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Mazangi et al., Int. J. Rev. Life. Sci.

, 4(10), 2014, 11-19

ISSN 2231-2935
Research Article
www.ijrls.pharmascope.org

Reviewing visual elements of rhythm, balance and movement of forms and motifs in filigree work of Zanjan
Javad Mazangi1*, Mohammad Taghi Pirbabaie2
1, 2

Tabriz Islamic Art University, Tabriz, Iran

ABSTRACT
When it comes to creating a work of art, either in pictorial and two-dimensional or bulk and three-dimensional, it
will induce different emotions to the audience. Elements existing in the production of artistic disciplines, which
can include various majors of handicraft, with no doubt, intentionally or unintentionally, consciously or unconsciously come into compliance of the definitions brought in the arts and sciences like mathematics during the
time. As been in filigree work of Zanjan so. There are components to this art and artistic field and handcraft which
are known as forms and motifs. Three important elements that are common in the visual arts and investigating
artistic effects include: "Rhythm", "balance" and "movement". Identification of rhythm, balance and movement of
the tapestry works is accounted for achievements of this research.
Keywords filigree Work of Zanjan; Rhythm; Tapestry Motifs; Balance.
INTRODUCTION
Filigree work art in Iran is of historical and antiquity,
undoubtedly, although having at different times recession or prosperity. "Over the years 330 to 224 BC, it
also had a considerable vogue in making filigree objects. And the resulting effects on" Dora Orpous "is
evident that within the productions, silver wire was
used, hence being as the primary indicator of the filigree work"(Taghipour, 2012: 13). The filigree work art
work would have long history in Zanjan, and it is also
known as the cradle of filigree work. "Zanjan was located on Commercial Silk highway and is one of the
few cities with no clear historical identity and identity
and written memory of history dont much talk about
the historical, social, scientific, artistic and cultural information of Zanjan. In recent years, the city as well as
the growth of in various fields because of the people's
attention to the handcraft, it has been specially placed
in the production and supply of art products. There are
various workshops producing and selling various products of handcrafts in various fields, as well as artists
practicing art depicting face of this city full of art for
anyone.
Pour Vahid (2011) in his book "The Art of silver filigree
work" has done to identify the mode of implementation of filigree work. Baftehchi (1982) also in his pamphlet surveyed the filigree work and knife making in
Zanjan. In this regard, the Atlantic Handcraft (2013) can
also be pointed out. Kafili (2007) in his article assessed
and documented the art of gold filigree work in Tabriz.
Haji Alian in his article introduces the structure and
* Corresponding Author
Javad Mazangi

style of traditional craftsmen work Chngvm making


(Tapestry Sangsari) and investigates the cause of its
stagnation. Ghasemi (2002) in his research work has
researched on the filigree work place in Zanjan province. bayegan (2008) in investigating the handcrafts of
people from Zanjan studied filigree work and knife
making in this city. Including the theses conducted in
this field, it is noted a work by Alizadeh on the aesthetical analysis of forms and motifs in gold filigree jewelry
in Iran in Tabriz Islamic Art University. Also, it can be
noted the research by Karimi (1994) about filigree
work of Zanjan, Abu Torabi (1994) Research about
the art of filigree work in Iran long ago until now"
Mouayed (1998),"Plan manifestation of the art of filigree work ", Shokrpur (1999)" forgotten art, filigree
integration with enamel, Derakhshani (2001), "Making
mosaic-filigree necklaces by using the fig leaf" Habibi
Salmasi (1386), "Review of progress in the art of filigree work", Habibi Salmasi (1997) looking at filigree
work art trend in Iran, Aberi Asle (2005) "Understanding the art of filigree work for the city of Zanjan, based
on the designs and motifs.
METHOD
To identify resources and better find a background on
the research, it was used various libraries, including the
library of the University of Tehran, Tehran art, Islamic
art of Tabriz, Isfahan art, Shahid Beheshti of Tehran,
Razavi Astaneh Ghouds, Soure of Tehran and also Administration Library of Cultural Heritage of Tourism and
Handcrafts for Zanjan province and resources of Handcraft organizations of Zanjan and present theses, an
archive of magazines and virtual internet sites such as
Countrys Publication Database and the Institute for
Humanities and cultural Studies. Data collection meth-

