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LESSON 5
The effects of a force

a =kF
m

Definition of force

F = kma

Force is defined as anything that changes the state of rest or


motion of an object moving in a straight line.

In S.I. units , the definition of a force of 1 N is given as the


amount of force which is applied on a mass of 1 kg and which
causes it to experience an acceleration of 1 ms-2
Thus,
1 N = k ( 1 kg ) ( 1 ms-2 )
Thus
k=1

Force is a vector quantity which has both direction and


magnitude
The S.I. unit for force is N or kg m s-2

Therefore
Force is measured by using a Spring Balance

F = ma
Where F = net force
m = mass
a = acceleration

The effects of a force


A force can
move a stationary object
stop a moving object
accelerate a moving object
decelerate a moving object
change the direction of a moving object
alters the size of the object
alters the shape of the object
NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION
Newtons First Law :

Newtons Second Law :

Newtons Third Law :

An object will remain at rest


or continue with a constant speed in
a straight line unless acted on by an
unbalanced force.

Example 1

The acceleration of a body ,a, is


directly proportional to the net force
acting on it, F , and inversely
proportional to its mass, m.

Two forces act horizontally to a block of wood of mass 4 kg


as shown in figure above. What is the acceleration and the
direction of motion of the block.

For every action there is an equal


and opposite reaction.

Solution

The relationship between the acceleration ,a ,the net


force ,F and the mass , m.
Based on the Newtons Second Law of motion,
a F
a 1
m
we obtain

a F
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Example 2

Example 4

An object of mass 2 kg is pulled on the floor by a force of 5 N


and having a constant velocity.
(a) What is the frictional force between the object and the
floor.
(b) Calculate the acceleration of the object if the object is
pulled by a 17 N force?

When traveling at 120 km h-1 a car has to overcome a drag


force due to air resistance of 900 N. If the car has a mass of
1000 kg, determine the average force that the motor needs to
apply if it is to accelerate at 5.0 ms-2.
Solution

Solution

Example 3
A bus of mass 2 000 kg travels with a uniform velocity
40 ms-1 for a distance 2500 m before it comes to rest.
Calculate
(a) the average deceleration of the bus
(b) the average force applied by the brakes to bring the bus
to a standstill
Solution

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TUTORIAL 5
1

1 N is equivalent to
A
C

1 kg ms-1
1 ms kg-1

B
D

1 kg ms-2
1 kg s m-1

Which of following is not effects of a constant force?


A
B
C
D

Change the direction of motion


Change the shape of an object
Change the velocity of a moving object
Change the acceleration of a moving object

Which pair of forces F1 and F2 causes the wooden block


to move with an acceleration?

The figure shows the graph of motion for two objects M


and N is acted on by a same force.

A
B
C
D
E
6

Which comparison is correct about the mass of M and N?


A
B
C
3

The figure shows forces , F1 and F2 , exerted on a


wooden block placed on a table surface. The friction
between the block and the table surface is 2 N.

Mass of M = Mass of N
Mass of M < Mass of N
Mass of M > Mass of N
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F2/ N

5
3
6
3
4

7
5
4
2
1

An object of mass 0.2 kg is pulled on a smooth floor by a


force of 8 N. What is the acceleration of the object ?
A
C
E

Which of the following graph is true to show the


relationship between the acceleration a , the mass , m
and the force ,F

F1 / N

20 ms-2
60 ms-2
160 ms-2

B
D

40 ms-2
80 ms-2

Figure shows an object of mass 2 kg is pulled on a floor


by a force of 15 N. The frictional force between the
object and the floor is 3 N.

What is the acceleration of the object?


A
2 ms-2
B
5 ms-2
C
6 ms-2
D
8 ms-2
E
10 ms-2
4

Which of the following objects acted on by a pair of forces


will accelerate?

A box with a mass 3 kg is pushed along a rough surface


with a force 10 N. If the acceleration of the box is 3 ms-2 ,
what is the frictional force between the box and the
rough surface?
A
C
E

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0.5 N
1.5 N
2.5 N

B
D

1.0N
2.0 N

10

A car of mass 1 200 kg travelling at 20 ms-1 is brought to


rest over a distance 40 m. Find the average braking
force.
A
C
E

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B
D

240 N
6 000 N
If the acceleration of the block is 6 ms-2,
(i) Calculate the magnitude of the friction force
between the block and the rough table surface.

A particle of mass 0.02 kg is moving with a velocity


10 ms-1 on a smooth surface . A force 5 N acts on the
particle such that its velocity increases to 15 m s-1. For
how long will the force act on the particle?
A
C
E

12

5N
2 400 N
1 2000 N

(c) Later on the wooden block is pulled by a force of


20 N on a rough table surface as shown in figure (d)

0.01 s
0.1 s
1.0 s

B
D

0.02 s
0.2 s

(ii) Suggest two methods to reduce the


magnitude of the friction force.

Figure shows a wooden block of mass 2 kg resting on a


frictionless surface. placed on a table surface. The friction
force between the block and the table surface is 2 N.

.
.
.
.
13 Figure (a) shows a spring balance which is pulling a
wooden block A with a force of magnitude 10 N on a
rough surface. The block is moving with a uniform
velocity of 2 ms-1.

Two forces P and Q exerted on the wooden block in


three difference situations. The magnitude of P and Q
are 5 N and 12 N respectively.
The following table shows the situations and the resultant
force occurred.
.
Situation
A
B
C

Resultant force
17 N
13 N
7N

(a) What is the friction force between the wooden block


A and the rough surface.

(a) What is meant by the resultant force?


..
(b) Draw the forces P and Q in figure (a) ,(b) and (c)
which produced the resultant force as shown in the
table above.

(b) (i)

What is observed on the reading of the spring


balance if a smaller surface area of the
wooden block A to touch the rough surface.

................
(ii) Give a reason for your answer in (b)(i).
.
.
(c) If the wooden block is pulled by a 18 N force ,
calculate
(i) the acceleration of the wooden block?
(ii)
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the velocity of the wooden block after 4 s.

Each figure below shows a motorcycle and a lorry in


two situations at a traffic light.
Observe the situations of the motorcycle and the lorry of
each diagram.
Based on the observations:

(d) Two identical wooden blocks B and C is placed on the


wooden block A as shown in figure (b).

(i)

What is the friction force between the wooden


blocks and the rough surface?

(ii)

What is the force is needed to move the wooden


blocks with an acceleration is same as the
acceleration in (c)(i).

(a) State one suitable inference that can be made.


(b) State one appropriate hypothesis for an
investigation.
(c) With the use of apparatus such as trolley, ticker
timer and other apparatus , describe an
experimental framework to test your hypothesis.
In your description , state clearly the following:
(i) Aim of the experiment
(ii) Variables in the experiment
(iii) List of apparatus and materials
(iv) Arrangement of the apparatus
(v)
The procedure of the experiment which
include the method of controlling the
manipulated variable and the method of
measuring the responding variable.
(vi) Way you would tabulate the data
(vii) Way you would analysis the data

14 Figure (a) shows a car is pulling a boat and moving


without the boat respectively.
Figure (b) shows the car is moving without the boat.
Observe the Figure(a) and (b). Compare the mass
and the acceleration of the moving objects.
Relate the mass and the acceleration of the moving
objects to deduce a relevant physics concept.
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The motorcycle and the lorry stop


Figure (a)

The motorcycle and the lorry accelerate


Figure (b)
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