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C a m b r id g e

*CEF*

Advanced
Coursebook
Adrian Doff & Ben Goldstein

Goals

Childhood
pages
6-15

® ta lk about adapting to different
cultures
® ta lk about m em ory
© ta lk about a personal m em ory
® evoke the feelings and moods
of a past event

Language

Skills

Explore

Language focus

Reading

Across cultures

Adapting to another
cu ltu re p7
Rem em bering p9
Talking about a
personal m em ory
p10

Born everywhere, raised in
Britain p6
Childhood memories are
fairytales p8

Target activity
Describe a childhood memory

® ta lk about personality tra its
® ta lk about identity
® understand prom otional
language
® say how you m et someone
® use effective introduction
strategies

Target activity

Describing habits and
tendencies

EXPLORESpeaking

M em ory p8
Childhood m em ories p 10

© te ll an anecdote effectively
® keep people interested in a story

Speaking

Look again O

Adapting to another culture

p7

pages
16-25

Keywords

Listening

How w e ll do you rem em ber
things? p8
Your e arliest m em ory p9

Self

Attitudes to children

Grammar
would
using the -ing form

Vocabulary
M emory
ju s t

Language focus

Reading

Across cultures

Presenting a selfimage p16
Talking about identity

Your online self p16
Dating agencies p i 8

Your cards

Listening

KeyW OrdS Describing s k ill and
a bility

pi 7
P rom otional
language p 19
Say how you met
someone p 19
Introduction
strategies p20

Promote yourself

What defines you? p 17
Introducing yourself p20

Speaking
Your online self p16
What defines you as a
person? p17

W riting and Speaking
Say how you m et someone
pi 9

EXPLOREWriting
© w rite a cover le tte r
® describe experience and ability

Look again O
Grammar
Verb tenses in narration
Phrasal verbs; verbs + prepositions

Vocabulary
selfR eform ulating what you say

pages
26-35

Language and
literature
© describe a book
© give a personal response
® ta lk about languages and ways
to learn them
© describe experiences of
language learning
© discuss plans and p rio ritie s

Language focus

Speaking and Reading

Across cultures

Describe a book and
its significance p27
Language learning
p28
Plans and prioritie s
p30

Life-changing books p26
Language learning p29

Attitudes to English

Listening
Farthest North p27
Language learning p28
Plans and p rio ritie s p30

Speaking
Describing books and th e ir
significance p27

Target activity
A plan to improve your English

Keywords worth,

worthwhile

EXPLORESpeaking
® use strategies fo r
com m unicating effectively

Look again O
Grammar
Present verb form s
Adverbs

Vocabulary
Expressions w ith language
Idioms about speaking

World
pages
36-65

© in te rp re t maps and facts
® make com parisons and talk
about changes
® ta lk about diet and n u tritio n
© discuss changing trends
© ta lk about result

Target activity
Say how a town or country has
changed

Language focus

Reading

Across cultures

Differences and
changes p37
Interpreting meaning
p37
Types of food p38
Changes and trends
p39
Result pAO

Maps of the w orld p36
N utrition transition p39

Restaurants

Listening
Events and changes in
Britain pAO

Speaking
Maps of the w orld p37
Interpreting a map p37
Food fo r a week p38
Technology debate p39

Keywords get, become
EXPLOREWriting
@ w rite captions
© w rite econom ically

Look again O
Grammar

W riting

The future
Com parisons involving different
verbs and tim es

Maps of the w o rld p37

Vocabulary
Changes
Cause and effect

pages
46-55

Goals

Language

Skills

Explore

Concepts of space

Language focus

Reading

Across cultures

Describing spaces
p47
Legal and illegal
activities p49
Com menting on
experiences p49
O utlining problem s
p50

Post-it cities p46
Surveillance p48

Privacy

® describe spaces in cities
© describe how spaces are used
® ta lk about crim e and
surveiltance
© com m ent on experiences
© outline problem s
© discuss and suggest solutions

Target activity
Plan a city square

Listening
Post-it city p47
Security p49

Speaking
Talking about spaces p47
Com menting on
experiences p49

Keyword need
EXPLORESpeaking
© give a presentation w ith images

Look again O
Grammar
Passive reporting verbs

Vocabulary
Describing places
Solutions to problem s

Appearances
pages
56-65

© describe appearance and
changes to appearance
© discuss photos and images
© ta lk about aim and intention
© ta lk about fakes and forgeries
© convince people and express
doubt
© conduct a personal interview
® describe someone's life,
achievements and attitudes

Language focus

Reading

A ltering physical
features p57
Aim and intention p57
Fakes and forgery p58

Thin, pretty and airbrushed
p56
The m aster forger p58
Paulo Coelho p60

Reading and Speaking
Fake photos p57

Listening
The camera never lies? p56
John Myatt, the m aster
fo rg e r p59

Target activity

Speaking
Real or fake? p59

Interview someone and
present a profile

Across cultures
Piracy

Keywords aim, purpose
EXPLOREWriting
© use w ritte n and spoken styles
appropriately
© appreciate w ritte n and spoken
genres

Look again O
Grammar
Present perfect sim ple and
progressive
Present participle expressions

Vocabulary
New crim es
Verbs w ith -en and en-

Health
pages
66-75

© ta lk about health problem s and
treatm ent
© describe and com m ent on an
exhibition o r a show
® describe a process or
experim ent
© discuss im plications and
significance
© discuss an issue

Language focus

Reading

Across cultures

Health problem s and
trea tm e nt p66
Descriptive particles
p67
Describing processes
and experim ents
p68
Discussing issues p70

Cradle to grave p66
Beware w itch doctors p68

Health campaigns

Target activity

Listening
Audio guide p67
Malaria p70

Speaking
An exhibition o r a show p67
Mind over m atte r p69

Keywords consist, include
EXPLORESpeaking
© take tu rn s in a discussion
© give opinions in an extended
conversation

Look again O

Speaking and Listening

Grammar

A caffeine experim ent p68

Passives and participles
Referencing and substitution

Global issues

Vocabulary
Tests
A ll-purpose nouns
Health problem s and treatm ents

Brand awareness
pages
76-85

© discuss brands
© describe effects and influences
© ta lk about the image and
qualities of products
© ta lk about advertising and
m arketing
© describe an advert
© pass on detailed inform ation

Target activity
Sell a product

Language focus

Reading

Across cultures

Effects and influences
p77
Image and qualities
p77
M arketing w ords p78
Describing
technology p80

V iral ads p78
The air-pow ered car p80

Megabrands

Listening
Brands p76
A vira l video p79

Speaking
Brand im ages p77
Describing an advert p79

Keywords effect, affect
EXPLOREWriting
© use advertising language

Look again O
Grammar
M easuring differences
whatever

Vocabulary
M ulti-w ord expressions
Influence and effect

Scripts pages 4 sim ila ritie s and differences Richard Branson p 106 The Doomsday debate p110 The Doomsday debate Knowledge and technologv Keywords Describing C om puter icons and collocations knowledge and information 146—160 . certain Listening EXPLOREWriting The Hole in the W all project p 118 ® give w ritte n advice ® w rite steps in a process © describe how to do som ething Listening and Speaking The role of technology in obtaining information p117 Look again O Grammar Speaking Participle clauses Finding out inform ation p116 The influence of com puter technology p119 Vocabulary Activities pages 126-139 Grammar reference pages uo-us.pages 86-95 Goals Language Skills Explore Icons Language focus Reading Across cultures Interpreting and defining p86 C ritical language p88 Saying what things and people represent p90 Family story p87 ® speculate about images and objects ® in te rp re t and respond to a story ® discuss icons © identify critica l language in a text © ta lk about what som ething represents © present argum ents and counter-argum ents Icons for today pages 96-105 ® describe groups and m em bership ® describe feelings about belonging ® give opinions em phatically ® explore strategies fo r analysing authentic texts ® persuade others to take action Iconic: the overused adjective p88 Listening Interpreting a painting p86 Shepard Fairey p90 Target activity A sense of belonging Speaking and Reading Loan words KeytNOrdS Describing what things represent EXPLORESpeaking ® give criticism ® respond to criticism Speaking Look again O Symbols and associations p86 Interpreting images p86 A fam ily anecdote p87 Iconic people and things p89 Grammar Language focus Reading Belonging to a group p97 Talking about m em bership p97 Being em phatic p99 Football p98 Listening I t’s n o . Modifying a sentence Vocabulary Uses of suppose Across cultures Football rivalries K e y w o rd together A sense of belonging p97 Listening and Speaking EXPLOREWriting Speaking ® describe an organisation ® present som ething in the best possible light Groups p96 Opinions about fo o tba ll p99 Look again O Joining a group p97 Target activity Grammar Prepare a campaign Inversion Vocabulary Collective nouns fo r people Collective adjectives Climate pages 106-115 ® ta lk about clim ate change ® describe inventions and how they w ork ® discuss proposals ® describe an ongoing process © understand im agery in a poem ® say if actions are ju stified ® conduct a debate Language focus Reading Across cultures Clim ate change p 106 Active and passive infinitives p 107 Processes p 109 Saying if actions are ju stified p110 The Serm ilik fjord in Greenland p108 2084 p109 Living 'o ff-g rid ' Reading and Speaking Radical ways to save the planet p 106 Listening Target activity Listening and Speaking Com menting on a poem p 109 Speaking pages 116-125 © ta lk about knowledge and technology ® discuss how to access inform ation ® describe technological advances ® ta lk about how things develop ® explain an idea © deliver a positive message Target activity Deliver a confident message EXPLORESpeaking ® report a point of view ® react to a point of view Look again O Grammar Present progressive active and passive Cleft sentences Proposals to combat clim ate change p 107 Vocabulary Language focus Reading Across cultures Talking about knowledge and inform ation p117 Developments and advances p 119 The end of general knowledge? p i 16 Hole in the Walt project p118 Technology Adverb / adjective collocations Keywords sure...

lis te n in g . T hey a re fo llo w e d by a T arg et activity w h ic h w ill h e lp you p u t to g e th e r w h a t you have le a rn e d . w h ic h in c lu d e s a w o rk b o o k and in te ra c tiv e DVD-ROM. S o m e tim e s you w ill a lso fin d th is re c y c lin g s y m b o l w ith th e g o a ls. a Keyw ords page. a ll a im in g to h e lp you b e co m e a b e tte r and m o re c u ltu ra lly a w a re c o m m u n ic a to r in E n g lish . re a d in g . and W ord cards to h e lp you te s t y o u r v o c a b u la ry le a rn in g . . A sense o! belonging t i l Q f t m EXPIORI) Across cultures Football rivalries The Explore s e c tio n o f th e u n it in c lu d e s an Across c u ltu re s page. T h e se pages in c lu d e s p e a k in g . The E xplore s e c tio n g ives you e x tra la n g u a g e and s k ills w o rk . | 11Off-gnd bving —Text Q) pf cW m n fcT n tiM C33HHHIHHHILJ Ffon. The DVD-ROM c o n ta in s >a a u th e n tic vid e o c lip s and o ve r 280 in te ra c tiv e a c tiv itie s .no««WrUn*s «itHout fomf to nor* *#KMn » >i (on* to M <oo« proaucoon. p ra c tic a l goals fo r le a rn in g . w h ic h lo o ks at u s e fu l and c o m m o n ly co n fu s e d w o rd s . w ritin g . w ith c le a r. The e -P o rtfo lio DVD-ROM c o n ta in s u s e fu l re fe re n c e m a te ria l fo r a ll th e u n its . M E n g li s h ■■ i* •i i Unlim ited You can do m o re p ra c tic e by y o u rs e lf u sin g th e S e lf-s tu d y Pack. jn t #■ ^ ® ^ The Look again s e c tio n in c lu d e s d e ta ile d w o rk on th e a d v a n c e d -le v e l g ra m m a r and v o c a b u la ry you have m e t in th e u n it. The fir s t fo u r pages of th e u n it h e lp you b u ild y o u r la n g u a g e s k ills and k n o w le d g e . to s h o w w h e n a p a rtic u la r g o a l is n o t n ew but is re c y c lin g la n g u a g e th a t you have m e t before. as w e ll as s e lf-a s s e s s m e n t to h e lp you te s t y o u r own le a rn in g . h e lp in g you re vie w and e xte n d y o u r le a rn in g . W o rk you do on th is DVD-ROM can be saved to th e e -p o r tfilio .How to use this couisebook Every u n it o f th is book is divid e d in to s e c tio n s . > t**ti#»-«r*tf> ftm »**• Th«r» BnotMr»comlr*¥«DO«» j_ 1 K w»»*»»’*»*oVi*°ut. Ourtaft KWrw. g ra m m a r and v o c a b u la ry a c tiv itie s . and an Explore speaking o r Explore w ritin g page.

99 ii Indi. Sometimes they’re just nasty. Here. chasing the chickens. It’s easy to find somebody in common because of the diversity of the people and the nationalities. Religion is a big thing. because the problem is we don't have a nanny here. watching my uncle cut a goat . People did. you can’t get a job. aged 12 (Macedonia) I just wonder if English children need to learn to be more free. aged 10 (Uganda) In Uganda. aged 15 (Peru) Even though racial discrimination is a crime. In St Lucia people pray when they wake up. In Brazil we had a lot of them. If a person's older than you. 99 ii Inza. aged 16 (Ivory Coast) In Africa. But in England if you see anyone and say hello. you can probably work in KFC.1. and at the same time I’m learning about other cultures. if you fail. he decided he just want to stay here one year. and it’s filled with people from all sorts of p lace s. 99 ii Collins. to be more kid-like. Most people don't know I’m Peruvian because I’ve worked very hard at my accent. if you see anyone walking around. before they go to sleep.1 goals ® ta lk about adapting to d iffe re n t cu ltu re s Childhood Born everywhere. even if you don’t know them. they will not say hello back. Here. People are accepting within this whole city.which is quite gruesome. before they eat. I still want to live the life of a little child. 99 ii Luis. In London. I’ll just stay home and watch TV. I still feel it’s there. I spent my days playing with the dogs. ii Amna. aged 11 (Brazil) My dad. I even hear Arabic a lot around this area and it makes me feel that I'm still connected with my culture. In Brazil we didn’t do anything at the house. raised in Britain READING 1 a Look at the photos of the children.. Nannies. I tell myself there’s no big deal me saying it again. to go out. And in St Lucia people take education seriously. 99 . you call them madam or auntie. If you don't go to college. Try to guess who is who in the photos.. I usually tidy up the house with my mum and brothers and dad. It’s just respect. Because sometimes I get kind of tired of shopping because it’s a bit grown up. they act differently towards immigrant people. and then go to read or play video games. They have to get to know you properly. When I arrived here I was saying hello to everybody but they w asn’t answering me back so I stopped. I guess because everyone moves in and out of here. you just say hello. W h ere do you think they are from? What do they have in common? b Read w h a t the children said. play hide and seek and stuff like that. ii Mauricio. aged 15 (St Lucia) There are a lot of differences. 99 ii Sara. but it looks good.. aged 15 (Bahrain) My school's really friendly. people take the mick out of accents. On the weekend in Cambridge.

Who says them and what do they say? Have you. 1 2 b Listen again. or have lived in. Who finds it most difficult? Why? b *u i 1 2 3 A 5 6 E233ZE A a f it in w e lc o m in g fe e l a t h o m e m a k e fr ie n d s be / fe e l a cce p te d a d a p t to 7 8 9 10 11 12 an o u ts id e r e x p a ts m a k e an e ffo rt in te g ra te g e t used to m is s Talk together. what things in the box would / did you find: 1 2 3 easy to a d a p t to? in te re s tin g o r e xc itin g ? d iffic u lt to a d a p t to? v a lu e s and b e lie fs le is u re tim e and go in g o u t la n g u a g e and c u ltu re food and e a tin g h a b its th e w ay s o c ie ty is o rg a n is e d fa m ily life and re la tio n s h ip s m a k in g frie n d s c lim a te s a fe ty 7 . 2 a Who com m ents on: 1 2 3 A 5 b n o s ta lg ia fo r th e ir ho m e c o u n try and c u ltu re ? th e ir id e n tity as c h ild re n ? p e rs o n a l re la tio n s h ip s ? d iffe re n c e s in b e h a v io u r and a ttitu d e ? d o m e s tic life ? Are the children negative. lived in a fo re ig n c o u n try ? W h a t w e re th e firs t im p re s s io n s of th a t c o u n try ? Do you k n o w anyone w h o has co m e to live in y o u r c o u n try fro m a b ro a d ? Was it easy o r d iffic u lt to in te g ra te ? W hy / W hy not? Talk about a country you could imagine living in. o r has anyone you know .v ii. positive or ambivalent about the changes they have to make? What specific expressions indicate the children's attitudes? c W h a t exam ples of non-standard and colloquial English can you find in the quotes? LANGUAGE FOCUS A d a p tin g to a n o th e r c u ltu re Listen to Daniel and Sarah talk about adapting to life in Germany. Tick the expressions they use. From what you know of the country and its culture.

Uri's m em ory is very good for his age. Does each person have a good or a bad memory? c i C i f L is te n ag a in and c o rre c t th e s e s ta te m e n ts a b o u t each sp e a k e r. d W h ich o f th e five p e o p le do you m o s t id e n tify w ith ? W hy? READING 3 a L o o k at th e title o f th e a rtic le . th e n lo o k on p126. Tina can't re m e m b e r names of anything or anyone. especially when it comes to numbers. 3 U 5 Olga keeps the passwords in her head but forgets them easily. W h a t is th e w r it e r 's m a in p o in t a b o u t c h ild h o o d m e m o ry ? H ow do w e k n o w th is ? C H ow do e s th e w r it e r g ra b o u r a tte n tio n in th e fir s t fe w s e n te n c e s ? . 1 2 Liam recalls w here he is im mediately and always has a good visual memory. W ho s e e m s to have a b e tte r: • • • • LIS TEN IN G 2 s h o rt-te rm memory? m em ory for names and numbers? long-term memory? visual memory? a H ow do you th in k th e s e p h o to s a re c o n n e c te d w ith m e m o ry ? Username Password ESP Forgot Pass b » IO 1 2 word? L is te n to fiv e p e o p le ta lk in g a b o u t d iffe r e n t a s p e c ts o f m e m o ry .o A th ab asca U niversity ^ 2012/13 Student Identification & Library Card Julia Gates 1563237 I Stephen White. T a lk to g e th e r. Match each person with one of the images in 2a. W h a t do you th in k th e a u th o r w il l say a b o u t m e m o ry ? b Read th e a r tic le q u ic k ly . Jane doesn't check her pockets before leaving the house because she doesn't have time. Registrar C a n a d a ’ s O p e n U niversity Memory SPEAKING 1 a b H ow w e ll do you re m e m b e r th in g s ? L o o k a t th e s e p h o to s fo r one m in u te .

But Loftus later carried out similar studies where the fake event was an attack by a vicious animal. he was confined to the house in his socks so his wound would heal. Explain the expressions in bold using re m e m b e r. with selfassurance and emotion. You could argue that these people might have genuinely lost their mum in a shop at some point during childhood.. She adds: "Our biases. some participants recalled the event in detail. He says: "It's a proven fact that young children take fragments of experience and build them into distorted memories. one 40-year-old man distinctly remembers his parents once punished him by refusing to buy him shoes.'These false suggestions about childhood events can profoundly change people's attitudes and behaviour in adulthood. or being d A a W hy do w e choose to 're w rite o u r m e m o rie s '? W h a t w o u ld you say is th e 'fillin g . For two weeks. because he had no shoes. when he was three. / \ 'Jog m y m e m o ry ' m e a n s s o m e th in g m a k e s o r h e lp s m e to re m e m b e r. he cut his foot on a piece of glass and developed a nasty infection. leading to distortions of what we remember. When he wanted to go out. believes your memories are more likely to be dream-like reconstructions of stories told by your parents.” She maintains there is no evidence that perfect memories are stored by individuals. o r w a s it to ld to you by fa m ily o r frie n d s ? W hy do you th in k th is m e m o ry stayed? H ow did you fe e l a b o u t w h a t h a p p ened? Do you a g re e th a t w e te n d to d is to rt o u r e a rlie s t m e m o rie s ? . agrees that our earliest recollections are far from accurate and often complete distortions or figments of our imagination. Leading psychologist Elizabeth Loftus. Later. M In one study. 1 W h a t s y n o n y m s can you fin d fo r re m e m b e r and m e m o ry ? H ow are th e y d iffe re n t in m e a n in g ? 2 'One 4 0 -y e a r-o ld m an d is tin c tly re m e m b e rs . Read the article again. W h a t o th e r a d v e rb s co u ld c o llo c a te w ith re m e m b e r? R e m e m b e rin g b Dr Jaime Quintanilla. For example. Or do we? Controversial new research claims that those recollections may be as real as fairytales. in which they got lost and were rescued by an elderly person. One of these was made up a shopping trip when they were five. expectations and past knowledge are all used in the filling-in process. 1 2 3 A Do you have a c le a r idea of y o u r e a rlie s t m e m o ry ? W h a t do you th in k it m ig h t be? Do you th in k th is m e m o ry is y o u r ow n. of the University of California.in p ro ce ss'? W h a t do th e a n e c d o te s a b o u t th e s h o p p in g tr ip and w e d d in g reveal? H ow are th e s e fin d in g s sh o w n to be im p o rta n t in la te r life ? Look at the article.Childhood m e ost of us have treasured memories of the events that shaped our lives as a child. In fact.'. volunteers were asked to read about events that happened to them as children. he was told he couldn't.. The results were the same. 1 2 3 A LANGUAGE FOCUS responsible for knocking over a punch bowl at a family wedding and spilling it all over the bride. SPEAKING Discuss these questions.2 on p146. professor of psychiatry at the Texas School of Medicine. When we think we are reminiscing. Look at the script for 1. we are simply'rewriting' our memory to suit ourselves.

• re la tin g a s e q u e n ce of events. The th in g 13________ re m e m b e r is . • d e s c rib in g b a c k g ro u n d / p a rtic ip a n ts . b You can use different expressions to structure your memory.... One of m y 4________ m e m o rie s is . W h a t fe e lin g s o r m o o d s are a ss o c ia te d w ith each d e s c rip tio n ? N ote a d je c tiv e s and nouns. • I m u s t 9________ a b o u t fo u r y e a rs old.. Choose e xpressions fro m 3b to help you. • We 10________ in a kind of forested area. Relating a sequence of events Giving an evaluation • 5________ w e g o t to w a rd s th e c o a s t. c Why is w o u ld used so frequently in Andrew's story? 4 Talk about a childhood memory.. W h a t im a g e s sta n d o ut? M ake n otes.Target activity 1.. .3 goals Describe a childhood memory TASK LISTENING 1 ® talk about a personal memory ® evoke the feelings and moods of a past event a W hat im ages of childhood does the photo bring to mind? b Which m o m e n ts can you most easily re call from your childhood? h o lid a y s / jo u rn e y s m o vin g house y o u r g ra n d p a re n ts a new s c h o o l y o u r best frie n d a p a rtic u la r day / place c W hat helps trig g e r that mem ory: an image? a feeling? a smell? a tO Listen to Andrew.. • S h e 11________ g e ttin g m a rrie d . • W e 'r e 6________ re a lly clo se frie n d s . Julia and Ben describing th e ir m em orie s ... 1 T h in k o f a s ig n ific a n t c h ild h o o d eve n t fro m w h ic h you le a rn e d s o m e th in g . I r e m e m b e r 2________ to th e beach . • giving an e va lu a tio n . U T a lk a b o u t th e d iffe re n c e s and s im ila ritie s b e tw e e n y o u r s to rie s . Complete the gaps. T e ll y o u r story.. __ th e tim e w e a rriv e d .. I r e m e m b e r 1________ I w a s little .. L is te n to each o th e r's m e m o rie s and ta lk a b o u t w h a t p e rs o n a l s ig n ific a n c e th e y s t ill have.. 2 3 Divide th e m e m o ry into fo u r c le a r sections. • 13________ b a ck no w on th is o cca sio n .. Divide each m e m o ry into four different sections: T a lkin g a b o u t a p e rs o n a l m e m o ry • fo c u s in g on tim e and place. • T h a t's a 14________ of m e e tin g so m e o n e .. Which topics in 1b do they ta lk about? b* 1 2 3 TASK LANGUAGE Listen again. • We 12________ sta y in a c o tta g e . Focusing on tim e and place Describing background / participants • • • • • I 8________ ju s t s ta rte d p rim a ry s ch o o l. D ecide h o w you w a n t to te ll it. W hy is th e m e m o ry s t ill s ig n ific a n t fo r each s p e a k e r? a Look at the script on p146. • ....h a s j u s t 15 w ith m e forever... Try to 'picture' the scenes the speakers describe.

I t c e rta in ly s e e m s to be o n e o f th e b e s t places to be a baby. even b a b y -a u -ta it (a te r m fo r b re a s tfe e d in g -frie n d ly c a fe s ). Talk about w h e th e r your country is 'child-friendly'. b a b y -c in e m a .EXPLORE Across cultures Attitudes to children These photos accompany a feature about N orway called B abyland. T h e re is fin a n c ia l s u p p o rt fo r th o s e w h o ch o o se to lo o k a fte r th e ir c h ild re n ra th e r th a n re tu rn to th e w o rk p la c e . In c o n tra s t to m o s t E u ro p e a n c o u n trie s . and p a te r n ity le a ve is fo u r w e e k s . A nd th e b a b y in d u s try is b o o m in g . surprised you? Could this article be a description of your country? What would be different? Babyland A c c o rd in g to th e UN's H u m a n D e v e lo p m e n t In d e x . 1 2 W hat do you think the photos show? What do you think the feature will say about Norwegian society? Read the introduction to the feature. 1 2 3 k 5 How much support is there for mothers or fathers and babies? What facilities are there for sm all children? How safe is it for children? What are people's attitudes towards children? Do they tend to: • ignore them? • make a fuss? • expect them to behave well? • disapprove? Is it considered important to have children? Do most people want to have them? Has this changed in recent years? 11 . if anything. g iv in g b irth to a p le th o ra o f new a c tiv itie s : b a b y -m a s s a g e . b a b y 'n ' b o o k d a y s a t th e lib ra ry . 1 2 What. th e N o rw e g ia n b irth ra te is a h e a lth y 1 . N o rw a y 's re p u ta tio n as a c h ild -frie n d ly s o c ie ty is p a rtia lly fo u n d e d on a succe ssio n o f g o v e rn m e n t in itia tiv e s to im p ro v e p a re n ts ' rig h ts and e c o n o m ic c irc u m s ta n c e s . M a te rn ity le a ve is 4 2 w e e ks w ith fu ll pay.9 . N o rw a y is th e b e st p lace to live on th e p la n e t.

Match them with the photos. She w ith h e r tw in s is te r b u t n o t w ith th e o ld e s t one.EXPLORE Keywords describing habits and tendencies 1 a Look at these exam ples from the unit. 1 Young c h ild re n have a ten d e n cy to ta k e fra g m e n ts of e x p e rie n c e and b u ild th e m in to d is to rte d m e m o rie s . T h a t's ho w th e y s ta r t ta lk in g . I’ m s t ill re m e m b e rin g m y fifth b irth d a y. I w o u ld have lo ts of frie n d s w h e n I w a s little . W h e re are th e tw o people? W hat is each s p e a k e r w a rn in g th e lis te n e r a b o u t? W hy? Think of someone with an irritating or attractive habit. I w a s a re a l loner. As a kid. b In these sentences. I h o u rs on m y ow n.y o u 're re a lly skin n y. b Which expressions often have a negative connotation? Which means 'it's annoying' in this case? 3 a What tendencies might you associate with these photos? Use expressions from 2a to ta lk about them. P eople lik e m e. c In which sentences could w e also use used to ? Would this change the meaning? d Correct the mistakes in these sentences. You're OK . or things that often happen. by m im ic k in g us a d u lts . I'll just stay home and watch TV. they will not say hello back. w e te n d to sh a re p re c io u s m e m o rie s o f c h ild h o o d and re la te th e s e o p e n ly in p u b lic... 2 In London.. B a b ie s . and w e ' d pack all our things up and set off for the beach . . 2 3 A 5 In W e s te rn s o c ie tie s . W hat meaning do w ill and w o u ld have? Could you express the sam e meaning in an o th er way? 1 If y o u see anyone and say hello. 1 2 3 4 5 6 W hen he w a s little . Describe it using w il l / w o u ld or expressions from 2a. I'm a fra id I'm a lw a ys fo rg e ttin g p e o p le 's n a m e s and faces. the trees would start to thin out. 3 As we got towards the coast. 4 . he w o u ld s le e p w h e n you d id n 't w a n t h im to! If y o u 're n o t c a re fu l. U nderlin e the expressions that convey this idea. people are talking about childhood. As I g e t o ld e r. w h o are p ro n e to p u t on w e ig h t. m y m e m o ry s ta r ts to fade a bit. and I'm lia b le to fo rg e t th in g s I've done. n o t any m o re .. th e y on th e ir video g a m e s a ll a fte rn o o n . b «* n 1 2 U 12 Listen to the conversations. 1 2 3 2 a I use to rid e m y bike w ith m y frie n d s . He w a s a v e ry im p o lite kid. Add w il l or w o u ld and a verb. These sentences show oth e r ways to ta lk about habits. c a n 't e a t lik e th a t. He 'p le a s e 'o r 't h a n k yo u '.

the whole family . I remember being told how important it was to be on our best behaviour then. my dad was horrified . We w e re on h o lid a y in Italy. At first. I simply couldn’t bear anyone else to get the attention! I wanted to be the star! Nothing’s changed really. • pace. I’m the youngest of three. Then. when I was little I was always up to no good. So. don’t they? I suppose my parents just let me get away with it. W hen th e p e rfo rm a n c e fin is h e d . my brother Gary tells me that one day. Anyway. hadn’t I? Waving to everybody and beaming like mad in front of the cameras. they would try to keep me quiet. I lo o ke d ro u n d and c o u ld n 't see m y p a re n ts . 1 2 3 A 5 6 7 5 a v is ib le in fu ll view s m ilin g a lo t d isa p pe a re d shocked fo u n d it a m u s in g a llo w e d m e to do w h a t I w a n te d behaving badly W o rk in groups. They say the youngest are the spoilt ones. They sa y the y o u n g e s t are the s p o ilt ones. d ire c t speech. So.would go and see him. b Practise telling the story. or stop me fidgeting or whatever. How could you m a k e the story below more interesting? I w a s 10. you should have seen everybody’s faces . 1 2 3 W hat is th e d iffe re n c e b e tw e e n th e w a ys th e y are to ld ? H ow is th e second s p e a k e r's s to r y -te llin g m o re e ffe ctive ? * 0 Listen again and look at the script on this page. Anyway. The s p e ak e r uses various strategies to keep the listeners interested. 1 2 W hy w a s th e s to ry n o t v e ry e ffe c tiv e ? W hat co u ld th e s p e a k e r have done to m a ke it m o re e ffe ctive ? T h in k a b o u t: • to n e of voice. the usual. “Where’s he gone now? Where's that troublemaker?" One minute I was there it seems. Can you believe how cheeky you have to be to do that. ruining their games. I'd only got up on the stage with my dad. Find more colourful synonyms in the story for these expressions. and sometimes all of us . suddenly. because I was the youngest. Unbelievable! 13 . so I w e n t back to th e s tre e t p e rfo rm e rs . my brothers would just pretend that they didn’t know me. • use of la n g u a g e . Find exam ples of: 1 2 3 A 5 6 U rh e to ric a l q u e s tio n s . and the audience did too.. At first... there I was in full view.. 1 2 3 W h a t are th e c h ild re n d o ing in th e p hoto? W h a t is th e ir a ttitu d e ? W h a t m a ke s a s to ry c a p tiv a tin g ? 2 a Cover the script on this page and listen. • a ttitu d e . what I'd done is edge out of the seat without anyone seeing and then crawl down to where my father was speaking. Listen to a second version of the same story. the next minute I’d vanished into thin air. So. They b o u g h t m e an ice cre a m . but then he saw the funny side. I mean. re p e titio n . It was like a very formal setting with cameras and everything. but then they used to just ignore me. We w e re w a lk in g dow n a s tre e t and sto p p e d to w a tc h so m e s tre e t p e rfo rm e rs .. everyone got a bit panicky because no one knew where I’d got to. I was sitting there with all of them and I just disappeared. I w e n t to th e fro n t of th e cro w d to get a b e tte r view ... So my mother asked. a d d re s s in g th e a u d ie n ce d ire c tly . I’d better get back to the anecdote! Well. just terrible . if I started messing about. attracting attention to myself.EXPLORESpeaking Goals 1 Talk together. d o n 't they? v is u a l d e ta ils . I w a s w a tc h in g th e p e rfo rm e rs and fo rg o t e v e ry th in g else. I w a s sca re d and s ta rte d ru n n in g dow n th e s tre e t. suddenly . I’d spend half the time showing off breaking my brothers’ toys. A fte r a fe w m in u te s I sa w m y p a re n ts.. 'cos it was too embarrassing otherwise. You know. c o m m e n ts w h ic h are n o t p a rt of th e story. can you? Apparently. my dad did a lot of public speaking for his work. T hen I re a lis e d I s h o u ld stay in one p lace. as I’m sure you can imagine. anyway.

— I remember being told how important it was to be on our best behaviour then.. what I'd done is edge out of the seat without anyone seeing and . you re a lly w o u ld .. He said he w o u ld be back in tim e fo r th e film . D W ith o u t th e land.. I asked h im . 1 2 3 4 I g e t kin d of tire d sh o p p in g ... I w o u ld alw a ys re c o m m e n d . w e w o u ld w a lk h o m e la te at n ig h t w ith no p ro b le m .Look again o Grammar would 1 a using th e -ing fo rm Match groups A . G ram m ar referen ce. In which is the 1 2 3 4 5 6 past h a b its 6 p o lite re q u e s ts and o ffe rs th e past o f 'w ill' in re p o rte d speech th e 'fu tu r e .. . T h a t's ho w th e y s ta r t ta lk in g .. b 2 1 Open th e door. b Listen to each other's sentences.the whole family a Change these sentences to include w o u ld . I v a g u e ly re m e m b e r .p a s t' h y p o th e tic a l s itu a tio n s g iving advice (s o fte n in g ) a b th e s u b je c t of th e se n te n ce ? a fte r a p re p o s itio n ? c a fte r a ve rb ? A T hey said th a t th e re w o u ld be h u n d re d s o u t of w o rk . C A fte r th a t go a l. ju s t fo r fu n . 1 2 3 W h ich o f th e s e v e rb s can be fo llo w e d by -in g fo rm s ? W h ich can be fo llo w e d by to + in fin itiv e ? W h ich can be fo llo w e d by both? re m e m b e r fin is h m a n a g e o ffe r re g re t d e cid e m in d s u g g e s t im a g in e a g re e e n jo y p o stp o n e p re p a re give up ris k avoid 6 a A dd p re p o s itio n s to th e s e s e n te n c e s fr o m th e u n it. 3 Apparently. Do you p re fe r to go by bus? She n e ve r fo rg o t th a t favour. You c a n 't a lw a y s avoid . Ask questions to find out more. if I w e re you. What effect. b W h ic h s e n te n c e s a re a ls o p o s s ib le w ith o u t th e p re p o s itio n ? W o u ld th e y m e a n th e sa m e ? 7 a C o m p le te th e s e s e n te n c e s u s in g an -in g fo rm .. w e w o u ld have gone b a n k ru p t a long tim e ago.... I w is h pe op le w o u ld n 't . I w e n t th e re e ve ry y e a r in A u g u s t.. T h a t's a happy m e m o ry m e e tin g s o m e o n e .th e . W hen I w a s y o u n g e r.. He said he m ig h t leave e a rly today...F with these uses of w o u ld . W ould you e ve r leave th is c o u n try ? E W o uld you m in d having a lo o k at th is w ith m e? W h ich h o te l w o u ld you p re fe r to sta y in? F I w o u ld n 't w o rry a b o u t it. b u t he d id n 't say a w o rd . I'd r a t h e r . m im ic k in g us a d u lts . th a n .. 1 2 3 4 5 i w o u ld n 't m in d . You'd be a c o m p le te fo o l n o t to ta k e th a t job.. 5 Look at these verbs... I th o u g h t I w o u ld .. Is w o u ld stressed in any of the sentences? went to see him.in . I'm q u ite used to . I c a n 't im a g in e w h a t I'd do i f .. She d ecid ed th a t s h e 'd spend th e re s t of h e r life th e re .. B In th o s e days. I've no p ro b le m re m e m b e rin g pin n u m b e rs . do these changes have on each sentence? c »d Listen to check. T h a t's so ty p ic a l of h e r to say th a t. In which cases can w o u ld have a sim ila r meaning to 'was going to' and 'used to'? 2 3 4 5 6 7 Looking back n ow on this occasion reminds me 2 Sometimes all of us . Ask questions to find out more.. Listen to each other's sentences. b 3 1 ing form: I get really fed up w ith receiving junk mail. a Complete these sentences so they are true for you. Look at these examples. I g e t re a lly fed up w ith . 1 2 3 4 5 6 b I w o u ld n 't be s u rp ris e d if . S o m e tim e s w e 'd go to w o rk . p 1 4 0 14 of how beautiful the village childhood was.. it w a s c le a r th e y w o u ld n 't w in th e m a tch ... however subtle.

b In what context do you think you would h ear these expressions? Which is the odd one out? 1 2 T h e y’ re th e w o rs t in liv in g m e m o ry . he de cid ed he ju s t w a n t to sta y here one year. 5 10 a re a lly Look at these exam ples with the expression it's ju s t to o m u c h . . you ju s t say h e llo . Self-assessm ent C * Can you do th e s e things in E ngU sh?|H rcie)a n u m b e r on each lin e .te rm m e m o ry . Look at these sentences from the unit.it's ju s t to o m u c h to h a n d le . It's ju s t to o m u c h p re s s u re rig h t now. . T h is m o d e l has p le n ty o f m e m o ry . I'm not su re . Then ask for advice. on ly 2 In A fric a . Which is the most im portant inform ation in each case? ^^Jog s o m e o n e ’s m e m o ry. 3 4 5 6 You've got a m e m o ry lik e a sieve. Im agine you are in one of these situations. c liS D Listen again to how the speakers stress the key words. If a p e rs o n 's o ld e r th a n you. o n ly s im p ly 1 My dad. 1 = I can’t do this. Listen to check. . Talk to an other student about it using expressions from 10a. it's ju s t too m uch. H e's s u ffe rin g fro m s h o r t.Vocabulary 1 1 a W hat do you think the people are saying in the cartoons? Use It's ju s t so / T h a t's ju s t to o . W hat does ju s t mean? More than one an sw er may be possible. bu t th e re 's n o th in g to w o rry a b o u t.. s h e 's had e n o u g h . Living lik e th is . Unit 1 g r o w e-Portfolio 15 . i t ’s ju s t to o m u c h o f a ris k . w o rk in g fu ll-tim e . b Look again at the expressions in 10a. It's ju s t re sp e c t. They a ct d iffe re n tly to w a rd s im m ig ra n t people. Decide which words or syllables you would stress. What situations might they be used in and what would they mean? 1 2 3 4 5 I ca n 't do it. 3 4 I’ ll ju s t stay a t h o m e and w a tc h TV. m e m o ry 's p la y in g tr ic k s a gain. you c a ll th e m m a d a m o r a u n tie . You w a n t to in ve s t so m e m oney. © talk about adapting to different cultures l » J f l ® talk about memory 1H I ® talk about a personal memory ® evoke the feelings and mood of a past event g r o w .te r m m e m o ry loss. It’s ju s t to o m u c h fo r h e r. You're lo o k in g a fte r s o m e o n e 's c h ild re n .i © tell an anecdote effectively © keep people interested in a story • For Wordcards. You're m oving to a new hom e. reference and saving your work • For more practice -» Self-study Pack. even if you d o n 't k n o w th e m . Listen to check. H ow m a n y c o llo c a tio n s w ith m e m o ry can you re m e m b e r? S h o rt. I th in k I can do it fro m m e m o ry . • • • • Y ou're w o rk in g v e ry hard. 5 = I can do this w e ll. if you see anyone w a lk in g a ro u n d . S o rry . M e m o ry 8 a b * « D D Listen to check. S o m e tim e s th e y 're ju s t nasty.

