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Chapter Three:

Turbomachines
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Pump
3.2.1 Centrifugal pump
3.2.2 Theoretical consideration
3.3 Turbine
3.3.1 Reaction turbine
3.3.2 Impulse turbine

3.1 Introduction
Turbomachines are mechanical devices that either add energy to a fluid (pump) or extract
energy from a fluid (turbine).

3.2 Pump
Types of pump can be classified according to their principle of works. Positive Displacement
Pumps has an expanding volume on the suction side and a decreasing volume on the
discharge side. Liquid flows into the pumps as the volume on the suction side expands and
the liquid flows out of the discharge as the volume collapses. This machine is often used
where relatively small quantity of liquid is to be handled and where delivery pressure is quite
large.

The positive displacement pumps can be divided in two main classes

Reciprocating (plunger pumps, diaphragm pumps)

Rotary (gear pumps, lobe pumps, vane pumps, progressive cavity pumps, peripheral
pumps, screw pumps)

Figure 3.1 Reciprocating pump

Another type of pump is a rotodynamic pump. This machine is a kinetic machine in which
energy is continuously imparted to the pumped fluid by means of a rotating impeller,
propeller, or rotor. Centrifugal pump is one of the rotodynamic pumps.

3.2.1 Centrifugal pump


One of the most common turbomachines that add energy to a fluid is centrifugal pump. In
fact, this machine is used to increase pressure of liquid and impart desirable velocity to it so
that fluid may be transported from one place to another.
The main component parts of a centrifugal pump are:
-impeller
-casing
-suction pipe
-delivery pipe

Figure 3.2 Centrifugal pump

Fluid from the suction pipe enters axially through the eye of the casing and flows radially
outwards to the edge of the impeller blades (vanes). Here the energy is added to the fluid by
the rotating impeller and discharged with increase pressure and velocity into the casing. The
snail-shaped of casing decelerates the flow to further increase the pressure.

A higher efficiency of centrifugal pump can be obtained by fitting a stationary diffuser (guide
vane outside the impeller as shown in Figure 3.2. These vanes help to guide and decelerate
the flow into the pump casing.

Next, we will see the mechanism of a centrifugal pump in adding energy to flowing fluid.
Consider a diffuser pump as shown in Figure 3.3.

Figure 3.3 Diffuser pump

Based on the Figure 3.3, points 1 and 2 are located at the inlet and exit of impeller. Points 3
and 4 are located at the exit of the pump diffuser and exit of pump respectively. At the same
time, point 2 is located at the inlet of diffuser.

Take Bernoulli equation between points 2 and 3 across the diffuser gives

p3 v32
v22

z2

z 3 hL 23
2g
2g

p2

(3.1)

Since z 2 z 3 , Eq. (3.1) can be rewritten as the following

p3 p 2

v22 v32
v22 v32
1 hL 23

hL 23
2g 2g
2 g v22

(3.2)

Here we can observe that if the diffuser is not installed, then v2 v3 and no increment in
pressure. However, with the diffuser, a part of velocity head has been replaced or converted
to pressure head. However many things must be taken into account so that the head losses
due to the diffuser assembly

L 23

, is small.

Figure 3.4 Piping system with pump

Next consider the Bernoulli equation between points 0 which located on the surface of fluid
in a reservoir (fluid source) and point 4, located on the surface of fluid in a tank. The equation
can be written as follow

p0

v02
p
v2
z 0 h p 4 4 z 4 hL 04 hLp
2g
2g

where h p is the energy produced by pump. Here we can see that

(3.3)

p0 p4 patm and v0 v4 0 since located at the fluid surface.

L 04

Lp

is head loss in pipe and

is head loss in pump

Then

h p z 4 z0 hL04 hLp

(3.4)

or

h p hs hh z hL04 hLp

(3.5)

Usually z is so small compared to hs and hh and can be neglected. Therefore, the final
expression for the energy added by pump can be written as

h p hs hh hL04 hLp or h p H st hL04 hLp

(3.6)

Here, H st hs hh is known as the Static head, or the level difference between the two
fluid surfaces to be transferred.

From Eq. (3.6), we can see that the energy produced by the pump must be able to transfer
fluid from points 0 to 4 and at the same time to overcome friction loss in pipe and loss in
pump itself. Since the unit for h p is in meter, therefore, this energy is known as Euler head
or H E .

H E H st hL04 hLp

(3.7)

Here, we can define the power produced by the pump as

Ppump QH E
where Q is the volume flow rate of fluid.
If the loss in pump is not considered, Eq. (3.6) becomes

(3.8)

hp H st hL04

(3.9)

Equation (3.9) can be physically described as the energy added by pump to the fluid and
frequently known as Manometric head, H M or

H M H st hL 04

(3.10)

Equation (3.10) also can be interpreted as the energy required by the fluid to move to level

H st and overcome the energy loss due to friction in pipe. Therefore, the power added to the
fluid is written as

Pfluid QHM

(3.11)

From Eqs. (3.7) and (3.10), we can see that

H E H M hLp

(3.12)

Next, consider Figure 3.5 which shown pressure gauges are fitted at the inlet and exit of a
centrifugal pump.

Figure 3.5 Pump with pressure gauge

Take Bernoulli Equation from point 0 to point 1 gives

v02
p1 v12

z
z hL 01
2g 0 2g 1

p0

(3.13)

Here p0 0 and v0 0 yields

p1

z0 z1

v12
v2
hL 01 hs 1 hL 01
2g
2g

(3.14)

We can see that p1 becomes negative (gauge pressure) to suck fluid into the pump. Next, take
Bernoulli equation from points 2 and 4 gives

p2

v22
p
v2
z2 4 4 z4 hL 24
2g
2g

(3.15)

Here p4 0 and v4 0 yields

v22
v22
z4 z2
hL 24 hh
hL 24

2g
2g

p2

(3.16)

Now, take Eq. (3.16) Eq. (3.14) gives

p2 p1

v22
v12
hh
hL 24 hs
hL 01
2g
2g

v22 v12
hh hs hL 24 hL 01

2g 2g

(3.17)

If we consider the same diameter of suction and delivery pipe, then v2 v1 and we obtain

p2 p1

hh hs hL 04

(3.18)

H st hL 04 H M

(3.19)

or

p2 p1

Here we can see that the pressure difference at the inlet and exit also gives the manometer
head of the pump.

From Eqs. (3.19) and (3.11), we can see that the power given to the fluid can also be written
as follow

Pfluid p2 p1 Q pQ

(3.20)

3.2.2 Theoretical consideration


The basic theory of a centrifugal pump can be developed by considering the rate of change of
angular momentum of fluid as it passes between the inlet and outlet sections of the impeller.
The real flowing fluid is three dimensional, however, one-dimensional flow is considered to
simplify the derivation procedure.

The idealized velocity diagram on an impeller is shown in Figure 3.6.