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od for this study is that both groups the original


sources (books and articles in the field, and experts)
and secondary sources (few writings and images exist)
to achieve this goal. According to the information, Bureau of Cultural Heritage of Zanjan have nationally registered branches of knife making, Charoq embroidering, coppersmith and filigree as works of art. And "filigree, perforated metal, metal instrument (including
making instruments like knife, sugar mill, etc.), coppersmith, scrimshaw on copper and silver and engraving
metal and making metal jewelry and traditional metal
volumes and locksmith of fields of metal handcrafts
that are active in the city"(Jori, 2013: 20).
Tapestry making or filigree work is one of the metal
arts in which it is made decorative applicable productions of metal wires usually using silver, gold and copper in some cases, after a few stages, it is said "the
smallest unit of silver or gold and sometimes copper
strip indented as a filigree (a stripe includes both inkjet
and twisted wires) that these strips are used for the
manufacturing various fine motifs engravings of the
original design, thus, the object which is made of fine
motifs with strips full of filigrees is called the object
made by filigree work "(Aberi-Asle, 17: 2005)

er. So a kind of evolution over the course of its changes


will be followed. Like the moon movement
Wave repetition: in the beat, mainly using moving
curves creates surfaces, lines, and also enjoys an alternation; it is a perfect example of embodiment of the
beat, like sands over Sahra (Enaiati, 2010).
Based on these definitions, as well as video and field
study of filigree work, you can recognize two types of
normal rhythm of filigree-work products originating
from companion of walls, forms and motifs. Filigree
work components have undoubtedly rhythm due to
having the elegance and sitting down together and
including repetition. But this rhythm can be better
seen on a product made by filigree work. Linear and
alternating rhythms are quite evident and because of
those that besides the beauty of the art of filigree
work, it makes also wondrous beauty of the rhythm.
- First, uniform rhythm: the rhythm of filigree work
products may come in different parts. Twisted walls,
the filigree work machine forms, teeth and ivies are in
straight-line path cause a uniform rhythm. For example, in Fig (1-1) we see linear rhythm in several products of this field. Linear rhythms are marked with signs.

RHYTHM
"Successive duplication of visual elements within the
tableau or visual space creates a visual rhythm"
(Www.fa.wikipedia.org). Rhythm, though "a term is
commonly used in music, common tradition in the visual arts. The sense of rhythm on visual art is meant an
image, and includes the repetition, variation and
movement of visual elements in the visual space; the
rhythm that is said regular repetition of lines, shapes,
forms or colors involves harmonious theory is accounted for as a strategy for organizing forms and spaces in
architecture. The image size based on details characteristics over visual art of rhythm is pictorial meaning;
and is the frequency of change and movement of visual
elements in the visual space, in other words, regular
and successive repetition of a visual element creates a
visual beat.
IN GENERAL, IT COULD BE SAID FOUR VISUAL BEAT
CATEGORIES
This uniform repetition: in this type of beat, an image is
smoothly and continuously repeated. The rhythm
makes a move and the reaction which is spontaneous
and gets the audiences attention to follow it, but due
to the lack of diversity it has a negative effect on and
after a while it will be boring and mundane.
Alternating repetition: in the beat, a visual element can
be repeated, but again it will be varied by alternative
shifting so that the audience waits always for a repetition.
Evolution repetition: in the beat, an image or a visual
element of a particular time and mood starts and by
gradually changing the status or condition looks fresh-

(1-1) a sample uniform rhythm of filigree work (author)


Second, alternating rhythm: that is, the beat with alternating changes with the turn. This rhythm, although
is visible alone in repetitions of ivy forms and motifs
such as "V" in Persian and "the West leaves", is clearly
seen in a completed product. The West leaves made on
the type of work, and "V" in Persian, when being twist-

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ed in a form, produce an alternating rhythm. For example, this type of rhythm in the movement pattern of
the curves in the motifs Fig (2-1) can be seen on some
filigree work products of Zanjan.