The survey set out to assess not only the participants' actual personality. It could be th a t users w ant to portray themselves as they really are. How does the w r it e r arouse the reader's curiosity about the differing viewpoints? LANGUAGE FOCUS U a Find eight adjectives in the article which refer to different personality traits. this is not the case. MySpace and O rkut are now estimated to have more than 700 m illion users worldwide. Results were compared w ith the same people's Facebook profiles. 1 W h a t a s p e c t of his p e rs o n a lity do you th in k he w a n ts to show ? Have you e ve r u p lo a d e d an im a g e to re p re s e n t y o u rs e lf? W h a t w a s it fo r and ho w did you ch o o se it? Do you have an o n lin e page? Do you re g u la rly u p d a te it o r c o m m e n t on o th e r pe o p le 's? Do you th in k th e s e pages g e n e ra lly p o rtra y an a c c u ra te im p re s s io n o f p e o p le 's c h a ra c te r? 2 3 A Read the article. Far from presenting themselves in a flattering way.These results were then compared w ith the participants' Facebook profiles. Research was carried out on 250 Facebook users who filled in a personality questionnaire. O n lin e p ro file s are not fa n ta s y re p re s e n ta tio n s . Their profiles accurately reflected how agreeable. you m ight expect them to portray themselves in the best possible light. Can you re m e m b e r what nouns collocated with these verbs? P re s e n tin g a s e lf-im a g e c re a te p o rtra y p u t up p re s e n t ch o o se re fle c t e xp re ss re ve a l . they are simply another way in which people choose to interact w ith each other. b Cover the article. rather. It's not entirely clear why online profiles depict users' personalities so accurately. Does it have sim ilar views to yours? READING Social networking sites such as Facebook. extroverted. people's online profiles conformed closely to w hat they were really like. w hat kind o f person they would be if they actually possessed all their ideal characteristics. most users' profiles reflect their true personalities. b Look at the opening paragraph. But according to recent research. choose sophisticated and discerning interests. Id e n tify th e p a rts w h ic h m a k e th e s e p o in ts . Discuss these questions. As users can create any profile o f themselves they choose.th e ir tr u e selves.in other words. conscientious. but their 'ideal' personality . One thing seems clear: social networking sites can in no way be considered a false online world th a t is idealised and removed from reality. W hat emerged was astonishing: far from being idealised versions o f themselves. neurotic and sociable they were in real life. and carefully express their thoughts so as to appear more intelligent than in real life. n e tw o rk in g s ite s e n c o u ra g e us to be w ho w e are. P eople w a n t to p re s e n t . We d o n 't a tte m p t to hide o u r e c c e n tric itie s o r o u r a p p e a ra n ce .2. or it could be th a t people attem pt to present an ideal image o f themselves but in fact fail to do so. and reveal both psychological weaknesses and natural physical flaws. b u t m a tc h re a lity. it would be reasonable for them to present flattering images. 1 2 3 A 5 We are n o t c a lc u la tin g in th e w ay th a t w e p re s e n t o u rs e lv e s to o th e rs . 3 a Read th e a rtic le a g a in . In s p ite o f w h a t m a n y people th in k .o r are u n a b le to h ide . When putting up a profile.1 goals ® talk about personality traits @talk about identity Self Your online self Look at this profile image used on a social networking site.

w h e re you g re w up. m y sta y in o th e r c o u n trie s .Discuss these questions. • y o u r fa m ily . m y b a c k g ro u n d . W hy do you th in k each p e rs o n chose th e m ? Can you th in k of o th e r types of p ro file photo? W hat w o u ld you ty p ic a lly see in th e m ? What defines you? L IS TEN IN G 1 a tin t Listen to N orm an . • n a tio n a lity . • la n g u a g e . Did you d e fin e y o u rs e lv e s in s im ila r w ays? W h ich c a te g o rie s do you th in k are th e m o s t and le a s t im p o rta n t? 17 . th e p e o p le I lik e . h a clo se c irc u it o f frie n d s . a happy p e rso n . • re lig io n . m y c h ild re n ra th e r th a n on m yself. b Check the script on p147. • y o u r w o rk o r jo b .8 from the recording with sentence endings a . T h in k a b o u t e x p re s s io n s in 2a you c o u ld use to ta lk a b o u t y o u r id e n tity . • b e lo n g in g to a g ro u p . ro le -p la y in g g a m e s o r p ro fe s s io n a l w e b s ite s )? Lo o k at th e s e o n lin e p ro file im a g e s. Olga. W h ich tw o p e o p le m e n tio n o th e r c o u n trie s o r c u ltu re s ? H ow w e re th e y in flu e n c e d by th e m ? W h ich tw o p e o p le ta lk a b o u t w h e n th e y w e re yo u n g e r? H ow w a s th e ir se n se o f s e lf d iffe re n t th e n ? W h a t p e o p le do th e y a ll m e n tio n as being im p o rta n t in d e fin in g w h o th e y are? 2 a 1 2 3 I th in k of m y id e n tity p a rtly in te r m s of I need to fe e l p a rt of My life is c e n tre d a lo t on k 5 6 7 8 W h a t d e fin e s m e m o s t is I’ m a p ro d u c t of I see m y s e lf as I lik e to th in k th a t I'm re fle c te d in W hat has also had a g re a t in flu e n c e on me w as Match expressions 1 .g. 1 2 3 In w h a t o th e r w ays can p e o p le p re s e n t th e m s e lv e s o n lin e (e. a b c d e f m y frie n d s . Liam and Jane answering the question 'What defines you?' W hat is the defining factor in each case? b tin t 1 2 3 LANGUAGE FOCUS T a lkin g a b o u t id e n tity Listen again and m a ke notes on these questions. T h in k a b o u t th e s e c a te g o rie s : c lo th e s and a p p e a ra n ce . C o m p a re w ith o th e r s tu d e n ts . p e rs o n a lity tra its .h . g w h e re I co m e fro m . SPEAKING W hat defines you as a person? 1 W o rk a lo n e.

y o u ’re sure to love w hat you see.. Aimed at professionals. If you don’t find th a t someone special in three months. We k n o w th a t o u r success is c o m p le te ly d o w n to o u r c u s to m e rs .g ro u p sizes do vary. o u rs is a nam e o u r c u s to m e rs tru s t.. w h e re v e r you w ant! No boring fo rm s to fill in. You'd be a fo o l not to give it a try . Start a subscription. anyw here. these are a great way to find like-m inded people in a relaxed party atmosphere. a n y tim e . S olo’s is a tra v e l c o m m u n ity . exchange te x t m essages and in te ra c t w ith o th e r c e ll-p h o n e users. f Make it happen! Stop w aiting around fo r Mr or Ms Right.2 . You'll im m e d ia te ly be able to exchange te x t m essages w ith him o r h e r how ever. and simply log on to the dating agency for professionals. tim e a fte r tim e . 18 .2 goals Dating agencies READING E understand promotional language say how you met someone Talk together... you ask? It's sim ple. Solo's isn ’t ju s t a n o th e r h o lid a y co m p a n y. It's 1 00% fun and 1 00% safe! How does it w o rk. cell m ate! N o b o d y u n d e rs ta n d s th e needs o f th e s in g le tra v e lle r m ore th a n we do. y e t u n o b tru s iv e . E stablished in 1 969. o r expensive sub scrip tio n s to pay. 1 W hy do you th in k o n lin e d a tin g 2 a g e n c ie s a re g a in in g p o p u la rity ? Do you k n o w anyone w h o m e t th e ir p a rtn e r in th is w ay? Look at the three websites. It's OK to look. Love is nearer th a n yo u th in k . Send a te x t message now and e n te r th e fu n ! You m ay find y o u r p e rfe ct . w h ic h is w h y y o u have m ade us th e UK’s n u m b e r 1. What different ways of meeting people do they provide? How do you think each service works? ClubM8 is a b ra n d -n e w c o m m u n ity th a t gives you th e chance to chat. You'll receive th e profiles o f m e m bers th a t m atch yours. and w e fo n d ly w e lco m e new ‘m e m b e rs ’ to e n jo y th e e xp e rie n ce s o f so lo tra v e l. Europe and a ro u nd th e w o rld . w e'll give you the next three m onths absolutely free! N o t convinced by online love? Then our Singles’ Events may be your thing. create your profile and start enjoying all we have to offer. b u t y o u w ill d o u b tle ss be h o lid a y in g w ith o th e r sin g le tra v e lle rs w h o share a passion fo r life and d is c o v e rin g new. You te ll C lubM 8 w h a t y o u r desires and crite ria are. For the notso-confident. th a t’s w h y th e y com e back to us. we even have our sta ff on hand to help you mingle and make you feel at ease. w henever. and th a t’s th e eth o s upon w h ic h o u r business has g ro w n o v e r th e last q u a rte r o f a ce n tu ry. The service we o ffe r is p e rso n a l. w hile y o u r p ro file is s e n t o u t to m em bers you m atch w ith . and w ith a m illion members online. e x c itin g d e s tin a tio n s in th e UK.

we 5____ (see) the advert in (decide) to give it a try. C o n tin u e . He / She w a s . It c o m p a re s its s e rv ic e s to o th e rs . A 5 an e x c la m a tio n . Pass each ne w s e c tio n to a n o th e r s tu d e n t. (chat) for the rest of the evening and then to find me. and th e n . the paper and we (sit) in a corner having a drink and he 8 (come) I 7_ . a boast. We 9 10 (be) together (call) the next day and we 11 (have) tons in common. just for a laugh. The c o m p a n y has e xiste d fo r a long tim e .. In v e n t a s to ry a b o u t m e e tin g s o m e o n e fo r th e f ir s t tim e . Pass it to a n o th e r s tu d e n t. w h a t you had (o r have) in c o m m o n .. W h a t d iffe r e n t v e rb fo rm s a re th e re ? M ake a lis t. He 1_____ (say) he (know) I (see) my photo on the wall and ju s t ' (be) there with friends . Say h o w you m e t so m e o n e We met at the London Singles' Events in July. It m a k e s an o ffe r if th e c u s to m e r is u n lu c k y in love. a jo k e o r pun. a W h a t d e vice s do th e a d v e rts use to s e ll th e ir p ro d u c t? F ind e x a m p le s of: 1 2 3 P ro m o tio n a l la n g ua g e b a p ro m is e o r p re d ic tio n .. k 5 6 It ta rg e ts a s p e c ific typ e of c u s to m e r. A re th e s e th e o n ly fo r m s th a t co u ld be used in each gap.. o r w o u ld o th e rs be p o s s ib le ? W hy / W hy not? W R IT IN G and SPEAKING 2 a W ritin g ga m e .. a slo g a n. We .. w h a t you fir s t ta lk e d ab o u t. ho w it happe n e d . 7 8 It c o m p lim e n ts its c u s to m e rs . W h a t k in d o f la n g u a g e do th e y use? Find e x a m p le s o f th e s e fo r m s in th e a d v e rts .. im p e ra tiv e s rh e to ric a l q u e s tio n s c o n d itio n a l s e n te n c e s p o sitive a d je c tiv e s in v e rs io n m o d a l v e rb s c W hat other techniques are used? How we met LANGUAGE FOCUS 1 a Read th is te s tim o n ia l a b o u t d a tin g a g e n cy C.. We 12_ (have) an amazing time.. Pass it to a n o th e r s tu d e n t. or I thank you! It does work and I’m so glad I 15 _ (meet) the love of my life! never 16 b t lT O L is te n to c h e c k .. We both b Read o u t y o u r s to ry . T a lk a b o u t: • • • • w h e n and w h e re you m e t. Add a fe w m o re s e n te n c e s s ta rtin g w ith 'I w a s . So (work) in the media and u _ (come). We have to n s in c o m m o n . A nd s in ce th e n .W h ic h w e b s ite do e s each s e n te n c e d e s c rib e ? 4 1 2 3 O th e r p eople a re a v a ila b le to h e lp you m e e t th e rig h t p e rso n . PI . It s tre s s e s th e n u m b e r o f p eople a v a ila b le in th e s e rvice . 1 2 3 W rite a fe w s e n te n c e s s ta rtin g w ith 'We m e t . s ta rtin g w ith th e e x p re s s io n s in th e box. We both 13 ever since. F ill in th e ga p s w ith th e m o s t a p p ro p ria te fo r m o f th e v e rb s in b ra c k e ts .. W o rk w ith a p a rtn e r. D e s c rib e h o w you m e t s o m e o n e im p o rta n t to you.. The s e rv ic e e m p h a s is e s th e ease w ith w h ic h you c o n ta c t so m e o n e .'.'.

. You will be building the company’s presence online (Facebook. Follow me. please. writing press releases. look at this job. Michael! It's always nice to meet somebody face to face after emailing such a long time. a Such as? u cMy experience of working in a team. I believe I have a number of characteristics that would be suitable for the job. fI don't think we've been introduced. as you can imagine. I’m glad that's not the case this time. etc. it’s great to be back.. a Of course. I suppose the other candidates are here? Should I go through? a Oh yes. Well. look on p 134. as you might have seen from my CV and I studied economics.) and driving programmes for winning awards. Required skills. Twitter. Likewise. amanda b a c k tra c k in g and re fo rm u la tin g b ch o o s in g an e q u iv a le n t te r m fo r a w o rd you c a n 't re m e m b e r s e le c tin g an e x p re s s io n in o rd e r to gain tim e and keep th e flo o r e xp a n d in g and d e ve lo p in g th e p o in t h a n d lin g in te rje c tio n s w e ll c o n s id e rin g th e e ffe c t on th e lis te n e r So. so that's why working with Deutsche Bank really was appealing. Sandy Faber. Superior written and oral communications skills are a must. come this way. would you like to say a little bit about yourself first.. well. it's time for you to meet the others now. area for many years. I think these facets are crucial. Is there anything else you need? c I was wondering if I could bonow a pen. look on p 126. just to get the ball rolling. sometimes you never get to meet that person and that can be even more frustrating.3 goals Promote yourself 1 @ use effective introduction strategies © promote yourself a W hat do the im ages suggest about the w ay you should or should not present Hello. it's really nice to have you back here with us. can’t it? m Well. tough decisions. the thing is . s Absolutely. motivated professional to take responsibility for external communication and growing our company’s reputation.. a Amanda Woods. The seminar begins in a few minutes. Then. And. am anda b How do the people introduce themselves? Who is more fo rm a l / inform al? c How do the in terview ers a tte m p t to put the candidate at ease? Conduct a job interview. someone who is passionate about growing our company every day.Target activity 2 . c It's a pleasure. my name is Uri Salemi. aI have worked in the marketing . 1 2 3 4 5 6 In tro d u c tio n s tra te g ie s So. So. You will be the main point of contact for the media. Uri. as well as a university / college degree. no problem. Amanda. it's nice to meet you at last! sandy dHi. presentations. the need to plan strategically. we’re keen to get started. It’s wonderful to be here! m Yes. yourself to others? b * i f f t Listen to Uri.. You should have 3-5 years of public relations and marketing experience. Together. customer success stories and case studies. preferably in business or marketing. Ms Faber. Student B. You are a creative thinker who can develop unique ideas and marketing programmes. I should say. c a r m e lo Thanks a lot. you know? uri Of course. and decisiveness when having to take difficult. Required experience. that’s right... and so on. m ic h a e l Mrs Santos. bwhy it really appealed to me. 20 . I seem to have left mine behind for some reason.. well. Student A. Pleased to meet you. Carmelo Santos. gaining positive product reviews in the media. Responsibilities. 1 2 3 c *O TASK LANGUAGE 2 W h a t do you th in k are th e s itu a tio n s ? W h a t w o rd s h e lp e d you decide? W h a t is w ro n g in each case w ith th e w ay th e c a n d id a te s p re s e n t th e m s e lv e s ? W h a t advice w o u ld you give th e people? Listen to new versions. W hat has improved? in im im i lilllllv l a Match these strategies to the highlighted exam ples in the scripts. it's always good to put a face to a name. Sandy and Carmelo M y n a m e is presenting themselves. P ub lic re la tio n s m a n a g e r We need a high-energy.

1 2 3 4 Do p eople in y o u r c o u n try p re s e n t c a rd s to each o th e r? In w h a t s itu a tio n s ? Do you k n o w any o th e r s o c ie tie s w h e re c a rd s a re : m o re im p o rta n t? less im p o rta n t? W hy is th is ? Do you th in k th e s o c ie ty in w h ic h you live e n c o u ra g e s p e o p le to s ta n d o u t o r fit in? W h a t o th e r c a rd s in y o u r p o sse ssio n c o m m u n ic a te th in g s a b o u t you to o th e rs ? (C o n s id e r d iffe re n t c a rd s : m e m b e rs h ip ca rd s. For exam ple. but it sh ou ld also state som eth in g ab o u t you . your b u sin e ss card sh ou ld not only state who you w ork for. your con tact inform ation. feel. etc. • im a g e s.) 21 . Do you notice any features mentioned in the article? 3 a Think about the people below. Discuss these questions. an d m e ssa g e on a card help p eo p le determ in e how they view you. do people use business cards as a way of expressing themselves? c W hat do individuals or companies need to bear in mind when designing a business card for themselves? 2 I’ m \^ a tw one o n t r a Read the article and check your answers. c U • c o lo u rs . b Look at the business cards again. it’s green). W hat do you think the cards say about the people who own th e m or the company they w o rk for? b In your country. id e n tity ca rd s.EXPLORE Across cultures Vour cards 1 a Look at these business cards. but m ore of an im p ression o f your overall im age. Find other students who chose the sam e person. B e cau se o f this representation. b e c a u se th at’s ju st the m e ssa g e I w anted to com m u n icate. lo y a lty ca rd s. • fo n t. the corners of the card and the typography are roun ded. Choose one of the people and design a card for them . yet feels soft. W h ere do you think this article originally appeared? B u sin ess card s are so m eth in g that w e take for gran ted w hen w e sh o u ld n ’t. an d m ore im portandy. an d w hat you do. • te x tu re . Com pare your ideas.not in a w ritten sen se. if they will even rem em b er you. your identity is that piece o f paper. you w ould prob ab ly get the feeling that I am a w arm an d caring p erso n (the card is thick. What im age of themselves or th e ir company might they want to convey through th e ir card? How might this be reflected in the card itself? 1 2 3 4 5 6 th e sa le s m a n a g e r of an in te rn a tio n a l co m p a n y a s in g e r an a rc h ite c t a yoga te a c h e r a w e b s ite d e s ig n e r th e o w n e r of a fu r n itu re shop b W ork in pairs. W hen you leave a con versation an d the other party h as your b u sin e ss card. The look. • u n iq u e n e s s . Think about: • in fo rm a tio n . if I w ere to h an d you m y b u sin e ss card.

W hich e xp re s s io n s do you h e ar? W hat are th e p e o p le ta lk in g a b o u t? W h ich o f th e s k ills can you e a s ily le a rn ? Think of someone who has a p articular talent for something. 1 2 Do you th in k th e y are w ritte n o r sp o ke n ? W h ere w o u ld you read o r h e a r th e m ? W h a t are th e y abou t? a Natasha is settling in v e r y well at Lancaster and doing lots of sport. and nowhere near their usual form. But as they proved last season against Bolton they do have this a b i l i t y ______________ the m atch in the last minute b .. . We need someone who has acquired s k i l l s ________________ a business and who w ould be committed to hard but rewarding work. W hat would you say are his / her skills? Talk about this p ers o n ’s achievements. but set to expand rapidly. apparently. What do you notice about the verb form s? in to fo r w in le a rn ru n C How could you express each sentence using these words? a b c 2 a ta le n te d s k ille d ca p a b le Which of these words frequently occur before ta le n t? Which frequently occur before s k ills ? le a d e rs h ip re a l n a tu ra l a ca d e m ic basic c o m p u te r c o n s id e ra b le te c h n ic a l in te lle c tu a l b Which of these word s can also come before the word a b ility ? C T a le n t can re fe r to people or the ability itself.she took up volleyball this term . Add a preposition and a verb to each sentence. b We are b a s e d in Glasgow and still small.. She seems to have a real talent _______________ n e w sports . c So U n ited still three down. ..EXPLORE Keywords describing skill and ability 1 a Look at these examples. Which do you think these expressions re fer to? 1 2 3 3 a new ta le n t p e o p le cre a tiv e ta le n t young ta le n t 1 2 3 22 h o m e -g ro w n ta le n t a th le tic ta le n t a rtis tic ta le n t W hat type of ta lent or skill do you think is being illustrated in the photos opposite? b • CKO Listen U A 5 6 to check.

.EXPLOREWriting Goals 1 ® w rite a cover letter a You are going to read a lette r applying for an MBA grant. where I honed my personal 5 and became 6 w ith the banking world a t firs t hand. L o o k a t th e le tte r and ch e ck. I am currently com pleting my degree in Economics at the University o f Stony Brook. So far. • A p p ly fo r a fu r th e r e d u c a tio n g ra n t in an a c a d e m ic fie ld of y o u r choice. Dear Sir/Madam. I've worked for the last three summers for Citibank in the customer service departm ent here in New York State.. SU zrw fkrtr/d a e Sharon Partridge 2 a D oes th e w r it e r use US o r B ritis h E n g lis h ? H ow can you te ll? Do you th in k it is im p o rta n t to a d o p t one v a rie ty o r th e o th e r? b H ow does th e w r it e r p re s e n t h e rs e lf in a p o s itiv e lig h t? Find e x p re s s io n s in th e le tte r w h ic h s h o w o p tim is m and s e lf-c o n fid e n c e . I becam e fa m ilia r . C hoose one o f th e s e o p tio n s ...... How do you think the words in the box w ill be used? © describe experience and ability s k ills fa m ilia r re le v a n t fu tu re a p titu d e c h a lle n g e s h e s ita te s p e c ia lty a p p lic a tio n a c c u s to m e d b Add words to the gaps. e H ow is th e le tte r s tru c tu re d ? 1 2 3 D e scrib e th e fu n c tio n of each p a ra g ra p h . where my current _ is in Marketing. c C ove r th e le tte r. I have received excellent grades in a ll subjects. I look forward to hearing from you. a t th is stage in my life . Should my application be successful. I am 4 to working in the financial sector. As you w ill see from my attached resume. 4 5 I b e lieve m y g re a te s t s tre n g th s lie . W ha t kin d o f la n g u a g e is re q u ire d fo r each? W rite a co ve r le tte r. • R espond to a jo b a d v e rt in th e p ro fe s s io n a l fie ld o f y o u r choice. New York. please don't 10 to contact me.. and I am on course to graduate w ith d istin ctio n a t the end o f the semester. Enclosed you w ill find photocopies o f a l l 3 _ certificates. I am a c c u s to m e d . I am a v a ila b le . I f you require any fu rth er details or references. I am available fo r interview whenever i t is convenient.. My 9 career in banking would begreatly enhanced by earning an MBA a t your university. For these reasons... H ow do (o r co u ld ) th e s e s e n te n c e s c o n tin u e ? 1 2 3 d My g re a te s t s tre n g th is an a p titu d e . With best wishes. I believe my greatest strengths lie in 7 my a b ility to work w ell in a team and an for taking on whatever 8 th a t come my way. I strongly believe I am able to take on the demands o f a fu ll-tim e Masters degree. I am w ritin g to provide you w ith some background inform ation so you can better judge my scholarship 1 for the MA in Business A dm inistration (see attached form and resume). Regarding my academic experience.

b Read the story and fill in the gaps with the most appropriate fo rm of the verbs in brackets. • an in te re s tin g tra v e l e x p e rie n c e . I re lie d b lu ffin g to g e t th ro u g h th e in te rv ie w . 3 P re p a re to t e ll y o u r p a rtn e r s o m e th in g th a t h a p p e n e d to you. U nderline the phrasal verbs. Anyway. 1 10 (travel) a long time already.. I have worked in the marketing area for m any y e a r s . v e rb s + prepositions 6 a Look at these exam ples from the unit. and 1 14 (not go back) to France since. When checking in at the airport I found that my flight w as full and I was on standby. W h a t re a lly a p p e a l e d m e w a s w o rk in g in a ne w fie ld . was really tired and this w as the last thing that I needed. I am able to take on the demands of a full­ time Masters degree. I'm la c k in g _______p ra c tic a l e x p e rie n c e .. I'd o p t b oth w o rk and s tu d y a t th e sa m e tim e . Use one of th e s e id e as o r y o u r ow n: • an im p o rta n t eve n t in y o u r life . looked at me and asked the stewards what 13 _ ___(happen). They told me that 19 (do) the online check-in wrong or something. Which of the h ig h lig h te d expressions are: • v e rb s + p re p o s itio n s ? • p h ra s a l ve rb s ? W hat is the difference betw een them? 250 Facebook users who filled in a personality questionnaire. You need to im m e rs e y o u rs e lf _ th e c u ltu re in o rd e r to le a rn a ne w la n g u a g e . c o ve r th e page and c o n tin u e th e s e n te n c e so it is tru e fo r you.. 1 11 (wait) patiently at the gate. or who also liked me. choose a s e n te n c e and read it as fa r as th e v e rb . Given th e ch o ice . 1 2 3 U 5 6 7 8 9 I d id n 't s u c c e e d p a ssing th e te s t. It gives y ou the chance to interact with other cell-phone users. hoping to get my place.. Is it always possible? I wasn't successful in passing the test. 1 V erb ten ses in n a rra tio n Can you re m e m b e r the story in H ow we m e t on p19? Which different tenses did you use? 2 Which tenses can be used to: 1 2 3 U se t th e scene of th e sto ry ? d e s c rib e a c tio n s in p ro g re s s up to a p o in t in th e past? d e s c rib e th e s to ry 's m a in eve n ts? c la rify th a t one event happened before a n o th e r? Put these pictures in o rd e r to m a k e a story. I w o u ld b e n e fit_______liv in g a b ro a d fo r a year. T h in k o f th e b a c k g ro u n d to y o u r s to ry and any e ffe c ts it s t ill has fo r you now. that all u_____ (change) the day 1 5 (leave) France. d Test each other. Aimed at professionals. that’s how we met. G ram m ar referen ce. 16_____ (wake up) early and 1__ (take) the six-hour train journey to the airport. no problem. But then chaos 8 (strike). So far. 1 2 S tu d e n t A. Anyway. Can you believe he intervened and got a seat for me in the cockpit? Well. he’s not French. I got to the airport fine. I w o u ld b e n e fit. 24 Add prepositions or particles to these verbs. When putting up a profile. T e ll y o u r story. I c a n 't q u ite m a k e _______w h a t h e 's saying. it would be reasonable for them to present flattering images. I w o u ld b e n e fit fro m e x e rc is in g m o re ofte n . when the pilot of the plane 12 (arrive). S tu d e n t B. C Try expressing the sentences in 6b using a different part of speech. these are a great way to find like-minded people . so good. Incredible isn’t it? Funny thing is.Look again o Grammar Work in A/B pairs. 1 1 had spent (spend) a year off in France a n d 2 (look for) a partner there for months but 13 (not find) anybody I could relate to. I d e cid ed to lo o k _______'a v a ta r' on w ik ip e d ia . p 140 P h ra s a l verb s.

_____ . How many of the details in the im age turn out to be incorrect? Which could be used to ta lk about: a syste m ? 4 a fla t? 2 an idea? 3 a proph ecy? a self-m ade person 1 5 a p e rs o n ? b W hat would the adjective mean in each case? c Add expressions from 8a to the gaps. ® use effective in tro d u ctio n strategies K © w rite a cover le tte r K describe my experiences and a b ilitie s I K H M S M K — X 9 I 3 1 • For Wordcards. She w as a ______ m illio n a ire . He plays a . Can you think of oth er examples of each structure? • • • 8 s e lf-d o u b t s e lf-a w a re se n se o f s e lf (s e lf + no u n ] (s e lf + a d je ctive) (s e lf is a nou n in its ow n rig h t) 1 1 a Look at this exam ple from the unit. s h o w in g in te re s t o r s u rp ris e . • s e lf-c o n s c io u s . N ow ch a n g e ro le s. You need s e lfto w o rk fro m ho m e . b * 1 5 3 Listen to the conversation. He behaved so s tra n g e ly . w hy it I should say. say s o m e th in g (not n e c e s s a rily tru e ) a b o u t s o m e o n e in y o u r fa m ily . . • s e lf-c r itic a l. ce n tre d e vid e nt co n ta in e d fu lfillin g m ade s u s ta in in g so that's w hy working with Deutsche Bank really was appealing . re s p o n d to w h a t A says. th e c o u n try b ecam e a econom y. continuing for as long as you can.to these words to m a ke adjectives. b Think about your conversation. s e lf-ta u g h t. The p o lice c la im e d th e y a cte d in s e lf.Vocabulary R e fo rm u la tin g w h a t you say s e lfLook at these examples of s e lf used as a prefix. W h e n e v e r B re s p o n d s . Soon a fte r in d e p e n d e n c e . In what context would you find them? 1 2 3 4 The d e ta ils of th e case a r e . a Add s e lf. S tu d e n t B. a Add these words to m ake nouns with self-. The s u s p e c t is c le a rly g uilty. Can you think of oth e r expressions Uri could have used to re fo rm u la te what he was saying? I studied economics. 1 2 3 S tu d e n t A. 5 = I can do this w e ll. b Which of the nouns have a negative connotation? How many can become adjectives? 1 2 W h ich e x p re s s io n s did you use? W h ich w e re e a s ie s t to use? Self-assessm ent Can you do th ese th in g s in English?(^ irc le )a n u m b e r on each lin e . • s e lf-d is c ip lin e d . Unit 2 b Talk about the person and explain your opinions. ta lk about p e rso n a lity tra its (© ta lk about id e n tity © understand pro m o tio n al language self-p ity self-pitying * I © describe how I m et someone g— r w a © prom ote m yself 1 0 a Think of someone (a fictitious person or a celebrity) who you consider to be: • • s e lf-s a tis fie d . Use th e e x p re s s io n s fro m 11c. H is p a ra n o ia b ecam e a _______prophecy. p e o p le re a lly did s ta rt ta lk in g a b o u t h im . c o rru p t in d iv id u a l in th e film of th e sa m e nam e.* Self-study Pack. re fo rm u la te w h a t you say. • s e lf-s u ffic ie n t. . 1 2 a W ork in A/B pairs. H is d e c is io n s w e re m o tiv a te d by s e lf H e's n o t re a lly d e p re s s e d .* e-Portfolio • For more practice . really appealed to me. he ju s t w a n ts o u r sym pa thy. and n o w sh e 's le ft w ith n o th in g . Have conversations.k e p t m o d e rn b u ild in g . c What different ways of re form ulating did you notice? Check the script on p148. a frie n d o r n e ig h b o u r. S pe a kin g in p u b lic is to do w ith having p le n ty o f s e lf. It's a q u e s tio n o f s e lf_ . o r y o u r ow n pa st life . 1 = I can ’t do this. in te re s t d is c ip lin e e s te e m co n fid e n c e p ity d efence 1 2 3 4 5 6 A n o re xia can be re la te d to lo w s e lf. 25 . 5 6 9 T h is m o te l o ffe rs 12 f u l l y u n its in a w e ll. reference and saving your work .

but who is sending them and why? As the number of penguins starts to grow.f t n n g On w ith j Broken heart? Finding it Celebrated Japanese author.3.. Billy loses all sense o f tim e. his passion comes through in diary entries. and runner of more than 20 marathons. the F ra m .jg A L 2 . reliving experiences in his life both real and im agined. surviving encounters with w alruses and polar bears. It is January 1st. this book shows how you can face life again in less than a m o n th -stro n g e r and more positive than before. Zahra (aged 3) and Hawra (a few months old) have lost their family in a Baghdad missile strike. F A R T H E S T ' n . Haruki Murakami details his love and experience of long-distance running from the 1980s onwards.J. Sunday Times war correspondent Hala Jaber sets her heart on doing everything she can to help. the new. To start with.o -r T " U.U w jtii ( fin IIv n u m 'x f Fo.. Jaber (a Lebanese and a Muslim. J0N k r a K a c e r . In the post arrives something interesting . in this heart-warming story sure to become a children’s classic. providing good-natured advice on life.s e lle r fic tio n h u m o u r a u to b io g ra p h y s e lf-h e lp g u id e c u rre n t a ffa irs a d v e n tu re b h o w to heal * W hat do you think the books are about? How do you know? Read each book description. With a wide range o f exercises and insights.0 0>j>ltaHi of \\ur NA ^ i FLYIVfJi ('A 11 PET TO BA G H D A D 26 Am erican so ldier Billy Pilgrim is captured and sent to a German prisoner-of-w ar camp d u rin g World War II .1 goals describe a book ® give a personal response Language and literature life-changing books S PEAKING and READING a b e s t.a disused slaughterhouse named ‘SlaughterhouseFive’. Abandoning his ship. Prisoners and guards alike take refuge in the camp cellar as the nearby c ity o f Dresden is destroyed in b o m bing raids. accessible program. In a race against the pack ice.. with the unique insight of a writer able to understand both worlds. / u.. Charming and intimate. but at the same time working for a London newspaper) tells her compelling Iraq story. another penguin arrives.. so do the family’s problems. One o f the few su rvivors o f the fire sto rm . . N ansen’s three-year trek is one o f the finest narratives of polar exploration. Which do you th ink would be w orth reading? Why / Why not? ^broken heart i ' A O W hat genre do you think each book cover belongs to? - _J d a t f S A D ay by Dan iuidc f o S a yi ng Good b tff and . In this beautiful account. he se ts off by dogsled with his com panion Hjalmer Johansen.0 F " Septem b er 1893: Norwegian adventurer F ridtjof N ansen em barks for the North Pole.. essays and memories. uninvited guests are cute and funny . And then another. -d r . hard to get through the daily routine? With this easy.a penguin! The next day. your heart w ill be whole Your L ife again and healed.

Is it true that 'the books that changed you when you w e re young are always going to be a disappointm ent when you are an a d u lt’? . o r y o u r o u tlo o k on life . 2 • th e W rite • th e • th e w a y it is w ritte n .2 embarrassmenta » idea b Can you re m e m b e r how Ian used the words? Which go together? C * d > Listen again to check. 5 1 W h a t can th e y w o rk o u t a b o u t th e bo o k fro m y o u r w o rd s ? 2 T a lk a b o u t each o th e r's books. SPEAKING U a Choose a book that has had an im portant effect on you.! detailed ° £= discursive ^ § brave o k c > o ™ c obscure -5=0+1 iff o CD q STUTT o — condensed =5 -0 outright c . w o rd s / e x p re s s io n s you co u ld use to ta lk a b o u t: tim e in y o u r life w h e n you read it. Make two 'word clouds’ like in 3a.LISTEN IN G 2 a ♦ d > Listen to Ian McDonald talking about F a rth e s t N o rth . 1 W rite w o rd s / e x p re s s io n s you co u ld use to d e s c rib e : • th e plo t. Do you have the same points? c W h a t do these s tatem en ts from the interview mean? Ian McDonald LANGUAGE d 3 a 1 2 I w a s a n e rd is h lad. Think of a book or an au th or you loved when you w e re younger. It m u s t have been q u ite a fo rm a tiv e bo o k fo r you. 3 U 5 It w a s q u ite a s tru g g le to read. • th e a tm o s p h e re . • a p a rtic u la r c h a ra c te r. e ffe c t it has had on y o u r life . or less interested in the book? Why? Here are some words used in the interview. W hat do you think is the difference betw een A and B? FOCUS D e sc rib e a boo k and its s ig n ific a n c e daring unbelievably. and h ow you fe lt. b Com pare notes. It w a s one of th o s e v e ry d a rin g books. A sk q u e s tio n s to fin d o u t m o re . b Show your ‘word clouds' to other students. Make notes on the main points. :l depressed I |5scinaled absolutely inleresl | a — meant . It w a s a b o u t th e w a y s c ie n c e w a s done ra th e r th a n a b o u t s c ie n ce itse lT Does Ian's description m a ke you more.

C o n v e rs a tio n a l E n g lis h . w h y do G e rm a n s s p e a k good E n g lish ? W h a t are th e in c e n tiv e s to le a rn E n g lis h in G erm a n y? 3 Listen to a conversation with Pilar. and ho w w e ll you s p e a k th e m .3 . It w a s v e ry d iffic u lt to e v e n . b u t no I d id n 't q u ite 1 2 b »JE> th e la n g u a g e . 1 2 Norman from Germany LANGUAGE FOCUS Lan guage le a rn in g A W h a t a re th e m a in d iffe re n c e s b e tw e e n P ila r and N o rm a n ? H ow are th e y s im ila r? F ro m w h a t P ila r says. Com plete the gaps. 1 2 28 L is t th e fo re ig n la n g u a g e s you k n o w (in c lu d in g E n g lish ). So. w h a t do w e k n o w a b o u t: a h e r le ve l o f E n g lis h w h e n she fir s t w e n t to B rita in ? b th e p eople she s p e n t h e r tim e w ith ? c h e r e x p e rie n c e o f le a rn in g F rench? a Look at these sentences from the conversations. as long as you g e t y o u r m e ssa g e acro ss? . 3 L . I m o s tly le a rn e d in th e c o n te x t o f having had __ n a tive E n g lis h s p e a k e rs . Listen to check. th e m o s t im p o rta n t v o c a b u la ry The s c h o o l e d u c a tio n th e re h e lp e d m e to _ in o rd e r t o . Do you th in k it is im p o rta n t to 'm a s te r' a la n g u a g e c o m p le te ly and so u n d like a native s p e a k e r? O r is it fin e to re ta in y o u r ow n a cce n t and m a ke a fe w m is ta k e s . 1 2 3 H ow and w ith w h o m did N o rm a n le a rn c o n v e rs a tio n a l E n g lis h ? A c c o rd in g to h im . T h a t h e lp e d m e a lo t t o a little b it m o re . t e ll m e a b o u t c o m in g to th e UK fo r th e fir s t tim e a n d th is c u ltu re and 5 6 th e la n g u a g e .2 goals learning a language LISTEN IN G 1 a ® ta lk about languages and ways to learn them ® describe experiences of language learning W hat different ways of learning a language do the photos suggest? b Do people from some countries learn English more easily? Why / Why not? 2 i e r n Listen to a conversation with N orm an. c Which expressions in La are about: 1 2 3 le a rn in g a la n g u a g e ? having c o n ta c t w ith a la n g u a g e ? s p e a k in g a la n g u a g e ? d Talk together. Use e x p re s s io n s fro m La. Then ta lk a b o u t how you le a rn e d th e m . I F re n ch s o m e tim e ago.