Figure 3.6a Velocity triangles at inlet and outlet

As shown in Figure 3.6a, the impeller rotates with angular velocity . The fluid is assumed
to enter the impeller at r1 , with relative velocity W1 tangent to the blade angle 1 . Here the

velocity of the blade at inlet (circumferential velocity) is defined as U1 r1 so that the


absolute velocity is obtained as V1 W1 U1 . Similarly at the exit V2 W2 U2 .

The shaft torque to rotate the impeller is given as

Tshaft m r2V 2 m r1V 1 m r2V 2 r1V 1

(3.21)

or

Tshaft Qr2V 2 r1V 1

(3.22)

Here, V 1 and V 2 are the tangential components of the absolute velocity.


The power supplied to the shaft is thus

Pshaft Tshaft

(3.23)

and from Eq. (3.22)

Pshaft Qr2V 2 r1V 1

(3.24)

Since U1 r1 and U 2 r2 we obtain

Pshaft QU 2V 2 U1V 1

(3.25)

The shaft power per unit weight of flowing fluid is then expressed as
hi

QU 2V 2 U1V 1 U 2V 2 U1V 1
m

Qg
g

(3.26)

Eq. (3.26) is known as the shaft work head produced by the impeller and hi is known the ideal
head or Euler Head, H E .
HE

U 2V 2 U1V 1
m
g

(3.27)

Additional insight can be obtained by rewriting Eq. (3.27) in different form. To see this, from
Figure 3.6 we get

V 2 V2 cos 2 and V 1 V1 cos 1

(3.28)

and

W12 V12 U12 2V1U1 cos 1

(3.29)

W22 V22 U 22 2V2U 2 cos 2

(3.30)

Substitute Eqs. (3.30) and (3.29) into Eq. (3.28), then we get
HE

V22 V12 U 22 U12 W22 W12

2g
2g
2g

(3.31)

The first term on the right hand side represents the increase in the kinetic energy of the fluid.
The second term represents the pressure head rise that develops across the impeller due to the
centrifugal effect and the last term represents the diffusion of relative flow in the blade
passages.

In many cases, the tangential component of absolute velocity at inlet V 1 (swirl velocity) can
be considered zero or 1 900 . In this case, Eq. (3.27) becomes

HE

U 2V 2
g

(3.32)

Eq. (3.32) indicates that, to get higher head, one must


i)

Increase the circumferential velocity. This can be obtained by increasing


the pump rotational speed, N and bigger size of pump D.

ii)

Increase the value of V 2 . This can be obtained by having appropriate


number of impeller blade with suitable types and geometry.

Figure 3.6b Velocity triangles with radial inlet and outlet


From Figure 3.6b, we can see that

cot 2

U 2 V 2
Vr 2

(3.33)

Here Vr 2 is the flow velocity and defined as

Vr 2

Q
Q

A2 kD2b

(3.34)

where k is the area occupied by the impeller blade at the total exit area. b and D are the width
and the diameter of the impeller respectively, as shown in Figure 3.7.

Figure 3.7 Exit area of centrifugal pump

Therefore, Eq. (3.32) can be rewritten as

HE

U 22 U 2 cot 2

Q
g
g kD2b

(3.35)

Eq. (3.35) clearly indicates that the head varies linearly with discharge Q as shown in Figure
3.8. The slope of the graphs depend on the types of the impeller blade where 2 900 is
known as the radial blade, 2 900 is forward-curved blade and 2 900 is backward-curved
blade (See Figure 3.9). However, pumps with forward-curved blades often cause pump surge
and suffer unstable flow condition.

Figure 3.8 Euler head vs. volume flow rate

Figure 3.9 Types of impeller


3.2.3 Pump Performance
Performance of a centrifugal pump can be determined from overall efficiency O where

P
Power gained by the fluid (power output)
O
shaft power driving the pump (power input) PI

(3.36)

The overall efficiency arises from three sources, the mechanical efficiency mech , manometric
efficiency mano , and the hydraulic efficiency hyd , so that
O mechmanohyd

(3.37)

These efficiency is defined as


mech

mano

hyd

gQH E
PI

gQH E
gQH M

PO
gQH m

(3.38)

(3.39)

(3.40)

Question
1) Sketch velocity triangles at outlet for three types of impeller blades. Explain special
characteristics of each type of impeller.
Solution

Forward Impeller
> 900, U2 < V2

Radial Impeller
= 900, U2 = V2

Backward Impeller
< 900, U2 > V2

2) Show that the theoretical pressure head rise through the impeller of a centrifugal pump is
given by

1 2
2
2
Vr1 U 2 Vr 2 cosec 2 2
2g

where

Vr1

: velocity of flow at inlet

Vr 2

: velocity of flow at outlet

U2

: circumferential velocity of impeller at outlet

: impeller angle at outlet

A centrifugal pump is discharging water at the rate of 8.25 liter/s at 1200 rpm. The inlet and
outlet diameters of the impeller are 12 cm and 24 cm respectively. The width of the impeller
at inlet and outlet are 16 mm and 8 mm respectively. The vanes are curved back 25 at the
tangent at outlet. Calculate the increase in pressure, as the water passes through the impeller.

Solution
Applying Bernoulli equation between inlet and outlet at the impeller
2

P1 V1
P V

hp 2 2
g 2 g
g 2 g

Define the equation for Euler Head gives


2

P1 V1
P V
UV

2 2 2 2
g 2 g g 2 g
g
Then the pressure head rise is

P2 P1 V1 V2 U 2V 2

h
g
2g
g
2

Since V12 Vr21 V21 and V22 Vr22 V22 , and V 1 0


Substitute into the equation for pressure head rise gives
2

Vr1 Vr 2 V 2 2U 2V 2
2

2g

It is known that

V 2 U 2 Vr 2 cot 2 then

V Vr 2 U 2 Vr 2 cot 2 2U 2 U 2 Vr 2 cot 2
h r1
2g
2

Vr1 U 22 Vr 2 1 cot 2 2
2g
2

Vr1 Vr 2 U 22 2U 2Vr 2 cot 2 Vr22 cot 2 2 2U 22 2U 2Vr 2 cot 2


2g
2

Vr1 U 22 Vr 2 cosec 2 2
(Proved)
2g
2

Given Q 8.25 liter/s, N = 1200rpm, D1 = 0.12m, D2 = 0.24m, b1 = 0.016m, b2 = 0.008m,

2 250
The rise in pressure is calculated as

P2 P1 gh then
Q
8.25 103
Vr1

1.37 m/s
D1b1 0.12 0.016
Vr 2

Q
8.25 103

1.37 m/s
D2b2 0.24 0.008

U 2 r2

2N
2 1200 0.24
r2

15.08 m/s
60
60
2

Therefore
h

1.372 15.082 1.372 cosec 2 25

2 9.81

Finally

P2 P1 gh (Ans)