(3-1) a sample of symmetric equilibrium of filigree


work (author)
(2-1) a sample of the alternating rhythm of filigree
work (author)
BALANCE
In Dehkhodas dictionary, the word "balance" is defined as follows: becoming equal together, equivalent,
becoming right together. Within the art, balancing
components to a work has a major effect. In the visual
work a visual balance existence to make a positive impact on the audience is necessary. If imbalanced between the different visual powers, message of the
work will lose its effectiveness. The balance gets classified into two types of symmetrical and asymmetrical.
Symmetrical balance: employing symmetric equilibrium is the easiest way to create visual balance. Because
everything is measured to the horizontal, vertical and
diagonal axes that pass through middle of the work.
Symmetric equilibrium is completely natural and easy
to reach and easily understandable. Through asymmetrical balance, a visual balance is not defined based on
distance between the shapes, the elements relative to
the horizontal, vertical and diagonal axis in the center
of the box, but visual energy of shapes is specified on
the size, direction, darkness and brightness, color, texture, and location relative to each other and to the
frame. What exists on the artwork of filigree work in
Zanjan would be symmetric equilibrium. The filigree
designs usually are made as Vagire work and mirrormaking and why the axis of symmetry can be seen in
many of the filigree works of Zanjan. It should be remembered that symmetrical balance of filigree work
can be seen in those which with no specific form. That
is, the applied dishes and decorative objects created
based on Vagire. Walls and forms more influence on
making balance. In Fig (3.1) we see examples of this
balance.

4-9-3- movement
"The movement means relocation in space and time.
But this means is more termed as a mechanical movement, while movement is deeper and more general
sense as well. Movement as one of the manifestations
of life in the arts has been applied by itself. View of
movement is made in visual arts with repetition and
sequences of a form or a statue; there displays usually
some kind of rhythm (beat). Meanwhile, the shapes
drawn horizontal and vertical and continuous and directed lines and their repetition can be revealed by
visual movement from one direction to another." Because there are recurring elements, it is seen a movement onto the art of filigree work of Zanjan. An artist
who does filigree work utilizes repetition and rhythm
when defining forms and walls, and finally made work
has a kind of rhythmic movement. It can be seen Vagire repetition and movement existence in the picture
examples below selected from filigree work of artists in
Zanjan (Fig 1-4). The element making visual movement
is marked with a flesh.

(1-4) the sample movement of the filigree work (author)

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There are some significant visual elements including


rhythm, balance and movement in filigree work of Zanjan, and this could be an additional reason of the filigree workers, art is valuable.

West leaves of the filigree work in harmony with this


feature. The difference is that the motifs and forms do
not repeat in only one direction and sometimes move
and rotate.

Motifs and forms of filigree is matched with traditional


design motifs

"The motifs implementation style during the Achaemenids civilization was of symmetrical and repetitive
patterns" (Tomson, 15: 2012), i.e. the same feature
seen on the filigree work. However, this feature can
also be seen on the art of civilizations coming after the
Achaemenid such as the Parthian and Sassanid. So
could be expressed that repetition and symmetrizing
on the surface are considered as an Iranian ancient art
and civilization and by now maintain its place, it is as
an important joint point between traditional design
motifs and an art-forms-and-designs filigree work.
"During Islamic era, the plant figures were taken away
from naturalism and got close to cyclical abstraction.
The most prominent cyclical motifs during this period
would be motifs of Arabesque and Angelica" (Tomson,
24: 2012).

In this section, we try to compare forms and motifs


used in filigree work art of Zanjan with those are used
to illumination and traditional design of Iran. This aims
to investigate further the authenticity of the tapestrys
figures and amount of the similarity or being influenced under traditional motifs of Iran. It seems, the
designs and development of components of more Iranians art have been inspired and influenced by the
nature.
They are all grown on the same substrate and filigree
work is the same and not isolated as a case. So it could
be seen many similarities between part of the components of the filigree-work forms and the motifs of Zanjan and those of angelicas and arabesques related to
traditional design.
"It has been found a set of motifs designed by the Iranians in the past by now as a Persian traditional design
that they are various for a variety of applications and
finally are known as an Iranian identity. Traditional
motifs involves different subjects (abstract, plants,
etc.). The designs using straight lines and curves applicable regularly and irregularly, and are divided into
three categories (Fig 5-1):
1. Broken designs, those are formed by flat or angled
line.
2. Cyclic designs: those are of revolving and inanimate
lines.
3. Consolidated designs: a group of motifs arises from
combining the broken and cyclic motifs"(Tomson, 1:
2012)