L earn in g a new language: 5 can be a v io le n t p ro ce ss.. 7 re q u ire s a d o p tin g d iffe re n t s o u n d s and speech p a tte rn s .. A counter lan gu age. EVA HOFFMANS A DEEP AND LOVELY BOOK' )OSEF SKVORECKY 6 a ” Read the extracts again and identify w h e re these points are made. running through m e. by assu m in g them. Eventually. We sayin g things sim ple way.. the new m u scles in my m outh . It's im p o rta n t to fin d y o u r ow n 'vo ice ' in a fo re ig n la n g u a g e and e xp re ss y o u r ow n p e rs o n a lity . a voice in my head. b Read three extracts from novels with language learning as th e ir th em e. they p o sse ss me. But som e of them satisfy a need. 4 can be trig g e re d a t any m o m e n t. we not having gram m ar.American voices . carryin g on con versations. 6 involves is s u e s o f c o n tro l.. I do not yet p o sse ss them . How do they reflect the s tatem ents in 5a? o Chinese. No verb-change u sag e . I w as full of French. They ricochet within m e. English lan gu ag e is b o ss of English user.5 a Do you think these s tatem en ts are true? Why / Why not? 1 2 3 L e a rn in g a n ew Language can lead you to a d o p t a d iffe re n t id e n tity . no ten se differen ces.. lending me their m odulations. We b o sse s of our lan gu age. Since I lack a voice of my own. But. som e of them stick to my rib s . the B abel of . The new language: 1 obeys d iffe re n t ru le s and has a d iffe re n t fo rm . All aroun d m e.. the voices enter m e. It's d iffic u lt to tra n s la te d ire c tly fro m one la n g u a g e to an o th e r. I could feel the French sticking in my throat. a tickle in my ear. intonations. likely to be set off at any time. the voices of others invade m e as if I w ere a silent ventriloquist. I grad u ally m ake them mine. no gender ch an ges. 3 is a b s o rb e d little by little by th e le a rn e r. it w a s holding m e up. rhythm s. b Do you agree with the points? Do any reflect your experiences? 29 . 2 w o rk s in o p p o s itio n to th e s p e a k e r's m o th e r to n g u e .

.. . Talking about p rio ritie s 5 6 7 My m a in a im / p rio rity is to . .. Do you agre e ? c Listen to feedback from oth e r people in class. m ig h t be w o rth w h ile / w o rth a try.. My s tro n g p o in t / m a in p ro b le m is . is a n o th e r story. I've con sid ere d .. I p ro b a b ly need m o re p ra c tic e in / exposure to .. L o o k a t y o u r p a rtn e r's c o m p le te d q u e s tio n n a ire and m a ke s u g g e s tio n s . W h ich is th e m o s t co n v in c in g ? W hy? W h a t kin d of p e rs o n do you th in k th e a d v e rts are a im e d at? W h ich o th e r m e s s a g e s w o u ld be im p o rta n t fo r s o m e o n e s tu d y in g E n g lish a t an advanced level? Which areas of your English do you th ink you need to w o rk on? id io m a tic e x p re s s io n s p ro n u n c ia tio n p ro b le m s g ra m m a tic a l a c c u ra c y w ritin g exam p ra c tic e w ritin g a c c u ra te ly s p e a k in g flu e n tly lis te n in g c o m p re h e n s io n a ctive v o c a b u la ry b•CD Listen to Sybille talking about her English.... . 1 2 3 D iscu ss y o u r a b ilitie s and needs. b Work in A/B pairs..... I'd b e n e fit fro m . Do you share sim ila r concerns? 30 . m ig h t be th e a n s w e r /s o lu tio n ... P e rs o n a lly .. Talking about strong / w e a k points 1 2 3 4 I (d o n 't) fe e l c o n fid e n t. w o u ld be w o rth in v e s tig a tin g .. Which expressions did Sybille use? a W ork alone. . Listen again. . b u t ... I have a hard tim e ... I'm q u ite / re a s o n a b ly happy w ith m y ...7 so they are tru e for you..3 goals A plan to improue your English ® ta lk about languages and ways to learn them E describe experiences of language learning © discuss plans and p rio ritie s W hat message are these language-school adverts trying to communicate? TASK LISTENING 1 2 3 4 2 a A re th e y p o sitive o r n e g a tive ? C o n s id e r b oth th e im a g e and th e m essage..... Which of the areas in 2a does she talk about? TASK LANGUAGE a P la n s and p rio ritie s Think about your language abilities and plans for learning English.. I th in k th e best w ay to do th is is .... b ♦ IQ ) Discussing a plan 8 9 10 11 12 13 14. Complete expressions 1. .. An im p o rta n t area fo r m e is . Complete the questionnaire on page 127. L is te n to y o u r p a rtn e r's re s p o n s e .Target activity 3 . 15 I'd fin d . . a g re a t h e lp / re a lly u s e fu l. I need to w o rk / fo c u s / c o n c e n tra te on .

fa m ily and c o lle a g u e s s p e a k it? Has y o u r a ttitu d e to E n g lis h ch a n g e d o ver th e ye a rs? 31 . What verb is used when describing common attitudes to English? Read these questions. In o th e r w o rd s : it is p e rc e iv e d as y e t a n o th e r Look again at the inform ation accompanying the advert. consists of over 7. it is the world’s 12th most populous country. In a globalised economy.EXPLORE Across cultures Attitudes to English Read the background inform ation on the Philippines. f Young people are a w a re of th e im p o rta n c e of E n g lis h as an in te rn a tio n a l la n g u a g e . Talk together. Between 1565 and 1898. in South-east Asia. b E n g lis h is se e n as a la n g u a g e o f th e u p p e r cla sse s. In 1898. e E n g lish used to be m o re w id e ly sp o ke n in th e P h ilip p in e s th a n it is now. there have been two official languages in the Philippines: English and Filipino (a version of Tagalog). W h a t is th e s ta tu s o f E n g lis h in y o u r c o u n try ? Is it: • s o m e th in g th a t m oves you up th e s o c ia l la d d e r? • p a rt of a lm o s t every u n iv e rs ity d e g re e p ro g ra m m e ? • co n sid e re d e s s e n tia l fo r w o rk in g in c e rta in s e c to rs ? • m a in ly a s c h o o l s u b je c t? • seen as a n e ce s s a ry evil? • o n ly p o p u la r w ith young people? • view e d as a w ay o f e n ric h in g y o u r life ? • re g a rd e d as c u ltu ra lly th re a te n in g ? o b s ta c le to social success a n d in te g ra tio n . With an estimated population of 92 million people. T here is an u rg e n t n e e d to c o n v in c e th e y o u th to be p ro u d to be b ilin g u a l. Since independence. the Philippines were ruled by Spain. the Spanish ceded the Philippines to the USA. 1 2 3 W h ich of th e s e s ta te m e n ts do you th in k are tru e ? a M ost you n g p eople in th e P h ilip p in e s a re n 't in te re s te d in le a rn in g E n g lish . Then look at the advert promoting English there. a n d E nglish is n o w p e rc e iv e d as e litis t. Do you th in k y o u r a ttitu d e to E n g lis h is ty p ic a l o f p e o p le in y o u r c o u n try ? H ow m a n y o f y o u r frie n d s . Another 170 indigenous languages are also spoken.000 islands. c The s ta n d a rd of E n g lis h has im p ro v e d in re c e n t ye a rs. 1 2 3 4 D iscuss th e q u e s tio n s in 3. T here is a c u ltu ra l h in d ra n c e to th e p ra c tic e o f E nglish a m o n g th e y o u th : m a n y lack th e s e lf-c o n fid e n c e to speak E nglish because th e y are a fra id to m a ke m istakes. English is a Ticket to the Future. Find four other verbs that have a sim ila r meaning. W h a t do you th in k th e re a s o n s fo r th e s e a ttitu d e s m ig h t be? In w h a t w a y a re th e s e a ttitu d e s u n u s u a l? Article L o g in/create a cco unt Discussion The Philippines. ra th e r th a n a m eans to a c h ie v e it. d M ost young p eople are b ilin g u a l in E n g lis h and F ilip in o . which controlled the country until independence in 1946.

. a Continue these sentences with w o rth + a noun from the box. because you pick up the feeling of the language. How might they use w o rth w h ile ? WWF c * 1 0 U Listen to check. • a to u r is t d e s tin a tio n . W hat is each sentence about? Are they more likely to be spoken or written? b W hat words could you use before w o rth to add emphasis? C Replace the noun in each sentence with a verb + -ing.. reading it. 3 I could have studied for an MBA. It ta k e s an h o u r to g e t th e re and b ack. S om e tim e s th e re may be m ore than one possible answer. so is i t .? T h oug h th e fo o d 's expensive. it's better to give your m oney to a worthwhile cause. 4 If you can afford it. I d o n 't e xp e ct to h e a r a n y th in g . 3 a W hat do you notice about w o r th w h ile in these examples? W hat does it mean in each? 1 Watching films in the original version is really worthwhile. b You are going to listen to four people talking about the things or people in these images. 2 If you're going to b u y greetings cards.. ? The s ite is s till u n d e r c o n s tru c tio n b u t it's . b u t I th o u g h t it w a s . it's probably worth your while to get a computer with a bigger hard drive. so it's . 7 This takes a very long time to load but it's worth waiting for. but it was worth 3 I think i t 's w orth a t r y . w o rth + -ing.. Ask each other about the things or places. a W rite exam ples of: • a place to go o u t in y o u r to w n .. I k n o w s te ro id s a re d a n g e ro u s .. th e re 's s o m e th in g fo r everybody. • a film .. • an in te re s tin g food you have trie d . but it wouldn't really be worth m y while... It's n o t ... Does the noun take a definite or an indefinite article? e ffo rt 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 w a it ris k tr y /s h o t lo o k tro u b le / h a ssle v is it /tr ip T h is ta k e s a v e ry long tim e to load b u t it's worth the wait. play o r TV p ro g ra m m e . worthwhile 1 2 Look at these examples from the unit.. or w o rth w h ile . like Save the Children.. b Give your exam ples to a partner. Would you recom m end th e m or not? Think how you could ta lk about th em using w o rth + noun.EXPLORE Keywords worth. W h a t a b o u t th e N a tio n a l G a lle ry? W o uld you say it's w o rth w h ile ? vC ' 32 .. W hat does w o rth mean in each? What g ra m m a tic a l form s is it used with? 1 Which do you think w ould be worth reading? 2 It was quite a struggle . W h ich lead s to an in e v ita b le q u e s tio n : is in v e s tin g o ve rse a s .

Identify the parts w h e re Sze best gets her message across. b a b 1 2 M ake n o te s on th e m a in th in g s you w ill say. As she gets to know British culture she also falls for an older English m an who lives a resolutely bachelor life in Hackney. . e She e m p h a s is e s c e rta in w o rd s and v a rie s to n e to keep in te re s t. W hat aspects of the book do you think sound interesting? Z is a 23-year-old Chinese language student who has com e to London to learn English. where her parents want n oth in g m ore for her than that she sh ould follow them into the shoe business. Talk with a partner.. She p a ra p h ra s e s if she d o e s n 't k n o w th e e xact te rm .. er. e x citin g o r d iffic u lt? • y o u r e x p e rie n c e of u sin g E n g lis h . Which strategies from 2 did you both use? the kind of English it uses. I mean that you do need to pay great attention to what is happening with language. very exciting for me. a Read about Xialou Guo's novel A Concise C hineseEngLish D ic tio n a ry fo r Lovers. when I came here.EXPLORESpeaking Goal ® use strategies to r com m unicating effectively ! • I D Listen to these extracts. this is a brilliantly clever book that pokes fun at England and C hina and explores the endless possibilities for m isu n d erstan din g between E ast and West. when I left China. W h a t has been c h a lle n g in g . 3 T h in k of w ays to 's tre tc h y o u r s e lf (try to go a b it beyond y o u r c o m fo rta b le lim it in E n g lish ). she makes an image of that word. When the book begins she can barely ask for a cup o f tea. in te re s tin g o r u n e xp e cted ? W ritten in sh ort chapters.. she actually. I ... each the definition o f a word. and I guess. it’s wonderful to have these two sides to the novel. the less you u nderstand. W hy w a s it s ig n ific a n t? • an e x p e rie n c e of being a b ro a d . W h a t did you fin d in te re s tin g . Match them to ways Sze communicates what she wants to say. when she writes a Chinese character. It’s a m illion m iles away from the sm all Chinese town she com es from . c d She uses fille r s to give h e rs e lf tim e to th in k . The sentence become longer. bu t she also learns the pain ful truth that language is also a barrier an d the m ore you know ab ou t it... T h in k a b o u t ho w you co u ld use so m e o f th e s tra te g ie s in 2 . Read the start of the novel on page 126. W hat do you notice about th e way it is written? C * i f i j j Listen to Sze talking about the novel and She uses re p e titio n to m a ke h e r p o in t m o re c le a rly . o . so does love. it’s a wonderful achievement. everything was very new. 3 a -C D Look at the script on page 149 and listen again. more complicated. b u t when lan guage com es. W hat does she say about: 1 2 h e r fir s t six m o n th s in th e UK? 'b ro k e n ' E n g lis h ? 3 th e d iffe re n c e s b e tw e e n C h in e se and E n g lish ? 33 . Listen to each other's topic and ask questions to find out more. U b Which strategies do you think you use when you speak English? Do you think you use them consciously or unconsciously? a Prepare to talk about one of these topics: • an e x p e rie n c e fro m w h ic h you le a rn e d s o m e th in g im p o rta n t. the character start to use past tense and then the future tense i . 4 b She b rin g s in a m o re p e rs o n a l a n g le to s h o w th e im p o rta n c e o f a p o in t.. com panionsh ip and passion . Z learns ab ou t hum our. m en an d women.

8 9 10 3 a Som e verbs can describe states and activities. b T h e re 's n o th in g th e re . not go in g to s tu d y in A u s tra lia ..Look again O Grammar A dverbs P re s e n t ve rb fo rm s 1 a Look at these exam ples from the unit.. the voices enter me. I e x p e c t y o u 're happy w ith th e re s u lt? b I e x p e c t th e y 'll w in to n ig h t. The bus leaves at 10. v iv id ly s tro n g ly th o ro u g h ly d e e p ly e n tire ly b Make sentences with the collocations you made. S h e ’s se e in g s o m e guy. c re a tin g a se n se o f im m e d ia c y in past e x tre m e ly fu lly p ra c tic a lly h ig h ly g e n e ra lly 1 n a rra tiv e s . Look at these examples. 7 a W hat adverbs could be used as a response? T h a t's a fa ir c o m m e n t. brave. w a r b e tw e e n E n g la n d and A rg e n tin a b re a k s o u t o ve r th e F a lk la n d s .. c Read out only the last part of your sentences. W hen is it to be? W e’ re a ll w a itin g fo r s o m e th in g to happen and th e n s u d d e n ly th e re w a s a te r r ib le noise. N ot a g a in ! I’ m a lw a y s lo s in g m y w a lle t. T h re e y e a rs la te r.. but with a difference in meaning. this is a brilliantly clever book that 2 American soldier B illy Pilgrim is captured 3 . M ost p o litic ia n s are c o rru p t. 2 3 A T ru e fa n s w ill fin d th e bo o k d is a p p o in tin g . I'm le a v in g on th e 17th and th e n I'm c o m in g 5 6 7 back a w e e k la te r. is n 't it? b Yeah. c S h e 's e x p e c tin g s o m e o n e to a rriv e at tw o . I'd say his v ie w s on la n g u a g e le a rn in g are q u e s tio n a b le . W e 're se e in g each o th e r fo r din n er.. th e n c lic k here and send it. 3 were a silent ventriloquist . 5 6 a Match the adverbs with the verbs. past or future? 1 2 Bad w e a th e r is s e t to c o n tin u e . using an adverb. The stuff they did was 1 .. They are happy a t w o rk .. Can your p a rtn e r guess how they begin? . Com pare answers. b y assuming them. 1 2 3 A F o o tb a lle rs e a rn fa r too m u c h m oney. w e 've s till got an hour.. a I im a g in e she m is s e s h e r fa m ily .15. b Match the exam ples to these uses: a b c Add an adverb in the correct position. I h e a r you w e n t to B u lg a ria fo r y o u r holiday.. I'm a w a re of th e tim e . th e y 're p la yin g A b at h om e. d I d e e p ly r e g r e t .. Do you re m e m b e r y o u r fir s t day a t sch o o l? Is n 't life w o n d e rfu l? G ram m ar referen ce. I see w h a t y o u 're saying. It's im p o s s ib le to te a ch so m e o n e ho w to be a w rite r. I w r ite to in fo rm you th a t you have been chosen as one of th e lu c k y w in n e rs . I n e ve r k n o w w h a t h e 's th in k in g an y m o re . a I th in k I picked up m o s t o f m y E n g lis h at b a b c How would you classify u n b e lie v a b ly in te r m s of intensity? .. I d o n 't k n o w if it w ill a last. Eventually.. I b grad u a l l y make them mine. d e fin ite ly c o m p le te ly to ta lly a b s o lu te ly I totally agree with you. b u t I d o n 't agree. Agree or disagree. the voices of others invade me as if I 1 2 pokes fun at England and China and explores . w ritin g a review . 4 a Look at this exam ple from the unit. Take turns to make a co m m e n t and respond. th a n k you. 3 U D avid te lls m e th a t you have th e d a te and e v e ry th in g .. p141 34 enjoy re m e m b e r a g ree believe re g re t I deeply reg ret not going to study in Australia.y o u 're ju s t im a g in in g th in g s .. In what context might you find th em ? Are the h ig h lig h te d verbs referring to the present. b u t say th e y d o n 't get m u c h m oney. Underline the present verb form s. W h a t a d v e rb s can re p la c e u n b e lie v a b ly ? W h a t do you n o tic e a b o u t its p o s itio n in th e s e n te n ce ? W h a t o th e r a d v e rb s did Ian use? and sent to a German prisoner-of-war camp .? Make sentences using combinations of these intensifying adverbs and the verbs in 6a. You a tta c h th e file lik e th is . W h a t is the difference in these examples? 1 2 3 s ch o o l. s u m m a ris in g th e p lo ts o f b o o ks o r film s .

He s p e a ks so w e ll. v ery different? C a d je ctive + la n g u a g e foreign language D o th e r e xp re ssio n s + la n g u a g e to be im m ersed in language Add words in th e box to th e ga p s to m a k e e x p re s s io n s w ith la n g u a g e . 5 = I can do this w e ll. say one o f th e e x p re s s io n s in 8 b. b u t I've fo rg o tte n m o s t o f it ------------------------------------------------- | ® give a personal response B — — w i [ ® ta lk about languages and ways to learn them n m ® describe experiences of language learning iD 1 n K K f ln E K discuss plans and p rio ritie s © use strategies fo r com m unicating effectively I C • For Wordcards. "Im a g in e h o w hard it w o u ld be w ith o u t a good of th e la n g u a g e . W hat is each sp e a k e r talking about? C *i O Listen again. How do speakers stress the key words? Self-assessm ent Can you do th e s e th in g s in English?(fcircle)a n u m b e r on each lin e . Test each o th e r. © describe a book Pick up a language. In b u s in e s s c irc le s . a b c d ta lk a ro u n d th e to p ic . and he c a n Ita lia n to o ! W o rk in A /B p a irs . He k e p t b e a tin g a b o u t th e b u sh . e s p e c ia lly if you d o n 't get m uch to it. B. a la n g u a g e h e fro m an Ira n ia n exchan g e s tu d e n t. Which idioms do the cartoons show? B la n g u a g e used to language teacher 1 2 3 A I w a s re a lly to n g u e -tie d .” sh e said. 1 2 A.Vocabulary Idiom s ab ou t speaking Expressions w ith language 8 a How many expressions with la n g u a g e can you re m e m b e r from this unit? 9 a Look at this idiom from th e unit. 5 M a ke y o u r p o in t as q u ic k ly as you can. n o t g e t to th e p o in t give an o p in io n c le a rly s p e a k a rtic u la te ly u n a b le to have a chance to s p e a k because s o m e o n e e lse is sp e a k in g u n a b le to sp e a k because y o u 're n e rvo u s m o d ify a noun b very. S eeing th e m s e lv e s on video. E n g lis h is o fte n th e la n g u a g e a m o n g p e o p le fro m d iffe re n t n a tio n a litie s . He d id n 't le t m e g e t a w o rd in e d g e w a ys. B u t th e fa c t of th e m a tte r is. Unit 3 T W 1 1 e-Portfolio 35 . So the way you get your message across must be Think about four categories: A (p h ra s a l) v e rb s + la n g u a g e take up a language Match these idioms with th e ir definitions. reference and saving your work • For more practice -> Self-sttidy Pack. I picked up a b it o f G reek w h e n I w a s on h o lid a y. s tu d e n ts are m o re m o tiv a te d to im p ro v e th e ir la n g u a g e _ b ecause th e y w a n t to so u n d b e tte r and lo o k bette r. M any trib e s to d a y use m o d e rn te c h n o lo g y to h e lp th e ir la n g u a g e . The new US p ro g ra m m e w ill h e lp b re a k dow n th e la n g u a g e . it ta k e s a w h ile to a la n g u a g e . use it to say s o m e th in g fro m y o u r ow n e xp e rie n c e o r kn o w le d g e . I c o u ld n 't s tr in g a s e n te n c e to g e th e r. b ♦ Listen to the idioms in context. n o b o d y re a lis e s th a t's his la n g ua g e . W h ic h c a te g o ry in 8 a does each e x p re s s io n b e lo n g to? e g ra s p s k ills b a r r ie r 1 2 3 A 5 6 7 8 p re se rve get by in com m and m a s te r com m on second picked up e xp o su re He w as a you n g A m e ric a n w ith an u n u s u a l of F arsi. 1 = I can ’t do this.

W hat do you notice about the continents and individual countries in maps B and C? W hat do you think they show? b Read the descriptions of maps B and C.8 % th a t o f th e richest region. based on th e GDP (Gross Domestic Product) o f each country. This map shows the d istribution o f th e w orld's wealth in 2002. There was a vast increase in the w orld's to ta l w ealth in the 40 years between 1960 and 2000: wealth per person m ore than doubled.4. The size o f each c o u n try shows th e p ro p o rtio n o f th e w orld's popu lation living th e re . o e In S pring 2000. C Talk a b o u t m a p s B and C. and the w orld's GDP rose by about 250% . The m ap also shows th a t th e c o u n trie s o f S outh and East Asia have by fa r th e la rg e st populations re la tive to th e ir size. China. w orld po p u la tio n e stim a te s reached 6 billion (th a t is. For exam ple. North Am erica. B ut as th e m ap show s. th e USA has a m uch la rg e r po p u lation. The m ost significant developm ent was th e grow th o f Japan. The d is trib u tio n o f th e e a rth 's p o p u la tio n is show n in th is m ap. its GDP was 0 . the Republic o f Korea and Taiwan. six thou sa n d m illio n ). 1 2 3 36 W h ich c o u n trie s have th e m o s t d is to rte d sh a p e s? W h ich are b a re ly v is ib le ? H ow does y o u r c o u n try lo o k? W h a t c o n c lu s io n s can you d ra w a b o u t th e w o r ld ’s p o p u la tio n and w e a lth fro m th e s e m a p s? . The region w ith th e lowest w ealth was Central A frica.1 goals ® in te rp re t maps and facts ® m ake com parisons and ta lk about changes World Maps of the world READING a Cover the descriptions and compare map A (which shows land area) with B and C. Canada is s lig h tly b ig g e r th a n th e USA.

lik e th o s e in 2a. • E urope. S tu d e n t B. That th a t th e y w e re poor. d ra w a ro u g h 'm a p '. in d ic a te a b o u t th e s ig n ific a n c e o f re ve a l m u c h a b o u t is a p p a re n t d o e s n 't n e c e s s a rily m ean m e a n s th a t as th e m a p s sh o w S peaker A 1 2 One th in g t h a t ______ fro m th e s e m a p s is ho w little has a c tu a lly ch anged. • C e n tra l and S outh A m e ric a . lo o k on p 127. W h a t is th e m a in p o in t each s p e a k e r m a k e s ? A re an y th e s a m e as y o u r ideas? LANGUAGE FOCUS In te rp re tin g m e a n in g 5 a The s p e a k e rs used v a rio u s e x p re s s io n s to ta lk a b o u t w h a t th e m a p s m e a n .3 are about differences and changes. S tu d e n t A. and w rite a s h o rt d e s c rip tio n . lo o k on p 136. W R ITIN G 7 W rite about a map. b W o rk in A /B p a irs . C hoose one. T e ll y o u r p a r tn e r w h a t y o u r m ap s h o w s . • C hina. In te rp re t w h a t y o u r 'm a p ' sh o w s . • w h ic h c o u n trie s have th e m o s t and le a s t v io le n t c rim e . H ow w o u ld it be d iffe re n t? W hat c o u n trie s m ig h t be b ig g e r o r s m a lle r? Im a g in e a m ap s h o w in g w e a lth in th e y e a r 1500. b W rite one o r tw o m o re s e n te n c e s based on th e m a p s. b u t as th e m ap sh o w s. W hat words in the box could re p la c e th e h ig h lig h te d w o rd s ? Do th e y ch a n g e th e m e a n in g ? e a s ily huge c o n s id e ra b ly s ig n ific a n t m a ssive e n o rm o u s fa r and aw ay fa r 1 2 3 d ra m a tic s ig n ific a n tly m a rg in a lly T h e re w a s a va s t in c re a s e in w e a lth b e tw e e n 1960 and 1990. 1 2 Im a g in e m a p s th a t w o u ld show : • w h ic h c o u n trie s p ro d u c e th e m o s t g re e n h o u s e gases. In f a c t . Im a g in e a m ap s h o w in g th e w o rld 's w e a lth in 2050. T hen le t h im /h e r see th e m ap. Do o th e r p e o p le a g re e ? SPEAKING 3 a L o o k a t th e m a p s a g a in . W o rk in g ro u p s. and if you lik e . Canada is s lig h tly b ig g e r th a n th e USA. H ow w o u ld it lo o k? T h in k ab out: • N o rth A m e ric a . th e d iffe re n c e b e tw e e n ric h and p o o r has got bigger. W h ich c o u n trie s o r re g io n s w o u ld be b ig g e s t and s m a lle s t? 37 . W h a t do th e y r e a lly w e a lth ? It d o e s n 't life s ty le . W hat do you th in k it w o u ld lo o k lik e ? S ketch o u t p o ssib le ideas. Speaker B 3 U 5 6 7 b SPEAKING 6 a I'm a c tu a lly n o t re a lly s u re w h a t ______ th e m a p s is.LANGUAGE FOCUS 2 a D iffe re n c e s and ch a n g e s Sentences 1 . 1 2 Im a g in e a m ap s h o w in g p o p u la tio n in 2050. • India. • th e M id d le East. C Read o u t y o u r s e n te n c e s . th e USA has a m u c h la rg e r p o p u la tio n . W h a t did th e y say? C o m p le te th e s e n te n c e s w ith e x p re s s io n s fro m th e box. u sin g e x p re s s io n s fro m 2a. I su p p o se t h i s it w a s n 't p ro d u c in g m u ch w e a lth . • w h ic h c o u n trie s use th e In te rn e t m o st. The c o u n trie s of A sia have by fa r th e la rg e s t p o p u la tio n s . L is te n a g a in to ch e c k . b P re s e n t y o u r id e a s to th e c la s s . ♦ L is te n to tw o p e o p le ta lk in g a b o u t th e m ap on p 136.

Make notes about w h a t it might show. Describe your 'photo' to other students.2 goals What the world eats Australia: the Browns of River View Food expenditure for one week: $376. Group A. Which are types of food.45 LANGUAGE FOCUS 1 discuss changing trends Egypt: the Ahmed fam ily of Cairo Food expenditure fo r one week: $68. Group B. p u ls e s fib re c e re a ls d a iry p ro d u c ts p ro te in c a rb o h y d ra te d How much do you eat or drink of each type of food or drink in 2a and 2c? a W ork in groups.4 . b SPEAKING a Im agine a photo of your (or your family's) food for one week. look on p 130. a Which word s in the box below collocate with: • fo o d ? • d rin k s ? • both? Can you see examples of th em in the photos? b n u tritio u s b o ttle d s u g a r-fre e pro ce sse d GM s o ft d rie d ta k e -a w a y lo c a lly p ro d u ce d packa g e d fizzy canned ra w d ie t c o n ve n ie n ce lo w -fa t w h o le m e a l re fin e d Which word s have a s im ila r meaning? c These word s are commonly used to ta lk about food and diet. 1 2 3 Types of food b 2 ta lk about diet and n u tritio n W h a t se e m to be th e m a in d iffe re n c e s in th e food th e tw o fa m ilie s eat? W h e re do you th in k th e y do th e ir s h o p p in g ? W h a t kin d of d ish e s do you th in k th e y m ake? Talk about other things that strike you as interesting about the photos. Discuss the questions. b 38 Tell the class about the family's diet. look on p136. and which are c o n ta in e d in food? Give examples.53 a Discuss these questions. Which photo on this page is most sim ilar? .

W h a t do you th in k it w il l sa y a b o u t th e s e to p ic s ? • n e w te c h n o lo g ie s • food fo r co n ve n ie n ce • s e a s o n a l food • p ro ce sse d fo o d s • m a ln u tr itio n • o b e s ity b Read and ch e ck. more sweet foods and more processed foods: they eat more meals prepared by others. except in the very poorest countries. But the photographs have even more to tell us. surely grown well beyond the Himalayas. Some socially conscious governments struggling to feed their hungry populations must also contend with the health problems of people who eat too much food. New processing technologies allow companies to make shelf-stable food products that can be transported and consumed much later (like pasta). They buy more meat. Throughout history. Rates of obesity are 5rising rapidly in all countries. Australia and the United States. As the photographs show. but dinner unites us all. S tu d e n t B. S tu d e n t A. To see nutrition transition in action. As conflicts resolve and people in developing countries become better off. People around the world differ in many ways. more people are overweight than underweight. W h ic h d e s c rib e : 1 2 ch a n g e s in d ie t? o b e sity and h e a rt d ise a se? b W h a t a re th e n o u n fo r m s o f th e h ig h lig h te d v e rb s ? evolve . d e s c rib in g h o w e a tin g h a b its have c h a n g e d in th e w o rld . Soon they eat more food in general. Mongolia and the Philippines with those from France. They s ta rt gaining weight. New means of transportation . The phenomenon of going from not having enough food to overeating is now so common that it has been given its own name: the nutrition transition. 39 . they acquire more stable resources and 2change the way they eat. trucks and airplanes (as well as technologies such as refrigeration) .Nutrition transition 1 a You w il l read an a rtic le w h ic h a c c o m p a n ie d th e p h o to s .» e v o lu tio n c T ry u s in g n o u n s in s te a d o f th e v e rb s in th e a rtic le . Here we have the great irony of modern nutrition: at a tim e when hundreds of millions of people do not have enough to eat. lo o k on p 135. we humans have always found nourishing ways to use whatever food we could lay our hands on. ju s t examine the shopping lists and food displays. New marketing methods can create worldwide demand for such products (chief among them. 2 a M a tch d e v e lo p m e n ts 1 -5 w ith e x a m p le s a -e . you need only compare the diets of fam ilies from Mali. then ^develop heart disease. the almost ubiquitous Coca-Cola).mean that foods grown in one place can be consumed ‘fresh’ many thousands of miles away. hundreds of millions more are eating too much and are overweight or obese. become overweight. people eat oranges. lo o k on p 128. but are highest in the most industrialised countries. and the other chronic diseases so common in industrialised societies. New means of preservation allow foods to be eaten long after they are grown and harvested (hence ketchup). diabetes. New technologies have permitted the development of previously unknown food products like instant coffee and Cheese Whiz. They inevitably 3replace the grains and beans in their diets with foods obtained from animal sources. The earliest diets were hunted and gathered from the foods that were available as a result of geography and climate. N utrition transition Everyone eats. But as soon as people figured out how to trade foods. even in some place as remote as Bhutan.railroads. Today. W h a t o th e r c h a n g e s w o u ld be n e c e s s a ry ? H ow w o u ld th is a ffe c t th e m e a n in g ? SPEAKING You a re g o in g to have a d is c u s s io n a b o u t th e w a y te c h n o lo g y has ch a n g e d food h a b its . They have ’ evolved in response to changes in food production that began with the Industrial Revolution some 2 0 0 years ago. Thus. the current diets of most world populations have moved well beyond hunting and gathering. they did. H ow a re th e y c o n n e c te d ? 1 2 3 A 5 p re s e rv a tio n tra n s p o rta tio n p ro c e s s in g te c h n o lo g ie s m a n u fa c tu rin g te c h n o lo g ie s m a rk e tin g m e th o d s C oca-C ola in s ta n t coffee o ra n g e s pasta ke tc h u p W h a t is 'n u tr itio n tr a n s itio n '? LANGUAGE FOCUS C hange s and tre n d s a T he h ig h lig h te d v e rb s in th e a rtic le a re used to d e s c rib e c h a n g e s and d e v e lo p m e n ts . To understand why.

W hat do you think he w ill say? TASK LISTENING a * Listen.Target activity 4 . • ne w te ch n o lo g y. W hat preposition comes next? TASK LANGUAGE 1 2 3 U 5 R e su lt T h is T h is T h is T h is T h is had a ll k in d s o f c o n s e q u e n c e s fo r had an im p a c t . b Match the expressions in 3a with these endings.. do you ag re e ? . 1 T h in k a b o u t ch a n g e s to y o u r to w n ... re g io n o r c o u n try sin ce you have k n o w n it.3 goals Say how a town or country has changed make com parisons and ta lk about changes discuss changing trends ta lk about re su lt You are going to listen to Adrian talking about im portant events and changes in Britain. jo in in g th e EU. Is more than one a n s w e r possible? a w h o le new sty le of B ritis h c o o kin g . W rite tw o o r th re e im p o rta n t e ve n ts th a t have ta k e n p lace. 2 • n e w tre n d s o r fa s h io n s . p e o p le 's a ttitu d e to food. U a P repare to ta lk about how things have changed w h e re you live. c » < E D Listen to check. w a s a d ire c t c o n s e q u e n c e . a n e w w ave of TV chefs.. • ne w b u ild in g s o r tr a n s p o rt s yste m s. su ch as: • ch a n g e s of g o v e rn m e n t.. 1 2 40 L is te n to each o th e r's o p in io n and a sk q u e s tio n s to fin d o u t m o re . If you co m e fro m th e sa m e place.. th e w a y p eople live. M ake a lis t of h ow th e ch a n g e s have a ffe c te d p e o p le 's a ttitu d e s o r life s ty le s .. H ow are th in g s d iffe re n t now ? b W o rk with other students. led . Look at the photos. gave ris e . How do the photos illu strate w h a t he says? b W hat does Adrian say about the effect of joining the EU on: • food? • co o k in g ? • TV c o o k e ry p ro g ra m m e s ? a Look at these expressions Adrian uses..

"We have to serve it like this. When they do play Mexican music. it's comparable to the usual cardboard-tortilla fast-food outlets you get everywhere. But the chips were stale and the salsa tasted like candy! I asked my waiter if they had a hotter salsa. because the salsa was nothing but tomato ketchup w ith some chunks of onion in it. serve Mexican food. Here. it's always the most stereotypical bands serenading you with deafening rancheras. Describe th e ir decoration and atm osphere. a ttra c tiv e im a g e of y o u r c o u n try ? .EXPLORE Across cultures Restaurants 1 a W hat kind of re staurants can you see? W hat type of food do you think they serve there? How do you know? b Match these restaurant names with the photos. 3 a W hat do you know about Mexican culture and cuisine? b Read a blogger's review of a Mexican restaurant and underlin e the negative words. and serve margaritas which." he said. That was a good start and. I responded by telling him that if you're going to serve Mexican food. But sadly. of course. I was served chips and salsa. When I first went there. Do they think everyone listens to that in Mexico? The waiters also dress in folkloric costumes which are real cliches. 1 2 3 Do you have any idea h o w y o u r c u is in e m ig h t be re p re s e n te d ab ro a d ? W h a t do you th in k m ig h t be th e s te re o ty p ic a l d e co r. because the locals don't like the real thing. but also makes us teary-eyed. like back home. I'm tired of Mexican-owned restaurants advertising their food as autentico. 1 2 W h a t are th e b lo g g e r's m a in c o m p la in ts ? W hat do you p ic tu re w h e n you read th e h ig h lig h te d e x p re s s io n s ? I had high hopes when they opened a new Mexican-owned restaurant on the next block from me. Why don't the owners of the restaurants show off the beauty of our culture? Forget candy-flavoured salsa. contrary to popular belief. B en's C h illi B o w l Jade D ra g o n Cafe Q u entin c Which was the easiest nationality to identify? Why? W hat does this suggest about some restaurant decor? Talk about restaurants w h e re you live which offer cuisines from different countries. I dove right in. etc. we don't drink that much at home! 4 Discuss these questions. which is Caribbean. only to be disappointed by how terrible our food tastes.? Do you th in k th e s e are m is c o n c e p tio n s a b o u t y o u r c o u n try and co u ld be d a m a g in g ? O r do you th in k th is g ives a p o sitive . But it's not just the food that they get wrong. and make a great-tasting one that not only makes our mouths water. Mexican eateries play merengue.

H e r n a m e q u ic k ly b e ca m e w e ll-k n o w n th ro u g h o u t th e lite ra ry w o rld . People have really got into the habit of eating w e l l .. .. The difference between rich and poor has got bigger.. I hated Japanese food at firs t. b People have got a bit more selfish. Look at the photos. Take a key so you d o n 't .. It w as a long book. % he g o t le ft b e h ind on th e la s t lap . Why? 1 Now Europe is w e a lthy compared to other c o u n t r i e s . but fin a lly I .. but th is w e e k . Com pare your examples with other students. 5 Change leading to th e situation 6 It got wealthier at the expense of other countries. Can you use any other verbs instead of g e t or b ecom e ? Im agine you overheard these re m a rk s ... You need to be re s id e n t fo r te n y e a rs b e fore you b e co m e e lig ib le fo r c itiz e n s h ip . fa s h io n a b le .. People are in the habit of eating well. I g o t c a rrie d aw ay .... . 4 People are a bit more selfish. 1 2 We w ill c o n ta c t you as soon as a place b e c o m e s a v a ila b le . we use b e co m e ra th e r than g e t.. a p p a re n t to you. It soon b e c a m e a p p a re n t th a t a second ru n w a y w o u ld be needed. w e ll-k n o w n . 1 2 3 4 5 c 2 a W h at kin d o f w o rd s can co m e a fte r g et? In w h ic h e x a m p le s co u ld w e a ls o use b e co m e / be ca m e ? W hy / W hy not? W hy do th re e of th e e x a m p le s use th e p re s e n t p e rfe c t? / W hat are the sentences about? W h e re would you find th em ? Are they more likely to be spoken or written? a Think of something that has recently become: C om e and have s o m e d in n e r b e fo re i t . I u s u a lly keep u p -to -d a te w ith m y w o rk . g e t is used to ta lk about changes that lead to a situation.... b U b 5 It's given us good s e rv ic e fo r 10 y e a rs. 3 a In these examples.. How many ways can you describe what has happened to the things and people. o b so le te . What do you think the people are talking about? In what context would you h ear them? o r it w ill g e t in fe c te d ... Look at the exam ples in 1a and 1b again. 3 b Think of an expression with g e t these sentences. 42 » ! £ > Listen to check.EXPLORE Keywords gebecome 1 a In these examples.. • • • • • g o t to continue it w ill g e t m o re h u m id . It is o n ly in th e 20th c e n tu ry th a t n a tio n a lis m b e ca m e a s s o c ia te d w ith th e p o litic a l rig h t.. b u t th e p a rts have no w b e co m e o b s o le te . 2 The difference between rich and poor is bigger than 3 before... it's easy to g e t o v e rw h e lm e d on y o u r fir s t day . using g e t or becom e? . m o re a va ila b le . but a fte r a tim e .