3) A centrifugal pump supplies water at the rate of 400 liter/s and the pressure difference
across pump is 200 kN/m2. Diameter and width of the impeller at outlet are 40 cm and 10
cm respectively. Blade thickness occupied 10 percent of the circumference. Impeller inlet
diameter is half of the outlet diameter. If the blades are radial, find:
(i) The pump power input if overall efficiency is 80 percent
(ii) The impeller speed in rpm, and
(iii) Inlet blade angle if flow velocity is constant

Assume losses in casing and impeller are negligible, zero whirl at inlet and diameter of
suction and delivery pipes are equal.
Solution
Given Q 400 liter/s, p 200 kN/m2, D2 = 0.4m, b2 = 0.1m, k = 90%, D1 = D2/2, 2 900
Overall efficiency is defined as 0

Poutput
Pinput

0.8

then power output is calculated as

Poutput pQ 200 400 103 80 kW


Therefore Pinput

Poutput
0.8

80
100 kW (Ans)
0.8

Impeller speed in rpm:


Power output is also defined as Poutput gQHM
Since no losses in casing and impeller, then H M H E
Therefore gQHE 80 kW
and H E 20.39 m
For zero whirl at inlet, the Euler head is defined as
HE

U 2V 2
g

and for a radial impeller (shown in Figure Q2), we can see that U 2 V 2 therefore

HE

U 22
and
g

U 2 H E g 14.14 m/s
However U 2 r2

2N
r2 then
60

60 14.14
675 rpm (Ans)
2 0.2

Inlet blade angle:


Circumferential velocity at the inlet can be calculated as

U1

2N
2 675
r1
0.1 7.07 m/s
60
60

Since the diameter of delivery and suction pipes are equal,


Vr1 Vr 2

Q
0.4

3.54 m/s
2r2b2 k 2 0.2 0.1 0.9

No whirl at inlet gives Vr1 V1 and


tan 1

V1 3.54

0.5
U1 7.07

Finally, 1 29.55 (Ans)

4) A centrifugal pump was used to displaced water at 0.33m3/s. The specifications of the
pump are shown below. It runs at 2000rpm and the pressure difference between the
delivery pipe and suction pipe is 100kPa. The flow velocity is constant. The blade angle
at outlet is 24 degree backward blades. Assumed that there is no whirl flow at inlet and
neglect all the losses in pipe.
Inlet

Outlet

Diameter (mm)

100

200

Impeller width (mm)

160

80

Determine:
a) The absolute velocity angle at outlet
b) The manometric efficiency

Solution
Given Q 0.33 m3/s, N = 2000rpm, p 100 kPa, 2 240
Constant flow velocity Vr1 Vr 2
From Figure 3.6, we can see that
tan 2

Vr 2
V 2

The flow velocity at outlet Vr 2 can be calculated as


Vr 2

Q
0.33

6.56 m/s
2r2b2 k 2 0.1 0.08 1

The circumferential velocity tangential U 2 can be calculated as

U 2 r2

2N
2 2000
r2
0.1 20.95 m/s
60
60

The tangential velocity at outlet V 2 can be calculated as


tan 2

Vr 2
and therefore
U 2 V 2

V 2 U 2

Vr 2
6.56
20.95
6.21 m/s
tan 2
tan 240

Subsequently tan 2

Vr 2 6.56

1.056
V 2 6.21

and 2 46.60 (Ans)

Manometric Efficiency man :


Manometric head H M can be calculated as
HM

p 100kPa

10.19 m
g
g

Euler head can be calculated as

HE

U 2V 2 20.95 6.21

13.26 m
g
g

Subsequently, the manometric efficiency can be calculated as

man

H M 10.19

100% 76.8% (Ans)


H E 13.26

5) A centrifugal pump supplies water at the rate of 750liter/s against manometric head of
15m of water. Pump running at 800rpm. Losses in impeller and casing of the pump is
given by 0.03 V22 where V2 is absolute water velocity at impeller out. Manometric
efficiency of the pump is 85%. If the flow velocity is constant at 3m/s and assumed zero
whirl at inlet, determine
a) Blade angle at outlet
b) Impeller diameter at outlet
c) Impeller width at outlet if blade thickness is negligible
d) The pump input power if overall efficiency is 75%.

Solution
Given Q 750 liter/s, H M 15 m, N = 800rpm,

Lp

Vr2 Vr1 3 m/s, V 1 0


Blade angle at outlet:
Manometric efficieny is defined as

Man

HM
HM
15

85% Then
HE
H M hLp 15 0.03V22

V2 9.39 m/s
2
2
2
However, V2 Vr 2 V 2 then

0.03V22 , Man 85% ,

V 2 9.392 32 8.90 m/s


Next, Euler head is calculated as H E H M hLp 15 0.03V22 15 0.03 9.39 2 17.65
m
Theoretically, Euler head is derived as as

HE

U 2V 2
17.65 m
g
gH

E 17.65 g 19.45
Therefore U 2
m/s
V
8.90

Subsequently, the blade angle at outlet is calculated as


tan 2

Vr 2
3

0.284
U 2 V 2 19.45 8.90

As a result

2 15.850 (Ans)

Impeller diameter at outlet:


Circumferential velocity at outlet is calculated as

U 2 r2 D2 2 19.45 m/s
Here, 2N 60 2 800 60 D2 2 83.79 rad/s
Then D2 2U 2 0.464 m (Ans)

Impeller width at outlet:


The flow velocity at outlet is calculated as

Vr 2

Q
Q

3 m/s
A2 2r2b2 k

Therefore

b2

Q
0.750

0.171 m (Ans)
2r2Vr 2 k 2 0.232 3 1

Pump input power:


Overall efficiency is defined as

Poutput
Pinput

gQH M
Pinput

75%

Then

Pinput

gQH M
0.75

g 0.75 15
0.75

147.15 kW (Ans)

6) A centrifugal pump supplies water at the rate of 150 liter/s and running 1500rpm.
Diameter and width of the impeller at inlet are 200 cm and 15 cm, while at outlet 400cm
and 8mm respectively. The blades are backward-curved type with angle 380. Neglecting
all the losses and determine pressure difference across the impeller.

Solution
Given Q 15 liter/s, N = 1500rpm, D1 = 0.2m, b1 = 0.15m, D2 = 0.4m, b2 = 0.08m

380
Pressure difference across the impeller:
Pressure difference across the impeller is defined as

p gH M
Since there are no losses across the pump H M H E
The circumferential velocity at outlet is calculated as

U 2V 2
g

U 2 r2

2N
2 1500
r2
0.2 31.42 m/s
60
60

The flow velocity at outlet is calculated as


Vr 2

Q
Q
0.15

1.49 m/s
A2 2r2b2 k 2 0.2 0.08

The blade angle at outlet is calculated as


tan 2

Vr 2
1.49
or tan 38
31.42 V 2
U 2 V 2

Therefore

V 2 31.42

1.49
29.51 m/s
tan 38

and manometric head can be calculated as


HM

U 2V 2 31.42 29.51

94.52 m
g
9.81

Subsequently the pressure different can be calculated as


p g 94.52 927.2 kPa (Ans)

7) A centrifugal pump supplies 13600 liters of water per minute. The pump produces
manometric head of 22.5m when rotates at 1500rpm. Determine
a) Diameter of impeller at outlet
b) Blade angle at outlet
Assume manometric efficiency is 75% and head loss in pump due to friction is V2/30,
with V is the absolute velocity exit of water exit the impeller. The area of outlet is
0.112D2 with D is the outlet diameter and the water enters without whirl.