(5-1) types of lines (threads) in traditional motifs (author)


One of the most outstanding and significant features of
patterns designing in pre-historic times is how to compose in that single motifs are repeated in row in the
same direction. If we accept that the filigree history
goes back to the Achaemenid era and before, we can
know repetition of motifs such as ivy forms and the

"Angelicas building components in traditional design


are: 1-leaf, 2- flower, 3-bud 4- section
In nature there are different types of leaves in small
and large sizes. As is in traditional design"(Ibid. 55:
2012).
"In all art periods after Islam, there includes symmetrizing and using Vagire and repetition and expanding
them over traditional arts. Of course, using free motifs,
the repetition constraint has maintained its position.
Since the mid-twelfth century by now, West flower got
prevalent (nature-oriented flower) and common and
free composition was more prosperous. Cyclical plant
motif was implemented using symmetric and asymmetric pattern more"(Ibid: 52). It should be noted that
these flowers, though nature-oriented, differs from the
West leaves motif used in the filigree work of Zanjan.
COMPARING SYMMETRIZING AND REPETITION
One of the illumination design and traditional design
principles is how define Vagire which is repeated as
different shapes including in row, reverse or mirror
(Fig. 1-6). There is considerably the repetition of forms
and motifs in filigree work (Fig. 1-7). Another thing
about the designs and motifs of traditional designing
and filigree work designs could be noted symmetrizing
which is considered Iranian traditional art basis. And it
is in filigree work, too. "Symmetry means such as the
identic; symmetrizing means simulation. It is divided
into three types: reflection (mirror), transitional
(mounted installation) and cyclical" (Ibid: 123). In many
designs, when the handicraft makes the overall structure or main skeleton by using of ivies, takes advantage
of symmetry. Boxes and trays and pots and as well as a
variety of pans involve in great feature. But sometimes
to small Tapestry things, sometimes a craftsman utilizes the plans are free and without symmetrizing and
depict. Vagires in small and large sizes are seen to the

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filigree work of Zanjan. Forms or patterns are repeated


together and make a Vagire, and after this Vagire has
been repeated symmetrically or in row and an object is
made by them. Form of ivy, paisley and West leaves
are frequented at high repetition by the filigree work
and create symmetrizing.

(9-1) helical or ivy of the filigree work (author)

(1-6) Vagire sample of traditional design (author)

The same thing happens in the art of filigree work.


These sections exist also in forms of filigree work and
induce growth and movement into the mind (Fig. 1-9).
But they are called ivy in the art, and the designs, instead of sitting on them, become embedded within.
The difference of helical-shaped section between traditional design and filigree work ivy as well as its name is
that the ivies for the filigree work are made of thicker
wire than motifs and they are thickness and this is why
it shows off more, its undulating movement has been
seen further than the motifs.
Of course, there is a kind of famous arabesque called
by ivy arabesque in the traditional design that is different from the filigree work ivy. The ivy is shaped by simple helical form; but on "the arabesque in traditional
ivy design, the fork place is beautifully decorated with
all verity of the ivy" (Ibid: 123)

(1-7) Vagire sample of filigree work (author)


Comparing similarity of forms and the filigree work and
traditional design elements
A- Helical or spiral form: can be said to helical-shaped
form called also spiral would be bedrock to draw and
create a Vagire or branch in traditional illumination and
design. "As like the nature, the flowers and leaves on a
branch (stem) are grown, in traditional design it also
takes place on the section and it becomes an agent in
growth of binding and composition of flowers and
leaves"(ibid: 59) (Fig. 1-8).