19 m illio n p eople live in M u m b a i. 24-hour traffic jams. It has s lu m s w h ic h sp re a d e v e ry w h e re and a lso new a p a rtm e n t b lo c k s w h ic h co st as m u c h as so m e s k y s c ra p e rs in M a n h a tta n . During the day. sprawling slums and Manhattan-priced high-rises. India. a fte r Tokyo. Look at the photo and the descriptions. n u m b e r of: • se n te n ce s. 'B o lly w o o d '. The upper class 12_______ with mineral w ater in a 13______ tapas bar. pink and turquoise saris. T h e re are tr a ffic ja m s 24 h o u rs a day. Home to 19 million people. How are they different? Com pare the ® w rite captions w rite econom ically India. the second m ost populous nation in the w orld. Mumbai is projected by 2015 to be the planet’s second-most populous metropolis after Tokyo. it is the 2_______ of the happily unemployed who 3______ under the shade of its 4_______ trees. At the same time. • ve rb s. w ith its ow n film s ta rs . more than a quarter of India’s 1. It has a film in d u s try . b Why is the language in the caption more effective? 3 a Read three more captions. We have heard about the rise o f Asian tigers and the Chinese dragon . cosmopolitan outlook with 15_______ restaurants and nightclubs. B u t it is a lre a d y a w o rld of its ow n. But in the evening the atmosphere is more like a 5________: kids_4________on Ferris wheels or taking pony rides. Look on page 128 and follow the instructions. Match them with photos A -C . The booming concentration of business activity breeds a 14_______ . and the country is modernising so fast that old friends are bewildered by the changes. W hat effect is achieved by the way the captions are written? fa m o u s g rim y s q u a t c a rn iv a l e n o rm o u s p ris tin e snooze h a n g o u t s o p h is tic a te d s o ftly lit c h illo u t e x q u is ite fa n cy s c re a m in g s tu n te d U W o rk in groups. Chowpatty is Mumbai's m o s t1 fam ous beach. W elcome to new India. shelling them one by one.now here com es the elephant. The Sassoon Docks are the main fish loading and trading centre in South Mumbai. India is now the w o rld ’s fourth largest economy. • a d je c tiv e s and tw o -w o rd e xp re s s io n s . . 1 2 3 4 W h a t do th e y te ll you a b o u t th e c ity and th e w ay people live? W hy are tr a n s fo rm e d and e le p h a n t good w o rd s to d e s c rib e th e ch a n g e s ta k in g place in India? W hy do you th in k p eople a re b e w ild e re d ? W hat does th e w o rd s p ra w lin g s u g g e s t a b o u t th e s lu m s ? 2 a C om pare the caption with this more extended description. and it is p ro je c te d by 2015 to be th e m e tro p o lis w ith th e s e c o n d -h ig h e s t p o p u la tio n in th e w o rld . Hundreds of women 7_______ around 8_______ piles of tiny shrimp. But it’s already a world of its own with Bollywood stars. India’s econom y is growing more than 9% a year. astrologers and monkey shows.EXPIOREWriting Goals 1 Read the website about Mumbai. b Choose a word for each gap. Everywhere it is 7_______ and smelly.1 billion people still live in slum s and on less than $1 a day. is being transform ed. yet somehow these women remain 10_______ and clean in t h e ir 11________ orange.

"T he ch o ice s th a t to d a y 's g e n e ra tio n of young people aged 15—24. s o m e th in g th a t w ill c e rta in ly h a ppen? + in fin itive + noun o r verb + -ing is is is is is is on th e p o in t of due to s u re to s e t to a b o u t to bou n d to c e rta in to ii New York has really changed.000 are set to sp re a d hard for exams t year.. and which aren't? is to Change these sentences to comparatives. a n o th e r 3. I w a s e x p e c tin g it to be re a lly d a n g e ro u s .. but tu rn e d out. 2 R ewrite these sentences. I had e xp e cte d h e r to be angry. G ram m ar referen ce. Include inform ation about something that: • w ill happen soon. The p re s id e n t's sp e e ch w a s n 't as im p re s s iv e . Com pare sentences and ask questions to find out m ore about each other's opinion. (due) I th in k I'm go in g to tu rn dow n th a t jo b . The s c h e d u le says th a t th e p re s id e n t w ill a rriv e 5 3 he re a t 5pm . h e's m o re f r ie n d ly . (u n lik e ly ) a W rite th ree sentences about the futu re.62% of people will be living in Africa. 3 1 k I've m a n a g e d to do a b it. b u t it d id n 't se e m to be d a n g e ro u s at a ll. It w asn’t nearly as impressive as I . (verge) L ife m ig h t n o t be so d iffe re n t in 2050.07 billion. I had im a g in e d h im to be in his la te 40s.000.. As it 2 I'm sure th e re w ill be e le ctio n s next year.. • is c e rta in to happen.." (U n ite d N a tio n s P o p u la tio n Fund. D o n 't w o rry .000. You o u g h t to do m ore.. 44 4 You do ve ry little exercise. Of c o u rse . b u t th is y e a r it w a s q u ite hard. 2005) By 2050 th e e a rth 's p o p u la tio n is due to reach 9..n u m e ric a lly th is is th e sa m e as if a ll th e w o rld 's c u rre n t p o p u la tio n lived ju s t in th e s e re g io n s .. p141 .it's u n lik e ly t o .. (bound) The new pens w ill a rriv e v e ry s h o rtly . (certain) There are c e rta in to be e le c tio n s n e x t year. (point) The t r ia l s h a ll ta ke p la ce on 23 May. He p ro m is e d to h e lp a lo t. U nderline the different ways to talk about the future. W hen you m e e t h im fa c e -to -fa c e . b W ork with a partner.. I'm s u re th e w e a th e r w o n 't be as bad . (set) E ating o rg a n ic food w ill be a tre n d fo r so m e 6 4 5 6 7 tim e .. I had hoped to g e t a lo t of w o rk done today... li I have to work or S o u th e rn A sia and E a s te rn A sia ... In a d d itio n . she w a s a b s o lu te ly fu rio u s . 9 o r 11 b illio n people in th e y e a r 2050.m a ke a b o u t th e size and sp a cin g of th e ir fa m ilie s are lik e ly to d e te rm in e w h e th e r P la n e t E a rth w ill have 8 . S he's o ve r 80 now.... Which words are repeated. She d o e s n 't g e t a ro u n d .. on th e v e rg e o f on th e b rin k of b » 1 E > Listen to check. b u t in fa c t he h a rd ly h e lp e d at a ll. b u t he tu rn e d o u t to be n e a rly 60.. The exam is u s u a lly n o t v e ry d iffic u lt. It’s much safer than i t . So I don’t g out as much as I a cro ss th e re s t of th e w o rld . • is le ss c e rta in to happen.. The w o rld ’s population in th e y e a r 2050 5 a How could these re m a rk s continue? I I I w as a bit disappointed by the Acropolis. Are th e re different ways to express the sam e idea? b How can you talk about the futu re when you are 3 less certain? 1 it's lik e ly t o . 2 a Which expressions in the table ta lk about: 1 2 s o m e th in g th a t w ill happen soon? due to .Look again O Grammar The fu tu re C om parisons involving d iffe re n t verb s and tim es Look at this exam ple from the unit. 7 7 How could you continue these sentences with a comparative form? 1 2 3 4 5 The film w a s m u c h m o re e x c itin g th a n .

1 My 2 ______ had a big im p a c t on m e. The p ro b le m s te m m e d fro m / re s u lte d in th e fa c t th a t she n e v e r received his e m a ils . In less than 3 0 years. If you are in te re s te d in th e h is to ric a l e v o lu tio n o f th e te m p le s . B ritis h food b e ca m e c o s m o p o lita n . and w h e re m ig h t you read it? H ow do you know ? W h a t noun m e a n s 'c h a n g e ' in th e s e n te n c e ? Does it m ea n a s lo w o r a fa s t ch ange? Do you th in k th e w r it e r sees th e ch a n g e as being fo r th e b e tte r o r th e w o rs e ? N o th in g s y m b o lis e s th e re m a rk a b le tra n s fo rm a tio n o f th e c ity fro m th ird . You w a n t to be c a re fu l w ith th is v a c c in a tio n . th e c o u n try is on th e ve rge of to ta l c o lla p s e . 1 = I can 't do th is. it has developed from being a regional backw ater to being one of Europe’s most dynamic cities. Lo o k a t th e w a y people copy P a ris H ilto n . 1 2 a C o m p le te th e s e s e n te n c e s so th e y a re tru e fo r you. c Notice the adjectives with each noun. M ost p a tie n ts tre a te d w ith th e d ru g s h o w e d a d ra m a tic im p ro v e m e n t w ith in m o n th s . ______ had an im p o rta n t e ffe c t on m y fu tu re . s to p o ff at A ja n ta . b e cause . • a pla ce • th e e n v iro n m e n t / th e w o rld • s p o rt • a p e rs o n you k n o w Since the Wall fell. one th a t is q u ie tly ta k in g p o w e r aw ay fro m th e big s tu d io s and p u ttin g it d ire c tly in th e h a n d s o f a rtis ts . w h e re so m e caves are fro m th e 2nd c e n tu ry BC. 2 or 3? Would they change the meaning? b Look at sentences a -h and discuss these questions. I® in te rp re t m aps and facts make com parisons and ta lk about changes © ta lk about diet and n u tritio n discuss changing trends 9 ta lk about re su lt ® w rite captions © w rite econom ically • For Wordcards. 2 3 a b c d e f g h W h a t is each se n te n c e a b o u t. It w a s m a in ly th e irre s p o n s ib le b e h a v io u r of th e b a n k s th a t had an e ffe c t on / b ro u g h t a b o u t th e c ris is . It co u ld tr ig g e r / b rin g a b o u t an a lle rg ic re a c tio n . 5 = I can do th is w e ll. reference and saving your work • For more practice -» Self-study Pack. P eople have re a lly s ta rte d e a tin g w e ll.w o rld c a p ita l to c e n tre of g lo b a l fin a n c e m o re th a n its g litte rin g ne w s h o p p in g m a lls . b C o m p a re y o u r s e n te n c e s . W h a t w e are w itn e s s in g is a te c h n o lo g ic a l re v o lu tio n in th e re c o rd in g in d u s try . b T h e re has been a ra p id ris e in o b e s ity in a ll 1 2 3 c o u n trie s . T h is has had an im p a c t on p e o p le ’s a ttitu d e s to food and co o kin g . which means: • A caused B? a P eople's d ie ts have evolved g ra d u a lly in re sp o n se to ch a n g e s in food p ro d u c tio n . d o n 't le t h a irs p ra y o r p e rfu m e to u c h th e m .. 1 • B w a s caused by A? • A in flu e n c e d B? led to 1 g e n e ra te d had an e ffe c t on re s u lte d in b ro u g h t a b o u t in flu e n c e d re s u lte d fro m s te m m e d fro m w a s caused by trig g e re d had its o rig in in had an in flu e n c e on 11 C hoose th e b e st e x p re s s io n . Choose one of these topics and w rite sentences giving your opinion. Could they be used in sentence 1. Do other people agree? 45 . b These expressions could replace those highlighted in 10a. Self-assessm ent Can you do th e s e things in English?(^ircle)a n u m b e r on each lin e . A fte r a w e e k o f m a ss d e m o n s tra tio n s th a t have p a ra lyse d th e c a p ita l. fo r e xa m p le . a O besity is ris in g ra p id ly in a ll c o u n trie s . T h is w a s a d ire c t c o n s e q u e n c e o f jo in in g th e EU. W h y is it b e tte r? 1 2 3 4 5 C e le b ritie s have a huge e f f e c t / in flu e n c e on young people. ______ in flu e n c e d m e a lot.Vocabulary Changes 8 Cause and effect a In these sentences from N u tritio n tra n s itio n on p39. 3 4 s te m s fro m m y fa m ily b a c k g ro u n d .. The c o n flic t has its o rig in s i n / led to tr ib a l fe u d s b e tw e e n n o m a d ic h e rd s m e n . A fte r being to p of th e le a g ue . U n ite d soon w e n t in to rap id d e clin e . He e m p h a s is e d th e im p o rta n c e of m a k in g a s m o o th tra n s itio n to d e m o cra cy. T h is gave ris e to a w h o le ne w sty le o f B ritis h co o kin g w h ic h w a s in flu e n c e d by th e M e d ite rra n e a n . Berlin has undergone a rem arkable transform ation. Unit 4 e-Portfolio b Read out your sentences. What other adjectives could you use in the same context? 9 a Think of a change you know about. w h at other adjectives or adverbs could you use to replace g ra d u a llly ! and ra p id (ly)? 1 2 1 0 a In these sentences. so th e y s h o u ld pay fo r it. b P eople's d ie ts have u n d e rg o n e a g ra d u a l e v o lu tio n in re s p o n s e to ch a n g e s in food p ro d u c tio n . To p ro te c t y o u r p e a rls fro m g ra d u a l d e te rio ra tio n .

. Which cities do you think they are? Why? • H anoi. D escribed by politicians lands found along rivers and railway lines now serve as a refuge fo r crim in a ls. pork o r beef in a h o t b roth. noodles.0 0 0 w om en ta ke to th e football stad ium .1 goals ® describe spaces in cities ® describe how spaces are used Concepts of space READING 1 a T he p h o to s a re fro m an e x h ib itio n c a lle d 'P o s t-it c ity '. o r sheds fro m w aste and g ro w fru it and vegetables w here declared as are as in need of p ro te c tio n by UNESCO. J a rm a rk used to be Europe’s s tre e ts selling a kind of noodle soup . stacked in order. vegetables. of soy. It chopsticks. re tire d citizens build precarious novelists as locations fo r s to rie s of m a rg inalisation. chosen by film m a k e rs and a real purpose. Egypt b W hat does each photo show? W hat do they seem to have in common? Read the captions and check. th e y can. are tiny. th e pro je ct gives th e se elderly people a function in life. living anyw here will do . to be replaced by a new eating. This com plex a rra n g e m e n t quickly becom es an 2 0 1 2 football to u rn a m e n t. S pain • W arsaw .P h d Bo. In an overcrow ded city. m o re th a n 2 . For m any years. im provised o u td o o r re s ta u ra n t fo r up to te n people.even a Reclaimed as provisional allotm ents. th e se m ake sh ift hom es re m a in a sign of real poverty. on th e o th e r side. Here. P o la n d • C airo. it b ro u g h t a sense of co m m u n ity to tra d e rs Each of th e se soup-sellers c a rrie s a pole balanced across and sh oppe rs fro m d iffe re n t nationalities who h e r shoulders: hanging fro m one side is a soup p o t w ith o th e rw ise w ould have been on th e s tre e ts . these no-m an’s c e m e te ry could be called hom e. Which photos do they match with? Once held around th e edge of an abandoned Every day in Hanoi.5. one of th e venues fo r th e Euro stools. coloured N ational S tadium . a m ixture biggest open-air m a rke t. V ie tn a m • B a rce lo n a . plates and w h a te ve r else you m ig h t need fo r w as closed in 2 0 1 0 . M aking use of w aste ground in an original way.

T a lk a b o u t sp a ce s in th e a re a w h e re you liv e . T h in k a b o u t: • s q u a tte rs . e u n s ta b le . o r a re a s w h ic h now se rve an a lte rn a tiv e p u rp o s e . W h ich c o llo c a tio n s do you h e a r? W h a t is th e s p e a k e r's m a in p o in t a b o u t: p u b lic sp a ce s in g e n e ra l? 'a lte rn a tiv e ' u rb a n spaces? In w h a t w a y a re 'a lte rn a tiv e ' u rb a n sp a ce s lik e P o s t-it notes? W h a t is th e le c tu re r's a ttitu d e to u rb a n p la n n in g ? W h a t does he say th a t m a ke s you th in k th is ? c W h ic h a d je c tiv e s did th e s p e a k e r use to d e s c rib e th e w a y p e o p le use u rb a n sp a ce s? A re a n y th e s a m e as in th e c a p tio n s ? d > SPEAKING 0 L is te n a g a in to ch e c k . d D e s c rib e y o u r p la ce to th e c la s s . p ro p e rty u rb a n p u b lic c ity basic liv in g b *1 3 1 2 3 U o rg a n is m d e v e lo p e rs d w e lle rs needs p la n n in g space L is te n to a le c tu re a b o u t 'P o s t-it c ity '. • m u s ic eve n ts. T h in k h ow to d e s c rib e it u s in g one o r m o re o f th e a d je c tiv e s . C hoose a p la ce o r b u ild in g in y o u r to w n . • te e n a g e rs . 1 2 M ake a lis t of sp a ce s w h ic h have been re c la im e d o r tra n s fo rm e d . • g re e n spaces. • to u ris m . le ft em pty. d e x is tin g o u ts id e . • m a rk e ts . f used fo r a lim ite d tim e . Do th e a d je c tiv e s have a n e g a tiv e o r n e u tr a l c o n n o ta tio n in th e c a p tio n s ? H ow does th is a ffe c t th e w a y w e re a d th e m ? a W h ic h o f th e s e a d je c tiv e s can d e s c rib e : s p a ce s in c itie s ? b u ild in g s ? b o th ? c la u s tro p h o b ic q u a in t re s tfu l ru n -d o w n g litz y d e s o la te im p o s in g b u s tlin g v ib ra n t fu tu r is tic p ic tu re s q u e s ty lis h s o u lle s s se e d y ra m s h a c k le b W h ic h do you th in k have a p o s itiv e o r a n e g a tiv e c o n n o ta tio n ? c W o rk w ith a p a rtn e r. W h ic h p la ce : 1 2 3 k 5 6 7 LANGUAGE FOCUS U a F ind a d je c tiv e s in th e c a p tio n s th a t m e a n : D e s c rib in g spaces b 5 has now d isa p p e a re d ? is vie w e d d iffe re n tly by d iffe re n t people? gives a p a rt o f th e p o p u la tio n s o m e th in g to do? is th e re s u lt of a d e s p e ra te s itu a tio n ? is vie w e d th e m o s t p o s itiv e ly ? b ro u g h t d iffe re n t k in d s o f p e o p le to g e th e r? has to be se t up again every m o rn in g ? a b fu ll of people. . • fe s tiv a ls . • s o c ia l g ro u p s .Read th e c a p tio n s a g a in . • b u ild in g d e v e lo p m e n ts . c im p ro v is e d . Do you a g re e w ith th e ch a n g e s? L is te n to each o th e r's o p in io n s and a sk q u e s tio n s to fin d o u t m o re . Can o th e r p e o p le g u e ss w h a t it is? LIS TEN IN G 6 a M a tch th e s e w o rd s to m a k e as m a n y c o llo c a tio n s as p o s s ib le d e s c rib in g spaces and p la ce s.

allowing checks and balances. someone acting suspiciously here. This is the control centre for Manchester's CCTV camera surveillance operation: five operators controlling over 250 cameras. He is young. One of the operators had noticed something unusual about our man.5 . She also thinks this collection of functions and separation of powers between council and police is the proper model for CCTV. Certainly. not just to catch criminals". 1 2 2 a W h e re can you fin d s u rv e illa n c e c a m e ra s in y o u r to w n ? W h a t do you th in k is th e ir m a in p u rp o s e ? Do you th in k th e y have h e lp e d to re d u ce c rim e ? If so.. It is not always so exciting. and his attention turned elsewhere. rolls a cigarette and lights it." the manager says. 1 2 3 W h e re is th e w r it e r and w h y is he th e re ? Does he th in k CCTV c a m e ra s a re u s e fu l. u s e le s s o r s in is te r? W h a t evid e nce can you fin d in th e a rtic le to s u p p o rt th is ? H ow does his a ttitu d e ch a n g e in th e second p a ra g ra p h ? U W ho ru n s th e o p e ra tio n ? W hy does th a t se e m to be a good idea? I N Manchester. but his suspicions. at the NCP car park. illegal street traders. The operator showed me his computerised log of recent incidents: a man on a garage forecourt looking at the camera. mobile wireless cameras have assisted in a successful police operation against gangs in Moss Side. The centre's manager is keen to stress that CCTV is there "to improve the quality of life. I am in front of a bank of screens. traffic congestion. . The cameras are alert to fly tipping. to the observer. a group of youths on bicycles. A police officer is on shift for referrals for action. p ra g m a tis m Read two m ore paragraphs from the article on p 129..2 goals Surveillance READING 1 a © talk about crime and surveillance W hat do the im ages show? b Talk together. The operation has had its successes: nearly 50 football hooligans rampaging in the city centre before last year's UEFA cup final between Rangers and Zenit St Petersburg have been identified. covering public spaces throughout the greater Manchester area 24 hours a day. honed by hours of watching street activity. "We want to be the fourth emergency service. the operation smacks more of the familiar British piecemeal pragmatism than any sinister desire for control. Then an s w e r the questions. b W hat do you think the highlighted word s mean? How else can you express the sam e idea? 1 2 3 3 48 as he fu m b le s in h is p o cke t s e e m s o b liv io u s to th e c a m e ra his s u s p ic io n s w e re a lla y e d U h o n e d by h o u rs of w a tc h in g 5 ra m p a g in g in th e c ity 6 s m a c k s m o re o f . At one end of the screens. He is outside. He also seems oblivious to the camera through which I am watching him. and seems nervous. thin. were soon allayed. in the city centre. an operator is observing the car park. how ? Read the article. I watch the man as he fumbles in his pocket. watching out for the people of Manchester. a shoplifter being brought out of a shop there.

if you th in k a b o u t it. o r do th e y have m ixed fe e lin g s ? 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 I did th in k it w a s . SPEAKING a W hat do you think are the pros and cons of the four security measures? b C om m e n t on an experience you have had. Pa t r ic k B u t at no p o in t did th e y a c tu a lly a s k to see m y p a s s p o rt . t in a T h e re w a s a huge q u e u e o f p eople s ta n d in g b e h in d m e . • W h a t happe n e d ? • H ow do you fe e l a b o u t th e e xp e rie n c e ? • W h a t c o m m e n ts w o u ld you lik e to m a ke a b o u t it? T a lk a b o u t y o u r e x p e rie n c e s and h o w you fe e l a b o u t th e m . Uri. w h ic h a re le g a l. L is te n to each o th e r and a s k q u e s tio n s to fin d o u t m ore. uri Then th e y speed up ag a in .i t ' s . ja n e any s c h o o lc h ild re n w e re a c tu a lly c ro s s in g th e road. it does m a ke it s a fe r to buy th in g s . w h ic h a re ille g a l. 1 C o m m e n tin g on e x p e rie n c e s W h a t s e c u rity m e a s u re do th e y ta lk ab o u t? A re th e y in fa v o u r o f th e m .> m u g g e r w ritin g g r a ffiti —> g r a ffiti a r tis t C Choose five of the activities you find interesting. a g a in s t th e m . as. 1 2 LANGUAGE FOCUS 3 a The speakers co m m en t on things that happened to th em . you know .LANGUAGE FOCUS U a These words are used to describe things people do in streets or in buildings. Try to complete the gaps. 49 . Pa t r i c k I t h i n k . L e g a l and ille g a l a c tiv itie s m u g g in g b u rg la ry va n d a lis m rio ts p ic k -p o c k e tin g s q u a ttin g w ritin g g ra ffiti b u s k in g ro b b e ry p ro te s t m a rc h e s s h o p liftin g s tre e t tra d in g h o o lig a n is m b e gging d e m o n s tra tio n s s le e p in g ro u g h gang w a rfa re b Which words have a different verb form ? Is there a noun for the people who do these activities? m u g g in g -h> m u g .it w a s . W hat fo rm s of security do they show? W hat is th eir purpose? Listen to Jane. ja n e b ♦ M S 3 Listen again to check. I w a s n 't re a lly do in g a n y th in g th a t d a n g e ro u s . g e ttin g p rio ritie s w ro n g ! t in a I do th in k t h e y ' r e I m e a n .it w a s . 1 2 T h in k a b o u t an e x p e rie n c e you have had w ith s e c u rity m e a s u re s . Patrick and Tina talking about security measures. and w h ic h can be e ith e r? W h ich do you th in k s h o u ld be le g a l / ille g a l? W hy? 3 4 Do you th in k any co u ld [o r s h o u ld ] be c o n tro lle d by s u rv e illa n c e c a m e ra s ? A re any a p a rtic u la r p ro b le m w h e re you live? Security LISTEN IN G 1 Look at the photos. Explain w h a t they mean. 1 2 In y o u r c o u n try . uri I th in k th e y s e r v e . b u t s o m e tim e s I th in k it's ju s t a b i t .

with residential flats on the upper floors. Germany. TASK LANGUAGE O u tlin in g W hat • th e • th e W hat p ro b le m s does she say a b o u t: sh o p s? • th e s q u a re in th e m id d le ? tr a ffic ? • th e b u ild in g s ? ne e d s to be done? M ake a lis t of p o in ts she m e n tio n s . Follow the instructions on p129. Listen to a town p lan n e r outlining the problems. b is / a re + adjective 6 7 8 9 10 The d iffe re n t p a rts o f th e squ a re a re c u t o f f fro m each other. T h e re a re too m a n y p eople in th e sq u a re . The main aim of the redevelopment is to improve the quality of life in and around the square. On the south side is the main post office and other. 3 4 5 T h e r e 's ______ p a rk in g spaces.3 goals Plan a city square @describe spaces in cities © outline problems liscuss and suggest solutions 1 TASK PREPARATION a These photos show a square in Munich.Target activity 5 . There is also access to the underground from various points on the square. It is also the centre of the Munich district of Sendling and is the main shopping centre of the area. C • 0 Look on p 138 and listen to the town planner's solution. On the east and north-west sides of the square there are shops. The The The The po st o ffic e is p a rk in g spaces a r e ______ . s q u a re i s ______ . Add words to the gaps. Then c o m p a re a n s w e rs . smaller shops and flats. T h e re ’s / There a re + nou n 1 T h e re 's a la c k o f c o m m u n ic a tio n b e tw e e n th e 2 d iffe re n t p a rts of th e sq u a re . T h e re 's no flo w of tr a ffic th ro u g h th e s tre e ts . offices and a library. T h e re ’s th e post o ffice . b Present your ideas to the class. one going south from the city centre and the other branching west towards the ring road and motorway. Which sentences apply to the square at Harras? c Which sentences in 3a could you rephrase beginning with There's a problem? W hat words can come a fte r problem? U a Try to find a solution for the square at H arras. including the central area. . there is constant heavy traffic on all three roads which pass through the square. At present. What would be the advantages and disadvantages? b Read the report. The centre of the square is kept free of traffic and is used as a bus station. s tre e ts a r e ______ . 3 a s h o rta g e of in a d e q u a te no access to o ve rcro w d e d in a cce ssib le co ngested a Look at these two ways of outlining problems. and they are separated from the buildings only by narrow pavements. and to make it an attractive centre for Sendling which will be well used by residents and visitors to the area. Im agine living on this square. Did it mention any of the things you talked about? The square at Harras is situated on a major intersection of two main routes.

!*iar . w o u ld you tr y to fin d a place aw ay fro m o th e r people? If you had a day c o m p le te ly on y o u r ow n. 1 2 3 A Do you w o rk b e tte r w ith p e o p le a ro u n d . M a tch th e m w ith th e s e title s . o r on y o u r ow n? If you w e n t to a p a rk o r beach. o r w o u ld you p re fe r to be w ith o th e r people? W ould it b o th e r you to s h a re a h o te l ro o m w ith a frie n d ? Think of a country you know.EXPLORE Across cultures Privacy 1 a T he se im a g e s w e re a ll p o ste d on F lic k r.c o m . w o u ld you e n jo y it. 1 2 3 Is th e re m o re o r less o f a se n se of p riv a c y th a n in y o u r c o u n try ? H ow does th a t s h o w its e lf? W hy do s o m e c u ltu re s a tta c h m o re im p o rta n c e to p rivacy? 51 . s e c u rity b H ow a p p ro p ria te do you th in k each title is? W hy / W hy n o t? ! H IT I n ?U±\ H !1 Hj HBllilliniH i™ *n) w 1 m ’ pi. 1 2 W hat W hat • his • his • his is 'p r iv a c y 'f o r h im ? can you te ll a b o u t: re la tio n s h ip s and frie n d s ? fre e tim e ? life up to now ? 3 H ow w a s E gypt d iffe re n t fro m E n g la n d ? Is th e im a g e he conveys o f E n g la n d p o sitive ? How im portant is privacy to you? Discuss these questions.iM ' iiII i i I I __ i T iu n u «g > !!<r f « ■ " ■■ ! f i | K B * P>' 4 i m • A1 ]mm" P! f! fl * f ‘ f'L ! • i ! | ! is I W hat do you understand by 'privacy'? Is th ere an equivalent word for it in your language? ♦8 Q U Listen to David talking about privacy. 1 2 3 Invasion o f priva cy D e fin in g m in im u m priva cy P riva cy is dead A 5 6 R e sp e ctin g b e a u ty and p riva cy A little p riva c y ple a se! P rivacy vs.

The whole building urgently needs redecorating. 1 2 The w in d o w s a re ro ttin g away. Which could be about: people? a building? a system? C 3 a e of financial support. What words could go in the gaps? In order to turn this square into an urban space of high quality it needs ^_______ .there's no need to panic. Compare your ideas with other people. W rite down: • • • • b 52 It's O K . re o rg a n is in g o r im p ro v in g . . you th in k need m o re he lp . The a n ti-s m o k in g la w s a re n 't v e ry s a tis fa c to ry . a b u ild in g th a t's b a d ly s o m e th in g th a t needs a g ro u p of p e o p le w h o s o m e th in g th e re is an in need o f re p a ir o r re n o va tio n . re . and it needs ^_______ for the whole layout of the square. but enabling the flow of traffic for the same amount of vehicles and without causing traffic jams. th e s q u a re d o e s n 't fu lf il its fu n c tio n . the road. A t th e m o m e n t.6 continue? Add sentences with need (as a verb or noun). _______ . Which expressions from 2a do you hear? W h a t is each item about? How could 1 . b «O Listen to check. u rg e n t need for. c 1 2 3 2 a U Many people in the area are in desperate need W h a t w o rd s and p a tte rn s fo llo w need? W h a t a d je c tiv e s / a d v e rb s co m e b efore need? Can you th in k o f any o th e rs ? C ould you say each s e n te n c e d iffe re n tly . a c o m p le te o v e rh a u l re p a ir re n o va tio n b There's an urgent need for more qualified staff. Can other people guess w h at the first sentence was? a W ork alone.EXPLORE Keyword need 1 a Look at this example from the unit. f These words / expressions often follow in need of. D o n 't w o rry a b o u t th e loan. 3 U 5 6 T h o u s a n d s of fa m ilie s have n o w h e re to live. Listen to four news items. C Notice how you can use need as a verb or a noun. V erb Noun a d The traffic needs to be completely b We n e e d more discussion before w e can reach a decision. They u rg e n tly n e e d re p la cin g . b Read out one of your answers. I can h e a r you v e ry cle a rly. u sin g need o r a n o th e r e x p re s s io n ? m e d ic a l tre a tm e n t a b re a k food and s h e lte r a ch a n g e a s s is ta n c e an u p g ra d e Talk about these photos using expressions in 2a.o r g a n i s e d . the spaces taken u p b y the road n e e d First of all.

Try to complete the gaps. T h in k of o th e r d e ta ils you w o u ld lik e to e xp la in .. Did the sp e a k er say the sam e as you? Give a short presentation.. In what order do you think he shows the slides? c What do we know from the presentation about: 1 2 a G renada? th e h o te l? th e beach? th e food? Think about the way Len: 1 2 3 in tro d u c e s th e p re s e n ta tio n . You can see t h a t . 1 6 7 _ any questions. Give y o u r p re s e n ta tio n to o th e r s tu d e n ts . 99 Listen to check.. so 5___ Petit Bacaye itself.3 in a minute. an idea what the hotel is like and what it's like to stay th ere. Look at these ways of presenting visual inform ation. 99 ii Conclusion So.. good afternoon. W hat other words could be used instead of the h ig h lig h te d words? Showing a view T his s h o w s you H e re 's a v ie w o H e re's a c lo s e r L e t's ju s t zo o m . At every beep' he shows a new slide.. ii Introduction Well... really. b♦ a 8 what the hotel is like. and _ thank you very much for coming this afternoon. m oves fro m one to p ic to th e next. b Choose one of the slides. 53 .. 99 ii Opening description So. . in on R e fe rrin g to a slide As you can see fro m th is pho to .EXPLORESpeaking 1 a These photos are from a slideshow presentation. fin is h e s th e p re s e n ta tio n .. answer them. the hotel. w h ic h you can see here. P re p a re to ta lk a b o u t y o u r h o lid a y u sin g th e p h o to s on th is page. Which expressions could you use to ta lk about it? c Look at the script on p151. 1 Im a g in e you s p e n t s o m e tim e at th e P e tit Bacaye h o te l. I’m the manager of Petit Bacaye. But a general idea about where we are 99 ii Transition OK. What do you think it is about and who is it for? © give a presentation with images biB l Listen to Len Griffiths giving the presentation. f . that’s it. My name's Len Griffiths.. vie w .

roughly 75% of the Home Choose a photo and imagine a news item to go with it. CCTV is reckoned to operate in around 500 British towns and cities. as against 50 in and one in Norway.. Office crime-prevention budget is said to have been spent on installing CCTV. They say th a t speed c a m e ra s have reduced road a ccid e n ts . i II in Austria.. P eople c a lc u la te th a t th e re are o ve r 4 m illio n CCTV c a m e ra s in th e UK..... . : It has also been shown that improving street lighting "is a rather more effective form of p r e v e n t i o n " . Use a suitable passive reporting verb... passive verb + to + in fin itive ... M any people fe e l th a t s e c u rity c h e c k s at b Read out your sentences. is re c k o n e d to . is re c k o n e d t h a t . has been sh o w n t o . H ow c o u ld you say th e m in a m o re c o n v e rs a tio n a l style ? b R ewrite these sentences. R e p o rts s h o w th a t m o s t s e c u rity c h e c k s at a irp o rts are in e ffic ie n t. .. is said t h a t .. M ilan a r t r t p o r t t d to h a v t S icjntd a n to j m id —f i t l d t r 1 / is b t h t v t d to b t t h t h ig h ts t- p a id t r a n s f t r in t h t h i s to ry o f t h t d u b . W rite one or two sentences using reporting verbs. 1 2 3 4 5 6 P eople say th a t CCTV c a m e ra s in s h o p s d o n 't a c tu a lly d e te r c rim in a ls . Can other people guess the photo? a irp o rts are re a s s u rin g ... 1 The e x a m p le s s h o w tw o w a ys of u sin g im p e rs o n a l re p o rtin g v e rb s . has been s h o w n t h a t . M any e x p e rts b e lie ve th a t th e use of CCTV h a s n 't had a s ig n ific a n t e ffe c t on c rim e ... D u ring the 1990s. is said to ... 2 3 W h ich e x a m p le s re fe r to: • th e p re s e n t? • th e past? H ow is th is re fle c te d in th e g ra m m a tic a l s tru c tu re s used? The e xp re s s io n s are ty p ic a l o f new s re p o rts o r a c a d e m ic w ritin g . W h a t o th e r v e rb s can be used in th e sa m e w ay? M ake a lis t. it It It It + passive v e rb + t h a t . c How are these im person al constructions expressed in your language? G ram m ar referen ce.look again o Grammar a Passive rep o rtin g verb s 1 a L o o k a t th e s e e x a m p le s fr o m th e u n it. Italy.. p 1 4 2 ..

Vocabulary
D escribing places

S olu tio n s to p ro blem s

Look at this example from the unit. What two ways
does the town p lanner use to describe the square?
W hat other shapes could a town square be?
The square itself is a v e r y unusual shape.

7

is a triangular shape, and it is surrounded by

a

Listen to these extracts from presentations.
Which person is talking about:



It

some very fine buildings.

U

a • f5 D

a w a r?
im m ig ra tio n ?
re d e s ig n in g a c ity sq u a re ?
an in d u s tria l d is p u te ?

b All these adjectives collocate with solution.
Which s p e a ke r uses each expression?

What do the h ig h lig h te d expressions mean?
Which sentences best describe the photos?

d ip lo m a tic
g lo b a l p ra c tic a l lo n g -te rm
p a rtia l proposed
in te rim
m u tu a lly agree able
C Which expression in 7b means:
1
2

3
k

5
6
7
8

th e y d o n ’t fu lly solve th e p ro b le m
p artial solutions
it involves th e w h o le w o rld
w e s t ill need to fin d a b e tte r s o lu tio n
it w o rk s
it avoids fig h tin g
i t ’s w h a t w e s u g g e s t
it w ill solve th e p ro b le m fo r a long tim e
b oth s id e s a g re e to it

d W hat verbs collocate with solution?
come up with a solution
Listen again. W hat verbs did they use?
1
2
3
k
5
6
7
8
9

The s q u a re is s u rro u n d e d by fin e old
b u ild in g s , d a tin g fro m th e tu r n of th e ce n tu ry.
The c e n tra l m o sq u e , d a tin g fro m th e 12th
c e n tu ry , is th e fo c a l p o in t o f th e city.
The road is b o rd e re d by s h o p p in g c e n tre s and
re ta il o u tle ts .
The m a in s tre e t is lin e d w ith re s ta u ra n ts .
The to w n is d o m in a te d by a c ita d e l.
The n e ig h b o u rh o o d is b o u n d e d by 3 5 th S tre e t
and 7th Avenue.
T h e re are ro o m s o v e rlo o k in g th e s q u a re fo r
a b o u t $10 a n ig h t.
S e ve ra l s m a ll ca fe s lo o k o u t o v e r th e river.
You can fin d good food a t V ik to r's , ju s t o ff th e
m a in sq u a re .

b W hat do you im agine the o th e r places to be like?
Try to form a 'm e n ta l pictu re’ and describe it to
your partner.
5

8

Discuss a problem.
1
2

3

T h in k of a w o rld p ro b le m , a p o litic a l issue o r a
p ro b le m in y o u r area.
P re p a re to ta lk a b o u t it. M ake a fe w b rie f n otes
and tr y to use e x p re s s io n s fro m 7b.
T e ll o th e r s tu d e n ts a b o u t th e p ro b le m . D iscuss
p o s s ib le s o lu tio n s .

Self-assessm ent
Can you do th ese th in g s in English?(^ ir c le)a n u m b e r
on each lin e . 1 = I can ’t do this, 5 = I can do th is w e ll.
© describe spaces in cities

I

W

1

© describe how spaces are used

a Think of a square, street or neighbourhood where
you are now. W rite a few sentences describing it.

@ ta lk about crim e and surveillance
@ com m ent on experiences

w

w

b Read out your sentences. Can other students
guess which place it is?

© o u tlin e problem s

w

w

© discuss and suggest solutions

D

© give a presentation w ith im ages

m

Think of a place which you think doesn’t fulfil its
function w e ll and could be improved. Discuss:
1
2

w h a t is w ro n g w ith it.
how it m ig h t be im p ro ve d .

Q

Q

D

Q

m

• For Wordcards, reference and saving your work -» e-Portfolio
• For more practice
Self-study Pack, Unit 5

55

6.1 goals
® describe appearance and changes to appearance
@ discuss photos and images
© talk about aim and intention

Appearances
The camera never liesP

L ISTEN IN G

a

The left-hand im age has been changed in ten different ways. W hat changes do you
think have been made? How?

b *

c

Read the script on p1 51. What do you notice about the verbs?
1
2

READING

a

Listen to check.

W h a t g r a m m a t i c a l fo r m do m o s t of th e m have? W hy do you th i n k th is is?
Find e x a m p le s of v e rb s w h ic h are fo r m e d fr o m adjectives.