Solution
Given Q 13600 liter/m, N = 1500rpm, H M 22.5 m , Man 75% ,

Lp

V22 30

A2 0.112D 2
Diameter of impeller at outlet:
Flow velocity at outlet is calculated as

Vr 2

Q
0.227
2.026

m/s ..(i)
2
A2 0.112 D2
D22

Manometric efficiency is defined as

Man

HM
0.75 , Then H E 30 H M hLp H M V22 30 therefore, absolute
HE

velocity at outlet is V2 15
Euler head is also defined as H E

V 2

U 2V 2 D2 2V 2
and therefore

g
g

gH E
3.747

(ii)
D2 2
D2

Substitute (i) and (ii) into


V22 Vr22 V22 gives
2

0.227 3.747


152
2
0.112 D2 D2

Finally, we D2 0.412 m (Ans)


Blade angle at outlet 2 :
We know that
tan 2

Vr 2
U 2 V 2

Vr 2
Vr 2
tan 1

Then 2 tan 1
U

V
U

V
2 2
2 2

Here Vr 2

U2
V 2

Q
0.227

10.96 m/s
A2 0.112 D 2

D2
32.36 m/s
2

3.747
9.09 m/s, then
D2

2 25.220 (Ans)

8) A centrifugal pump with outlet diameter 400mm width of outlet impeller 15mm is
required to produce manometric head of H M 60 500Q 2 where Q is the volume
flowrate. The diameter at the inlet is 200mm works at 1450rpm with backward curved
impeller of 450. The impeller blades occupy 10% of the curcimference. The manometric
and overall efficiency of the pump are 85% and 75% respectively. Determine
a) Volume flowrate, Q
b) Power input
c) Blade angle at inlet.

Solution
Given D1 = 200mm, D2 = 400mm, b2 = 15mm, N = 1450rpm, H M 60 500Q 2 m ,

2 450 , k 0.9 , Man 85% , o 75%


Volume flowrate:
Euler head is defined as
HE

U 2V 2
where
g

U 2 r2

2N
r2 30.37 m/s.
60

The flow velocity is calculated as


Vr 2

Q
Q
Q

58.94Q
A2 2r2b2 k 2 0.2 0.015 0.9

The blade angle at outlet is calculated as


tan 2

Vr 2
or V 2 U 2 Vr 2 cot 2 30.37 58.94Q cot 45 30.37 58.94Q m/s
U 2 V 2

The manometric efficiency is defined as


Substitute the expression for The Euler head is defined as

Man

H M 60 50Q 2

0.85 ..(i)
U 2V 2
HE
g

Substitute the expression for V 2 into (i) gives

g 60 50Q 2
0.85
30.37 30.37 58.94Q
The volume flowrate is calculated as

Q 0.124 m3/s (Ans)


Power input:
Power output is calculated as

Poutput gQH M g 0.124 60 500 0.124 2 82.34 kW


The overall efficiency is defined as

Poutput
Pinput

82.34kW
0.75 then
Pinput

Pinput 109.79 kW (Ans)

Blade angle in inlet:


The circumferential velocity at inlet is calculated as

U1 r1
tan 1

2N
r1 15.19 m/s, and
60

V1
therefore
U1

V1
58.94 0.124
1 58.94 0.124
1
tan 1
tan
tan 0.481
15.19
15.19

U1

1 tan 1

25.690 (Ans)

3.3 Turbine
Turbines are devices that transform hydraulic energy into mechanical energy in terms of
rotation, and then transform again into electric energy through electric generator that
connected directly to the turbine shaft.

Usually turbines consist of a wheel or runner that connected to a shaft. This runner consists of
a number of blades or bucket that attached to this wheel.

Turbine can be classified into two basic types impulse turbine and reaction turbine. Both
of these turbines are used to generate electricity.

3.3.1 Reaction turbine


Francis turbine is one of the currently used reaction turbine to generate electricity. Figure
3.10 illustrates a Francis turbine with it main components

Figure 3.10 Francis turbine

Main components in reaction turbine includes;


i)

Penstock A closed channel to transfer the fluid from a reservoir to turbines


runner

ii)

Volute (Scroll case) Completely surrounds the runner. The volute is designed so
that the cross-sectional area decreases along the fluid path to keep the fluid
velocity constant.

iii)

Guide vane (wicket gates) mounted around the periphery of the runner to direct
the fluid on to the runner at the appropriate angle.

iv)

Runner The main component of turbine. The runner gets energy from flowing
water and connected to shaft to generate electric.

v)

Draft tube To guide the waste fluid into the tailrace. The draft tube is designed
in reducing velocity so that the kinetic energy lost at inlet can be minimized. The
end of draft tube must be submerged below the water level in tailrace to ensure
that the hydraulic turbine is filled with fluid

vi)

Tailrace To channel out the waste fluid

The basic theory of a Francis turbine can be developed by considering the rate of change of
angular momentum of fluid as it passes between the inlet and outlet sections of the runner.
Figure 3.11 depicts the flow conditions that occur for the entire runner.

Figure 3.11a Velocity triangles at the runner

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

Figure 3.11b Velocity triangles for three different types of runner angle

The developed torque on the runner is due to the changes in magnitude and velocity of the
passes can be derived as following

r1V 1 m
r2V 2 m
r1V 1 r2V 2
Trunner m

(3.36)

or

Trunner Qr1V 1 r2V 2

(3.37)

The power supplied to the runner is thus

Prunner Trunner

(3.38)

and from Eq. (3.37)

Prunner Qr1V 1 r2V 2

(3.39)

Since U1 r1 and U 2 r2 we obtain

Prunner QU1V 1 U 2V 2

(3.40)

The turbine power per unit weight of flowing fluid is then expressed as
ht

QU1V 1 U 2V 2 U1V 1 U 2V 2
m

Qg
g

(3.41)

Eq. (3.41) is known as the turbine head added by flowing fluid across the runner ht is known
the turbine head or Turbine Euler Head, H T . Practically V 2 is suppressed to zero to get
high turbine head
HT

U 1V 1
m
g

(3.42)

Comparing Eq. (3.42) with Eq. (3.40) gives another expression for turbine power as follow

Prunner gQHT

(3.43)

The efficiency of Francis turbine can be determined by comparing the input-output power. If

H Eff is the head that enter the turbine which is


H Eff H static head loss is pipe (penstock)
The energy losses across the runner is defined as

(3.44)

V12 2 g

lt

(3.45)

and therefore, another correlation is obtained as

H T H Eff V12 2 g

(3.46)