B- Leaves: The leaves form of the filigree work as well


as what exits in traditional design are inspired by the
nature and it is an imitation which the filigree workers
performed due to traditional design and resembles to
lotus leaf from the traditional leaf. This resemblance is
placed on the type of tapestry leaf which is called by
hawk or sparrow and on the leaf turns back there. You
can see some examples of similarity between general
forms related to traditional design leaf and filigree
work art at the Fig (10-1).

(1-10) the sample similarity of leaf of the filigree


work and traditional design (author)

(1-8) helical or spiral form of traditional design (author)

C- Flowers: the tulip form is only common one on the


filigree work. Although the filigree workers make another flower forms, which are symmetric and roundshaped ones more, to their artifacts and moat at the
jewelry as a hobby work that but looking at the products and studying the designs, can be said the tulip
form would be as a common flower in the filigree work
products in medium and large size of Zanjan. This is
simplified and taken from the nature and more the

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filigree workers agree on this statement. The filigree


works tulip form is resembled to well-known one and
also simple scheme form Shah Abbas flowers of the
traditional design especially tulips Shah Abbas (Fig. 111). The figure of a blind filigree work also placed in a
circular form can be in the form of round flowers angelica that will be discussed in section of motifs comparisons.

(1-13) Comparison of the form of "cashmere" in filigree work, "paisley" in the traditional design (author)

(1-11) Comparison of tulip form between filigree and


traditional design (author)
D- The teardrop form or cedar: almond- or Amygdalus
salicifolia-shaped forms would be common of traditionally designing motifs and illumination that are applied in the construction of flowers and other components and are the basic forms of Iranian design. Some
also calls this as cedar that has a special place in Iranian
populations culture. The form of teardrop or cedar
within the art of filigree work is also derived from the
same culture. The almond-shaped form is widely used
with its simple structure, but there is in bent standing
state in filigree work. (Fig 1-12).

H- Marginal forms: usually in traditional design and


Vagire of illumination and carpet design, margins and
frames as a separator of the text space and margin
besides bergamot motifs. The margins walls and
frames with the specific forms that sometimes arise
from the repetition and symmetrizing tiny and beautiful motifs are of great importance on the traditional
designs. To compare, we can consider this task for the
walls of the filigree work placed at the point where
being achieved by the simple or formed braids. The
forms in tapestry machines wall and in teeth and
twisted one with a fine and simple Vagire in addition to
making the beauty and strength of filigree work perform as a separator of space and surface and make
housing that the filigree worker completes them using
the (Fig 1-14).

(1-14) the marginal forms of traditional design and


filigree work (author)

(1-12) Comparison between form of tear in filigree


work and traditional design (author)
G- Forms of paisley or cashmere: paisley is the form
that has an important place in traditional design of Iran
and construction of arabesques. This form is wieldy
used to handcraft, although the paisley is also known
as a cedar curved but as if this, due to being wieldy
used, is found as a separate character. The paisley is
also called as cashmere in filigree work art. The filigree
worker creates this by steel wire skillfully and fills within with motifs. If almond or teardrop is used in the
middle of cashmere form of filigree work and the space
among them is made by the motifs, the buds arise between them. (Fig 1-13).

I- The box: simple lines of varying thickness that used


as in geometric or curved form in a variety of illumination design with the traditional design as boxes and
frames are used in the filigree work under the name of
wall. (Figure 15-1) a wall called by latex that its thickness is larger than the other forms and is in different
sizes, along with the main and thin walls of filigree
work it has fundamental and important applications.
The latex, which is initially placed in the right place,
makes up the main frame and outline.