Read an article about digital manipulation in the fashion industry. What do you
think these highlighted words mean?
1
2
3
k

th e a r s e n a l of fa s hio n p h o to g ra p h y
g re a t bone s t r u c t u r e
f l a w le s s on th e page
w it h a b an d o n

5

e v eryth ing gets r e to u c h e d to d ea th

Thin, pretty and airbrushed
Clicking the shutter is just the beginning
of model beauty
The arsenal of fashion photography has always included
teenagers with great bone structure, chic clothes and a good
make-up job. But with computer graphics, these models
look even more flawless on the page. Since the advent of
Photoshop, the fashion and advertising industries have been
airbrushing pimples, removing wrinkles and shaving off thighs
with abandon. “Everything gets retouched to death,” says
Eric Feinblatt, a photographer and professor at the Fashion
Institute of Technology in Chelsea. “There’s nothing you see on
any fashion magazine cover that hasn’t been manipulated.”
56

6
7
8
9

d o e s n 't p re te nd to m i r r o r re a l life
p o o r body im a g e
vo id of any kind of h u m a n ity
re a d e rs are savvy enough

Though the industry does not pretend to minor real life,
many are critical of the way that photo manipulation removes
life from people’s faces and hence contributes to poor body
image. Michael LaMount, a freelance photographer in Los
Angeles, objects to digital manipulation, because by removing
lines, chins and shadows, retouchers are erasing people’s
individuality. “Once you start airbrushing, it becomes void of
any kind of humanity,” he explains.
But even the models know the point of the picture is to
create an image, not a portrait. By the time a photo is taken,
the model has already been heavily made up, her clothes
pinned and tucked to her body. “How real is it anyway?” asks
model Candy Frisbe.
Colleague Megan Shoemaker says readers are savvy enough
to know fashion photographs do not represent real life. “I think
that most people know that the images can be manipulated;
consumers are aware,” she says.

b Discuss the article.

LANGUAGE
FOCUS
A lt e rin g physical
fe a tu re s

1

Is th e w r it e r ' s opin io n c ritic a l, positive o r n e u tr a l?

2
3

F o u r people are quoted. W h a t is each p e rs o n 's a tt it u d e to d ig ita l m a n ip u la tio n ?
W ho do you m o s t ag re e w ith ? Why?

a

Find six words in the article that re fe r to physical features,

b

W hat other physical features can be altered in photography? Make a list,

c

Com pare lists. Use these verbs to ta lk about them.
e nh a n c e
le n g th e n s h o rte n
lig h te n
d a rk e n
re d u ce add
re m o v e a l t e r

Spots can be
rem oved, c h e e k bones
can be enhanced.

Fake photos
LANGUAGE
FOCUS

1 a

These photos both have fake elem ents. W hat are they? How w e re they achieved?

A im and
in te n tio n

b

Look at these expressions which describe the a im of the alterations. Complete
th e m with words from the box.
to 1x3)
1
2
3
4
5

of

as

w ith

in

th a t

... th is c o m p o s ite m a y have been c re ated s o
a d d re s s th at.
... _ _ _ _ _ o r d e r
give th e im p re s s io n of a s h a r k a tta c k ...
... s o
th e c la im w o u ld s e e m m o r e g e n u in e ...
... h o p i n g
convince people t h a t th e pho to w a s r e a l ...
... _
th e a i m
e n h a n c in g his s ta tu re ...

c W h ic h pho to do you t h i n k each e x p re s s io n d e s c rib e s ?
READING and
SPEAKING

W o r k in A /B p a irs. Read a b o u t th e p h o to s in 1a. S tu d e n t A, lo o k at p 127. S tu d e n t B,
lo o k at p 136.
3

a Read a b o u t th e s e o t h e r fa k e s. Match th e a im s (a -d ) to th e d e s c r ip tio n s (1-4), add ing
an e x p re s s io n f r o m 1 b. W h a t c h a n g e s do you need to m a k e to th e s e n te n ce s ?
1
2
3
4

a
b
c
d

b

in 2007, N a tio n a l G eographic sh o w e d a p ic tu re of th e Giza p y ra m id s , Egypt on its
cover. The p y ra m id s w e re moved c lo s e r to g e t h e r ...
In 1994, Time m agazine show ed A m e ric a n fo o tb a lle r OJ S im p s o n s h o rtly a ft e r his
a rre s t fo r m urder. They changed his face to m ake it d a r k e r tha n it really w a s ...
A R e u te rs p h o to g r a p h e r covering an a ir raid on B e iru t, Lebanon, used
P ho to s h o p to add extra s m o k e ris in g f r o m the b u ild in g s ...
In 1994, th e U n iv e rs ity of W is co n s in d o c to re d a p h o to g ra p h on a b ro c h u re by
in s e rtin g a b la c k s tu d e n t in a c ro w d of w h ite fo o t b a ll fans ...
loo k m o r e d ra m a tic
fit th e v e r t ic a l f o r m a t of th e m ag a zin e
e m p h a s is e th e e th n ic d ive rsity of t h e i r s tu d e n ts
lo o k m o r e m e n a c in g

To w h a t e x te n t do you t h i n k th e s e c h a n g e s a re u n e th ic a l, and w h y ?
57

It is s u r p r is i n g ly easy to deceive a r t expe rts. Have you (or people you kn o w ] ever been th e v ic tim of one? One of these Picassos’ is a fake. He de ep ly re g r e ts w h a t he did. He to o k g re a t care to m a k e his fa ke s look as g e n u in e as possible.6 . What kind of person do you think John Myatt is? Why? devious d a rin g c le v e r modest ashamed . forgery. Read an article about John Myatt. His p riso n sen te n c e w a s u n d u ly harsh. who painted the fake 'Picasso' in 2a. Which of these sta tem ents do you think are true? Why / Why not? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 b J o hn M yatt d o e s n 't have a high opin io n of his own p a in ting style. 1 2 3 W h ic h one do you th i n k it is? If you w e re an a r t dea ler. He a lw a ys had a n a tu r a l ta le n t f o r p a in ting fakes.2 goals Genuine fakes LANGUAGE FOCUS a Fakes and fo rg e ry © convince people and express doubt W hat do you understand by these expressions? 1 2 3 4 b © talk about fakes and forgery a fo rg e d b irth c e rtific a te an in v e s tm e n t s ca m a fa k e Rolex c re d it card fra u d 5 6 7 8 a con t r ic k c o u n t e r f e i t c u rr e n c y c h e a t th e 's y s te m a c o m p u ls iv e l i a r Look at the highlighted words. 19101 b 3 a Find out which painting is the fake on page 128. He w o u ld n 't have succee d e d w it h o u t Jo h n D rew e's help. W hat verb. forged C Discuss these questions. h o w w o u ld you fin d out? How m u c h do you t h i n k each p a in ting isw o r th ? Cadaques IPablo Picasso. noun and adjective form s do they commonly have? forge. READING 2 a 1 2 3 W h a t o t h e r th in g s can be fo rg e d? W h a t t h in g s are often fake? In w h a t w ays do people often ch e a t th e sy ste m ? 4 T h in k of e x a m p le s of a con t r i c k o r a s ca m .

as a purveyor of what he calls 'genuine fakes'. Indeed. He tells all to Mark Honigsbaum. These are works by the very sam e artists he used to imitate when he w as a criminal .. It w as.The master forger John Myatt w as responsible for th e biggest art con of th e 20th century. » C 5 D Listen to John Myatt talking about how he started forging paintings. an expert at generating false provenances. a large Ben Nicholson. pointing to an abstract in sw irling whites and greys entitled Apples on a Stool (1949). so to speak. Between 1986 and 1994. Myatt churned out more than 200 new works by su rrealists. some 120 'M yatts' are still said to be in circulation. cubists and im pression ists.. in the centre. he had high hopes of establishing his own artistic style. so to s p e a k . Instead. c Can you think of verbs to replace these p hrasal verbs from the article? 1 2 3 c h u r n e d o u t m o r e tha n 200 n e w w o r k s p a s sin g t h e m o ff as o rig in a ls d id n 't s e t o u t to be a fa k e r A th e y fin a lly c a u g h t up w it h Myatt d How do these p hrasal verbs add to the meaning? W hat 'm e n ta l im age' do you associate with each? e Look at this sentence.not only Giacomettis and Nicholsons. in London's Mayfair.and a prestigious gallery is show ing his 'genuine fakes'. Instead. They even come with the artists' signatures.. John Drewe. Myatt walks me to another wall of The Air Gallery. You w a n t to s e ll B th is pain ting . Myatt is disarm ingly honest about both his working methods and his failings as an artist. The only difference is that on the back of the canvas is a computer chip and the legend 'Genuine fake' written in indelible ink. Despite the fact that many of Myatt's paintings were laughably am ateurish (they were executed in emulsion. But whenever he turned his hand to landscapes or portraiture. he taught evening classes and began selling the odd fake to friends and colleagues .he is seeking to forge anew career. L ook on p 138. you like th e p ainting. and ended up going to jail for it. p assin g them off as originals with the help of an accomplice. But then. 1 2 3 A SPEAKING How H ow How Why did J oh n M yatt s ta r t p ro d u c in g fake p a in ting s ? did he get to k n o w Jo h n Drewe? did he s ta r t fo rg in g p a in tin g s ille g a lly? d id n 't he copy p a in tin g s? Role play. John Myatt is showing me some of his recent creations. to this day." he says. said Scotland Yard's art and antiques squad when they finally caught up with Myatt in 1995.. b u t y o u 're not convinced it's ge nuin e. you are an a r t dealer.. "That's a Giacometti. he says the result w as invariably "academic" and "dull". several P icassos and. 1 2 S tu d e n t A. "I'm not sure it's quite finished yet. M atisses and Renoirs.. S tu d e n t B.he feels he has nothing to apologise for. Why do you think the w r it e r says 'so tos p e a k ’? At what other points in the text does the w r it e r reveal his own attitude? . "the biggest art fraud of the 20th century". As a young art student. 59 . this is not the first time that M yatt's versions of works by Giacometti and Nicholson have found their way into the West End." Next. but Monets. they fooled the experts and were auctioned for hundreds of thousands of pounds by Christie's and Sotheby's. For a painter who is celebrating his first London opening. Now. Now his story is being turned into a Hollywood movie . hung with a Modigliani. L ook on p 130. he is s e e kin g to fo rg e a n e w ca re e r. not oil). having served his time Myatt w as sentenced to 12 months in prison in 1999 but w as released for good behaviour after four months . Myatt didn't set out to be a faker.

all clean m in im a lis t lines and strangely placed m irro rs . He sits in th e lobby o f a plush London hotel .000 to one m illion in th re e years. and has sold m ore than 30 m illion copies since its publication in 1988.above John G risham . A fte r a fan had posted a Russian tra n sla tio n o f one o f his novels online. Tom Clancy and the seem ingly unassailable J. 60 . In fa ct. staring a t me w ith big. brown earnest eyes and speaking in heavily accented English.K. in 1987. as befits a sp iritual sage whose books take as th e ir su b je ct th e eternal hum an enigm a. 1 2 S tu d e n t B.b u t. 1 2 S tu d e n t A. a sk q u e s tio n s to find o u t s o m e im p o r t a n t t h in g s a bo u t A: • A's past life. The Pilgrimage. m aking him the best-selling a u th o r in th e w orld . sales o f his book ju m p e d fro m 3. s o m e p e o p le s till d o n 't u n d e rs ta n d h im . he's phenom enally successful at it. the French C hevalier de I'O rdre des A rts e t des Lettres. m a k e no tes on th e s e ttin g and A's p h ys ic a l a p p ea ra n ce . The Alchemist. w ith no additional p rom otion o r p u b licity fro m his publishers. You can cho o se a s e ttin g ' w h e re you w o u ld lik e to be in te rv ie w e d (at h o m e ? at w o r k ? in s o m e o t h e r place th a t says s o m e t h in g a b o u t you?]. th e black o f his clothes contrasting decoratively w ith the beige upholstery.3 goals interview someone and present a profile TASK READING 1 ® describe appearance @ conduct a personal interview ® describe someone’s life. Rowling. He is sm all. Conduct the interview. • b e lie fs and a ttitu d e s . te lls th e s to ry o f an Andalusian shepherd boy in search o f tre a su re in a fa r-o ff land. "E very day I tr y to be in com m unication w ith th e universe in an unconscious way. Paulo Coelho is dressed e n tire ly in black. Despite. delicately proportioned and his so ft grey hair has been grow n into a rat's ta il. in c lu d in g one o r tw o in te re s tin g quotes. a u th o r Je ff Jarvis named Coelho "th e G oogliest a u th o r" in th e w orld. N o w h e ’s th e w o rld 's b ig g e s t-s e llin g n o v e lis t .looking e n tire ly a t hom e. • a c h ie v e m e n ts . Make notes. his p a re n ts s e n t h im to an a s y lu m b e cau se th e y th o u g h t he w a s p s y c h o tic . Paulo has never had any problem co m m unicating w ith o th e r people. o r perhaps because o f his success. Paulo Coelho is a strong advocate o f spreading his books th ro u g h pe e r-to -p e e r file -sh a rin g netw orks. His blog Pirate Coelho provides free tra n sla tio n s and dow nloadable versions o f m any o f his books. achievements and attitudes a W hat do you know about the Brazilian au th or Paulo Coelho? b Read 1 2 3 A 5 the interview. th e ir m o st prestigious lite ra ry gong. His m ost fam ous book.Target activity 6 . Now change roles. Since th e publication o f his firs t w ork.am ong th e m ." he sm iles. and w h a t has led up to it. S tu d e n t B. you s h o u ld be y o u r s e lf in th e interview . o f th e kind one som etim es sees on B uddhist m onks. Due to th e openness regarding his co n te n t. he has sold 65 m illion books. Decide w h a t you w i l l wear. he says. • w h a t A is doing. Prepare for an interview. W ork in A/B pairs. He has been tra nsla te d into 59 languages and collected an im pressive p o rtfo lio o f lite ra ry prizes . W h a t does th e p ro file t e l l you about: • C oelh o's p h ys ic a l a p p e a ra n c e ? • th e w a y he p re s e n ts h im s e lf? • his p e rs o n a lity ? W h ich p a rts of th e in te rv ie w : • quo te th in g s he said? • d e s c rib e th e s e ttin g ? • ta l k ab o u t his past life? • d is c u s s his a c h ie v e m e n ts ? • re f e r to th e p r o m o tio n of his books? W h a t v e rb te n s e s are used fo r each of th e s e p u rp o se s ? W h a t o r d e r are th e s e p a rts in? W h a t e ffe ct is achieved by th is? W h a t fa cts a b o u t his life and c a r e e r s u r p r is e d you? Why? W h e n P aulo C oelho w a s 1 7 .

S e llin g p ira te e d itio n s of p u b lis h e d books. & Oil company faces copyright charges A court in Washington has found one of the world s biggest oil companies guilty of encouraging its employees to p h °tocopy research articles from scientific journals without paying royalty fees. and under w h a t circumstances. 61 . so th e y a tt r a c t b ig g e r a u d ie n c e s to t h e i r c o n ce rts . F ile -s h a rin g m u s ic on th e In te rn e t. P hotocop yin g s c ie n tific o r a c a d e m ic a rtic le s . W hat do you think they are about? b Read the whole news items. b Discuss these questions. In effect. 1 2 3 H ow s t r ic t ly is c o p y rig h t en fo rce d in y o u r c o u n try? W h a t are th e d a n g e rs of. ille g a l d o w n lo a d in g in y o u r c o u n try ? Are you lik e ly to get c a u g h t if you d o w n lo a d s o m e th in g ille g a lly ? Illegal downloaders threatened with Internet cancellation The governm ent today proposed new laws to stop illegal dow nloading o f music and films. p h o to c o p yin g a b ook is s te a lin g m o n e y f r o m th e p e rso n w h o w ro te it. 1 2 3 U 5 3 D o w n lo a d in g f i l m s fr o m th e In te rn e t. and have captured more than ten photocopies and 300 copied books in a crackdown on illegal copying. The oil giant may be liable to pay damages to thp owners of the material for breaching copyright. fo r exam ple.EXPLORE Across cultures Piracy 1 a Look at the im ages and the news headlines. Which do you think is the most or least serious offence? Why? Which of these do you think should be allowed? Say why or why not. The f i l m and m u s ic in d u s trie s m a ke s u c h huge p ro fits th a t th e y can easily a ffo rd to lose roy a ltie s fr o m people m a k in g ille g a l copies. Those found sw apping copyrighted m aterial could have their Internet connection cut off. a Which opinions do you agree with? 1 2 3 A u th o r s put a lot of w o r k and k n o w le d g e into w r it in g a book. M a kin g copies of DVDs. Group jailed for illegal copying Officials have arrested three women and two men. Ille g a l d o w n lo a d in g a c tu a lly h elps u n k n o w n m u s ic ia n s : it en a b le s m o re people to get to k n o w t h e i r w o rk .

" she told reporters. w it h _ _ _ b rin g in g n e w s tu d e n ts up to th e re q u ire d level in E nglish. 3 4 5 6 b A ctu a lly . is a im in g f o r a im s to The course will run fo r tw o weeks. . Make notes. 2 The p u r p o s e of th is p a p e r is to a nalyse tr e n d s in th e m in in g sector. and 2 teach basic skills in digital im age m a nipula tio n. The p u r p o s e beh ind th is m e e tin g is re a lly tw o fo ld . b *E D 3 Listen to check. but o u r new play is a im in g . p o p u la r m a g a z in e aim ed .he ju s t d o e s n 't se e m to have any p u r p o s e in life. S tudents should have basic c o m p u te r skills. a im is used as a noun.. purpose 1 a Add these expressions with a im to the gaps.. though still surrounded by also touches on profound historical them es. The t o u r s ta r te d w it h a vis it to Beijin g th is w e e k e n d .. D is cuss y o u r aim s.g o e r is aged b e tw e e n 55 and 85. fa m ily and leisure). stu d ie s... “I’m in the clear and I’m co n fid e n t about w in n in g again th is year. Which do you think is: a p a rt of a b ro c h u re ? d p a rt of a le c tu re ? b c p a rt of a re p o rt? p a rt of a c o n v e rs a tio n ? e f p a rt of an o pe n in g speech? p a rt of a n e w s re p o rt? 1 T h a n k you a ll f o r c o m in g th is a fte rn o o n . aim ed . She m a d e th e m is ta k e of m a r r y in g a m a n w h o s e so le a im in life .. W h e re could you insert them? How would they change the meaning? s p e c ific a lly c p r i m a r i ly s olely m a in ly c le a rly a p p a re n tly In this sentence from the unit. carried out w i t h the aim of enhancing the president's stature.. using e x p re ss io n s fr o m th is page. 2 W omen's Pages is a b ro a dly focused. How could you express the sentences in 3a using a im ? The p urpose b e h in d th is m e e tin g is .EXPLORE Keywords aim. it can be seen as an indirect com m entary on controversy. W ere your answers sim ilar? a These sentences all contain the word p u rp o s e . Who and what is being talked about? j . 4 Talk about your future aims. w e 're g e ttin g q uite w o r r i e d ab o u t h im .... is a im e d at A lthough the film w ith its 3-D effects and rather predictable p lo t 1 a popular audience. but need no previous experience in graphic design.. —> The aim o f th is m e e tin g is .. 3 4 5 The a verage th e a t r e . They are believed to be e n ric h in g u r a n iu m f o r th e p u r p o s e of de veloping n u c le a r w e a p on s.. a r t exists fo r th e p u rp o s e of p u ttin g rea l events in to perspectiv e.. The p r i m a r y p u r p o s e of th e c lu b is to e n c o u ra g e young people to do sp o rt. S u m m e r c o u rs e s w i l l be a rr a n g e d .. Indeed. so w e 'r e a im in g . a How do you think these sentences might continue? 1 We need to be th e r e by six. b In the first two gaps. the destruction o f Native American Indians by w hite settlers from Europe. you could add these adverbs below. 1 2 3 62 T h in k of t h in g s th a t you a im to do in th e f u t u r e [w o rk .. 3 a gold medal again this year. As S tra c z in s k i says in The Essence o f A rt. 1 2 2 th e la w is to p ro h ib it using m o b ile p h o n e s in vehicles. d Add an expression with aim. it 23-year-old Anna Vovk.

One idea I had was to put an advert in the back of P r iv a te E y e .1 accepted. conversational style? 1 2 U T h in k a b o u t th e fe a tu re s in 2a. you know. b Com pare answers. use of e x p re s s io n s like you k n o w . and. and it w as a tiny bit of ripped paper and it w as all beaten up and all that.000. use of re p o rte d spe e ch and q u es tion s . Paintings from 150 to 250 pounds’. an English satirical magazine. And it just said ‘Genuine fakes. re a lly . took the money.000? And I said yes.your house. young children. he said to me would I be interested in having half of the 25. it would be much more credible. really. which is a sort of satirical magazine we have in England. Do you agree? 3 a Look at the notes you made for your partner's profile on p60. but my wife had left home and she w asn’t coming back. so I was trying to find a way of working from home and keeping the family together. So I was trying to find a way of working from home. Spoken version W ritte n version It started about 1983.g. anyw ay. How are the spoken and w ritten versions different? Think about: 1 2 3 U 5 th e th e th e th e th e n u m b e r of m a in verbs. keeping the family together really. In h o w m a n y ways can th e te xt b e co m e 'sp o ke n'? It has been said that the gap between spoken and w ritten English is getting smaller. It started in about 1983 or 1984. in general? 2 a Look at the two extracts from the John Myatt interview. And one of the things that cropped up was this idea of putting an advert in the back of Private Eye magazine. but my wife had left home for good and I needed to take care of two.condition. Anyway. and proceeded to go into the business of art fakery with this man over the next six or seven years. and the sam e inform ation expressed in w ritte n form (e. W rite out th ese facts in three separate paragraphs in a fairly fo rm a l style. saying ‘Genuine fakes. But if you had a study by Leonardo da Vinci on the wall of. b How would the sam e inform ation be conveyed in a spoken. But if you had a study by Leonardo da Vinci on the wall of your house. So briefly. of torn paper'in very bad. when I was a single parent with two very small children. and I took the money. Paintings from 150 to 250 pounds'. when I w as a single parent. I was a school teacher at the time. as if writing part of a biography. s o r t of. an autobiography). and proceeded.EXPLOREWriting Goals 1 W hat kinds of writing and speaking do the im ages represent? W hat kind of style would you need to adopt in each case? How do you think spoken and w ritten styles vary. to cut a long story short. n u m b e r of ti m e s and is used u n d e rlin e d expression s. he asked me if I would be interested in having half of the 25. and there were two very young ones to take care of. I was a school teacher at the time. it's much more credible if not necessarily believable. to go into a career of art fakery with this man over the next six or seven years. in the form of a tiny piece. I had two very small children. Why do you think this might be? Is the sam e happening in your language? 63 . 1984. you know. if not necessarily entirely believable. well.

. Match them to uses a and b.. I've been discussing . . a to refer to an activity or feeling continuing up b to now.. It's been snowing for ages. . b u t . The b la c k of his c lo th e s c o n tr a s ts d e co ra tiv e ly w ith th e beige u ph o lste ry.. Pass it to a n o th e r pair... b u t .c of the present perfect simple. e i th e r before o r after. and try to im agine a 'm e n ta l picture' for each one. W rite w h a t you t h in k m i g h t co m e before th e p a rtic ip le ex pression. Look at these exam ples from the unit. He lo o k s e n tire ly at hom e. W hat do you think they are about? Match th e m with the topics in the box. Do they change your 'm e n ta l picture' in any way? U d C o m p le te th e s e s e n te n c e s so th e y are t r u e f o r you.. I've been m ea n in g to w rite to you since o u r m e e tin g ..and n o w i t 's c o m e . She c a n te re d along th e p a t h . G ram m ar referen ce. w it h o u t saying w h e n it happened b to d e s c rib e a re c e n t ch a n g e (s o m e th in g is d iffe r e n t n o w fr o m before] to d e s c rib e events h a p p e n in g o ver a p e rio d up to now c b Look at these exam ples of the present perfect progressive. . Where .. . Read o u t y o u r sen te nces. ? I've been trying to get hold of her. 1 Since the advent of Photoshop... Notice that th e re are two patterns: so now they're^ 1 a brighter red.. 3 a the fashion Here are some exam ples of descriptive expressions from novels.... or wh a t they looked like.... She stood by th e w i n d o w . s p a r k lin g w ith e x c ite m e n t g lo w in g d im ly th r o u g h th e fog lean in g on th e c o u n te r.. 3 T h e A lc h e m is t has sold more than 30 million copies. We often use participles to describe appearance.. He s its in th e lobby of a p lu s h London h otel. Add a participle expression to describe what the person was doing. 1 The lips have been reddened. Use eith e r of the two patterns in 2. but which has now stopped to refer to an activity that started in the past and is still continuing . . and advertising industries have been airbrushing pimples. . ... Pass it to a n o th e r pair.. b Com pare w h a t you have w ritte n with the sentences on p 130. 1 2 3 4 5 removing wrinkles and shaving off thighs w i t h abandon. wondering w h a t . th e b la c k of his c lo th e s c o n tr a s tin g d e c o ra tive ly w ith th e beige u p ho lste ry. 2 Customs officials have arrested three men and two women.Look again o Grammar P re s e n t p e rfe c t sim p le and progressive 1 P re s e n t p a rtic ip le expressions a Look at these exam ples from the unit. c i Q S Listen to the original contexts. but thankfully .... He w a s s ittin g on a p a rk b e n c h . Add a n o t h e r s e nte n ce .. b W h at 'm e n ta l picture' do you see for each example? Com pare ideas. or is it continuing? How might each sentence continue? a b c d I've been waiting for you for ages. He p a u s e d . a to d e s c rib e a re c e n t event... ..d . d ifferen t subject He s its in the lobby of a p lu sh Lon d on hotel... 1 2 3 4 64 He lay on th e beach. 1 2 3 4 5 meaning to . .. hoping . planning to ... 2 I've been waiting for this day for so long .. 1 2 3 4 I've I've I've I've been been been been a Look at these sentence beginnings. c h a ttin g to th e c le rk gazing at a c o m p u t e r scre e n s tr o llin g a long th e beach a m a n at an a i r p o r t people by th e sea people in an office th e lig h ts of a f a r m h o u s e a w o m a n ’s eyes c L o o k at e x a m p le s a . Match th e m with uses a . lo o k in g e n tire ly at ho m e .. W rite a d e s c rip tiv e e xp re ssio n like in 3a on a piece of paper. Pass it to a n o th e r pair. . 1 2 Has the activity / feeling stopped. 2 sa m e subject He s its in the lobby of a p lu sh Lon d on hotel. He s its in th e lobby of a p lu s h London hotel. Over the last hour. p 1 4 2 5 W ork in pairs..

Can you e n la rg e th e p ictu re ? 6 He tr ie d to s ofte n th e blow. I d id n 't send it . 1 J u s t w a n te d to a p o lo g ise f o r th e ra n d o m e m a il you received fr o m me. p h is h in g 1 2 3 4 h a c k in g card th e f t id e n tity fr a u d Be s u re th a t no one else can see th e PIN n u m b e r t h a t you key in. 1 0 a Choose two verbs from 8a or 8b.it a p p e a rs m y e m a il acco u n t w a s hacked into.v ir u s s o ftw a r e and a n t i ­ s p y w a re p r o g r a m m e s u p . and dispose of d o c u m e n ts w ith any p erso na l in fo rm a tio n on th e m securely. (= made better. I e nc los e m y CV. (= made redder) The skin has been enhanced. and I w as j u s t being conned. I guess. a n t i. It w a s one of th o s e p h is h in g sca m s. but do not give a context. It t u r n s ou t s o m e b o d y had c loned m y card. 2 I ch e c ke d m y c re d it card s ta t e m e n t and s a w a p u rc h a s e th a t I h a d n 't made. W rite true sentences about something (or someone) that has changed recently. 3 4 a b c d F ra u d s te r s w h o ch e a t th e s y s te m and w a n t to ta ke on y o u r id entity. • a s k ir t? Think of contexts for these sentences. b Read your sentences to an other student. Thieves can copy card d e ta ils th a t w a y and c lo n e cards. T h e y 're an e n d a n g e re d species. It s tr e n g th e n e d o u r d e te r m in a t io n . I d o n 't k n o w w h o k n e w I had th a t property. even if th e y a p p e a r to o rig in a te fr o m a re lia b le so u rc e su c h as a bank. clearer) b What do these verbs mean? How are they fo rm ed? b la c ke n s tr e n g th e n le n g th e n w id e n s o fte n e n la rg e enliven d a rk e n w e a k e n s h o rte n deepen ha rd e n e n d a n g e r enclo se lig h te n to u g h e n th ic k e n s tr a ig h te n y O J R S P A C E fSCAtCH PI c Which adjectives could you use to ta lk about: • a road? • a b rid g e ? • a ro o m ? • a can a l? • a sauce? • a photo? • y o u r h e a lth ? • y o u r feet? 9 a b Match these 'new crimes' with pieces of advice 1 .Vocabulary N ew c rim es V erb s w ith -e n and en - How many 'n ew crimes' (crim es which did not exist 5 0 -1 0 0 years ago) can you re m e m b e r from this unit? a Look at these sentences from the unit. but I k n e w w h a t it was. The e m a il said 'v erify ' o r 'u p d a te ' y o u r a cco un t. Keep fir e w a lls . 65 .4 and im ages A -D .t o . Can they guess w h a t you are talking about? C Match 1 . Be s u s p ic io u s of a ll u n s o lic ite d e m a ils you receive.d a te to help p ro te c t y o u r co m pu te r. The teeth have been whitened. You can use verbs ending with -en or beginning with ento ta lk about changes.4 with a .d to make sentences w ritten by victims of the crim es in 7b. 1 2 3 4 5 They tr ie d to bla c ke n m y nam e. b 4<E39 L is te n to che ck. A lw ays th in k before you give away y o u r perso n a l details. a W hat crimes are these im ages associated with? (= made whiter) The lips have been reddened.

b « E D Which words in 2a are s im ila r in your language? Listen to the recording. w hich w ould require about 40. illustrating the medical stories o f one woman and one man. The man has asthma and hay fever when young. and both take antibiotics and painkillers at various times. He takes as many pills in the last 10 years o f his life as in the firs t 66. The captions. 1 2 3 W h a t kind of m e d ic in e s are. Find six which refer to tre a tm e n ts .000 pills each. These show th a t m aintaining a sense o f w ell-being is more com plex than ju s t treating episodes o f illness. W hat do you think the installation is? Try to describe it from the photos. trace typical events in people’s lives. b Read the description and check. but suffers from arthritis and diabetes in middle age.000 drugs. Are they pronounced differently? C Discuss these questions. The piece consists o f a lifetim e supply o f prescribed drugs knitted into tw o lengths o f fabric. This does not include pills we m ight buy over the counter. He is treated fo r high blood pressure fo r the last 10 years o f his life and has a heart attack and dies o f a stroke in his 70s. Read the description again. but enjoys good health until his 50s. and are not in c lu d e d in th e in s ta lla tio n ? W h a t do w e k n o w a b o u t: th e m a n 's life? th e w o m a n 's life? W h a t do you t h i n k th e e x h ib itio n says a b o u t o u r ap p ro a c h to h e a lth? Cradle to grave by Pha rmacopoeia Cradle to grave explores our approach to health in Britain today. Other treatm ents are more specific. He fin a lly stops smoking after a bad chest infection when he is 70. Each length contains over 14.Cradle to grave READING 1 a The photos show an art installation at the British Museum. London. the estimated average prescribed to every person in Britain in their lifetim e. Some o f the treatm ents are comm on to both: each starts at birth w ith an injection o f vitam in K and im m unisations. Find eight words / expressions which refer to illn e s s e s . w ritte n by the owners. The woman has LANGUAGE FOCUS H e alth p ro b le m s and tr e a t m e n t 2 a a relatively healthy life. 1 2 66 W h ic h of th e s e h e a lth p ro b le m s are c o m m o n in y o u r c o u n try ? W h ich are less c o m m o n ? W h a t a bo u t th e f o r m s of tr e a tm e n t ? H ow w o u ld th e in s ta lla tio n ch a n g e if it re p re s e n te d the lives of people fr o m : y o u r ow n co u n try ? a n o th e r p a rt of th e w o r ld ? . Cradle to grave also contains fa m ily photographs and other personal objects and docum ents.

u p fa b r ic an a s h tra y Listen again to check. W h a t m a d e it m e m o r a b le ? Make note s d e s c rib in g it as p re c ise ly as you can. The m a in s ta n d in g sto n e s of S to n e h e n g e are in a circle. b Check in the script on page 153. Add expressions from 3a to m ake these sentences more descriptively precise. 1 2 The 'C rad le to Grave' in s ta lla tio n o bv iously involved a lot of w o r k . W h a t w a s y o u r o p in io n of th e e xh ib itio n / sh o w ? W h a t c o m m e n t s w o u ld you like to m a k e a b o u t it? W o rk w it h o t h e r s tu d e n ts . W hat features of language and style support your view? LANGUAGE FOCUS 3 a The audio guide uses passive form s and participles to describe the installation. The re are large and s m a l l t a b l e t s _____________ foil. The old ho u s e s in th e s tr e e t have n e w e r ho u s e s b etw e e n th e m .g e n e r a t i o n i m m i g r a n t fa m ilie s are no w mixed w it h o t h e r groups. Look at the sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 SPEAKING 5 a She sat close to th e fire w ith a b la n k e t round her. Do you t h i n k it is w o r t h sp e n d in g ti m e and m o n e y on a r t of th is k ind? Why? / W h y not? W hy do you t h i n k th e B ritis h M u s e u m in Lond o n d ecided to s h o w th e in s ta lla tio n ? Is a m u s e u m an a p p ro p ria te place f o r it? Why? / W h y not? b Describe an exhibition or show you have seen. 1 2 t 3 T h in k of an e xh ib itio n o r s h o w th a t you have seen and r e m e m b e r w e ll. They d iscovered th a t he had an ID card in th e lin in g of his ja c k e t. D e scrip tive p a rtic ip le s se w n in te rs p e r s e d a rr a n g e d w ra p p e d in te r m in g le d 1 2 3 4 in 1x 2 ) into w ith (x2) The piece c o m p r is e s a lif e tim e 's s u p p ly of p re s c rib e d d ru g s . Do you t h i n k th e e x h ib itio n s you heard a b o u t w e re w o r t h seeing? . 1 2 3 4 5 th e people w h o cre a ted the in s ta lla tio n th e people w h o s e lives it sh o w s th e te x tile s th e p ills th e p h o to g ra p h s b Here are some of the things the audio guide mentions. W hat a d d itio n a l inform ation do you h ear about these topics? Listen and make brief notes. The ta b le ts f o r m s so lid b lo c k s of one c o lo u r.Audio guide LIS TEN IN G 1 a ♦ E D You w ill h e a r an audio guide to the exhibition. a Do you think th e audio guide focuses mainly on: • th e in s ta lla tio n as a w o r k of a rt? • its s ig nifica n ce ? • h o w it w a s produced? b Read the script on page 152. Discuss these questions. then compare answers. Many t h i r d . Listen to each o th e r 's d e s c rip tio n s . tw o le n g th s of textile. 5 th e p h o to g r a p h s are p e rs o n a l o bje cts th a t rela te to th e co u rs e of th e m a n 's o r w o m a n 's life. Who or wh a t do they relate to? Put th e m in o rd er of 'age'. Add word s from both boxes in the gaps. vivid g e o m e t ric p a tte rn s. s y rin g e s a lilac fo o t p r i n t a C h r is t m a s tre e a gas and a ir m a s k a co ffin a silv e r blade C 'E D 2 a k itc h e n c u p b oa rd r o lle d . P h o to g ra p h s in b la c k and w h ite and c o lo u r are . o r d e r of th e su b je c ts ' ages.

1 2 Do you c o n s u m e m u c h caffe in e ? In w h a t fo r m ? A re you d e p e n d e n t on it? W h a t ph y sica l and m e n t a l e ffe cts do you th i n k ca ffein e has on you? Does it: • help you c o n c e n tra te ? • im p ro v e y o u r cogn itive a b ilitie s ? • m a k e you m o r e a le rt? • im p ro v e y o u r m o t o r s k ills ? • im p ro v e y o u r re a c tio n tim e s ? • m a k e you jitte ry ? W h a t is th e 'p la ce b o e ffe ct'? W h a t c o n n e c tio n do you th i n k it has w it h caffein e? 3 L is te n to an i n t e r v i e w a b o u t P r o fe s s o r Irv in g K irs c h . b S u m m a ris e the exp erim ent.7 . The 'n o c e b o ' e ffec t is lik e th e placebo effect. D o c to rs are th e w itc h d o c to rs of th e m o d e r n w o r ld . w hy? The in terview was from a TV report. but w ith a negative re s ult. Which words go to g e th e r in pairs? devise a b ility m e a s u r e d c o r r e la t io n e x p e r im e n t prove c o -o r d in a tio n ta s k perform ance e ffe ct s k i ll s re p o rt c o n c e n tr a te p lacebo s ig n ific a n t p e r f o r m assess te s t P ro fe s s o r K irs c h devised an e x p e rim e n t. using as many words from the box as possible. D o cto rs s h o u ld be very c a re fu l w h a t they t e l l patients. We d o n 't re a lly k n o w h o w th e 'n o ce bo ' e ffe ct w o r k s . How do these images relate to w h at was said? I U D e s crib in g p rocesse s and e x p e r im e n ts a These word s w ere used in the docum entary to talk about Professor Kirsch's research. 1 2 3 4 W hy do you th i n k coffee w a s ch o se n fo r th e e x p e rim e n t? W h a t w e re th e f o u r m a in sta g e s of th e e x p e rim e n t? W h a t does th e e x p e r im e n t s e e m to show ? A re you convinced o r s u r p r is e d by it? If so. The nocebo’ effect READING 1 W hat do you think the images show? How are they connected with these words? w itc h d o c to r 2 d o ll cu rs e p ro te c tio n voodoo evil eye a Read the article. . Which of these points do you think it is making? 1 2 3 4 5 68 s p e ll J u s t b elie ving you are ill can m a k e you ill.2 goals Mind over matter SPEAKING and LISTEN IN G 1 describe a process o r ex perim ent discuss im plications and significance Discuss these questions.

in a small Alabama cemetery. rubbed lizard eggs into Vanders' them. Find e x a m p le s w h ic h e x p re s s t h a t s o m e t h in g : 1 2 3 4 SPEAKING 3 is certa in . by prior arrangement. Perhaps Doherty thought long and hard. you notice it s m e l ls odd. form of the nocebo phenom enon. unnoticed by everyone in the room. if it exists. M any patients w ho suffer cemetery where he had forced him to explain harmful side effects. drifted into a deep sleep. H a lfw a y th r o u g h eating seafood. he was admitted to he had lured the witch doctor back to the phenom enon. Drayton Doherty. have a high risk of certain diseases are more Doherty then sum m oned a nurse who had. by four medical professionals. There are numerous morning. W hat w e do know suggests the impact of nocebo is far-reaching. he inspected the instrument and w hite coats and carry stethoscopes. You ig nore th e advice and im m e d ia te ly develop s e rio u s s to m a c h pains as a re s ult. where doctors were unable doctors. people w h o believe they stomach. The facts of this case were corroborated the most remarkable thing about it is that decline. may represent an extreme the globe of people dying after being cursed. In the midst of rigorous trials have established beyond Doherty produced his piece de resistance . "Loo k w hat has come out of you. and told him he was about to die and th a t no-one could save him. Back home. Soon. W ith great the local hospital. which were now inside him. you s ta r t to fe e l sick. The next risk factors w ho believe they have a low risk." he This is the w ell-know n placebo effect. cried. "The voodoo curse is lifted. and you th i n k you m ig h t have food po isoning. syringe with a powerful emetic. for instance." Vance did a double take. The medicine man do so because they have been told to expect had. yet it all. Only then did his wife tell one of the Vanders survived. He told them that the previous night The idea that believing you are ill can make you ill may seem far-fetched. Quickly. W hat's more. but they do produce measurable physical effects. is possib le o r pro bable. may only how the curse worked. Vance. Georgia. s e e m s unlikely. b Have you (o r p e o p le you kn o w ) had s i m i l a r e x p e rie n c e s to th e s e ? Do you t h i n k th e y a re e x a m p le s of th e n o c e b o ’ e ffe ct. a Can peo p le c o nv inc e t h e m s e lv e s t h a t th e y a re s u f f e r i n g s o m e t h in g w h e n th e y are n ot? R ank th e s e s c e n a rio s f r o m 1 (= v e ry u n lik e ly ) to 10 (= v e ry like ly ). he called Vanders' family to his Placebos cannot produce miracles. b U n d e r li n e a n y five w o r d s in th e a r t ic l e t h a t a re n e w and th a t s e e m u s e fu l to you. Did you m a k e a s i m i l a r choice? w o rd s o r ju s t be able to re co g nis e t h e m ? Why? C In th e a rt ic le . o r w e r e o t h e r fa c t o r s in volv ed? 69 . in w hich dummy pills and the next day he w as alert and ravenous. is s u r p r is in g .a doubt that the converse is true . Vanders took to his bed and began to deteriorate. "The voodoo docum ented instances from many parts of curse. pow er o f suggestion can improve health. The term 'nocebo' (which means 'I discharged a week later. Vance Vanders had a run-in w ith the local witch doctor. likely to get them than people w ith the same and the phenom enon has been far less studied than the placebo effect. you n otice th a t you get a he a dache w h e n using y o u r phone." says Cases such as this may be extreme examples of a far more widespread anthropologist Robert Hahn from Atlanta. emaciated and near death. of the 'hex'. filled a large It seems that modern w itch doctors w ear ceremony. 80 years ago. lurched backwards to the head of the bed. who w afted a bottle of unpleasant-smelling liquid in front of his face. W hen he awoke to find a cause for his symptoms or slow his bedside.that the green lizard he had stashed in his black bag. negative expectations can produce harmful He quickly regained his strength and was effects. injected it into Vanders' arm. th e w r i t e r e x p lo re s the i m p li c a t i o n s and s ig n ific a n c e of w h a t h a p p e n e d .c You read a b o u t d a m a g in g e ffe cts of m o b ile phones. A few minutes later. he said. then The placebo effect has an evil twin: the 'nocebo' effect. S o m e o n e t e lls you it is r is k y to s w im a ft e r eating.Beware witch doctors Late one night. Some weeks later. a b . he began to be sick. w ill harm') was not coined until the 1960s. 1 C o m p a re th e m w ith 2 W ould you need to use th e s e a n o t h e r s tu d e n t.