Then the power that enter the turbine is defined as

PEff gQH Eff

(3.47)

The hydraulic efficiency is defined as

hyd

Prunner
PEff

(3.48)

Assume the power gained by shaft is Pshaft , then the mechanical efficiency is defined as

mech

Pshaft
Prunner

(3.49)

Finally, the overall efficiency is defined as

Pshaft
PEff

(3.50)

Question
1. Show that the degree of reaction (R) of reaction turbine is
V1 V2
2WD
2

R 1

where V1

: absolute velocity at inner inlet

V2

: absolute velocity at runner outlet

WD

: word done by the runner per unit mass

Solution
Take Bernouli equation across turbine runner
2

P1 V1
P V

Z1 2 2 Z 2 H T
g 2 g
g 2 g

Or

V1 2 V2 2
P1 P2
H T
g
2g

The degree of reaction is defined as


R

Static pressure drop


Total energy transferred

And therefore

V 2 V2 2
V1 2 V2 2
P1 P2

H T 1

2g
2
g
g

or R
R
HT
HT
HT
Theoretically, the total energy transferred to the turbine is defined as
HT

U 1V 1
g

Therefore

V V2
R 1 1
2U 1V 1
2

Since U 1V 1 is the work done by runner per unit mass WD, finally
V1 V2
2WD
2

R 1

(Ans)

2. A Francis turbine is operated under the head of 45 m and the water flowrate is 320
liter/s. Flow area of the runner at the inlet is 0.123m2 and the flow velocity is assumed
constant through out the turbine runner. The hydraulic efficiency of the turbine is
0.90. The velocity of the runner at inlet is 22 m/s. Determine
i.

the angle of the guide vane

ii.

the blade angle at the inlet

iii.

the power generated by the runner, and

iv.

the overall efficiency if the mechanical loss is 12kW

Solution
Given H Eff 45 m, Q 320 liter/s, A1 0.123 m2, hyd 0.9 , U1 22 m/s, Vr1 Vr 2
Angle of the guide vane:
tan 1

Vr1
V 1

The volume flow rate is defined as


Q

Vr1
0.32 m3/s and therefore
A1

Vr1 QA1 0.32 0.123 2.60 m/s


The hydraulic efficiency is defined as

hyd

Prunner
gQht
H

T 0.9
PEff
gQH Eff
45

Then H T 45 0.9

U 1V 1
g

Therefore V 1

40.5 g
18.06 m/s
22

Finally tan 1

2.60
0.144 then
18.06

1 8.19 (Ans)

Blade angle at inlet:


From Figure 3.11b, tan 1

1 tan 1

Vr1
and therefore
U 1 V 1

2.60
33.42
22 18.06

Therefore 1 1800 33.42 146.580 (Ans)

Power generated by the runner:

Prunner gQH T
1000 g 0.32 40.5
127.14 kW (Ans)

Overall efficiency if the mechanical loss is 12kW:


Overall efficiency is defined as

Pshaft
PEff

If mechanical loss is 12kW, therefore, the amount of power received by the shaft is
127.14kW 12kW = 115.14kW
Then

115140
0.82 or 82% (Ans)
gQHEff

3. An inward flow reaction turbine, working under a head of 8 m, has guide vane angle
25o and runner blade angle at inlet 85o. Assuming the velocity of flow to be constant
and radial discharge, determine hydraulic efficiency of the turbine.

Solution
Given H Eff 8 m, 250 , 1 850 , Vr1 Vr 2 , V2 Vr 2
Hydraulic efficiency:
From Figure 3.11b, the inlet velocity components can be calculated as

V 1 V1 cos 0.906V1 m/s

Vr1 V1 sin 0.423V1 m/s s defined as


The blade angle at inlet
tan 1

Vr1
V
0.423V1
or U1 V 1 r1 0.906V1
0.869V1 m/s
tan 1
tan 1
V 1 U1

The turbine head is defined as


HT

U 1V 1 0.869V1 0.906V1

0.0803V12 m
g
g

(i)

The turbine head is also defined as

H T H Eff

V1

2 g therefore (ii)

Eq. (i) = Eq. (ii) gives


0.0803V12 8

V12
or
2g

V1 7.81 m/s
This yields

U1 0.869V1 6.78 m/s


and V 1 0.906V1 7.08 m/s
Finally, the hydraulic efficiency is calculated as

hyd

Prunner
gQht
UV

1 1
PEff
gQH Eff
g 8

0.61 or 61% (Ans)

4. A Francis turbine is operated under the head of 45 m. The diameter of runner at inlet
at outlet is 90cm and 40cm respectively. The width of the runner is 12cm and the
blade angle at outlet is 15 degree. If the flow velocity is constant at 3.5m3/s and
hydraulic efficiency of the turbine is 90%, determine

a) Turbine speed
b) Volume flowrate
c) Guide vane angle
d) Runner angle at inlet and
e) Power output

Solution
Given H Eff 45 m, D1 = 90cm, D2 = 60cm, b2 =12cm, 2 150 , Vr1 Vr 2 3.5 m/s,

hyd 0.9
Turbine Speed:
Refer to Figure 3.11, the blade angle at outlet
tan 2

Vr1
then U 2 13.06 m/s
U2

However, U 2 r2

2N
r2 then
60

N 416 rpm (Ans)

Volume flowrate:
The volume flowrate is calculated as

Q A2Vr 2 2r2b2U 2
0.792 m3/s (Ans)

Guide vane angle:


The circumferential velocity at inlet is calculated as
U1 r1

2N
r1 19.61 m/s
60

The hydraulic efficiency is defined as

hyd

ht
UV
1 1 0.9 then
H Eff gH Eff

V 1 20.26 m/s
The guide vane angle is calculated as
tan 1

Vr1
0.173
V 1

There 1 tan 1 0.173 9.80 (Ans)

Runner angle at inlet:


The runner angle at inlet is defined as
tan 1

Vr1
3.5

5.38
V 1 U1 20.26 19.61

1 79.50 (Ans)

Power output:
The output power is calculated as eulated as
Poutput gQht gQ

U1V 1
1000 0.792 19.61 20.26
g

314.66 kW (Ans)

5. A Francis turbine is required to give 180kW output power under a head H of 20m.
Overall efficiency is 80% dan the hydraulic efficiency is 85%. The turbin speed is
600rpm. The runners occupy 85% of the circumference. If a flow velocity is constant
at 0.3(2gH)1/2 and peripheral velocity at inlet 0.8(2gH)1/2 and the water discharge
without whirl, determine

a) Diameter of the runner at inlet


b) Guide vane angle
c) Runner blade angle at inlet
d) Width of the runner at inlet assuming blade thickness occupied 15% of the circumference.