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(1-15) the sample frame of filigree work and traditional design (author)
J- Open forms: sometimes the filigree-work artists try
on their hobby works to make one form or design a
shape that is known in another art or is close to the
nature with innovative manner by using their art forms
and designs and employing metal wire. These works as
seen on the filigree work of Zanjan is visible in many of
the arts and crafts of Iran. Thus, can be said that the
free forms enable to be built and applied in the filigree
work and that appear in the filigree works being done
on the surface or volume.
COMPARING BETWEEN SIMILARITIES AMONG THE
FILIGREE AND TRADITIONAL DESIGN ELEMENTS
The filigree works motifs since used by forms as a
space and houses filler caused are of less variety than
forms. Its motifs are of specific and quantifiable motif
in small and large sizes that with only by a slight deformation would be placed around the filigree work
and create a new work. It can be itself a resemblance
between the filigree works motifs and traditional design motif and elements in Iran. The traditional design
flowers and leaves are positioned in different modes
on the sections or the same stems and create a wavy
movement which turns the eye and gets it to be followed. This is the same thing can be seen in the filigree
work. Forms of ivy and West leaves and paisley would
be making this move.
A- The almond-shaped motifs: the almond-shaped motifs of the filigree work of Zanjan are: paisley, bud and
three or four eyes. The three motifs with different sizes
and with its modes, sometimes curved, sometimes
standing, are tasked to the same leaves and almonds in
constructing leaves and flowers of illumination and
traditional design, as well as making the spaces complete. In form of bud and three or four eyes, the eyes
and empty spaces among the work are likely to induce
indentations existing in the traditional design leaves.
The bud motif of the filigree work is an almond-shaped
filigree work is not closely resembles with the traditional design buds and completes them when placed in
the form of teardrops and almonds (Fig. 1-16).

(1-16) comparison of the motif of the "teardrop" in


filigree work, and "almond" in the traditional design
(author)
B- Flowers: circular shapes from the traditional design
elements usually found in the center of flowers and
also in general structure of the circular flowers can be
compare motif of tapestry blind to the blind eye in the
filigree work art. Tapestry blind resembles to the round
motif guides composed of concentric circles. Blind eye
is placed in the center and other components are arranged around. And with the empty circle at its center
can be a round flower which undertakes round flowers
of Angelica from traditional design in the filigree work
(Fig 1-17)

(1-17) comparison between the motif of "tapestry


blind" and traditional design round flowers (author)
Also, there is a West leaves on the filigree work individually or a combination named by West leaves, West
two-leaf, and trifoliate. Although this is special about
the art of filigree work of Zanjan, it can be considered
as a one leave. West leaves compared to traditional
design flowers and illumination are not resembled in
terms of the plot and structure but it is used in the
filigree work as a flower.
C- The leaves: the leaves motif as said about the almond motifs of plays an important role compared with
traditional design leaves (Fig. 1-18). There is different
that the leave of the filigree work is usually used in the
form itself named by the leave. So the leaves of the
filigree work are the same dependent as of traditional
design. And enclosed in a form, it has taken them in. So
that in tapestry leave form (Sparrow, middle and revers), the leave motif made by the tapestry band
comes alongside other motifs, such as three or four
eyes and make leave form completed.

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(1-18) comparing the leave motif of the filigree work


and traditional design (author)
D- The minor sub-stems: in the traditional design and
illumination sometimes alongside buds, flowers and
leaves grown on the stem or section there are thin and
short spiral-shaped buds in form of "V" in Persian word
from Persian alphabet. In the filigree work a variety of
motifs is made in such a "V" in Persian (Fig. 1-19). Although in many cases it is embedded in the forms, it
associates the same buds existence and growth of
Angelica section. Of course, the motif of "V" in Persian
of one eye role is more successful in inducing in mind

(1-19) comparing between the motif "V" in Persian in


the filigree work and "germ" of traditional design (author)
What can be seen from this comparison is that a lot of
forms and designs common in filigree work of Zanjan
are robust based on the same style and technique of
traditional design and illumination. Forms and motifs
have been taken from the nature and the simple cases
of plants. But in filigree work, the artist has changed
them creatively in a way who is able to shape them
with the thin metal wires and simple tools and as well
as oneself skills and to assemble together after passing
the construction processes to structure a beautiful
metallic work using the filigree work art.
THE DESIGN TECHNIQUE OF THE FILIGREE WORK
In this field of art, since the forms and motifs were
constructed for the artist and the number is specified
previously, a plan is considered for a filigree work must
have a the original structure such that is capable being
built into the walls and forms available and it can be
made with the filigree technique. However, this flexibility also exists in the filigree work; if the artist is familiar enough and has the necessary experience, then
s/he can build almost any kind of motif in reasonable
size of technique in the field. There are two main
routes in designing to build on the filigree work art.
1. Copying the works made: in this path, the artist recreate or repeat again the work, before it was built by