L is te n a ga in.t e r m s o lu tio n f a c t o r in th is a lot to do w ith d o n 't n e c e s s a rily a ttitu d e s are ch a n g in g a big issue A n o t h e r _______ is th e la c k of availa b le m e d icin e s.m a l a r i a c a m p a ig n a d v e rt? D iscu ss th e s e q u e s tio n s a b o u t m a la r ia . ______ involves de veloping a vaccine. M a la ria is p a r t l y but it's p a rtly an e c o n o m ic one.Target activity 7 . T hen c h e c k on p1 31. h e a lth c u l t u r a l s o c ia l m o r a l g lo b a l e n v ir o n m e n ta l c o n s e rv a tio n p o litic a l e c o n o m ic e d u c a tio n a l 6 a 1 2 3 4 c h ild h o o d lite ra c y th e d e s tr u c tio n of ra in fo r e s ts u sing E ng lish as a w o r ld la n g ua g e b a n n in g s m o k in g in p u b lic places 5 th e sp re a d of fa s t-fo o d chains T o g e th e r. Then d is c u s s th e m a in p r o b le m s and p o s sib le s o lu tio n s . give y o u r g ro u p 's opinion. It's also g o t pro vidin g in fra s t r u c tu r e . T his i s pro vid ing ed u ca tio n . and w h a t you th i n k a b o u t th e m . The o th e rs : m a k e c o m m e n t s o r ask q u e s tio n s a ft e r each pe rson has spoken. D is cussing issues a h e a lth issue a qu e stio n of th e m a in p ro b le m 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 th e only l o n g . T h e y _______k n o w h o w m a la r ia is caused. W h a t d oes he m e a n by t h is ? PREPARATION b L o o k at s o m e o t h e r ty p e s of issue. 1 2 In w h a t p a rts of th e w o r ld is it a p ro b le m ? H ow d a n g e ro u s is it? 3 4 5 W h a t kind of disease is it? H ow can you catch it? W h a t are th e s y m p to m s ? How can it be tre a te d ? H ow can you p ro te c t y o u r s e lf a g a in s t it? W h a t is being done a b o u t m a la ria ? W h a t needs to be done? 3 a »S O 1 2 3 4 L is te n to a d o c to r t a l k i n g a b o u t m a la r ia . .3 goals Global issues 1 ® discuss im p lica tio ns and significance © discuss an issue W h a t do you t h i n k is th e m e s s a g e of th e a n t i . TASK a The d o c t o r says th a t m a l a r i a is an e c o n o m ic issue and a ls o a p o l it ic a l issue. Decide th e m a in p o in ts to d isc us s. b » E D L is te n to check. M a tch th e m w it h th e e x a m p le s . W h a t does he say a bo u t: m is c o n c e p tio n s ? people at ris k? c u r r e n t tr e a tm e n t ? w h a t needs to be done? b W h a t d oes he see as th e m o s t i m p o r t a n t issue co n n e c te d w it h m a la r ia ? TASK LANGUAGE 4 a ♦E D The d o c t o r use s e x p re s s io n s to t a l k a b o u t p r o b le m s and s o lu tio n s . C o rru p tio n i s . 1 2 70 M e m b e r s of th e pan e l: in tu r n . ______ is th e p r o b le m of resistance. W h a t w o r d s go in th e gaps? Use th e s e w o r d s to h e lp you. ch o ose one i n t e r e s t in g and i m p o r t a n t is su e f r o m 5b. C hoose one p e rs o n f r o m each g ro u p to sit on a 'p a n e l'. T h e re are sig n s t h a t . b In g ro u p s dis c u s s th e issue.

1 2 3 4 W h ic h h e a lth p ro b le m s in y o u r c o u n tr y are in the p u b lic eye? H o w does th e p o p u la tio n find o u t a b o u t th e m ? Is th e r e e n o u g h in fo r m a tio n ? W h a t kind of c a m p a ig n s are e s ta b lis he d to m a k e th e p o p u la tio n a w a re of th e s e h e a lth issues? Do you t h i n k th e y are effective? 71 . t a l k i n g a b o u t u s in g m o s q u ito n e ts to p re v e n t m a la ria . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 A verage h o m e s h a v e v e n tila tion . T h e re are a lot of p r o g r a m m e s w h i c h M o s q u ito n e ts a r e in th e v illag e s. You get b e t t e r . T h a t's w h e re _ _ c o m e s in. o r has le a rn e d E n g lis h as a fo r e ig n la n g u a g e ? W hy? Look at these campaign posters to raise aw areness about swine flu and m alaria. You d o n 't have t o every night. do you th i n k Percy is a native s p e a k e r of E n g lis h .EXPLORE Across cultures Health campaigns 1 a * You w i l l h e a r Percy. a re s e a rc h s c ie n tis t f r o m Ghana. People d o n ' t properly. M o s q u ito nets are q u i t e to s leep in. a b i li n g u a l s p e a k e r. s p o n s o rs . c F ro m w h a t you have heard. 1 2 3 b i W h a t's th e p ro b le m w it h m o s q u ito nets? W h a t do people in v illa g e s often do? Why? W h a t n e w idea does he ta lk ab o u t? H ow does it w o r k ? Why is it b e tte r? L is te n a gain and c o m p le te th e gaps. T his is a p e r m a n e n t n e t a ll th e w a lls . W hat message are they trying to make? W hat steps do they suggest taking to alleviate the problem? b Which poster do you think would be the most effective w h e re you live? Why? c Discuss these questions. People leave th e m ___ loosely.

. 3 'C ra d le to Grave' c o n ta in s / c o m p r is e s fa m ily p h o to g r a p h s and o t h e r p e rs o n a l objects. 2 T his does not in c lu d e / con ta in p ills w e m ig h t buy over th e c o u n te r...Paris. Wales. ro w in g a n d skiin g . 5 b remember strings of numbers. included the ability to L o o k at th e s e s e n te n c e s f r o m th e u n it. ineluile 1 a Look at the examples. N e a r th e c e ntre of Old Havana lie s th e Casa de los A ra b es. n e w b u ild in g pro jects... 1 2 H obbie s: cyclin g. W h ic h v e rb do you t h i n k w a s used in each case? W hy? 1 2 co-ordination. k n ig h ts . T his is s ta r tin g to i r k th e ca r c o m p a n ie s th a t o rg a n ise th e m . p o llu tio n My jo b w it h PR com p a n y : se n d in g o u t pre ss releases. 1 2 3 4 5 b 3 . H o w do you t h i n k th e y c o n tin u e ? T h in k a b o u t th e k ind of in f o r m a t i o n t h a t w o u ld be needed in each case. Irela nd 3 4 5 6 7 T h re a ts to w ild life in D anube Delta: drain a g e. c o n d u c tin g c o -o r d in a tio n te sts Chess: tw o players. comprised of herbal remedies. lozenges and capsules.. M in n e a p o lis -S t. a M o o r is h -s ty le . taxes L is te n to ch e ck. in su ra n ce . th e s itu a tio n is a b o u t to get w o rs e . 3 So the experiment involved testing people's responses before and after drinking 4 These activities tested the volunteers' concentrate. a ll B ritis h s u b je c ts w i l l need a visa o r a p a s s p o rt c o n ta in in g . P aul I n t e r n a t io n a l A ir p o r t w a s in th e m id s t of a c o n s tr u c tio n p r o g r a m m e th a t in c lu d e s .c e n tu r y b u ild in g th a t n o w c o m p r i s e s . w h ic h w o u ld re q u ire ab o ut 40. b ish o ps.. • <E 3 L is te n to ch e c k. Use v e rb s f r o m 1a. F ro m th e end of October.000 p ills each. 1 2 H ow w o u ld you do it? W h a t could th e y c o n ta in o r in c lu d e w h ic h w o u ld m a ke th e m m o r e a p p e a lin g to c o n s u m e r s ? d W hat verbs would you use in your own language to express th e sam e ideas? How sim ila r are they? 72 . UK: Engla nd. Which h ig h lig h te d verbs mean: 1 th is is th e w h o le of it? 2 3 th is is only p a rt of it? it has th is in s id e it? 1 Each length contains over 14. s k iin g M y hobbies in c lu d e cycling. tr a v e l b e tw e e n A m e r ic a and Europe involv ed .f l ig h t m e a ls . 16 pieces (king. $695: i n . W e re th e a n s w e r s s i m i l a r to y o u rs ? c L o ok at th e p h o to s. ro w ing . tablets. People generally use traditional treatments. pawns) b R e tu rn flig h t N e w York ..000 pills. ro oks.. N... a Lo o k at th e s e n e w s p a p e r e x tr a c ts . W h a t a re th e n e w s r e p o r t s a b ou t? a W r i t e c o m p le te s e n te n c e s f r o m th e s e notes. That The m a jo r ity of people w h o a tte n d m o t o r ra c ing events are m ale.. queen.EXPLORE Keywords consist. Im a g in e you a re 's e llin g ' th e s e p ro d u c ts . o rg a n is in g events. S co tla n d. The 'C ra d le to Grave' in s ta lla tio n in c lu d e d / involved a tot of w o rk . 17 th . co n ta c tin g jo u r n a li s t s P la cebo effect' e x p e r im e n t: giving coffee to v o lu n te e r s (no caffeine). For B rito n s try in g to e n te r th e US. the estimated average number p r escribed to every pers o n in Britain during their lifetime. a 6 4 -s q u a re board. 2 The piece consists of a lifetime supply of prescribed drugs knitted into two lengths of fabric. as w o m e n c o m p r is e . For decades.

m a k e a lis t of po ssib le t h in g s th e p e rs o n m ig h t say in th e gaps.EXPLORESpeaking Goals 1 L o o k at th e c a rto o n . s u p p o r t w h a t C o r A said. I mean. a C onversation 3 C. the solution would be to provide separate rooms for smokers. s tr o n g ly d is a gree w it h C. B. their freedom to smoke if they want to. lo o k at th e s tr a te g ie s f o r in te r r u p tin g . how many bars have actually gone out of business? c (Support what A said) u ___ . c ( You strongly disagree with B) 6______ . but a lot of places are struggling. W h a t a re th e peo ple t a l k i n g a b o u t? Vhen w e w e re kids. A. A. Well. B. I can. You know. you can always go and sit in a different room. What about the terrible effect it’s had on small businesses. People have started buying drinks to take home just so they can smoke. because. b (You think A is missing the point) 5___ . give an opin io n a b o u t th e topic. I think it’s been quite successful. C hoose an issue f r o m p70 o r y o u r o w n top ic. No-one's forcing you to breathe their smoke. C. 1 2 3 3 © Well. C onversation 2 B. b In grou p s. in each case. b (You disagree with A) 3_____ . w h ic h r e m a r k w o u ld achieve th e s p e a k e r's a im m o s t su c c e s s fu lly ? Why? t r y out each c o n ve rsa tio n . Quite honestly. you know. P ra c tis e each c o n v e rs a tio n m o r e th a n once. — The way I see it. I see it as a health issue. Especially ones that don’t have any outdoor space for smokers.. is n 't th a t lovely. give an opinio n a b o u t th e topic. a 3 C * < E 3 L is te n to th e c o n v e rs a tio n s . and the small ones. I mean. they quite rightly see it as an infringement of their personal liberty. b Why should I have to? a o W ere th e s p e a k e rs ' r e m a r k s s i m i l a r to yo u rs? W ho w a s b e tt e r at m a k in g t h e i r point? W h y do the s p e a k e rs i n t e r r u p t each o th e r? W o uld you do th is in everyday c o n ve rsa tio n ? W o r k in g ro u p s . so it’s not really about personal liberty. well. I. and see h o w y o u r ch o se n r e m a r k sounds. give an o p in ion ab o u t th e topic. Give y o u r opinion. It’s made cafes and restaurants places where you. It's discrimination against small businesses . but what about just a small cafe? c (You strongly agree with B) 8______ . we can all now go without having to breathe in everyone else’s smoke . well they’re fine. 1 2 3 4 2 o © take turns in a discussion ® give opinions in an extended conversation W h a t's th e p o int of th e jo ke ? W hy are c h ild re n often asked to 'tak e t u r n s ’ ? In w h a t co nte xts? In w h a t o t h e r s itu a tio n s do you need to take t u r n s in life? Why? W h a t is th e o p po s ite of ta k in g t u r n s in c o n ve rs a tio n ? a Read th e s e c o n v e rs a tio n s .so the big businesses. T ry o ut c o n v e rs a tio n s . say B is m is s in g th e p oin t o r is e x a g g eratin g . It's so nice w h e n c h ild re n ta ke tu r n s . they're the ones that are having to close. C o m m e n t on w h a t A said. C. really. n y b r o t h e r and I v ould take t u r n s lit tin g each other. some of these places have actually had to close down because of it. i n t e r r u p t A. have actually had to close. Now how is that. how does that help non-smokers? c (Support what B said) 2_____ . Right? I mean. s tr o n g ly agree w ith B o r w it h C. Not many bars have. so bars and cafes have gone out of business. For each one: 1 © 2 I think it hasn’t worked. it's done what it set out to do. I don’t want to be forced to breathe other people’s smoke. U W o r k in th e s a m e g ro u p s . b {Find a way to interrupt and stop A talking)1______ . 1 2 Have an u n re h e a rs e d d isc u ss io n ab o u t a d iffe r e n t topic.. O th e r s tu d e n ts : h o w s u c c e s s fu l w a s th e c o n v e rs a tio n ? 73 . I’m on the side of smokers on this one. s u p p o r t w h a t A o r B said. right? Not just ban smoking altogether. Why couldn’t we let smokers smoke if they want and non-smokers could have their own room? b ( You think A is over-simplifying)7____ _. a Oh.. u n t i l you can 'ta k e t u r n s ' flu e n tly . There’s just no point in having all these nice clean bars if there’s nobody going into them. a g re e in g and d isa g re e in g (in ita lic s }. I guess it’s fine if you have a big restaurant with separate rooms. C onversation 1 A.

. g a th e r 1 2 3 U 5 6 U a rr a n g e s tic k b u ry hide p ark p a rk e d The c a r is/I at th e back of th e hotel. I have to go to th e c lin ic t o m o r r o w and w a it in th e c lin ic a ll m o r n in g f o r te s ts and then h e ' ll t e l l m e th e re s u lts of th e tests. w h e re d o c to rs w e re un a ble to fin d a cause fo r his s y m p t o m s o r s lo w his declin e. b Match extracts 1 .Look again O Grammar Passives and p artic ip le s R eferencing and su bstitu tio n Look at these examples from the unit. Find other exam ples in the script on page 152. position or arran g em e n t of things. or just a participle.. 5 . You can 5 often use passives and participles to describe the appearance... In chess.. leaving out the participle. each p la ye r's pieces are in tw o rows. s tu c k on th e w in d s c re e n . if you d o n 't have an o p e ra tio n .. p 143 . I hope I d o n 't have to have an o p e ra tio n . The sign is p a rtly beh ind a tree. D rayton D oherty. G ram m ar referen ce. b Show your sentence to an other student. a b b Match each exam ple with an im age and w rite a complete sentence. e m a c ia te d and n e a r death. 1 2 3 a Look at these exam ples from the unit. It's d a n g e ro u s to w a l k on th e beach as th e re are m in e s in th e sand.. sta c ke d a g a ins t th e w a ll s . th o u g h it d o e s n 't k i ll as m a n y as it once did. too! Well. The end of th e fa b r ic is ro lle d up and empty. . . k Notice that you can use a passive form. of th e hex. th e ta b le ts f o r m solid b lo c k s of one c olo u r. b stacke d —> p ile d a Make participles from these verbs. We m a y be a bit late.. he w a s a d m itte d to th e lo ca l hospita l. S om e of th e t r e a t m e n t s are c o m m o n to both.. sp rea d out a long the valley . b Com pare your conversations. T h is has been tr ie d in c e rta in c o u n tr ie s and has been proven to s ig n ific a n tly reduce m a la r ia cases there. i ll u s tr a t in g th e m e d ic a l s to r ie s of one w o m a n and one man.. a Which of the h ig h lig h te d pronouns in 5a refer back to previously stated ideas? b Which other words substitute and avoid repetition of previously used information? 7 a Look at this conversation.. . w h a t's th e o t h e r o p tion? I d o n 't kn ow .6 with a -f.. Can they guess w h a t the missing participle is? 74 b So w h a t did th e d o c to r say? He said I m i g h t have to have an o p e ra tio n . Add them to the sentences to m a k e th e m m ore precise. Do you re m e m b e r w h at they re fe r to? 1 2 3 They a re laid side by side in a long glass case Laid o u t in g ro u ps.. T h e re are huge c ro w d s of p ro te s te rs in fr o n t of th e bank.. Oh. I hope you d o n 't have to have an o p e ra tio n . S o m e w e e k s la ter. Rewrite it. b c d . i n t e r s p e r s e d w ith vivid g e o m e t r ic p a tte rn s.. c d e 6 Well. W e 're in a t r a ff ic ja m .. so you c a n 't see it v e ry clearly.. So how did P ro fe s s o r K irs c h devise th is test? The f i r s t th in g to say is th a t m a la ria is a very d a n g e ro u s disease.. a W rite a sentence including a participle as in 3. 2 a What do you think each example below is about? a . a b a d Think of synonyms you could use in each case. One t h a t could s h o w t h a t w h a t people believed could a ffe c t t h e i r bodies? Only th e n did his w ife t e l l one of th e doctors. pin ned on a w h ite c u p b o a rd .... fo r y o u r sake. m a la r ia is in fa c t p re ve n ta ble by s im p ly p rovidin g m o s q u ito nets.. Then w r ite it again. I th i n k con va lesce nce is m u c h longer. so that no words are repeated.

1 = I can ’t do this.c o n s u m in g . w h a t s y m p t o m s do th e y s t i l l have? v e ry s o p h is tic a te d . th e re fo re . W hat kinds of test did the participants do? Here are some oth e r kinds of test. big q u e s tio n s such as w h e t h e r o r not to go to w a r w e re decided by d is cu s sio n and debate. the doctor referred to p r o b le m s and s o lu tio n s . b u t one th in g is c le a r: th e leaders' s k i l l in p u b lic s p e a k in g has been an im p o r t a n t c o n c e rn . O ratory. c Which of these tests have you done (or had) in your life? Tell your p a rtn e r wh a t happened. Self-assessm ent 1 0 a Choose the best a ll-p u rp o s e noun. reference and saving your work -» e-Portfolio • For more practice -> Self-study Pack. W hy d o n 't you ch a ng e y o u r a p p ro a ch / a ttitu d e and ta c k le th e p r o b le m f r o m th is angle? The p ro c e ss / m a n n e r of c o u n tin g votes is e x tr e m e ly tim e . She p r e s c r ib e d m e s o m e th in g c alle d A n tifla x in . © talk about health problems and treatment © describe and comment on an exhibition or a show © describe a process or experiment @discuss implications and significance f — 1 ® discuss an issue ® take turns in a discussion ® give opinions in an extended conversation KKMKM1 • For Wordcards. Look at this news extract and underline five a ll-p u rp os e ' nouns. 1 2 3 4 As fa r as pe rson a lity tra its go. I decided to o p e ra te on him . 3 4 5 6 7 8 I'm s u re h e 'll re c o v e r OK. 5 b Easy n avig atio n is one of th e key e le m e n ts / devices in s u c c e s s fu l w e b s ite design. For th e Greeks. C arl has one c h a ra cte ristic / feature that I p a rtic u la rly dislike. S he’s s t i l l c o nv a les cin g. I tr e a te d h e r f o r shock. For th e R om ans. Who or w h a t could the pronouns in ita lic s re fe r to? In w h a t s itu a tio n m i g h t you do each one? W h a t w o u ld be its pu rp o s e ? H o w m a n y are re la te d to h e a lth? a d o c to r a s u rg e o n a w o u n d / an in ju ry a p la c e m e n t te s t an eye te s t a lite ra c y te st a d riv in g te s t an IQ te s t a typing tes t a h e a rin g te s t a D N A te s t a p e rs o n a lity te s t b We can say do a te s t. 1 2 W h ich of th e te s ts in 8a are m o r e like ly to be used w it h do / ta k e ? W h ich are m o re lik e ly to be used w it h have? Why? Can you th i n k of o t h e r v e rb s th a t c ou ld be used w it h the e x p re ss io n s in 8a? 1 2 It's ta k in g a long ti m e to heal. w a s a p a tie n t m e d ic in e an illn e s s / a disease C A nsw er these questions about the h ig h lig h te d verbs in 11b. 5 = I can do th is w e ll. 1 2 3 A ll-p u rp o s e nouns The th re e p a rty lea d ers' s p e e c h e s have received m u c h a tte n tio n in th is e le ctio n ca m p a ig n . Unit 7 . He w i l l need to u n d e rg o h e a rt surgery.and m a y po ssib ly b ecom e th e m o s t i m p o r t a n t fa c t o r .Vocabulary Tests 8 H e a lth p ro b le m s and tre a tm e n ts a Think about the caffeine exp erim ent. How many different words referring to illnesses and tre a tm e n ts can you re m e m b e r? 4 12 H ow m a n y m e a n 'im p ro v e ' o r 'g e t b e tte r'? W h ich is fo llo w e d by a p re p o s itio n ? W h ic h have e q u iv a le n t noun fo r m s ? W h a t are they? How could you re p h ra s e th e s e n te n c e s using th e s e no u n s in stead of verbs? a * E D Listen to three short conversations. have a te s t o r ta k e a te st. nouns which can serve many purposes in different contexts.in th e end re su lt. p o litic s w a s a ll a b o u t oratory. How many wo rds from 11 did you hear? W hat other words related to health problems and trea tm e n ts w ere there? b * f E D Listen again. U n fo rtu n a te ly th e r e 's no w a y to c u re it. On p70. but one of t h e i r m o s t in te re s tin g q u a litie s is th e d e bt th e y owe to th e a n c ie n t G reeks and R om ans. 1 2 3 11 a b Look at the sentences. T h e re have been m a n y s u r p r is in g a sp e c ts to th is e le ctio n. The issue / c o n te x t of w h e t h e r to p u b lis h th e news o r not s h o u ld have been decided b eforehand. W hat other nouns could be used? to p ic q u a lity te c h n iq u e sy s te m fe a tu re Can you do th e s e th in g s in English?(^ircle)a n u m b e r on each lin e . and clo s e ly s c ru tin is e d . 1 2 W h a t illn e s s / m e d ic a l co n d itio n are th e people ta lk in g a b o u t in each case? H ow do you kn ow ? Have th e p a tie n ts re covered? If not.

• d rin k s . • h o u s e h o ld a pp lia n ce s. • e le c tro n ic goods. • cars. T O M M Y 3 H I L F I G E R 1 a D is cu s s th e s e q u e s tio n s . • shoes. 1 2 3 U b 76 H ow 'b ra n d co n scio us' do you th i n k you are? T h in k abo u t: • c lo th e s. w hy? F or w h ic h k in d s of p ro d u c t w o u ld you w o r r y a b o u t th e bran d you buy? Why? T a lk a b o u t th e a d v e rts . 1 W h a t 'im a g e ' do you th i n k th e y are se llin g ? 2 3 A re th e y effective? W h a t do th e m o d e ls th e m s e lv e s add to th e m e ss a ge ? . Together for THe One 4 All Foundation.Brand awareness Brands Thierry Henry and Tommy Hilfiger. H o w m u c h im p o rta n c e do you a tta c h to th e bra n d ? W hy do you t h in k it is o r is n 't i m p o r t a n t? W o u ld you avoid p a r t ic u l a r b ra n d s ? If so.

LANGUAGE FOCUS a Effects and 1 2 H o w ' b r a n d c o n s c i o u s 'i s she? W h a t does she say abo u t: 3 4 • top d e s ig n e r la bels ? • in d iv id u a lity and b elo ng in g ? H ow is th e in te rv ie w e r 's p o int of v ie w d iffe re n t? W h a t kind of p e rs o n do you im a g in e Lydia is? Why? The in terview contains expressions for saying what effect things have. B ra n d s a ls o y o u r a tt it u d e to w a rd s life. Make a list of words associated with it. What kind of product are they? W hat brands do you think they are? Im a g e and q u a litie s s p o r t tr e n d y a m b itio n com fort fa s h io n a b le k eeping fit success innovative re lia b ility p e rfe c tio n so u n d q u a lity fa st d y n a m ic fu n speedy re tro good design sm a ll •s. b Listen to check. Your a p p e a ra n c e w i l l by th e cu t of th e g a rm e n t. in flu e n c e s enhance 1 2 3 4 5 6 d iffe re n c e have e ffe ct make d efine in flu e n c e people If I w e a r a Boss suit. _ . b Read out your list. Which are about: • th e p ro du c t? • lifestyle? SPEAKING a Think of a w e ll-k n o w n brand (internationally or in your country). I'm by b ra n d s at all. I d o n 't care a b o u t th e m . W rite two more words or expressions each s p e a k e r uses. Can oth er people guess the brand? a Think of ad vertisem en ts for soft drinks in your country. Make other changes if necessary. Look at the advertisements for Pepsi on pi 32. c Do you agree with the statem e n ts in 3a? Think of exam ples from your own experience. 77 . it d o e s n 't to m y p e rso n a lity. th e n y o u r w h o le p e rs o n a lity is m o r e positive. Follow the instructions. W hat im ages and qualities do they usually present to encourage customers? b Work in groups. C Which word s in 1a are nouns? Which are adjectives? d * m w a Listen again. If you have s o m e t h in g th a t a_p o s i t i v e _______on you. It w i l l see you in a d iffe r e n t way. like those in 1a. b »E D Listen to check. W hat did the two people say? Add one or two words from the box in each gap. Brand images LANGUAGE FOCUS 1 a Three people say what words they associate with th ree in ternational brands.* < E D Listen to Lydia talking about brands.

1 The a rt ic le says v ir a l ads are 'in fe c tio u s '. 2 a Read the article. • H ow does it p r o m o te its p ro d u c ts ? • Does it have a p a r t ic u l a r s lo g a n ? • • • • • • 2 78 Do th e y use a p a r t ic u l a r kind of m a r k e t i n g c a m p a ig n o r s a le s p itc h ? H ow effective are they? W ho is t h e i r ta r g e t a u d ie n c e ? Do th e y have th e big g e st m a r k e t s h a re ? W ho are t h e i r c o m p e t it o r s ? W h a t b ra n d im a g e do th e y p re se n t? 'There is no such th in g as negative p u b lic ity . Can you r e m e m b e r any o t h e r ad je ctives to d e s c rib e v ira l ads? W hy do you t h in k th e s e q u a litie s are im p o r t a n t? Look at th e s e h ig h lig h te d w o rd s fr o m th e a rtic le .8 . 1 M a r k e tin g w o rd s T h in k of a large c o m p a n y in y o u r country. W h a t do th e y m e a n ? W h a t m e n t a l im a g e do the y su g g e st? a de d icate d to u n r a v e llin g 3 b c d e a ne w in d u s tr y has s p r u n g up ' s e e d i n g ' clip s on th e In te rn e t ta p s in to p o p u la r c u ltu re p r i o r to la u n c h f b u s in e s s e s w a n t to e m b r a c e v ir a l m a r k e tin g g s t e l l a r g ro w th rates C In w h a t sense is the us e r 'in control' of a viral ad? Discuss these questions.' Do you t h i n k th is is tru e ? .2 goals Viral ads 1 Cover the article. w h a t do you im a g in e it m ig h t be? • If you do. Why are m arketing companies excited about viral ad campaigns? b Discuss these questions. The h ig h lig h te d words are a ll connected with m arketin g. Do you know what a viral ad is? • If not. t e l l o t h e r people a b o u t v ir a l ads you know. W h y is th is a good d e s c rip tio n ? W h at o th e r th in g s can be in fe ctio u s ? 2 Cover th e a rticle .

p u b lic ity c »CE3 Listen again to check. T h in k abo u t: • h o w to d e s c rib e it. Describe what happens and why it became viral'.fizzes . • w h y you like o r d o n 't like it. • w h a t au d ie n ce it w a s in te nd e d for.A video clip LIS TEN IN G W hat product(s) do you think this video clip shows? 2 a * <E£D Listen 1 2 3 to someone talking about th e video.f i r e w o r k d isp la y . • w h e t h e r you t h in k it's s u cc e ss fu l. Tell o th e r people a bo u t th e advert.g e n e r a te d e ru p t io n v ideos . • w h a t its m e s sa g e is.hype . CEO of Google Think about an advert that you have seen. • a TV o r f i l m advert. Eric Schmidt. How do you think it applies to the viral video you heard about? The Internet is the first thing that humanity has built that humanity doesn’t understand.g lo b a lly . W hat does he say? p la n ne d .u s e r . P re pa re to t a l k a b o u t it. It could be: 1 2 • an a d v e rt on a h o a rd ing o r in a m agazine. • an o n lin e video clip.g e y s e r . Look at the quote. 79 . the largest experiment in anarchy that we have ever had.le th a l . W h ich th e m a pp ly to th is video? (if any) of b The s p e ak e r uses these words. and why. Use the words in 2b. Im agine you are telling someone about the clip. W hy w a s it so su c c e s s fu l? H ow is it d iffe r e n t fr o m a c o n v e n tio n a l advert? L ook at the fe a tu re s of a good v ira l ad m e n tio n e d in th e a rtic le .

U a Student A. f u n . fa m ilie s .3 goals Sell a product TASK READING The photo shows the AIRpod. b According to Guy Negre. and crucially they take only a fraction of the tim e to recharge. easily reaching speeds above 25mph in the limited space of the factory car park. reaches speeds o f more than 30mph. he argues that air power is a superior technology. 1 2 3 C hoose y o u r ta r g e t a u d ie n c e [e. Yet. city d w e lle rs ). they are only marginally less polluting than the m ost efficient com bustion engines. a good-hum oured man in his m id-60s who claims to have developed a state-of-the-art car powered by com pressed air: one that produces a fraction o f the carbon emissions of a standard engine. people w h o w a n t a second car. Fuel cells are expensive and unproven and electric cars are reliant on ll expensive. Which are: positive? negative? neutral? W hat other adjectives could describe the AIRpod? com pact. “W hatever people may tell you about hybrids.g. look on p 132. what are the advantages of a ir-p o w ere d cars? On the road with the AIRpod air-powered car How w ould you react to someone who tried to sell you a car that runs on fresh air? Perhaps you w ould think he was peddling potentially planet-saving technology. steered by a joystick.Target activity 8 . Check your answers to 1. More likely. “ Compared to electric cars. young people. you w ould dism iss him as a conman or a fantasist. air-powered cars cost a fraction o f the price to buy.000. b W o rk in A/B pairs. And it possessed all the glam our o f a soupedup lawnmower. . that is precisely the pitch being made by French auto engineer Guy Negre. 1 2 a H ow do you t h in k it w o r k s ? W h a t o t h e r k in d s of 'e c o -c a r' are possible ? W h a t do you k n o w a b o u t th e m ? Read the article. h ig h lig h tin g th e car's m a in s e llin g points. But it worked. P repare a m arketin g campaign based on w h a t you read. Or. unreliable battery technology. look on p135. an a ir-p ow e re d car. Read more about the AIRpod. 80 . they d o n ’t need expensive batteries to be replaced every five years or so.” I confess I was so sceptical that I reserved judgm ent until I had driven one of his cars.” Given the num ber of false green-auto dawns. best of all. you m ight w onder why air-powered cars should be any different.” he says.. c in e m a o r In t e rn e t advert. travels 65 miles on a one-m inute recharge and.. TASK LANGUAGE 3 a D e s crib ing te ch n o lo g y b M ake a list of adjectives in the article which re fe r to cars or technology. t h i n k of v is u a l ideas fo r a TV. Student B. While Negre’s air cars have similar carbon emissions to electric cars (it all depends how the electricity to power the pum ps that fill their air tanks is generated). it d id n ’t deliver the sm oothly upholstered power so beloved by conventional car enthusiasts. The version I drove was an early prototype. “ Hydrogen pow er is expensive and im practical. Negre is quick to point out the draw backs of existing eco-car technology. Present your campaign ideas to the class. OK. a three-wheeler with no bodywork. T h in k of 'b ra n d im a g e s' and slogans. costs just over £3. Plan a b ro c h u re . which doubled as my test track.

and do you agree w it h th e m ? M a r k y o u r p o s itio n on th e line. The measure of a successful brand more and more is not whether it’s truly a mark of quality on a product. can it also be a house paint? So you have this stratosphere of warring megabrands that want to be everywhere and be everything. a fashion company. b Find other students who have a sim ila r view to yours. says that he had a kind of an epiphany in the mid 80s where he realised that he didn’t want to compete in a commodity marketplace any more. and that pure athletic ability . a m essage of quality. CocaCola. but how well it stretches. we are a Nike type of person or a Tommy Hilfiger type of person. Discuss your ideas. 1 2 W h a t do you th i n k a ' m e g a b r a n d ' i s ? In w h a t w a y do s u c c e s s fu l c o m p a n ie s s e ll ideas as w e l l as p ro d u c ts ? b Read her views and discuss these questions. I agree. Disney.a m essage of consistency. Phil Knight. where we almost follow brands like we would follow rock stars? We organise ourselves into brand tribes. as he said. but ho w w e l l it s tre tc h e s .they were selling something way more profound than their fairly generic product. that they were selling an idea about family.these core American brands became powerful precisely because they understood that they were selling ideas instead of products. Walt Disney understood that he was selling the American dream.k n o w n in y o u r c o u n try ? W h ich of th e m have you b o u g h t y o u rs e lf? Do you th i n k la rge c o m p a n ie s can in flu e nc e people 's c u ltu r e ? Do you th i n k th e y are g e n e ra lly b e n e fic ia l o r h a r m f u l in t h e i r effect on p eople 's lifestyle? a W ork alone. He wanted to be a sports company. Coca-Cola was selling the youth lifestyle . How did we get from this fairly simple role of the brand to these brand tribes that we have now. If it's a successful cola. that he did not want to be a sneaker company. which was this black fizzy liquid. or. 1 2 3 W h a t is th e m a in d e v e lo p m e n t in m a r k e tin g b ra n d s th a t N a o m i Klein d e s c rib e s ? W h a t are th e 'life s ty le ideas' th a t th e se c o m p a n ie s s e ll? • C oca -C o la • W a lt Disney • Nike She says th e m e a s u r e of a s u c c e s s fu l bra nd m o re and m o r e is n o t w h e t h e r it's t r u ly a m a r k of q u a lity on a p ro d u ct. and c a m p a ig n to boycott t h e i r p rod u cts. that they could sell lifestyles. and discuss the reasons for your opinion. W h a t does she m e an by th is ? Can you th i n k of e x a m p le s ? W h ich of th e b ra n d s N a o m i Klein m e n t io n s are w e ll . he was selling a nostalgic vision of the small-time American town that people felt sad about . 1 2 3 2 Discuss these questions. image. And that their core image or their core idea was not about their sneakers being better than Reeboks but was an idea about the nature of sports. McDonalds . can it also be a line of clothing? If it’s a line of clothing. The process of branding in its simplest form is just the process of marking a product with a consistent logo.is a metaphor for the American dream. W h a t re aso n s do th e y give fo r this. that sends a m essage to the consumer . How did that happen? There were a handful of brands that understood that marketing could play a larger role than simply branding their product as a mark of quality. and so he decided to sell that idea. They understood that they could sell ideas. PI 81 .the raw ability of truly superstar athletes like Tiger Woods and Michael Jordan .they felt it had disappeared. S om e people o bje c t to th e in flu e n c e of g lo b a l c o m p a n ie s and th e w ay th e y ope ra te .EXPLORE Across cultures Megabrands 1 a You w ill read w r it e r Naomi Klein's views about the growth of 'm egabrands' and how they may be shaping cultures. I disagree.in the 60s they started selling peace and love . Find out if you think exactly the same. mascot. C Now ta lk to students who have a different opinion. The CEO of Nike.

EXPLORE
Keywords effect, affect
1

L o o k at th e s e e x a m p le s .
1

M a n y experts believe that the use of CCTV hasn't had any significant effect on crime, unit 5

2

The film, w i t h its 3D effects and rather predictable plot,

3

He showed that this could significantly affect people's co-ordination skills, unit 7

is aimed at a popular audience, unit 6

4

If y o u have something that has a positive effect on you,

then your whole personality is more

positive . Unit 8

1

C hange th is se n te n c e u sing effect.

2

• Did th e a d v e rt a ffe c t you? Did the a d v e r t...
W h a t p re po s itio n s can fo llo w effect?
C o m p le te th e gaps.
• We need to red u ce th e e f f e c t s

3

2 a

a d v e rtis in g

th e g e n e ra l public.

C o n tin u e th is s e n te n c e w it h th e adjective fo r m of effect.
• The m a r k e tin g c a m p a ig n w a s ve ry ...

L o o k at th e s e n e w s r e p o r t e x tr a c ts . A dd th e c o r r e c t f o r m s of th e v e rb s in th e box p lu s e ffec t.
take
1
2
3
A

p ro d u ce

c o m e in to

reduce

Tough n e w la w s w i l l _____________________next year.
M u ch of th is a d v e rtis in g ta k e s ti m e t o ______________- it's s u b lim in a l.
A ny ch a n g e in life style , h o w e v e r s lig h t, c a n
a n e g a tiv e
on y o u r sen se of w e ll- b e in g .
Taking c e rta in o t h e r p re s c r ip tio n d r u g s can
_ th e
of the m e d ica tio n .

b * C E D L is te n to ch eck. W h a t a re th e n e w s r e p o r t s a b o u t?

3

a

L o o k at th e e x a m p le .
• The ne w s had a s ig n if ic a n t e ffe ct on h e r life.
The se o t h e r a d je c tiv e s c ou ld re p la c e s ig n ific a n t. W h ic h of t h e m w o u ld c h a n g e th e m e a n in g ?
m a j o r positive p ro fo u n d
d r a m a tic
d e va sta tin g
la stin g
im p o r t a n t

b Which

g re a t

word s could be used as adverbs with a ffe c t?