Solution
Given Po 180 kW, H Eff 20 m, o 0.8 , hyd 0.85 , N = 600rpm, k 0.85

Vr1 Vr 2 0.3 2 gH Eff , U1 0.8 2 gH Eff


Diameter of runner at inlet:
Peripheral velocity at inlet is given as

U1 0.8 2 gH Eff 0.8 2 g 20 15.84 m/s


But, we know that U1 r1

D1

2N D1
therefore
60 2

60U1 60 15.84

N
600

0.504 m (Ans)

Guide vane angle:


From Figure 3.11b, tan

Vr1
V 1

Here, Vr1 0.3 2 gH Eff 0.3 2 g 20 5.94 m/s


The hydraulic efficiency is defined hyd

V 1

gH Eff hyd
U1

20 g 0.85
10.53 m/s
15.84

UV
HT
1 1 0.85 therefore
H Eff
gH Eff

Then From Figure 3.11b, tan

Vr1 5.94

0.564 therefore
V 1 10.53

29.60 (Ans)

Runner blade angle at inlet:


From Figure 3.11b, tan 1

Vr1
5.94

1.119 therefore
U1 V 1 15.84 10.53

1 48.20 and
1 1800 48.20 131.80 (Ans)

Width of the runner at inlet:


The overall efficiency is defined as o

The volume flowrate is Q

Po
180000

0.8 Then
Pi gQH Eff

180000
1.147 m3/s
g 0.8 20

We know that Q Vr1 A1 Vr1 D1kb1 therefore

b1

Q
1.147

Vr1 D1k 5.94 0.504 0.85

0.143 m (Ans)

6. A Francis turbine with diameter of the runner and width are 2.4m and 0.3m, operates
at 428rpm and volume flowrate of 15500liter/s. The velocity and pressure head at the
inlet are 9.0m/s and 260m of water respectively. The inlet section is located 3.35m
above the water surface of tailrace. If no head loss is turbine, determine
a. Turbine power
b. Guide vane angle

c. Runner angle at inlet


Solution
Given D1 = 2.4m, b1 = 0.3m, N = 428, Q = 15500liter/s, V1 9 m/s,

p1
260 m,
g

Z1 3.35 m
Turbine power:
Take Bernoulli equation between point at the turbine inlet and water surface at tailrace
gives

p1 V12
p V2

Z1 2 2 Z 2 H T
g 2 g
g 2 g
Since p2 V2 Z 2 0 therefore

p1 V12
92

Z1 H T 260
3.35 267.48 m
g 2 g
2g
Then the turbine power is calculated as

PT gQHT 1000 g 15.5 267.48

40.67 MW (Ans)

Guide vane angle:


The flow velocity at the inlet of runner is

Vr1

Q
Q
15.5

6.85 m/s
A1 D1b1 2.4 0.3

From Figure 3.11b,

sin

Vr1 6.85

0.761 therefore
V1
9

49.60 (Ans)

Runner angle at inlet:


The tangential velocity component at inlet is calculated as

tan

V
6.85
Vr1
5.83 m/s
therefore V 1 r1
tan tan 49.6
V 1

Circumference velocity at inlet is calculated as

U1 r1

D1 N 2.4 428
6.85

53.79 m/s
60
60
tan 49.6

Therefore tan 1

Vr1
6.85

0.143
U1 V 1 53.79 5.83

And 1 8.130
Finally 1 1800 8.130 171.87 0 (Ans)

7. A Francis turbine works under effective head of 50m and volume flowrate of aliran
300liter/s. The diameter of runner at outlet is D1 and at the inlet is D1/3. The flow
velocity is constant at V=0.15(2gHEff)1/2. If the turbine operates runs at 1000rpm,
hydraulic efficiency of 80%, radial runner angle and the blades occupy 10% of the
circumference, determine
a. Guide vane angle
b. Runner angle at outlet
c. Width of runner at inlet and outlet
d. Output power is the overall efficiency is 70%

Solution
Given HEff = 50m, Q = 300liter/s, V r1 = V r2 = 0.15(2gHEff)1/2, N = 1000rpm,

hyd 0.8 , o 0.7 , k = 0.9

Guide vane angle:


From Figure 3.11b, tan

Vr1
V 1

Here, Vr1 0.15 2 gH Eff 0.15 2 g 50 4.7 m/s


The hydraulic efficiency is defined as

hyd

UV
HT
1 1 0.8
H Eff
gH Eff

Since radial blade at inlet, therefore U 1 V 1 and

V21
0.8 then V 1 0.8gH Eff 0.8g 50 19.81 m/s
gH Eff
Then tan

Vr 1
4.7

0.237
V 1 19.81

And 13.350

Runner angle at outlet:


From figure 3.11b

tan 2

Vr 2
U2

Here, the circumferential velocity at outlet is calculated as

U 2 r2

D2 N
60

Therefore tan 2

D2 N
60

D1 3N

4.7
0.712
6.6

And 2 35.46 0 (Ans)

60

1
1 D1 N
or U 2 U 1 6.6 m/s
3
3 60

Width of runner at inlet and outlet:


The circumferential velocity at inlet is calculated as U 1 r1
Then D1

D1 N
60

19.81 m/s

60 19.81
0.378 m and therefore D2 D1 3 0.126 m.
1000

The volume flowrate is calculated as Q Vr1 A1 Vr1 D1kb1 0.3 m3/s.


Then b1

0.3
0.0597 m (Ans)
4.7 0.378 0.9

Similarly

b2

Q
0.3

0.179 m (Ans)
Vr1D2 k 4.7 0.126 0.9

Output power:
Power input is calculated as

Pinput gQHEff g 0.3 50 147.15 kW


Since the overall efficiency is defined as O

Poutput
Pinput

0.7 then

Poutput 0.7 Pinput 0.7 147.15kW 103 kW (Ans)

3.3.2 Impulse turbine


Pelton wheel is the most common use of impulse turbine developed in 1880s. This turbine
converts all the hydraulic energy into kinetic energy before entering the wheel. Nozzle is
fitted at the end of pipe which brings the fluid from high level of reservoir. The formed fluid
jet strikes part of the buckets and then deflected. The wheel freely rotates under atmospheric
pressure.

Figure 3.13 Pelton wheel turbine

Figure 3.14 Water jet strikes a bucket

Usually, the Pelton wheel is placed horizontally and not more than two jets can be used.
However, for a vertical wheel, up to six jets can be used to rotate the wheel.

Figure 3.15 Velocity triangles at inlet and outlet

The inlet and outlet velocity triangles are shown in Figure 3.15. We need to derive the torque
and power transferred to the shaft from these velocity components. From the figure, we can
see that

V1 V 1 W1 U

(3.51)

where U is the bucket velocity. Note that there is no velocity triangle at inlet.

