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Cell Structure

and
Function of Organelles
By
Nur Ramziahrazanah Jumat
Room 26

Structure and Functions:


Cell membrane
Cell wall
Organelles
Movement of
molecules/substances in and
out of cell

Plant Cell

Animal Cell

Cell Membrane
(Plasma Membrane)
Found enclosing both animal and plant cells.
A selective barrier.
Composed of:
Phospholipids
Cholesterol
Proteins
Glycolipids
Glycoproteins

Consists of
hydrophobic (nonpolar) tails of 2
fatty acids & a
hydrophilic (polar)
phosphate head.
Allows passage of
certain lipidsoluble substances
(O2, CO2, N2 and
steroid hormones).
Oily giving
membrane
flexibility and
fluidity.

Saturated

Unsaturated

Makes the
membrane less fluid
at higher
temperatures but
more fluid at lower
ones.

Confined to the outer


or inner surface.
Float on the surface
and can easily
dislodged from the
plasma membrane.

Penetrate only part of the


wall/ all the way through the
phospholipid bilayer.
Some act as carrier molecule
while others are enzymes .

Peripheral proteins combine with short, branched sugar chains called


oligosaccharides.
Act as a recognition sites (neurotransmitter & hormones).

Phospholipid joined
to a carbohydrate
group.

Chemical receptors.
Enable the cells to
identify each other
& differentiate from
cells of other
organisms.

Proposed by S. J. Singer and G. L. Nicolson


in 1972.
Fluid
Membrane is not solid since its components such
as phospholipids & membrane proteins can move
laterally/sideways through the membrane.

Mosaic
Composed of different kind of macromolecules
that float about in the phospholipid bilayer
forming a mosaic pattern.

Fluid Mosaic Model

Cell Wall
Outside the cell membrane and only
can be found in plant cell,
prokaryotes, some protista and fungi.
Consists of bundles of cellulose fibrils
known as microfibrils.
Rigid and strong, giving the plant cell
a fixed box-like shape.

Cell Wall
Components:
Middle lamella- holds
neighboring cell walls together
Plasmodesmata- permit direct
cell-cell communication &
transport of materials between
plant cells.
Primary wall
Secondary wall

Functions:
Provides mechanical & skeletal
support.

Rigid & resistant to expansion.

Cytoplasm
Consists of organelles & cytosol (the
fluid part of the cytoplasm).

Cytosol- 90% water & forms a solution of


ions and small molecules (salts, sugars,
amino acids, fatty acids, nucleotides,
vitamins and dissolved gasses).

ORGANELLES

Nucleus
Largest cell organelle and spherical/oval in
shape.
Can be found in all eukaryotic cells except
mature phloem sieve tube & mature red
blood cells of mammals.
Cells usually contain only one nucleus
except in some protozoa (Paramecium- 2
nuclei) and some fungi & skeletal muscle
(multinucleated).

Nucleus
Nuclear envelope- Double-membrane
with pores that selectively control the
passage of substances in and out of the
nucleus.
Nucleolus- Dense aggregation of RNAs
and proteins that will be assembled into
ribosome.
Chromatin- Composed of mainly of
DNA bound to proteins called histone.
The form that chromosomes take when
the cell is not dividing.

Endoplasmic Reticulum
A system of highly packed & flattened membrane
bound-sacs forming tubes and sheets within the
cytoplasm.
Two distinct regions of ER:
Rough ER
Smooth ER

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum


(Rough ER)
Consists of flattened sacs called cisternae.
Plays a role in the synthesis, packaging &
transport of secretory proteins.
Can highly be found in cells of salivary
gland and pancreas as they actively
synthesize and excrete proteins.

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum


(Rough ER)

Ribosomes (site of protein synthesis) are


attached to its surface.
Ribosomes are made up of ribosomal
RNA (rRNA) and protein.

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum


(Rough ER)
Proteins are modified in the
cisternae.
Proteins later transported and
transferred to the golgi apparatus by
small transport vesicles.