The new s s ig n ific a n tly a ffe c te d h e r life .
U

a

W hat things have:
1
2
3
A
5
6
7
8
9
10

b

a c a l m in g e ffe c t on you?
a c u m u l a t i v e e ffe c t?
an e n e r g is in g e ffe c t on you?
a d e t r i m e n t a l e ffe c t on y o u r h e a lth ?
a b e n e fic ia l e ffe c t on y o u r n e ig h b o u rh o o d ?
a d is p r o p o r t i o n a t e e ffe c t on p o o r people?
an a d v e rs e e ffe c t on the e n v iro n m e n t?
a d e v a s ta tin g e ffe ct?
an i m m e d i a t e e ffe c t on you?
a f a r - r e a c h i n g e ffe c t on th e f u t u r e of the w o r ld ?

W ork in pairs. Using expressions from 2 and 3,
talk about:
• s o m e t h in g th a t had a m a j o r e ffe c t on y o u r life.
• s o m e o n e w h o a ffe c te d you positively.
• s o m e t h in g o r s o m e o n e you th i n k is effective.

5

Match these expressions with the images. W hat do
they mean and when would they be used?
a s n o w b a ll e ffe c t a rip p le e ffe c t a d o m in o effect
the b u tt e r f ly e ffec t th e g re e n h o u s e e ffe c t th e pla

82

EXPLOREWriting
Goal
1

use advertising language

a Read the advert for London's Tate Modern A rt Gallery as
a venue for dining, events and en te rta in m e n t. Then match
the pictures of the three rooms with th e ir captions.

Entertain at th e top of one of London’s most iconic and best-loved
buildings with the City’s stunning skyline as backdrop. The Tate
Modern R estaurant, East Room or M em b ers’ Room all capture an
u nforgettab le vista of London.

Boasting a specially commissioned mural, currently Jam es
A ldridge’s Cold M outh Prayer, The Tate Modern R estaurant
offers guests the opportunity to be entertained alongside
a m agnificent piece of art, while also enjoying unrivalled
evening views of the London skyline and the River Tham es.

With unparalleled views of th e London skyline and the
River T ham es, The East Room is a d ram atic and versatile
space which can be enjoyed during th e day and evening.
Surrounded by sheer glass walls, daytim e events are bathed
in natural light, while an intim ate setting is evoked for
evening events against the spectacle of London by night.

The im pressive M em b ers’ Room, with exclusive balconies
on both its north and south sides, provides uninterrupted
views of th e London skyline and th e River Tham es. The
balconies also offer a unique opportunity for outdoor
evening receptions.

b Which room would you choose for these events?
Give reasons.
1

2

2

a lu n c h f o r 40 g u e sts
a s u m m e r evening re ce p tio n fo r 150 g u e s ts

3

a c e le b ra tio n d in n e r f o r 200 g u e sts

a W hat do you understand by the h ig h lig h te d
words? W hat would be m ore common ways of
expressing the sam e ideas? Why do you think the
w r it e r chose to use these words?
1
2
3
U

an iconic b u ild in g
a b a c k d ro p
a vista
b o a s tin g a m u r a l

5
6
7

s h e e r g lass w a ll s
b a th e d in n a tu r a l lig h t
u n r iv a lle d views

b Discuss these questions.
1
2

3

A re th e r e m o re ve rb s in th e texts, o r m o re
a d jectives? W hy do you t h i n k th a t is?
Lo o k at th e ve rb s. H o w m a n y are active verb
f o r m s , and h o w m a n y are passive? W h y do you
t h i n k th a t is? W h a t do you notice a b o u t th e
a ctive ve rb s ?
H o w m a n y a d je ctives can you find th a t m e a n
'very good' o r 'very b e a u tifu l'?

c What im pression is the w r it e r trying to give of an
evening spent at this venue?

Work in groups.
1

2

3
U

Choose a place you k n o w o r have been to,
w h ic h m ig h t be su ita b le fo r a re ce p tio n , a m e a l
o r a party.
Plan a d e s c rip tio n like th o s e above.
• W h a t fe a tu re s w o u ld you e m p h a s is e ?
• W h ich of th e a d je ctiv es in y o u r list c ould you
use to d e s c rib e it?
• T h in k of s e n te n c e s you c ould w r it e u sing th e
v e rb s o f f e r o r pro vide .
W rite th e d e s c rip tio n in p a irs o r s m a l l grou p s.
Try to 'sell' y o u r ve nue to o t h e r people. Were
th e y convinced by y o u r p r o m o tio n idea?
83

Look again o
Grammar
b These sentences include w h a te v e r , or an
expression with w h a te v e r. Match th e m with a -f.

M ea su rin g d ifferen c e s
1

a L o o k at t h is s e n te n c e a b o u t th e A IR pod.
Compared to electric cars,

1

6

M a in ta in in g a ba la nce sh e e t is a b s o lu te ly
e s se n tia l, w h a t e v e r b u s in e s s y o u 're in.
I had a t a l k w it h h im w h ic h left no d o u b t
w h a t e v e r in m y m ind.
W h a te v e r do you w a n t to do t h a t jo b fo r? It's so
badly paid.
a W h a t w o u ld you like to d rin k ?
b Oh, w h a te v e r...
a C om e on! You k n o w I'm right...!
b Oh, a l l r ig h t th e n . W h a te v e r you say...
Web 2.0, w h a te v e r th a t is, w a s m e n tio n e d a lot.

a
b
c
d

at a ll
I d o n 't k n o w it
it d o e s n 't m a t t e r
it's y o u r decisio n

e
f

a n yth ing , I d o n 't m in d
I've no idea w h y

air-powered cars

cost a fraction of the price to buy,

2

they don't

need expensive batteries to be replaced every
five years or so and crucially they take only a

3

fraction of the time to recharge.

4
The recharging tim e of a ir-p o w ere d cars is two
minutes. The recharging tim e of electric cars is
about five hours. How else could you express this
difference? Use these expressions. You may need
to change the order of the sentence.
m u c h less

s e ve ra l h o u rs

5

a b o u t 150 tim e s

b Think about how the comparisons might continue.
Which could use:
• th a n ?

• as?

• of?

• th a t?

C *

Listen to the re m ark s, paying attention to
the intonation. Are the speakers:

c How can you m e asu re these differences? Express
the comparison in as many different single
sentences as you can.
1

Vegetable o il costs € 2 a litre . Extra v irg in olive

2
3

oil co sts € 8 .
O u r old f la t had 3 ro o m s . O ur n e w fla t has 6 .
We used to live a b o u t 2 k m fr o m th e university.
N o w w e live ab o u t 4.5 k m away.

4
5

She lo o ks 35. She is 45.
The p a in ting w a s a c tu a lly w o r t h $50,000. He
m a n a g e d to buy it fo r $5,000.
T h e re w e re 60,000 b u r g la r ie s f r o m h o m e s in
Lon d o n la st year. Only 5,000 of th e h o m e s had

6





3

being e m p h a tic ?
e xp re ss in g la c k of in te re st?
s h o w in g d isb e lie f?
a g ree in g u n w illin g ly ?

a The word s w h a te v e r , w h e r e v e r , w h o e v e r are
commonly used in m arketing language. Look at
these phrases from advertising slogans. W hat
type of product do you th ink they might go with?
w h a te v e r th e w e a t h e r
w h a te v e r th e tim e

w h a te v e r th e occasion
w h o e v e r y o u 're w ith

w h e r e v e r you go

w h a te v e r you like

b u r g l a r a la r m s .
The ave ra g e B ritis h s c h o o lc h ild s p e n d s 22
h o u rs a w e e k at s c h o o l and 30 h o u rs a w e e k
w a tc h in g TV.

7

w hatever
2

a L o o k at th e s e e x a m p le s . W h a t d oes w h a te v e r
m e a n in each?
1

It's your perfect travel companion,
whatever your journey.

2

Thousands of people contributed their own
eruption videos,
together,
bikes,

3

with groups of bottles

or people running about, or on

or whatever ...

Whatever people m a y tell y o u about hybrids,
they are only ma rginally less polluting
than the most efficient combustion engines.

b Choose a photo. W rite a caption for it, including
one of the phrases in 3a.
C Say your sentences to oth er people. Can they

guess which photo you chose?
G ram m ar referen ce, p 1 4 3

84

Think of two or three questions to ask other people. C W hat do the h i g h lig h te d expressions mean? 1 use b The f i l m had a ve ry p o w e r fu l m e ssag e .. It's lik e ly to be th is ye a r's m u s t . a Com plete these sentences in any way you like with in flu e n c e or a ffe ct. The p r im e m i n is t e r w i l l se t o u t to s ile n c e his c ritic s in a d o . though. ® discuss brands ® describe effects and influences In flu e n c e and effect 7 a Look at this exam ple from the unit. You may need to change or add words. G ospel m u s i c a m a j o r in flu e n c e on o th e r m u s ic a l styles.i t . In what context might you he a r th e m being used? 4 c a ll e xp e rie n ce s itu a tio n n e tw o r k b Listen to check. ® talk about the image and qualities of products ® talk about advertising and marketing @describe an advert But y o u see it as a positive influence on people.h a v e ga d ge t fo r te en a g ers. W hat part of speech are the highlighted expressions? How else could you express the sa m e idea? 1 2 Against this too-good-to-be-true backdrop.b l u e m a r r ia g e only lasted 20 m o n th s . W rite th re e sentences about someone or something you have been influenced by.y o u r s e l f sto re s and h o w . Keep r e a d y ..w in have Choose the best adjective. His re la tiv e s .. Com plete the gaps using a verb from the box.. is the reality: viral marketing 3 only works when the user is in c o n t r o l . 1 2 do you? W h a t p re p o s itio n s can a p p e a r a ft e r in flu e n c e ? W hat ve rb s c o m m o n ly co m b in e w ith in flu e n c e ? © pass on detailed information © use advertising language • For Wordcards. The c a m p a ig n w a s very in flu e n t ia l / effective in p e rs u a d in g people to buy th e prod u ct. 5 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 9 1 2 3 Match the adjectives with the nouns.. I hate those a rtic le s like 'H o w to in flu e nce over o th e rs and get w h a t you w a nt'. Self-assessm ent Can you do th ese th in g s in Engtish?(^ ir c le)a n u m b e r on each lin e . Unit 8 85 .d ie co n fe re n c e speech.t h e . a ffe c tin g o th e r m u s ic a l s ty le s . One in d ica tio n of c h a n g in g a tt it u d e s is a ll th e d o . e s p e c ia lly s u b l im i n a l ads.to cla sses p ro d u c ts o r o th e r c o n ta m in a te d p ro d u cts . Is th e th r e a t of p u n is h m e n t an in flu e n t ia l. U n til W ed n e sd a y w e a re giving a w a y a p a ir of tic k e ts a day to a llo w 16 re a d e rs a o n c e -in -a l i f e t i m e o p p o r t u n it y to w a tc h w h a t p r o m is e s to be th e g a m e of th e season. b 4 Com pare these examples.. How are the expressions different? Why? 1 He got a phone c a ll ou t o f th e b lu e . Each year../ . reference and saving your work -* e-Portfolio • For more practice -» Self-study Pack.Vocabulary b M u lti-w o rd expressions e xe rt a Look at these sentences from the unit. b u t h a s a lot of in flu e n c e in re ce n t years. t h e i r o u t .o r . 5 = I can do th is w e ll.o f . R am sey w i l l be r e m e m b e r e d as a le a d e r who his in flu e n c e to im p ro v e schools.e a t foo d s away fr o m ra w w ake-up p e e r-to -p e e r h a n d s -o n lose Gospel m u s ic was v e ry in flu e n tia l. e s p e c ially so u l m us ic . The n e w s p a p e r used to be h u g e ly im p o r t a n t in sh a p in g p u b lic opinio n. I t . The fire d estroyed e ve rythin g. 1 = I can’t do this. using any of the expressions in 4 or 5.t o . a s k in g h im to give a TV interview . We d o n 't re a lis e to w h a t e xte n t w e th e in flu e n c e of a d ve rtis in g .. effective c r i m e 'd e t e r r e n t ? A ny d ie t w i l l only be t r u ly in flu e n t ia l / effective along w it h exercise. Guy Negre claims to have developed a stateof-the-art car powered b y compressed air. n o . 2 P re dictably . Even th e .. The ne w s of th e e a rth q u a k e w a s te r r ib le . f a ll u n d e r c Transform sentences 1 -5 using i n f l u e n t ia l . I . Th at b l u n d e r w a s a ll im p o r t a n t to th e e le ction c a m p a ig n . th e m a g a zin e a w a rd s p rize s fo r th e c o u n try 's m o s t i n f l u e n t i a l / effective people. In w h a t cases could both be used? s p rin g in g up a c ro ss th e c o u n tr y as people a d a p t to hard tim e s . S u c c e s s fu l a p p lic a n ts w i l l have a c a n -d o a tt itu d e to t h e i r job and be pre p a re d to w o r k long ho urs.. a Look at these other m u lti-w o rd expressions.

W h ic h d e ta ils in th e p a in tin g do th e y m e n t io n and w h ic h do th e y leave out? b» 0 LANGUAGE FOCUS In t e rp re t in g and d e fining U L is te n a gain and c o m p le te th e s e n te n c e s a c c o rd in g to th e s p e a k e r s ’ an a lysis. SPEAKING W o r k in g ro u p s . a The s p e a k e rs used v a rio u s e x p re s s io n s to t a lk ab o u t th e p a inting.. L o o k c a r e f u ll y at th e p a in tin g .» They a p p e a r to k n o w each other. . -> It looks as i f th e y kn o w each other.9... b N ow. W h a t e le m e n ts do you n o tice ? Do you t h i n k it r e p r e s e n t s o r s y m b o lis e s a n y th in g ? LISTEN IN G 3 a « d L is te n to f o u r p e o p le i n t e r p r e t i n g th e p a in tin g .. c o lo u r.. 1 G e n e ra lly sp e a king . L is te n to check.. I t _______ th e r e 's a w h o le lot m o r e going on here. ..1 goals ® speculate about im ages and objects © in te rp re t and respond to a story Icons Amies Two young men ICrispin van den Broeck) SPEAKING 1 a W h e n you h e a r th e w o r d 'a p p le '. What m e are th e e x p re s s io n s on t h e i r faces. th e a pple r e p r e s e n ts . t e x t u r e .. T hen c o m p a r e w it h o t h e r s tu d e n ts . th a t behind the h a p p in e s s of yo u th lies ... 2 3 4 The tw o m e n could be . tas te .. th e a p p l e _______to have a s y m b o lic v a lu e . 7 8 The o w l and c ro w The p a i n t i n g bt s y m b o ls of death. W h a t k in d o f a p p le do you see (th in k a b o u t size. ty pe )? T h in k of a d je c tiv e s to d e s c rib e it.. w h a t c o m e s to m in d ? W r i t e d o w n any a s s o c ia tio n s you have. T h e re are a n u m b e r of o t h e r d e ta ils such as . It's w h a t th e p a in te r in tended.. W h a t did they say? 1 2 3 4 Also.. p ic tu re an a p p le in y o u r m in d . L o o k at th e im a g e s on p 131. The o v e ra ll a n a lys is s u g g e s ts t h a t th e p a inting is . It th e y k n o w each o t h e r v e ry w e ll. 5 6 It's w h e t h e r he's o ffe rin g it o r . c W h a t o t h e r e x p re s s io n s c o u ld be used to re p la c e th o s e in 4a? It a p p e a rs th a t th e y kn o w each other.

perfect apples he had ever seen. W o rk in grou p s. If you’re thinking you’re getting an apple. a llite r a t io n ] ? Do you agre e w it h th e w r it e r ' s opinio n? a You are go ing to t e l l th e s t o r y f r o m m e m o ry . Can y o u r p a r t n e r see any s p e c ia l o r s y m b o lic sig n ific a n ce in y o u r sto ry? 87 . that America and paradise have been linked and confused ever since Europeans first hit its shores. T e ll it to a n o t h e r s tu d e n t. Take t u r n s to t e ll th e story. he splurged and bought one. colour and crowds. the most gorgeous. It w as a tomato. but he lusted after one of those apples. • an i m p o r t a n t event in th e h is to ry of y o u r family. The story goes that he lifted the apple to his mouth. It encapsulates so neatly the lesson of expectation and reality that it could serve as a parable. The fact that tomatoes are good is beside the point. 1 W h a t does th is an e c d o te say a b o u t o u r hopes and e x p e cta tio ns ? 2 W hy is it s ig n ific a n t t h a t th e s to ry ha p p e n s in N e w York? 3 ‘ W h y do you th i n k th e n a r r a t o r loved to liste n to th is story? A W h y do you th i n k th is an e c d o te has a u n iv e rs a l sig n ific a n ce ? c Read th e n ex t p a r t of th e a n e c d o te and c h e c k y o u r a n s w e rs . ^ ^ My sisters and I loved to listen to a simple story about an immigrant’s mistake in our own family. • y o u r g ra n d p a r e n t s o r g re at g ra n d p a re n ts .Family story READING 1 2 L o o k at th e c ity in th e ph o to . that an apple is the fruit of humankind's first error and the expulsion from paradise. W h ich e le m e n ts do each of you m e n tio n and leave out? 3 Choose th e s to r y you t h i n k w a s m o s t s u c c e s s fu l and t e l l it a second ti m e to th e w h o le class. T e ll an a n e c d o te a b o u t y o u r fa m ily. He had almost no money. My grandfather's first cousin. He spent his first day in New York City and w as flabbergasted by the chaos. He arrived at Ellis Island in August 1902. makes the story reverberate as myth. red. That New York should be nicknamed the Big Apple. who my sisters and I called Uncle David. 1 2 3 A 5 3 H ow does th e w r i t e r give th e im p re s s io n th a t she is te llin g a s tory? W h e n does she begin the 'an a lysis'? H ow does she do this? W he n does she a dd re ss th e re a d e r d ire c tly? W h y do you t h in k she does so? W h a t s ty lis tic to u c h e s give the s to r y m o r e im p a c t (e. left Norway when he w as 22 years old to make his way alone to America. W h a t c o n n e c tio n does it have w it h a p p le s ? a Read th is e x tr a c t f r o m a f a m il y a n e cd o te . b T e ll th e story. II d Read both p a r t s a gain m o r e c a re fu lly . then it’s no use getting a tomato instead. ^ ^ My sisters and I roared with laughter at this story. he saw a man selling apples. and. A 1 2 Cover th e a n e cd ote and re c o n s t r u c t it only using th e w o r d s you w ro te . Somewhere in the city.g. bit into it and spat it out in disgust. If b A s k and a nsw e r. 1 2 3 T h in k of a s to r y you can t e l l ab o ut: • y o u r p a re n ts w h e n th e y w e re young. overcome by desire. Uncle David had never seen or heard of a tomato. L isten carefully. W r i t e do w n te n w o r d s f r o m th e f i r s t p a r t w h ic h you t h i n k a re im p o r t a n t.

and th e w e a t h e r w a s cloudy. then think of a more n e utra l alternative. Make a list. P ara g rap h U A lm o s t any a rte fa c t can be co m e iconic. d LANGUAGE FOCUS C ritica l la ng ua ge 3 W hat do you think the w r it e r means by these expressions? 1 a lexicon of invasive usages w o rd s used in ways w hich c o u ld be co n sid e re d o ve ru se d an d in a p p ro p ria te 2 3 4 5 th e ja rg o n of th e lin g u is tic a lly u n fe eling m a r g in a lly lite ra te w o r d . W hat connotations do the negative words have? c Replace the highlighted n e utral word s with negative words from the box. He s e n t m e a s h o r t re ply by e m a il. d Com pare answers. it w a s c ro w d e d w it h to u r is t s . The m o b ile phone has be c o m e a c o m m o n fe a tu re of m o d e r n life.9 . Which words do you think are most critical? x . th e ro ck s ta r w a s s u r r o u n d e d by fans a sk ing fo r a u to g ra p h s .r o c k sta ge sets a Read the first two paragraphs again. W hat is the w r i t e r ’s attitude to the topic? b The w r it e r uses many words with negative connotations.w hy we LOVE IT - Thejo y o f Tate Modem by Anthony Horowitz KING O f THE BLOGGERS GAY. P aragraph 2 N owadays.o p e r a t iv e s th e p ro p s of t h e i r d e s p e ra te tra d e th e sen se a cq u ire d t h r o u g h re c e n t abuse 6 s t a d i u m . TORY A N D PRO -O BAMA LeonardR oss/ter by bis daughter PHOTO ESSAY: SLA V E# N O W A nd zi'by P arisian s are not really rude 2 a Look at the article and the images on the opposite page. C Do th e s e s ta te m e n ts s u m m a ris e th e w r it e r ’s a rg u m e n t in each p a ra g ra p h ? If n o t. We d id n 't enjoy o u r h o lid a y m u c h . c o rre c t th e m . e ve ryth in g can be te r m e d ’ic o n ic ’ because th e w o rd no lo n g e r m e a n s w h a t it did.o f f i r r ita t in g d is m is s iv e d is m a l se e th in g d re a ry c ra w lin g u b iq u ito u s 1 2 3 A mobbed packed in e sc a pa b le o ve rp rice d c o n te m p tu o u s h e m m e d in s m o t h e re d invasive m i n im a l At th e exit. P ara g rap h 3 People have a te n d e n c y to h o n o u r o r w o r s h ip o th e rs . In what way do you think they are iconic? b Read the article and check. Paragraph 5 F a m o u s people often reach iconic s ta tu s w h e n th e y are s t i l l alive.2 goals Iconic SPEAKING and 1 © discu ss icons © id e n tify c ritic a l language in a text a Look at the magazine cover. The place w h e r e w e stayed w a s expe nsive . How does the choice of word change the meaning? b ru s q u e a r i p . P aragraph 1 W o rd s e asily b e co m e o v e r-u s e d and so lose t h e i r tr u e m e a n in g . Who does it show? In what sense do you think she was READING an icon? b LIFE. STYLE The Economist What other icons do you think a p pea r in the person’s face? THE INVISIBLE M O G U L MEETING JAMES MURDC Andhew M atro n M agna C arta d anger. CULTURE.

1Every era suffers a lexicon of invasive usages. Words are as subject to fashion as politics and popular music . iconic building. post-modern? Where. but I t h i n k s h e ' ll be fo r g o tte n in a b o u t 10 years. magical and godlike. Iconic. in the sense acquired through recent abuse. and 3) it embodies strong values. b • people. Where would these people be without the following cliches. above all. 3 Implicit in the modern use o f‘iconic’ is the perhaps unconscious aspiration to invest things and people with properties which render them miraculous and superhuman. of course. ---------------------------------89 . That tendency lives on in the stadium-rock stage sets for alternative gods such as The Rolling Stones. multi-cultural. 4 Conditions for an artefact to become truly iconic may be the fact that: 1) it is recognised at once (think of the Taj Mahal or a Vespa). ‘iconic’ in this newer sense means “very famous or popular. And there are more pages than ever. 1 2 Explain y o u r choices. According to one dictionary. SPEAKING U a Make a list of five people or five things th at you think are 'iconic'. would they be without the word iconic? 2 Here are some nouns that have been prefixed by this most dismal of vogue words: iconic art. It is the jargon of the linguistically unfeeling whose job is to smother page upon page with words. Think about: • b u ild in g s . the props of their desperate trade: genius. • so n g s o r pieces of m u s ic . • objects. unless. 2) it has an unchanging quality (again like the Taj Mahal or the Mona Lisa). iconic brand. legend. b u t you t h in k does not f u l f i l th e c o n d itio n s m e n tio n e d in th e artic le . It is an expression of humankind’s tendency towards worship of objects and other humans. not in its original meaning. and thus more marginally literate word-operatives struggling to smother them. Los Angeles street artist Shepard Fairey provided us with an example for our age. This suggests that there is nothing that cannot be deemed iconic. recent attempts have been made to make the living equally iconic. iconic film star. cool. and more screens. He w as the creator of the Obama Hope poster . iconic shampoo. • p ro d u cts . Talk a b o u t s o m e o n e o r s o m e t h in g th a t is c o n sid e re d iconic. Discuss your list. iconic cocktail.surely the most celebrated image of a political leader in recent memory. they are dead. M ado nn a . especially being considered to represent particular opinions or a particular time”. S h e ’s su p p o s e d to be an icon of pop m u sic.today’s tiresome coinage is tomorrow’s ubiquitous cliche. that is. However. The Coca-Cola bottle has it all! 5 Iconic status is less common in humans. guru. like the US flag.

Can o t h e r s tu d e n t s gu ess w h ic h icons th e se n te n c e s r e f e r to? •d You a re g o ing to cho o se a se t of iconic im a g e s f o r o u r tim e . b C h eck in th e s c r i p t on p1 56. look on p131. t h i n k of a n o t h e r v e rb o r e x p re s s io n t h a t w o u ld have th e s a m e m e a n in g . but m a n y people 3 A 5 6 7 a sso cia te it w ith power. F o r each s e n te n c e . 1 2 b H ow is it d iffe r e n t fr o m o th e r im a g e s of p o litic ia n s ? H ow is it d iffe r e n t fr o m : • th e photo? • th e w a y Obama loo k s now? L is te n to a j o u r n a l i s t ta lk in g a b o u t th e poster. b T h in k of th r e e e x a m p le s of ico n ic t h i n g s o r peo p le . W h a t v e rb s go in th e gaps? 1 He fe lt t h a t he s h o u ld m a k e s o m e t h in g t h a t 2 th e a b ility to lead . It e n c a p s u la t e s th e W est's im a g e of th e Orient. w h ic h w a s used in his e le c tio n c a m p a ig n of 2009. W ork in groups. He fe lt th a t he w a n te d s o m e t h in g th a t he fe lt w a s going to . It r e p r e s e n t s m o b ility and e ffic ie n t design. ina c ce ss ib le beauty.Target activity 9 . 1 3 A W h a t did th e a r t is t w a n t to say a b o u t Obama in th is p o ste r? W h a t kind of p u blic did the a r t is t w a n t to a ttra c t? W h a t w a s his c h ie f objective? W h a t did he do w it h th e m on e y 5 m a d e fr o m th e p o s ter? W h a t w a s his a ttitu d e to people 2 HOPE w h o copied th e im a g e ? Why? ' a TASK LANGUAGE Saying w h a t th in g s and people re p re se n t Lo o k at th e s e e x tr a c ts . She conveys a se n se of s u b tle. 3 a W h ic h icons in th e u n it do th e s e s t a t e m e n t s r e f e r to? 1 She e p i to m is e s th e g l a m o u r and v u ln e r a b ilit y of c e le b rity c u ltu re .3 goals Icons for today 1 ® discuss icons ta lk about w hat som ething represents present a rgum ents and co u n te r-arg u m e n ts a L o o k at th e p o s te r of B a ra c k Obama. Obama as having visio n and 3 c o u n te r c u ltu re . It's a s y m b o l of t i m e le s s be au ty and a rt is t ic p e rfe ctio n. They e m b o d y th e r e b e llio u s n e s s of ro ck and roll.. 1 W h a t a rg u m e n t s do th e y give in fa v o u r of and a g a ins t in c lu d in g th e im a g e ? 2 3 W h a t c o n c lu s io n do th e y c o m e to? W h ic h v ie w p o in t do you share? b W h a t e x p re s s io n s did th e p eo p le use to: 1 2 push t h e i r ow n p o in t of view? q u e s tio n o r disa g re e? 3 agree? A s u g g e s t an a lte rn a tiv e ? c Lo o k at th e s c r i p t on p 1 56 to ch eck.. 1 2 TASK U a W rite s e n te n c e s a b o u t th e m using v e rb s f r o m 2a and 3a. L is te n to a g ro u p of p e o p le d is c u s s in g w h e t h e r th e O bam a p o s te r s h o u ld be in c lu d e d . Group A. 2 To s o m e people it s ta n d s f o r fr e e d o m and d e m o c ra c y . look on p137. A ll th e k n o c k o ffs and p a rod ie s say h o w m u c h th e im a g e h a s _ th e and b e co m e a re fe re n c e point.. . Group B.

w h a t kind of people use them? tr a in in g co o l superm arket im a g e manager han dy e m a il m a r k e tin g b ♦ C U Listen to N orm an and Olga talking about some English words that are used in th e ir language.EXPLORE Across cultures Loan words 1 The word icon is 'b orrowed' from the Greek language. 1 2 W h a t E ng lis h w o r d s are used in y o u r la n g u a g e ? Can you th i n k of any new ones? W h a t w o r d s f r o m o th e r la n g u a g e s does y o u r m o t h e r to n g u e b o r r o w fr o m ? th is is the c u te s t s o a p that you will steal from a h °te'- enjoy Jabon de manos Hand soap. 1 2 W h a t do you th i n k of th is m ix in g of lan g u a g e s? Do you th i n k t h a t a la n g u a g e s h o u ld stay 'p u re ' w it h o u t any in flu e n c e fr o m o th e rs ? 91 . Egypt A lot of English is used in advertising. Spain McDonald's restaurant. 1 W h e re are th e people fr o m ? 2 3 4 In w h ic h c o n te x ts are E ng lis h loan w o r d s m o s t often fo u n d in t h e i r c o u n trie s ? W h a t is each s p e a k e r's a tt itu d e to this? W h ich w o rd s in 3a do th e y m e n tio n ? c Are there any loan word s in your language which have been given a new local meaning (like icon’ or 'handy')? d Look at this photo which shows the word 'Intern et' being used in Poland. Why and how is English being used here? 3 a Are any of these words used in your language? If so. Why do you think this is? Look at these images. chic&basic Hotel room soap wrapper.

A T h i s ______ a c y c list's c a m p a ig n to fig h t cancer. book. The d ir e c to r hopes th a t th e f i l m __ a m o r e positive th a n at fi r s t sight. W hat do they norm ally describe? b Choose the best verb. there may be more than one correct answer. d In which sentence in 1b could you use the verb sta n d fo r ? 2 a Complete these sentences with verbs from 1. Som etim es. It fe a tu re s s o m e a ttra c tiv e e x a m p le s of b a s . 5 6 Few n o v e l i s t s __________ __ place as w e ll as H ow a rd F ran k Mosher. m e ss a g e 3 life th e w o r ld a se n se of in fo r m a tio n sce n e s 1 2 3 A Two ne w b io g ra p h ie s h is in u n p re c e d e n te d detail. • The p a in tin g the le a d e r of th e pa rty as a lo ne ly fig u re . Som etim es. person or film that represents something im portant to you. Vo HOPE 3 It a v e ry s tro n g m e s s a g e a b o u t change. The c o lo u r red c o m m o n ly r e p r e s e n ts / p o rt ra y s danger. p ac kin g his s e n te n c e s w ith facts. His u n h a p p y b a c k g ro u n d e x p la in s h o w th e p a in te r c a m e t o ______________in th is way. She w a s conveyed / d e p ic te d as a w o m a n w h o s e lu c k had ru n out. c 1 A good p h o to g ra p h can often convey. He sp e a k s qu ickly. th e re may be more than one correct answer. d e p ic t and convey. inth e fe w e s t s y lla b le s possible. Think of an image. 2 3 A 5 B ra n d o p o rtra y e d / re p re s e n te d th e c h a r a c t e r of K o w a ls k i b rillia n tly . How many of the verbs in 1 b can be used to talk about the m e a n in g of pictures or images? C omplete the gap in this sentence.EXPLORE Keywords describing what things represent 1 a Think about the verbs r e p r e s e n t . ./ re p r e s e n t f a r m o r e th a n w o rd s . In which sentences could the verb s y m b o lis e also be used? NY CND 1 The in itia ls and l o g o t h e ' C a m p a i g n fo r 2 W e a rin g t h i s m y love f o r N e w York.r e lie fs w h i c h ______________fr o m th e H indu R am ayana epic. b Complete these sentences with a fo rm of d e p ic t or convey and a noun from the box. N u c le a r D is a r m a m e n t'. Describe it using verbs on this page. It w a s th e fi r s t ti m e th e f i l m w a s de p icted / sh o w n on televisio n.

it shows the dollar going down in flames. b u t th e r e are a fe w t h in g s th a t d o n 't q uite w o r k ." " It's not m y fa u lt th e b r ie f w a s a bit va g u e .EXPLORESpeaking Goals 1 a How do you think the magazine cover: 1 2 b ® give c ritic is m ® respond to c riticism a tt r a c t s th e re a d e r's a tte n tio n ? ill u s t r a t e s th e idea of a w e a k ' cu rre n c y ? Read and listen to this conversation about the cover image. develop a fe w ideas and m a k e b rie f notes. you know. ” e f g b Com pare 1 2 3 a U Role play. fre e gifts. T h in k of a p lan to in c re a se re a d e r s h ip (e. Italian co okin g is e ve ry w h e re . • You w o r k f o r F in a n cia l M a tte rs m ag a zin e . really.g. We tra c e th e w ay Ita lia n s have in flu e n c e d o u r e a tin g . 2 a Rank these exam ples of g iv in g c ritic is m from least to most critical. U 1 2 T ogether. d Find exam ples of how the criticism is softened and then followed by an explanation. I've been u n d e r a lot of stre s s ." • You w o r k fo r E le g a n t Fashion m a g a zine ." b c d " W h a t on e a rth is this ? Is it y o u rs ? ” "T h is is to t a lly w ro n g . I k n o w I can do better. In tu r n s . Choose th e ideas you t h in k are th e best. It's m is s in g s o m e th in g . Who do you think the people are and w h a t are they discussing in particular? IN S I D E T m s W E E K : A14-PAG E The Economist a b a b a b So what do you think of the design? I like the basic idea. that's all. Be c ritic a l. c e le b rity in te rv ie w s . Decide on te n people w ho w i l l a p p e a r on th is lis t (in c lu d in g s o m e w h o c o uld be in terview e d). but find w ays to s o fte n y o u r c ritic is m ." b Com pare 2 3 answers. Sales have been d e c lin in g . I 'l l redo it s t r a ig h t away. a p p e a lin g to a y o u n g e r a u dience. I beg to differ. one B and one C. a "It's not a c tu a lly w h a t I had in m in d ." "I th i n k it's re a lly nice. Create a co ve r desig n to r e fle c t the new lead a rtic le : "In va sion of th e Italians. SPECIAL REPORT ON B U SIN ES S INJ A P A N The City of London's tumble A fake election in Russia Can it get any worse for Gordon Brown? India's mobile-phone wars Germs and genes The panic about X the dollar C Identify expressions used to give criticism and respond to criticism. Well. a b c d e f g "OK. It seems to me that we need to grab people’s attention. W h ich re sp o n s e do you t h i n k is too aggressive? W h ich do you th i n k are good e x a m p le s of d e fle c tin g c ritic is m ? 93 .. W o rk in g ro u p s : A. 1 answers. In y o u r group. I think it is clear." "C o u ld you be m o r e s p e cific? " "Yes. What do you mean? Well. But let’s see what the others think. so to speak. F o rm n e w g ro u p s so each g ro u p has one A. etc. choose one of th e s e situ a tio n s . fr o m th e h u m b le s t pizza to e la b o ra te seafood dishes. ” "I th i n k it w o u ld have been b e tt e r to ta k e a d iffe r e n t a p p r o a c h . B and C. It is going to ru n a s e rie s c alle d T h e to p ten style icons'. I'm not sure ." " It d o e s n 't s e e m q uite rig h t. make them realise it’s important.). I didn't want to make it too boring.” "I expected s o m e t h in g d iffe r e n t. • You w o r k f o r Food W orld m a g a zin e. t e l l th e o th e r s y o u r ideas and re sp o n d a p p ro p ria te ly . y o u 'll have to redo it ." " W h a t do you t h i n k ne ed s c h a n g in g ? " " W h a t's w ro n g w ith it. Do you have d iffe r e n t o pin io n s ? W h ich c r i t i c is m s do you t h in k are too h a rs h ? H ow could they be s o fte ne d ? Rank these exam ples of re s p o n d in g to criticism according to how strongly the s p e ak e r rejects it. I think this image is a bit too light and cartoony.. th e n ? " "OK. m a yb e it needs a bit m o r e th o u g h t . I just think we need something that’s a bit more serious. it doesn't really convey what the article's about. but in general I don’t think you quite capture the seriousness of the topic. you know.

W hat do you think the context might be for each sentence? i t ’s it’s i t ’s i t ’s no no no no 4 A n d all is forgiven if Obama gets elected. maybe) b Complete these exam ples with expressions from the box. Can th e y gu e ss th e s itu a tio n ? G ram m ar referen ce. To make i t ’s no good more emphatic. Because ju s t going in th e r e and th r o w in g p ro d u c ts at th e m . But n o w s h e ’s gone and _ w a n tin g h e r back because s h e ’s not com in g . W hat o th e r w o r d s can add emphasis to these expressions? I've tried dieting. Develop it into a s h o r t d ialo gue. 94 but it's just n o good. ______ f o r m e to get his phone n u m b e r . He made something that he felt was going to transcend the counterculture. Look at these sentences from the unit.I’ll get it to n ig h t. C Discuss these questions. s to c k s of rea l e s ta te in v e s tm e n t t r u s t s su rg e d. 1 2 W h ich e x p re s s io n s in th e box are fo llo w e d by: • v e rb + in g ? • th a t + clause? • to + infinitive? W h ich e x p re s s io n s have a s i m i l a r m e a n in g ? d Look at this exam ple. T here may be more than one correct answer. add ing extra s en te n ce s. and 'death' are almost the same word. (in a way) 6 good i t ’s no w o n d e r / s u r p r is e use i t ’s no tro u b le / big deal / p ro b le m s e c re t i t ’s no c oin cide n ce d iffe r e n t So I'm v ery happy people care. 1 It's n o coincidence that in Latin. 1 2 3 4 5 Choose a s e n te n c e in 2 w it h th e e x p re ss ion you added. j u s t is added. 3 I d o n ’t t h i n k t h a t w a s th e r ig h t decisio n. t h a t to b a cco a d v e rtis in g has ta rg e te d teens. a n d fr o m being born s h o rt. b 1 2 3 4 5 6 So. T h in k of a s itu a tio n w h e r e it m i g h t be said. then 3 it's n o use getting a tomato instead. 5 What you did seems well-suited for (really) grassroots campaigning. (in that sense) 1 2 W h e re do you th i n k th e e x p re s s io n s in b ra c k e ts s h o u ld go in th e se n te n ce ? Could th e y go in m o re th a n one place? H ow w o u ld it a ffe c t th e m e a n in g ? W h a t does each e x pre ss io n 'd o ’ to th e se n te n c e ? W h ich : • adds a c o m m e n t to th e s en te n ce ? • a dds e m p h a s is to th e s e nte n ce ? 3 a Add the expressions in brackets from 2 to these sentences. t h a t on th e f i r s t day of tra d in g . I t ’s no + adjective/noun can be used as a subject and be followed by th a t or by an mg form . (for better or worse) (hopefully) If you think you're getting an apple. (actually. How many are possible each time? 1 T h a t w a s a te r r i b le m is ta k e ! 2 It w o u ld be b e tt e r to do s o m e t h in g d iffe re n t. p 1 4 4 . 1 2 'apple' They would check h i m out further and see his merits the w ay I see them. it d o e s n ’t w o rk . It’s h o w y o u ’ re born.Look again O Grammar M odifying a sentence 1 a Look at these exam ples from the unit. P ra ctis e u n til you can say it w it h o u t reading th e s e nte n ce s. 2 Barack Obama's image has become an icon. t a l l o r a n y th in g else. 4 S h e ’ ll be e a rn in g next year. P e r fo r m y o u r d ia lo g u e to o t h e r s tu d e n ts . W ork with a partner. so s h e ’ ll be m o re in d e p e n d e n t.

w o u ld you? We can only su pp o se th a t they m a d e a m istake. Use an e x p re s s io n w it h s u p p o s e f r o m 4b. th e r e are lots _ of-------------------------blond people in Spain. 95 . W r i t e s e n te n c e s w it h s u p p o s e . W h e re are th e pe o p le and w h a t a re th e y d o in g ? H o w s i m i l a r w e r e th e c o n v e rs a tio n s to y o u rs ? a T h in k of t h in g s w h ic h are c o m m o n ly said a b o u t y o u r c o u n tr y . w h a t w i l l w e do th e n ? A little s a lt is s u p p o s e d to be good f o r you. T h in k of a r e m a r k t h a t c ould go w it h each. f People say th is is tru e .Vocabulary Uses of suppose U a L o o k at th e s e e x a m p le s . B ut a ctu a lly . is n 't it? A W ill T im be at th e party? B I s u p p o s e so. T his m i g h t happen. W h a t does s u p p o s e m e a n in each? W h a t do you n o tic e a b o u t th e f o r m of th e v e rb ? 1 I suppose the best thing is aspirin. It says t h a t on th e s ch e du le. c u l t u r e o r pe o p le . b T a lk a b o u t y o u r se n te n c e s . W h a t c h a n g e s a re n e c e ss a ry ? e In w h ic h s e n te n c e s c o uld you use s u p p o s e d ly ? H ow w o u ld th e s e n te n c e need to cha n g e ? 5 a L o o k a t th e p ho to s. its food. Do you c o n s id e r th e m to be t r u e o r not? W e 're su p p o se d to be d a r k and have b la c k hair. The p la n e's su p p o s e d to be here by now. 1 2 3 4 5 6 S u p po s e / S u p p o s in g (that) it's bad w e a th e r. B u ild a s h o r t c o n v e rs a tio n f r o m one of y o u r s e n te n c e s . Use an e x p re s s io n w it h s u p p o s e . c d e People t h i n k th is is w h a t happened. unit 9 b R epla ce each s u p p o s e w it h a s y n o n y m . a b C ould you do th is ? 5 T h a t's w h a t I th in k . yeah. I s u p p o s e you w o u ld n ' t be able to p ick m e up. onic 9 but I think she'll be forgotten in about 10 years. d Use s u p p o s e n e g a tiv e ly in each s e n te n c e in 4b. c 6 L is te n to fiv e c o n v e rs a tio n s . W e’re supp osed to be d a rk and have b la c k hair. b W o r k w it h a p a rtn e r. u n it 7 2 The apple was supposed to have a symbolic 3 W h a t 's it supposed to mean then? onit 9 4 She's supposed to be an icon of pop music. c M a tch each s e n te n c e in 4b w it h m e a n in g s a -f. value in Greek mythology.