While at the outlet, relative velocity leaving the bucket is slightly smaller than the relative
velocity entering the bucket. This is due to the friction on the bucket. Therefore, relative
velocity at outlet can be written as

W2 kW2

(3.52)

Where k is the friction coefficient and its value is less than one.
From the velocity triangle at outlet,
cos

U V 2
W2

(3.53)

And

V 2 U W2 cos

(3.54)

or

V 2 U kW1 cos

(3.55)

where is the deflected angle. The torque on the bucket can be derived as following

rV 1 m
rV 2 m
r V 1 V 2
Twheel m

(3.56)

Using Eqs. (3.55) and (3.51) we get

V 1 V 2 V1 U W2 cos

(3.57)

Then Eq. (3.56) becomes

Twheel m r V1 U W2 cos

(3.58)

or

r V1 U kW1 cos
Twheel m

(3.59)

or

Twheel m r V1 U k V1 U cos

(3.60)

Further simplification gives

r V1 U 1 k cos
Twheel m

(3.61)

Then the power supplied to the wheel is thus

Pwheel Twheel

(3.62)

and from Eq. (3.61)

r V1 U 1 k cos
Pwheel m

Since U r and m W

Pwheel

(3.63)

the we obtain

W U V1 U 1 k cos
g

(3.64)

Eq. (3.64) indicates that the power transferred to the wheel depends on the deflected angle
and the value of friction coefficient k. In theory, the maximum power can be obtained if

1800 . However, practically if 1800 , the deflected fluid will strike on the back of
neighbouring bucket and reduce the torque of the wheel.

Then, the Euler head of Pelton wheel can be defined as


HE

Pwheel U V1 U 1 k cos

W
g

Efficiency
The nozzle power is defined as

(3.65)

Pnozzle gQH N

(3.66)

where H N is the nozzle head


However, the real energy that is transferred to the Pelton wheel depends on the kinetic energy
produced by the fluid jet, V1 . Therefore, the power that is transferred to the wheel is defined
as
PEff gQHEff

(3.67)

with H Eff is the kinetic energy head which is transferred by the fluid jet to the wheel as
H Eff

V12

2g

(3.68)

and V1 V 1 CV 2 gH N . Here CV is the coefficient of velocity.


Then, we can define the nozzle efficiency as

PEff H Eff

PN
HN

(3.69)

The hydraulic efficiency h is then defined as the ability of a Pelton wheel to transform the
obtained kinetic energy of fluid jet into mechanical energy. Therefore, the hydraulic
efficiency is defined as

U V1 U 1 k cos
Pwheel m

PEff
gQH Eff

(3.70)

Since m Q and by using Eq. (3.68), Eq. (3.70) can be rewrite as follow

2U V1 U 1 k cos
V12

(3.71)

Eq. (3.71) indicates that a graph of efficiency against bucket velocity is in parabolic form as
illustrated in Figure 3.16.

Figure 3.16 Hydraulic efficiency of Pelton wheel

From the graph, the maximum efficiency occurs when h U 0 or when

V1
2

(3.72)

Substitute U

V1
into the expression for the hydraulic efficiency gives the maximum
2

hydraulic efficiency as

V1
V
V1 1 1 k cos
1 k cos
2
2

2
V1
2
2

h, max

(3.73)

Eq. (3.73) demonstrates that the hydraulic efficiency can be 100% when k cos 1 This
is true when k = 1 and . However, it is almost impossible to get k = 1 due to the
presence of surface roughness. It is also impossible to set to avoid the deflected fluid
strikes on the back of neighbouring bucket.

The maximum power output (maximum wheel power) is derived when U

V1
as follow
2

Pwheel,max

V
V
W 1 V1 1 1 k cos 2
WV1 1 k cos
2
2

g
4g

(3.74)

The ability of the shaft to extract the energy from the wheel must also be considered. The
energy losses may be due to wind flow or external surrounding. Due to these losses, the
amount of energy that be transferred to the shaft is reduced. Assume PO is the power gained
by the shaft, and the mechanical efficiency can be defined as
mech

PO
Pwheel

(3.75)

Finally, the overall efficiency can be defined as


o

PO
PN

(3.76)

which describe the ratio of power gained by the shaft to the power produced by the jet of
fluid.

Question
1. A Pelton wheel has a mean bucket speed of 10.0 m/s. The jets discharge 0.70 m3/s of
water under a head of 30.0 m. If the deflection angle is 160, calculate the power
gained by the wheel and the wheel efficiency taking the velocity coefficient for the jet
as 0.98.

Solution
Given U 10 m/s, Q 0.7 m3/s, H N 30 m, 160 CV 0.98
Power gained by the wheel:
The fluid jet velocity is calculated as

V1 CV 2 gH N 0.98 2 g 30 23.78 m/s

Then the head of kinetic energy is calculated as H Eff

V12 23.782

28.82 m.
2g
2g

Therefore, the power gained is

PEff gQHEff g 0.7 28.82

197.89 kW (Ans)

Wheel efficiency:
The wheel efficiency is the ability of the wheel to extract energy from the wwater jet
and also known as the hydraulic efficiency h

2U V1 U 1 k cos 2 1023.78 101 cos 160

V12
23.782

94.5 % (Ans)

2. A Pelton wheel develops 1250kW output power under a gross head of 600m. Head
loss due to pipe friction between the reservoir and nozzle is 48m. The bucket deflects
the jet through an angle of 170, and velocity of the water is reduced by 12 percent
due to the bucket friction. The speed ratio is 0.47 and the nozzle coefficient

CV 0.89 and the actual hydraulic efficiency actual = 0.9theoretical. If the bucket circle
diameter of the wheel is 900mm and 2 jets working, determine:
i)

the theoretical hydraulic,

ii)

the rotation of the wheel

iii)

diameter of the jet if mechanical loss is neglected

Solution
Given Poutput 1250 kW, H gross 600 m, 170 , k 0.88 , 0.47 , CV 0.89 , D = 0.9m

Theoretical hydraulic efficiency:

2U V1 U 1 k cos
V12

where H N H gross - loss is pipe here 600 48 552 m.


and V1 CV 2 gH N 0.89 2 g 552 92.62 m/s
Since

U
0.47 then U 43.53 m/s
V1

Therefore theoretically h

2 43.5392.62 43.531 0.88 cos 170


93 % (Ans)
92.622

Rotation of the wheel:


The bucket velocity is defined as U r
N

2N D
and therefore
60 2

60U 60 43.53

923 rpm (Ans)


D
0.9

Diameter of the jet:


The actual hydraulic efficiency is calculated as actual 0.9 93% 83.7 %.
However, the hydraulic efficiency is defined as h

Pwheel
or
PEff

Pwheel 1250000

0.837
PEff
gQH Eff

Efficient head is calculated as H Eff


Then Q

C 2 gH N
V2
1 V
2g
2g

1250000
0.348 m3/s.
0.837 gH Eff

Since this flowrate is produced by two jets, therefore

0.89
2

2 g 552
2g

437.24 m.

