

b)

DISCUSSION

a)

Write an explanation on the result of the measured smoke point for the 2

different samples.

b)

What are the characteristics the can be inferred from the different values of

smoke points for different samples.

- 34 -

CONCLUSION

State the conclusion of this experiment.

Sample 1

No.

Sample 2

Height of flame tongue

( mm)

No.

Average

Average

- 35 -

( mm)

- 36 -

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