5 minutes break :p

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum


(Smooth ER)
In the form of interconnected tubules and
not flattened sacs.
Can highly be found in liver cells.
Functions:
synthesize and transport of lipids (oils &
phospholipids)
synthesize steroids
metabolism of carbohydrates
serve as a major detoxification site (drugs
& alcohol)

Golgi Body/ Apparatus


In the form of a stack of flattened,
membrane-bound sacs called cisternae
along with golgi vesicles.
Can be found in all eukaryotic cells.
Highly available in active secretory cells
(pancreatic cells, nerve cells & root apex
cells) that secrete large amounts of
glycoproteins.

Golgi Body/ Apparatus


New cisternae are formed by the
transport vesicles from ER.
The forming surface (convex) is
referred to as cis.
The other end or maturing face
(concave) is called trans face.
Stores, modifies, finishes, sorts and
packages secretory proteins arriving
from rough ER prior to sending
them to other destinations.

Golgi Body/ Apparatus


Dispatches its products by packaging
them in small secretory vesicles.
Secretory vesicles either:
- fused with other organelles within the cell
such as lysosome or
- delivered to plasma membrane and
released to the outside of the cell via
exocytosis.

Lysosome
Small spherical sacs containing
digestive hydrolytic enzymes
(nucleases, proteases & lipases).
Surrounded by a single membrane.
Found in all animal cells and in
certain insectivorous plants.
Hydrolytic enzymes originated from
the rough ER and transported to
golgi body.

Lysosome
Functions:
Intracellular digestion- digest food and
wastes.
Autophagy- engulf and digest old and
worn-out organelles.
Phagocytic vacuoles- defense system
(engulfing bacteria).
Autolysis- self-digestion of a cell that
occurs after cells die or in some
differentiation process.

Mitochondria
(-chondrion- plural)
Animal cells have more
mitochondria than plant cells.
May be spherical, elongated or
cup-shaped.
Bounded by an envelope consisting
of two membranes.
Involved in generating chemical
energy in the form of ATP from
glucose through aerobic metabolism.

PLANT CELLS
ONLY

Chloroplast

The organelle in which


photosynthesis takes place.
Bounded by two membranes
separated by a small intermembrane
space.
Stroma:
a gel-like matrix contains enzymes
that produce carbohydrates and is the
site of light-independent (dark)
reaction.
contains ribosomes, DNA and
photosynthesis enzymes.

Chloroplast
Intergranal (Stroma) lamellae- to
connect each granum with another
granum.
Thylakoid membranes:
are covered with chlorophyll and
other pigments, enzymes and
electron carriers.
site for light-dependent reaction.

Vacuole
A fluid-filled sac bounded by a
single membrane called tonoplast.
Cell sap: concentrated solution of
sugars, mineral salts, pigments,
organic acids, O2, CO2, enzymes,
some wastes and secondary
products of metabolism.
Plays an important role in plant
growth and development, water
balance of the cell and serves as a
storage compartment for inorganic
compounds (mineral salts).

Other Organelles

Other organelles
Microtubules
- Can be found in all
eukaryotic cells.
- Made up of globular
proteins called tubulin.
- During cell division,
microtubules extend
outward from
centrosomes to form
mitotic spindle for
separation
of chromosomes.

Centrosome and centrioles


- Can be found in all
animal cells and lower
plants only.
- Centrosome- region with
a pair of centrioles.
- Centrioles- small, hollow
cylinders with 9 triplets
of microtubules arranged
in a ring.
- Centrioles duplicate
during cell division and
migrate to opposite poles
of the spindle fibres.

What is the difference


between plant cells and
animal cells?

Structure and Functions:


Cell membrane
Cell wall
Organelles
Movement of
molecules/substances in and
out of cell

Movement of
molecules/substances in
and out of cell.

Plasma membrane is selectively permeable.


The movement of substances depends on the size of
molecules, charge of the substances and composition of
the membrane.