Q 2 AjV1 2

d 2j
4

92.62

and we obtain
d j 0.0489 m (Ans)

3. Pressure at the nozzle of a Pelton wheel turbine is 6m of mercury (Hg) and losses by
nozzle is neglected. Pitch diameter of the wheel is 3m and the number of jets is four.
Turbine has to produce 5MW power. Bucket reflection angle is 165 degree and
relative velocity at outlet is reduced by 10% compare to the inlet. Overall efficiency is
80% and hydraulic efficiency is 90%.
Calculate
(i)

Bucket tangential velocity to jet velocity ratio. If you have more than one answers,
choose the best and justify your choice

(ii)

Rotation of the wheel in rpm

(iii)

Total flowrate in m3/s

(iv)

Jet diameter

(v)

Possible maximum hydraulic efficiency of the Pelton wheel

Solution
Given CV 1.0 , D = 3m, Poutput 6 MW, No. of nozzle = 4, 165 , k 0.9 , O 0.8 ,

h 0.9
Bucket tangential velocity to jet velocity ratio:
Pressure at the nozzle is given as 6mHg or gH Hg 13500 9.81 6 794.61 kN/m2.
This is equivalent to 794610 gH N water then H N

794610
81 m.
1000 9.81

Water jet velocity can then calculated as V1 CV 2 gH N 2 g 81 39.87 m/s

Next, the hydraulic efficiency is defined as

2U V1 U 1 k cos 2U 39.87 U 1 0.9 cos 165

0.9
V12
39.872

or

2U 2 79.74U 765.466 0
Therefore, the bucket tangential velocity is obtained as 23.77 or 16.11
U 23.77 m/s or 16.11 m/s

Bucket tangential velocity to jet velocity ratio is then calculated as


U
0.6 or 0.4,
V1

Here we take
U
0.4 (Ans)
V1

Since U V1 must be less than 0.5.

Rotation of the wheel:


The bucket velocity is defined as U r
N

60U 60 43.53

923 rpm (Ans)


D
0.9

Total flowrate:
The overall efficiency is defined as

Poutput
Pinput

5 106
0.8
gQH N

therefore
Q

5 106
7.865 m3/s (Ans)
g (0.8)

2N D
and therefore
60 2

Jet diameter:
Since the system consists of four jets, the flowrate for each jet is calculated as
Qjet

7.865
1.966 m3/s
4

Since Qjet Ajet V1

Then d j

4Qjet

V1

d 2j
4

V1

0.251 m (Ans)

Possible maximum hydraulic efficiency:

h, max

1 K cos(180 )
0.9347 or
2

93.47% (Ans)

4. A two jets Pelton wheel is required to produce 5510kW works at 329rpm. Water is
supplied through a 1000m pipe from a reservoir located 350m from the nozzle. The
nozzle coefficient, velocity ratio, overall efficiency and Darcy friction coefficient are
0.97, 0.46, 85% and 0.024 respectively. If the friction loss in pipe is 5%, determine
i)

Diameter of nozzle

ii)

Mean radius of bucket

iii)

Diameter of the pipe

Solution
Given Poutput 5510 kW, N 329 rpm, H 350 m, CV 0.97 , 0.46 , O 0.85
f 0.024 , friction loss in pipe = 5%, pipe length, l = 1000m

Diameter of nozzle:
Nozzle head is calculated as
H N H loss in pipe

350 0.05350 332.5 m.


The overall efficiency is defined as

Poutput
Pinput

5510 103
0.85 then
gQH N

5510 103
2 m3/s
0.85 gH N

Therefore, the flowrate for one jet is 1m3/s. Since


Qjet Ajet V1

d 2j
4

V1

Here, V1 CV 2 gH N 0.97 2 g 332.5 78.35 m/s


Then d j

4Qjet

Vjet

0.127 m (Ans)

Mean radius of bucket:


The velocity ratio is calculated as

U
0.46 then U 0.46 78.35 36.04 m/s
V1

We know that U

DN
60

then

60U 60 36.04

N
329

2.09 m (Ans)

Diameter of the pipe:


The head loss due to friction in pipe is defined as

fl V 2 fl Q A
fl Q d 2
hf

d 2g d 2g
d
2g
2

However h f 0.05 350 17.5 m


Therefore
d 5

5.

16 flQ 2
0.85 m (Ans)
2 g 2 h f

A two-jet Pelton wheel is required to produce 2MW power with 400rpm. The
diameter of the wheel is 1.5m. Gross head measure from the water surface in
reservoir to the nozzle is 200m. Head loss in the penstock and nozzle is 10% and
the deflected velocity by the bucket reduced 10%. If the deflected angle is 1650,
determine;
a) Nozzle head
b) Euler Head
c) Velocity ratio
d) Diameter of jet

Solution
Given Poutput 2 MW, N 400 rpm, H 200 m, k 0.9 , 1650

Nozzle head:
H N gross head head loss in penstock and nozzle

200 200 0.1 180 m (Ans)

Euler head:
Euler head of a Pelton wheel is defined as
HE

U V1 U 1 k cos
g

Here
V1 2 gH Eff 2 g 180 59.43 m/s

and U
HE

DN
60

1.5 400
60

31.42 m/s, then

31.4259.43 31.421 0.9 cos 165


g

167.7 m (Ans)

Velocity ratio:

U 31.42

0.53 (Ans)
V1 59.43

Jet diameter:
The output power is defined as
PO gQH E 20 106 W then

PO
20 106
gQH E
12.16 m3/s
gH E
g 167.7

Then the flowrate for one jet is Q 2 6.08 m3/s

We know that
Qjet Ajet V1

Then d j

d 2j

4Qjet

V1

V1

0.360 m (Ans)

6. A Pelton wheel produces 5900kW of power when operates under 550rpm and
net head of 270m. The ratio between the jet diameter and wheel diameter is
1:10. The mechanical efficiency of the wheel is 0.85 while the hydraulic
efficiency is 0.93. If the velocity ratio is 0.46 and nozzle coefficient is 0.98,
determine;
a) Number of nozzle
b) Jet diameter
c) Wheel diameter
d) Total volume flowrate
Solution
Given Poutput 5900 kW, N 550 rpm, H N 270 m, d j D 1 : 10 , mech 0.85

h 0.93 0.46 CV 0.98

The jet velocity is calculated as

V1 CV 2 gH N 0.98 2 g 270 71.33 m/s, then


From the velocity ratio

U
0.46 , and therefore U 32.81 m/s
V1

2N D ND
60U

1.14 m (Ans)
then D
60 2
60
N

Since

dj
D

1
then d j 0.114 m (Ans)
10

Next, mechanical efficiency is defined as mech

Pwheel

Poutput
0.85

Pwheel

0.85 , therefore

6941 kW

Hydraulic efficiency is defined as h

PEff

Poutput

Pwheel
0.93 , therefore
PEff

Pwheel
7464 kW
0.93

We know that PEff gQH Eff , since H Eff

V12 71.332

259.33 then
2g
2g

Q 2.93 m3/s. (Ans)


Assume number of nozzle in n, then
Q
Qjet therefore
n
d 2j

0.114 2

Q nQjet n AjetV1 n
V1 n
71.33 4.02
4

Finally, n 4 (Ans)