him or herself or another one when having a picture or


design or samples of the work. In this case, s/he has
prepared a ready plan and employing oneself ability to
re-create and repeat that work. And the new work can
be varied with previous in size. Sometimes these things
happen in a manufacturing workshop and it is done in
series or several similar work constructions. So in this
case, the artist works based on a plan, and implements
that in all their built and implement recommendations.
The original plan would accelerate the work and make
skills of making a work in abundance.
After several repetitions, such schemes would be settled in the artist's mind and s/he is able, with having
templates but not a model, to make any work of.
2. Construction of new works: in another direction, the
filigree worker is trying to build a new work and begins
to design, after making sure about capability of the
considered work construction by using the filigree
work technique. First s/he develops the original design
with the intended size and builds the necessary formats. After that, if the plan is symmetrized, one of Vagire has been chosen to draw the walls and ivies. And
when the main structure forms that are to be filled
with motifs is prepared and becomes beauty desirably,
s/he makes them completed with symmetry and draw
up the whole plan. The filigree work design does not
need to draw motifs. Because the artist per se knows
on how forms will be filled with designs. It, of course,
should be remembered that the filigree-worker artists
due to making work for the high frequency and proficiency required in the construction of his/her works,
often drawing on paper are less; and simultaneously
with the work construction, it is designed mentally or
on a wax.
Going to some of the artists who work in the filigree
work in Zanjan, it was specified the fact that they have
been implementing their own plan on a paper.
CONCLUSION
The filigree work elements, because of including the
elegance and sitting down together and repetition, are
of rhythm undoubtedly. Two normal rhythms common
in the filigree work products can be identified, originated from the companion of walls, forms and motifs.
Linear and alternating rhythms are quite evident on
that those rhythms which exist besides the beauty of
the art of filigree work make also a wondrous beauty of
the rhythm.
- First, the uniform rhythm: the rhythm of filigree work
products may come in different parts. Twisted walls,
tapestry machine forms and teeth and ivies cause a
uniform rhythm, those are in straight-line path.
- Second alternating rhythm: that is beat with frequent
changes along with the rotation. This rhythm, although
alone is visible ivy forms and motifs such as "V" in Persian and "the West leaf", is clearly seen in a completed
product. "West leaf" and "V" in Persian produce an

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Mazangi et al., Int. J. Rev. Life. Sci., 4(10), 2014, 11-19

alternating rhythm, when arranged in a form of a periodic rhythm.


1. There is symmetric equilibrium in the filigree work of
Zanjan. The filigree work designs are made and processed usually as in Vagire and symmetry, and because
of that the axis of symmetry can be seen in many of
the filigree work of Zanjan. Symmetrical balance can be
seen further on those filigree works do not have a specific form.
2. Because there are recurring elements, it was seen a
kind of movement in the art of filigree work of Zanjan.
When the filigree worker artist defines personal
schemes by using the forms and walls, s/he takes a
benefit of repetition and rhythm, and finally the made
includes a kind of rhythmic movement. Therefore, we
can conclude that at the end of this section, there are
important elements such as rhythm, balance and
movement in the filigree works of Zanjan and this can
cause double the value of the filigree workers art of
Zanjan.
3. By comparing between the forms and designs of the
filigree work of Zanjan and traditional design motifs, it
is determined that in addition to the similarity between
"symmetry" and "repetition" of both, a lot of forms
and designs common in filigree work of Zanjan are robust based on the same style and technique of traditional design and illumination. Forms and motifs have
been taken from the nature and the simple cases of
plants. But in filigree work, the artist has changed them
creatively in a way who is able to shape them with the
thin metal wires and simple tools and as well as oneself
skills and to assemble together after passing the construction processes to structure a beautiful metallic
work using the filigree work art. Because of the precision in and being an elegant construction as well as
using the quality raw materials, the filigree-work manufactures of Zanjan are of best quality products in the
field of artistic in silver filigree-work of Iran.
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