4 mechanisms for the movement of substances across the


membrane:
Passive transport
Active transport
Endocytosis
Exocytosis

Carrier Vs. Channel Protein


Transport proteins- required to allow passage of
various polar molecules (eg: ions, sugars, amino acids)
across cell membrane.
2 types:
Carrier Proteins
Channel Proteins

Carrier Vs. Channel Protein


Carrier proteins- binds to specific solute to be
transported and undergo a series of conformational
changes to transfer the solute across cell membrane.
Channel proteins:
- interact with solute to be transported more weakly
- has pores that extend across the lipid bilayer that allows
specific solutes to pass through when the pores are open.

Passive Transport
Molecules/ions move from a region of high
concentration to a region of low concentration (down
concentration gradient).
Without energy.

Simple Diffusion
Continues to occur until particles are evenly
distributed throughout the system.
Particles of different substances in a mixture diffuse
independently of each other.

Simple Diffusion
Rate of diffusion is determined by:

Steepness of concentration gradient


Steeper gradient, faster diffusion

Molecular size

Smaller molecules, faster diffusion

Temperature

Higher temperature, faster diffusion

Surface area

Higher surface area, faster diffusion

Uncharged (non polar)


molecules

Lipid-soluble moleculesSteroid hormones

Osmosis
Diffusion of solvent from the region where the water
molecules are more concentrated (low solutes) to
the region where they are less concentrated (high
solutes).

Hypotonic
Solution

Hypertonic
Solution

membrane permeable to
water but not to solutes

Isotonic solution

Hypotonic solution
H2O

H2O

H2O

Hypertonic solution

H2O

Animal
cell

(2) Lysed

(1) Normal

H2O

H2O

(3) Shriveled

Plasma
membrane

H2O

H2O

Plant
cell

(4) Flaccid

(5) Turgid

(6) Shriveled
(plasmolyzed)

Facilitated Diffusion
Ions or molecules diffuse through special
carrier proteins in the membrane.
The carrier protein may:
Have hydrophilic channels that function as
pores.
Be globular proteins that act as specific
carrier molecules in the membrane.

Facilitated Diffusion
Nucleic acid,
amino acids
and proteins

Active Transport
Transport of molecules or ions across a
membrane against the concentration gradient.
low solutes -> high solutes
Requires energy in the form of ATP.
Occurs in one direction only.
Involves transport proteins called
pumps.
Protein pumps are globular proteins.

Active Transport
Binding of a solute molecule/ ion to
transport protein:

Phosphorylation
An ATP molecule transfer its terminal
phosphate group to transport protein
Releasing chemical energy stored in ATP.
Energy induces transport protein to change its
shape to allow movement of solute

Active Transport
The release of solute/ ion from protein
pump:
Dephosphorylation
Release of phosphate group.
Returns transport protein to its original shape.
Cycle repeats.

Sodium-Potassium Pump: - Exists in all cell membranes

- Mostly for transmitting nerve impulse

Active Transport
Takes place in:
The gut where absorption takes place.
Active uptake of ions by plant roots.
Kidney tubules where urine is formed.
Nerve fibres where impulse is generated.

Cytosis
For movement of large molecules and solids
across the membrane in (endocytosis) or out
(exocytosis) of the cell.
A transport mechanism involving infolding
(invagination) and outfolding of a small
portion of the cell membrane.

Endocytosis
1. Phagocytosis
Cellular eating.
Solid substances are taken into a cell
by infolding of the cell membrane.
A vacuole is formed where it takes in
the solid substances.
The vacuole content is then digested
after vacuole fuses with lysosome
containing hydrolytic enzyme.

Endocytosis
2. Pinocytosis
Cellular drinking.
Intake of dissolved materials rather
than solids.
A cell creates a vesicle around tiny
droplets of extracellular fluid.
Contents of vesicles are slowly
transferred to cytosol & vesicles
become smaller.

Endocytosis
3. Receptor-mediated endocytosis
E.g.: cholesterol

Exocytosis
Vesicles and vacuoles move to cell
membrane, fuse with it and spill their
contents to the outside of the cell.
Eg:
cells in pancreas the manufacture insulin
secrete it in bulk quantities into them
bloodstream by exocytosis