S h o w y o u r list to a partner. W h ich g ro u p is th e m o s t i m p o r t a n t to you? .10. • clubs. 1 2 3 W h e re are they? W h a t do you t h i n k they are doing? W h a t kind of g ro u p s are they? W h a t do th e y have in c o m m o n ? W h a t c o n n e c tio n s and d iffe re n c e s are th e r e b etw e en th e im a ge s? HiSTOtY I a W h a t different groups do people belong to? b W hat kinds of groups do you belong to? 1 2 96 Make a list.1 goals @describe groups and m em bership @describe fe elings about belonging A sense of belonging Groups SPEAKING 1 Look at the groups of people. • in f o r m a l groups. T h in k ab o ut: • o rg a n ise d groups. • s o c ia l groups. • p ro fe s s io n a l grou p s.

. . ... ... 1 2 3 3 W h a t g ro u p does she r e f e r to? H ow do you kn o w ? H ow does she fe e l a b o u t b e lo n g in g to it? W h ich e x p re s s io n s fr o m 1a does P ila r use? Choose one of the groups you listed earlier. 1 2 3 W h a t g ro u p did G rover belong to? W h a t e xactly is e s p rit de c o rp s ? W hy d id n 't th is a ffe ct h im as p e r s o n a lly as o th e r people? 4 W h a t th re e positive t h in g s does he say a b o u t being in th is o rg a n is a tio n ? W hy is th e r e a te m p ta t io n to stay in th is gro u p? 5 LANGUAGE FOCUS A a Com plete these extracts with the expressions in the box. a d ra w in g class. 1 2 Talk abo u t m e m b e r s h ip W h ic h e x p re s s io n s in B could they m a tc h w ith ? W h ich e x p re ss io n s have a l m o s t th e s a m e m e a n in g ? A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 B I j o in e d . I c o lla b o r a t e d w it h .. b * M&M Listen to check. a se n se of loyalty p a rt of a l a r g e r g ro u p get t e r r i t o r i a l b e long in g to B elo n g in g to a gro u p bonded w ith 1 I fe lt as if I w a s 2 3 4 5 You d e v e l o p to th e se people. . because you are so y o u r group.. T h e re w a s a s tro n g te m p ta t io n to re join th e a rm y . . 1 D o n 't say w h a t th e g rou p is. th e S cottish N a tio n a l Party.. 2 Can y o u r p a r t n e r gu ess w h a t th e g ro u p is? 97 . I g o t invo lve d in .. I b e c a m e a m e m b e r o f ... a few co lle a g u e s fr o m w o rk . I s ig n e d up f o r . Joining a group LANGUAGE FOCUS 1 a The expressions in A are all used to talk about joining groups.. I e n r o l le d in .. you know ... and th a t's h o w th e y get you.... I g o t to k n o w . a lot of people.. b » H D Listen to check.. W h a t w a s y o u r e x p e rie n ce of being in th e a r m y and You c a n 't a b o u t th in g s ...L IS TEN IN G 3 * C Z » Listen to Grover ta lk about his sense of belonging to a group. I te a m e d up w it h . but t e l l a p a r t n e r h o w you jo in e d it and h o w you fe e l a b o u t being a m em b e r.. p o litics ... W hat is each person talking about? LIS TEN IN G and SPEAKING « £ 5 D Listen to Pilar talk about belonging to a group... a tr a in in g course. a b c d e f ..

I Exactly when chaos comes into our life. Jafar’ Panahi’s film Offside is so ensconced in the hereand-now that it was actually filmed in real time during the event it dramatises . for not only had you escaped from the clanking machinery o f this lesser life. they were mainly university students .. not of its masses. more just society. sick pay. s there any cultural practice more global than football? No single world religion can match its geographical scope. too: “When I write a script I look around for people who can do the job best.1 iM F J-i III* t.for their interest in football. W h a t do you t h i n k th e y w i l l say? a Read th e e x tr a c ts qu ickly. social cause. idle workmen. embedded and then transformed by them.. we will be able to create a happier. yes. with half the town.. is when we must never lose hope. Because I believe that this way. and then only for a fleeting moment in those parts of the world that can afford them. It turned you into a member o f a new community — all brothers together for an hour and a half. doles. bad bosses. it is with great honour that I associate the power of sogcer to this noble. my luck. insurance cards. As . we were not trying to create tear-jerking scenes. they are genuinely interested and passionate about football. nagging wives. from work. from wages. thumping one another on the shoulders. one day it goes to help us to transform our life.. when I can.2 goals ® give opinions em phatically [sl« I C^-~l t«l *-. but you had escaped with most o f your mates and your neighbours. rent.)? H ow do you kno w ? W ho is s p e a k in g in each: a fan? a jo u r n a li s t ? a fo o tb a lle r? an e x p e rt / a ca d e m ic? W ho is being a dd re s se d ? o Playing football and attending football matches . My life is an example of this! And one of the ways to show my gratitude is to extend and to share. 1 2 3 W h e re is each e x tr a c t fr o m (a m a g azin e . Football has not merely been consumed by the world’s societies. but they remain the lingua franca of the world’s elites. we never must lose faith in holy love and wisdom. having pushed your way through a turnstile into another and altogether more splendid life. ailing children. So it engages people’s intellectual side.and I found them through friends and colleagues and my contacts at universities. Football is available to anyone who can make a rag ball and find another pair of feet to pass to..ji M i M il i [«< SOUTH AFRICA 2010 1 a H ow do you t h i n k th e s e f o o t b a ll p h o to s a re co n n e c te d to th e to p ic of b e lo n g in g ? b 2 You w i l l read f o u r e x tr a c ts . a n o v e l . it has been embraced.’’ Panahi went on: “I was very conscious of not trying to play with people’s emotions. As my art is in my feet and not in my hands. And Panahi insists on using real people. If we have faith. swapping judgements like Lords of the Earth. For the girl supporters. with those who need it. cheering together... McDonalds? MTV? Only the most anodyne products of America's cultural industries can claim to reach as wide as football’s. They wanted to go to the matches. small that it is. each re la te d to a photo. The use of English and the vocabularies of science and mathematics must run football close for universality.” .1 0 .the Iran-Bahrain qualifying match for the 2006 World Cup.

A dd e m p h a s is . 1 2 3 4 SPEAKING Not on ly is f o o t b a ll th e m o s t p o p u la r s p o r t in m y c o u n try . fo o t b a ll is a b o u t love and m o n e y equally. yes? Are these ways of em p h a sisin g m o re c o m m o n in spoken o r w ritte n language? Why? H ow could you c o m m u n ic a t e th e s e n te n c e s in a less e m p h a t ic way? a W o r k alo n e. Li st en to che ck. w h ic h w o r d s w o u ld you e m p h a s is e ? 1 2 3 4 5 b ♦ For not only had you escaped fr o m th e c la n k in g m a c h in e r y of th is le s s e r life. 2 3 4 F o o tb a ll h e lp s b re a k t h r o u g h b a r r ie r s and is a w a y of b rin g in g people together. m e r e ly . b C hange th e s t a t e m e n t s so th e y r e f le c t y o u r o p in io n . c T a lk a b o u t y o u r o p in io n s .b In w h ic h e x tr a c t is fo o t b a ll s een as: 1 2 3 4 5 6 c a w a y to c h a lle n g e s tere oty p es ? a fo r m of escape? having an im p o r t a n t s o c ia l fu n c tio n ? a w ay of bo n din g people? a s u b je c t fo r an a rt is t ic project? a p h e n o m e n o n of u n iv e rs a l and m a ss a ppeal? W h a t te c h n iq u e s do th e w r i t e r s use to add v a r ie ty and im m e d ia c y to t h e i r te x ts ? Find e x a m p le s . it's also th e m o s t p o p u la r top ic of con ve rsa tio n . As fo r t h e i r in te re s t in fo o tb a ll. If you read t h e m a lo u d . it has been e m b ra c e d by th e m . No s in g le w o r ld re lig io n can m a tc h its g e o g ra p h ic a l scope. if you fe e l s t r o n g ly en o u g h . exa ctly. Do you a g re e w it h th e s e s ta t e m e n t s ? 1 F o o tb a ll is th e m o s t p o p u la r s p o rt in m y country. The s a m e n u m b e r of w o m e n as m e n lik e fo o tb a ll. Exactly w h e n ch a o s c o m e s into o u r life. but you had escaped w ith m o s t of y o u r m a te s and n e ig h b o u rs . F o o tb a ll has not m e r e ly been c o n s u m e d by th e w o r ld 's societies. is w h e n w e m u s t n e ve r lose hope. c L o o k a t th e s e n te n c e s aga in. They w a n te d to go to th e m a tc h e s . Do o t h e r pe o p le a gre e ? 99 . q u e s tio n s to get re a d e r's a tte n tio n lis ts of nou n s inve rsio n fo r e m p h a s is e x c la m a tio n s r h e t o r ic a l q u e s tio n s ric h ly d e s c rip tiv e la n g u a g e use of d ire c t q u o ta tio n s d W h ic h e x tr a c t w o u ld you l ik e to c a r r y on re a d in g ? W hy? LANGUAGE FOCUS 3 Bein g e m p h a tic a L o o k at th e s e s e n te n c e s f r o m th e e x tr a c ts . yes. th e y are g e n u in e ly in te re s te d and pa ssionate a b o u t fo o tb a ll. Nowadays. v ---------------------------------- 4 W h a t c o n v e n tio n a l w o rd o r d e r has cha n g e d in s e n te n c e 1? W h a t w o r d s / e x p re s s io n s could rep la ce : no.

• w ays to get people involved. Bring your spirit of co-operation. and h o w to p e rs u a d e o th e r s to c o n trib u te . c Choose one person in your group to: • p re s e n t y o u r c a m p a ig n and a n s w e r any q u es tion s . a v o lu n te e r and a fan? A BALL CAN CHANGE THE WORLD Make a difference. 100 . 1 2 3 4 positive a d je ctives and co llo c a tio n s s lo g a n s and ca tch y e x p re s sio n s p le d ge s and c la im s a llite r a t io n I b Which expressions from p97 are used here? TASK U a im p e ra tiv e s th e p re s e n t p ro g re ss iv e e x a g g e ra tio n c o m p l im e n t s to th e r e a d e r 5 6 7 8 W ork in groups. T o g eth e r. Bebo. your skills and talents and create an unforgettable event for everyone involved. b Give your campaign message to an other group and give th e m tim e to read it. T h in k about: • w h a t you w a n t to get across. w r it e th e c a m p a ig n m e ss ag e . 1 2 W h a t a n s w e rs does it give to 2a? W h a t is th e d iffe re n ce b etw e e n being a p a rtn e r. s lo g a n s and visu a ls. Becom e a fan Sign up for the Homeless World Cup Fan Club and unite to make the tournament happen to give thousands of players around the world the chance to stand proud. represent their country and change the world forever. and how. • th e ta r g e t au dience. Becom e a partner Become a partner and make a profound impact. Tell the class. In clu d e ideas f o r im a g e s and a ttra c tiv e 3 p re s e n ta tio n and use fe a tu re s fr o m 3a. • t r y to p e rs u a d e o t h e r g ro u p s to c o n tr ib u te to th e c a m p a ig n .Target activity 1 0 . engage employees and align with a powerful positive message for the world. Spread the word Join the Homeless World Cup on Facebook. d Decide which other campaigns you w ill support. Myspace. • e xp re ssio n s. Support football with the power to change the world. Volunteer We are looking for 500 special people to help make the next Homeless World Cup the best ever. How could you help? b Read this campaign message from the Hom eless World Cup website. 1 2 3 2 a W h ic h c a m p a ig n w o u ld be th e m o s t effective? Why? W h a t do you t h in k ca u se s people to b e c o m e h o m e le ss ? W h a t do people in y o u r c o u n tr y do to preven t h o m e le s s n e s s ? Im agine you wanted to support the Hom eless World Cup. M ake a donation Help the Homeless World Cup Foundation grow the ambition to reach one million players with the benefits of football. 1 2 Plan th e ca m p a ig n m e ss a ge . Make a donation now! Thank you. YouTube and Twitter to post your comments. Choose a charity which you think is worthw hile. Raise money Do something to raise money for the grass-roots projects making the benefits of football available to people who are homeless all year round. 3 a Find exam ples of these features in the campaign message.3 g o a ls Prepare a campaign 1 a persuade o thers to take action iwh 'HMM How do you think the photos are connected with h o m e le s s n e s s ? b Match the su m m a rie s on p 133 with the photos. Plan h o w to p re s e n t y o u r c a m p a ig n . photos and videos.

1 2 3 W h a t is th e cause of th e riv a lr y in each case? W h y is th e riv a lr y so s tro n g ? W h a t do a l l th r e e r iv a lr ie s have in c o m m o n ? Look at the script on page 157. G a l a t a s a r y / F e n erba h ce R iver P la te / Boca J u n io rs AC M ila n / In te rn a z io n a le »<ESD Listen to a radio p ro g ra m m e about football rivalries. w h a t are th e g re a te s t s p o rtin g riv a lrie s ? Do th e te a m s o r p la ye rs have n ic k n a m e s ? W hy do you th i n k th a t riv a lr y is so s tro n g ? Was U th e o r ig in a l cause h is to ric a l. How many words connected with sports can you find? 4 a Talk together. 1 2 3 W h e re you live. s o c ia l o r e c o n o m ic? W h a t are t h e i r m a tc h e s like? b W hat do you think is happening in the photo? W rite a brief caption. Then compare with other students. p o litic a l. 101 .EXPLORE Across cultures Football rivalries Do you know these rival football club shields? Match them to the te a m n am es and th e ir cities.

6 ? W h a t do you t h i n k th e peo p le are t a l k i n g a b o u t? at th e s a m e ti m e in a r e la tio n s h ip 1 2 as a w h o le side by side a g a ins t each o t h e r ro u n d each o th e r You can wait a long time and then two arrive together. y o u r th in g s now.she's such a together person. b W h a t do you t h i n k th e s e h i g h lig h te d e x p re s s io n s m e a n ? 1 They w o n more medals at the Barcelona than the last four 2 We're planning a little get-together for next Saturday. 4 I'm g oing to put together the best staff to improve the office... otherwise it might break. w a rm in g ? Look at th e photos. 3 a Put is th e v e rb w h ic h m o s t c o m m o n ly c o llo c a te s w it h to g e th e r.6 All of us must fight together against this menace. Olympics put together. 4 I put two and two together and saw that I wasn't welcome. 3 I really admire her . b W h a t o t h e r v e rb c ou ld you use in each s e n te n c e to e x p re s s a s i m i l a r idea? It's a good th in g we m e t to n ig h t. th e th in g s to fig h t g lo b a l ? . h o w long does it ta ke you to A you need to take? Why do you t h in k c o u n tr ie s find it so hard to 5 b 102 + to g e th e r. It m ig h t be o u r last ch ance. w e 'r e leaving. 5 I wanted to go to Nepal but I just didn't get it together. a W h a t do you t h i n k a re th e m o s t c o m m o n v e r b s th a t c o llo c a te w it h to g e t h e r ? C o m p le te th e g aps w it h a v e rb + to g e th e r. Jefferson's boyhood. 1 2 3 It’s a good th in g w e to n ig h t. together. Do you th i n k th e c o lo u rs W hy / W h y not? A s k and a n s w e r th e q u e s tio n s . A Put -5 The y o u r hands together for our special guest! two together must be w orth a f o r t u n e . We m u s t begin to as a te a m . 2 I knew they were close but I didn't know they were 3 Tie the two ends together well.th a t w a y w e 'r e stronger. 1 Our panel of experts put together a list of top ten foods to e a t .EXPLORE Keyword together 1 W h a t d oes to g e t h e r m e a n in s e n te n c e s 1 . A 5 Do you t h i n k th e s h i r t and tie He's been h e lp in g M a r k _ _ 1 a b u s in e s s plan. U a C o m p le te th e s e q u e s tio n s w it h a v e r b 1 2 ? W ho is m a r r ie d in y o u r fa m ily ? H ow long have th e y Have e v e r had to a r e p o r t o r a p ro p o s a l f o r v o u r w o r k ? 3 W h a t w a s it about? W hen you go on holiday. . T h in k of a s y n o n y m f o r each of th e s e e x a m p le s . 2 The movie is being put together b y a group of independent 3 She h a d put together a proposal for a b ook about Thomas film-makers.

but we can give confidential help to people with all kinds of housing problems. to share our ideas. C o n fid e n tia l help is given to th o s e people w ith ho u sing p ro b le m s . and more investment. b 2 a b W h a t do you t h i n k th e c h a r ity fig h ts fo r. fig h tin g s o m e th in g . to improve the lives of homeless and badly housed people. The hou sing c ris is is d e a lt w it h using p ra c tic a l s o lu tio n s . H o w d oes it a n s w e r 1 b? We’re proud to join forces with like-minded organisations. We do this by giving advice. 1 2 3 4 5 The w e b p a g e w a s w r i t t e n to cast th e o rg a n is a tio n in th e best p o s s ib le lig h t. a UK c h arity . information and advocacy to people in housing need. Our influential campaigns bring aspects of bad housing to the attention of the media and the public.EKPLOREWriting Goals 1 a © describe an organisation L o o k a t t h is c a m p a ig n p o s te r f o r S h e lt e r. we develop practical solutions to address the housing crisis. 103 . W h y do you t h i n k t h e r e a re so m a n y of th e s e v e rb s ? W h ic h o t h e r v e r b s do you t h i n k c o u ld be used in te x t s of th is type? W r i t e a "Who w e a re ' d e s c r ip tio n of th e c h a r ity o rg a n is a tio n you c ho s e on p 100. and by campaigning for lasting political change to end the housing crisis for good. F ig h tin g f o r ch a n g e A b o u t us I n f o rm in g p ro fe s s io n a ls Help and advice c W h a t do you t h i n k is th e best o v e r a ll h e a d in g fo r t h is e x tr a c t? • th e g e n e ra l co nte n t. As a leading expert on housing in Britain. We fig h t th e m a in causes of bad housing. • th e la n g u a g e ite m s chosen. b Add th e s e s u b h e a d in g s to th e gaps. The m ed ia and th e p u b lic find o u t a b o u t us t h r o u g h o u r c a m p a ig n s . h e lp in g and solvin g p ro b le m s . Shelter cannot house you. H ow is t h is do n e? T h in k a b o u t: H o m e le s s people are help ed by Shelter. and develop creative ways of tackling housing need. Shelter tackles the root causes of bad housing by lobbying government and local authorities for new laws and policies. a p a r t f r o m c o m b a t in g h o m e le s s n e s s ? Read th e e x tr a c t f r o m th e S h e lt e r w e b s ite . H o w d oes th e im a g e t r a n s m i t its m e s s a g e ? © present som ething in the best possible lig h t Shelter Shelter is a charity that works to alleviate the distress caused by homelessness and bad housing. c Find v e rb s in th e w e b s it e e x tr a c t w h ic h t a l k a b o u t: 1 2 O ur va lue s W ho w e are E qu a lity and div ersity H ow w e m a ke a d iffe re n ce a d H ow d oes th e w e b p a g e e x p re s s th e s e ideas? W h y? C o n s id e r in d iv id u a l w o r d s / e x p re s s io n s as w e l l as v e rb fo r m s . who help us fight for solutions.

Look again O
Grammar
U

Inversion
1

a

a Look at this exam ple from the unit.
Not only h a d you escaped from the clanking

No w a y is common in conversations. W hat do you
think it m eans here? W hat are the people talking
about?

a No w a y w i l l U n ited w in th e league.

machinery of this lesser life, but you had

T hey h a v e n 't got a chance.

escaped w i t h most of your mates and n e i g h b o u r s .

v
1

The sen te n c e s ta r ts w it h an a d v e rb ia l phrase.
H ow does th is a ffe ct th e w o rd o rd e r?

2

You c ould also say:
You h a d n 't only e s c a p e d ... b u t ...
H o w w o u ld th a t cha n g e th e m e a n in g ?

No w a y did he w r it e th a t h im s e lf.
He copied it f r o m th e In te rn e t.
v

start a clause or sentence.
Which word s in A can combine with words in B?

not
v e ry
at no
in no
only

2

a

B
way
u n til
r a r e ly
now
r e c e n tly
once
tim e

C o m p le te th e gaps w it h e x p re s s io n s f r o m 1 b.
1
2
3
4
5

I s h o u ld add t h a t
have I, o r anyone on
m y behalf, received a c o m p la in t.
_ . does th e c ris is th r e a te n t h e i r business.
Seven y e a rs I've k n o w n h im and
has he
let m e down.
U s u a lly you a u d itio n f o r th in g s so m a n y tim e s .
_ do you get th e d re a m call.
have w e discovered w h a t th e re a l

--------------------------------------------------It's g rea t f o r a holiday, bu t no
w a y w o u ld I w a n t to live th ere .

b Here are some more adverbial phrases that can

A

--------------------

b ♦
Listen and m a rk the words w h e re the
emphasis is placed in each sentence.

a

W rite tru e sentences beginning with an adverbial
phrase about:
• s o m e t h in g th a t ra re ly o r n e v e r ha ppens.
• s o m e th in g th a t only h a p pe n e d recently.
• s o m e t h in g you b e lie v e rs im p o s s ib le o r a
rid ic u lo u s idea.

b

Listen to each other's sentences and ask
questions to find out more.

a W h a t do these pictures show? W rite a brief
caption for each with no way.
b Com pare your captions.

p r o b le m was.
b W h ic h a re f o r m a l and w h ic h a re i n f o r m a l in
r e g is te r ?
c W h ic h w o r d s w o u ld you s tr e s s f o r e m p h a s is ?
d * I T O L is te n to ch e ck.
R e w rite th e s e s e n te n c e s w it h a d v e r b ia l p h ra s e s .
1

The bu s in es s s ta r te d slowly, but n o w we are

2

m a k in g a profit.
O n ly ...
He d id n 't pick up th e phone to see h ow I w as.

4

A t...
It h a rd ly e ver ra in s here in July.
V e ry ...
I d id n 't re alise m y bag w a s gone u n til w e w e re

5

leaving th e bar.
N o t ...
It's p o u rin g w it h rain, and it's also fre e zin g!

3

N o t...

104

G ram m ar referen ce, p 1 4 4

Vocabulary
C ollective nouns fo r people

7 a

C ollective ad jectives

How many different kinds of groups can you
re m e m b e r from the unit?

b Sentences
1

1 0 a We can use adjectives as nouns to ta lk about
certain groups of people:

a - g talk about o th e r groups of people.

W ho do you th i n k is ta lk in g in each sentence,
and a b o u t w h a t?
W h ich of th e h ig h lig h te d no un s d e s c rib e s a
s m a l l g ro u p ? W h ic h d e s c rib e s a large gro u p?
W h ich have a negative c o n n o ta tio n ? W h ich
could be both negative o r n e u tr a l?
W h a t o t h e r w o rd s c ould rep la ce th e
h ig h lig h te d nouns?

2
3
4

a

.Well, the hordes of admirers are difficult to

b

The suspect's court hearing today will be on

• h o m e le s s people —> th e h o m e le s s .
• e ld e rly p e o p l e - > th e e ld e rly .

put u p w i t h sometimes,
a live video link from prison,

so police do

not have to confront an angry mob.
c

While you were just "hanging out with the gang"

d

T h e

I was wondering if you were alive or dead!
H u n t i n g

- a camera crew (Gere,

P a r t y

Howard, Eisenberg)

Com plete these sentences with th e and an
adjective from the box.

goes looking for a Bosnian

warlord in this darkly comic thriller,
e

They've h a d to learn to adjust to a high
school where,

if you're not in a clique,

ric h
p o o r e ld e rly
needy disable d

y o u 're n o b o d y .
f

All of a sudden,

they became a top-40-type

g

Aberdeen's top scorer,

group appealing to the younger crowd,
Stavrum, has been

h o m e le s s

1

He k n o w s th a t it's w ro n g to p a rk in spaces fo r

2

The g o al is to p r e v e n t
f r o m dying of
exposure.
__ is s te a d ily
The gap b e t w e e n
and
in c re as in g .
The r is k of in fe c tio n is g re a t e r in
It's
r a t h e r th a n th e g re e d y th a t have to
be p rote cte d .

linked w i t h a move to German team St Pauli.

8 a

Which nouns in 7b can also be used with the ones
in the box? Make as many collocations as you can.
Use these patterns:

3

\ •

A
5

1 no u n + noun, m ob ru le
2 noun + of + noun, h o rd e s o f c h ild re n
to u r is t s v io len c e
m e m b e r ru le
fl i g h t ca p acity c h ild re n
le a d e r

b

Make these sentences more precise by replacing
g ro u p with an alternative.

b

How do you express the ideas in your language?

C Talk to g e th e r.
1
2

1
2
3
A
5
6
9

He w a s ha n g in g out w it h th e w ro n g g ro u p .
They w e re a p ro fe s s io n a l g ro u p and s o rte d out
o u r p r o b le m s easily.
These are th e to w n s w h e r e th e y can r e c r u it
n e w g ro u p m e m b e r s .
If you go to th e beach r e s o r ts in th e s u m m e r
y o u 'll find g r o u p s of to u r is ts .
I w a s ill on th e flig h t but th e cabin g ro u p w e re
v e ry h e lp fu l.
G ro up vio le n ce is a cause of in n e r - c i t y c rim e .

Writing game.
1

2

3

W rite a s e n te n c e th a t could be p a rt of a story,
in c lu d in g a c o lle ctive noun fo r people. Pass
y o u r s e n te n c e to a n o t h e r pair.
C on tin u e th e s to ry w ith a n o th e r sentence.
Pass y o u r se n te n c e s to a n o th e r pair. C o n tin u e
w it h fo u r o r five m o r e s entences.
Read o u t y o u r story.

H ow are th e s e g ro u p s of people ta lk e d a b o u t
in y o u r society?
Do you t h in k a ttitu d e s to w a rd s th e m have
ch a ng e d o ver th e las t 50 ye ars? If so, how?

Self-assessm ent
Can you do th e s e th in g s in English?(^ ir c le)a n u m b e r
on each lin e . 1 = I can’t do th is, 5 = I can do th is w e ll.
® describe groups and membership
® describe feelings about belonging
© give opinions emphatically
® explore strategies for analysing authentic
texts
® persuade others to take action

WKMMMM

© describe an organisation
© present something in the best possible light

EKHH

• For Wordcards, reference and saving your work -» e-Portfolio
• For more practice -> Self-study Pack, Unit 10

105

11.1 goals
© ta lk about clim a te change
© describe inventions and how they w o rk
© discuss proposals

Climate
Radical ways to saue the planet
L ISTEN IN G

1 a

W h a t do you k n o w a b o u t th e b illio n a ir e
R ich a rd B ra n s o n ? W h y do you t h i n k
t h is p h o to w a s ta k e n ?

b « C D L is te n to th e n e w s story.

LANGUAGE
FOCUS
C lim a te change

2 a

1

H ow m u c h did R ic hard B ra n s o n
offer, and fo r w h a t?

2

W hy do you t h in k he did this?
W h a t do you th i n k of th e idea?

T hev'w o rd c lo u d ' s h o w s s o m e k e y w o r d s f r o m th e b ro a d ca s t.

carbon dioxide global warming CD
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climate cha.nge Cc/5L
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Richard Branson
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United Nations CD
greenhouse gases
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1
2

3

W h ich are d ire c tly c o nn e cte d w it h c lim a t e change?
W rite s e n te n c e s to s h o w c o n n e c tio n s b etw e e n th e w o rd s in th e w o rd cloud.
H ow m a n y can you th i n k of?
Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse pas.
Try to use a ll th e w o r d s to re c o n s t r u c t w h a t th e r e p o r t e r said.

b » U S D L is te n again. W e re an y w o r d s used d iffe r e n tly ?
READING and
SPEAKING

3 a

T h e s e im a g e s s h o w five ideas w h ic h co u ld be used to f ig h t g lo b a l w a r m i n g .
W h a t d if f e r e n t ideas do you t h i n k th e y sh o w ?

b The a r t ic l e d e s c r ib e s f o u r of th e ideas. One scie n tist is proposing to p u t a huge glass sunshade in space w hich w ould o rb it th e Earth so th a t it w ould alw ays face th e sun. Proposals like these m ay seem like science fic tio n . P lan kto n fa rm s : p la n k to n w o u ld . w hich w ould block some o f th e sun's rays. The s u lp h u r w ould be released and it w ould fo rm a th in c lo u d -like la ye r around th e Earth. b Read th e a r t ic l e again.. b Find m o r e e x a m p le s of each typ e in th e a r t ic l e on p 133. Some scientists are now beginning to suggest m ore radical inventions th a t n m ig h t save us from disaster by actually putting th e greenhouse e ffect into reverse. so th e sun's rays w ould be reflected. This w ould d e fle c t som e o f th e sun's rays back into space.. W h a t do you t h i n k it s h o w s and h o w m i g h t it w o r k ? Read m o r e a b o u t it on p 133... 2 a A f t e r could and w o u ld . so th e t e m p e r a t u r e of th e a tm o s p h e r e w o u ld . This w ould m ake th e pla n kto n g ro w and absorb CO 2 fro m th e air. T his could be done using re m o te -c o n tro lle d ya ch ts. fo r th e sake o f o u r planet. C hoose an a c tiv e o r passive in fin itiv e . re lease 1 2 3 A re d u ce fo rm feed in c re a se r e fle c t b lo c k a b s o rb x le fte c r Giant sunshade: th e s u n s h a d e s w o u ld d e fle c t a s m a l l p e rc e n ta g e of th e su n 's ra y s ba ck into space. The su n 's rays w o u ld . and ju s t reducing carbon emissions m ay not be enough. A n o th e r in te re s tin g idea is to pum p fin e p a rticle s o f sea w a te r in to th e clouds. Passive: C arbon dioxid e w o u l d ... S u lp h u r rockets: th e s u l p h u r w o u ld ... A n o th e r proposal is to fire rockets loaded w ith s u lp h u r in to th e s tra to s p h e re . so th e te m p e ra tu re o f th e a tm o sp h e re w ould be reduced. w e can use an active o r a passive in fin itive . Active: The a p p a ra tu s w o u ld e x tra c t c a rbo n dioxide... This w ould increase th e thickness o f th e clouds.. u s ing th e v e rb s in th e box. 3 a C o ve r th e a r t ic l e above and c o m p le te th e s e n te n c e s . C o m p le te th e gap. 1 2 3 Do you th i n k it is lik e ly to w o rk ? Do you th i n k it w o u ld help c o m b a t g lo b a l w a r m in g ? In w h ic h p ro p o s a ls w o u ld cost o r e n e rg y c o n s u m p t io n be a p ro b le m ? 107 . A n o th e r po ssib ility w ould be to create enclosed 'p la n k to n fa rm s ' in th e sea. and it w o u ld . so th e energy cost w ould be zero. The p la n k to n c ould . P um ping sea w a te r: th is w o u ld . Did it use th e v e r b s you chose? SPEAKING C o n s id e r each of th e five p ro p o s a ls in t u r n . w here pla n kto n could be fed huge q u a n titie s o f fe rtilise r. b u t som e e xp e rts believe we m ay soon be forced to ta k e th e m seriously.. W h ic h involv es: • re d u cin g CO2 levels? • a b s o rb in g th e s u n 's heat? • d e fle c tin g th e su n 's rays? Clim ate change is being experienced everyw here in th e w orld.. Artificial trees LANGUAGE FOCUS A ctive and passive in fin itive s Lo o k at th e im a g e t h a t w a s n o t m e n t io n e d in th e a r t ic le ..

. Arctic tem peratu res are w arm ing more quickly than other p a rts o f the world: la st autum n air tem peratu res in the Arctic stood at a record 5°C above norm al. a s 10% o f the w orld 's fre sh w ater is currently frozen here. b Why do you th ink the w r it e r says this is "a chilling vie w ” and that the icebergs are “ utterly terrifying"? 3 a Read the rest of the article quickly. se a levels around the w orld w ould rise by seven m etres.. 4 'd y n a m ic effects'. The w all o f ice th at rise s beh in d Serm ilik fjord stretch es for 2. The three g lac iers they stu d ied h ad ab ru p tly in cre ase d the sp eed by w hich they w ere tran sm ittin g ice from the ice sh eet into the ocean. h it upon the d arin g id ea of lan d in g on a m oving glacier in a h elicopter to m easu re its speed. Rather.2 goals Glaciers ® describe an ongoing process . Som e sc ie n tists are asto u n d ed by the ch anges. the ice sh eets m ain tain ed an equilibrium : glaciers calved o ff iceb ergs and sen t m elt w ater into the ocean s every sum m er. calve from the ice sh eet th at sm oth ers G reenland and s a il down the fjord s. let alone exp lain why they are h appen in g.. The journ ey o f th ese sc u lp tu re s o f ice from g lac ie rs to ocean is eerily b ea u tifu l and utterly terrifying." he say s.400 km from north to south and sm oth ers 80% of th is country. b Read the article more carefully and make notes about: 1 2 108 th e G ree n la n d ice sh e et. W hat seem s to be happening in Greenland? Do scientists fully understand it? Now it is m elting. have elapsed between them? W hat could have caused the changes to take place? READING a Read the beginning of an article about Greenland. 3 a ir te m p e r a tu r e s . For centuries. "We w ere blow n aw ay b e c au se we re alise d th at the g lac ie rs h ad accelerated not ju s t by a little b it b u t by a lot. b u t the Greenland ice sheet is now shedding m ore ice th an it is accum ulating. in winter. A flotilla o f iceb ergs.t is calving se a so n in the Arctic. som e as ja g g e d a s fa iry tale c a stle s an d others a s sm ooth a s d in o sau r __ eggs. Gordon H am ilton.1 1 . I f the G reenland ice sh eet d isa p p e are d . It is not sim p ly th at the ice sheet is m elting ste ad ily a s g lo b al tem peratu res rise. S cien tists believe the w orld's g reat ice sh eets will not com pletely d isa p p e ar for m any m ore centuries. W hat does the w r it e r mean by: 1 "ca lving s e a s o n "? 2 "a f l o tilla of ice b e rg s "? 3 " e e r ily b e a u tifu l"? The Sermilik fjord in Greenland: a chilling view of a w arm ing world . "It's qu ite likely th at th ese dynam ic effects are m ore im p ortan t in gen eratin g a rap id rise in se a level th an the trad itio n al m elt. Gordon H a m ilto n . It h a s been frozen for three m illion years." say s H am ilton. he foun d it w a s m arch in g fo rw ard s at a greater p ace th an a g lac ie r h ad ever been ob served to flow before. 4 What is the difference betw een the two photos? How many years. a Scottish -born g lacio lo g ist. "We can't a s a scien tific com m unity keep up w ith the p ace o f ch an ges. E x p erts from around the w orld are lan d in g on the ice sh eet in a race a g a in st tim e to d iscover why the ice in G reenland is van ish in g so m uch fa ste r th an expected. fa r fa ste r than the clim ate m od els p red icted and fa r m ore decisively th an any p o litical action to com bat our changing clim ate. Driven by the lo ss o f ice. do you think. w hich in turn accelerate the m elt. the m elting trig g e rs dynam ic new e ffects. the ice sheet w as then replenished w ith m ore frozen snow." sa y s the g lacio lo g ist. R esearch is fo cu sin g on w hat sc ie n tists call the 'dynam ic e ffe c ts’ o f the G reenland ice sheet. When H am ilton p ro c e sse d h is first m easu rem en ts o f the glacier's speed.

of course. in motion inches from the cross-roads where we abolished run-ways and re-wound the windmills. one fridge. Oh infelix Phaethon.LANGUAGE FOCUS A a P rocesses The verbs in the box all describe processes. and scraped the sun’s wheel to spark it. or try to. H ow m a n y re fe re n c e s to P h a e th o n can you fin d ? Find e x p re s s io n s th a t re fe r to 'fire '. ignore the brakes. 2084 Paired wheels and PV panels. W ho are th e 'u n fo rtu n a te ' on e s in th is case? A a*d ) Listen to someone commenting on the poem. c Talk about the notes you made in 3b. read about Phaethon on p133. Before that. 1 2 3 LIS TEN IN G and SPEAKING bicycle s. w h a t th e c h ild re n w a n t. How could you use th e m to a n s w e r these questions? 1 2 W h a t is h a p p e n in g to: th e ice? th e g la c ie r? th e ocean? W h a t used to ha p p e n before? m e lt shed d is a p p e a r re p le n is h flo w ris e tr ig g e r a c c e le ra te m a rc h m a in ta in va n ish tr a n s m it b Check in the article. then. W hat connections are th ere with the article on page 108? b W hat oth e r visions of life in the future can you think of (films. And we tell them. light out. And the world will sail over the carbon peak: we’ll be in free-fall the whole sweet way to paradise regained. one bin.)? 109 . daily rationing of down-loads. ponds and hives and garden-fields (citron and silvery-green samplers. s o la r h e a tin g . rocketing. th e kin d of s o c ie ty it w ill be. p e o p le 's life s ty le in 2084. W hat significance does 1984 have for you. spiralling with its florid machinery in a thunder of gold tyres down. one screen only. W hat could Phaethon be a m eta p h o r for in the poem? b 2084 echoes the y ear 1984. but fires. if any? 2 a *C D Read and listen to the first part of the poem. w h a t th e ir p a re n ts did to th e E a rth . so shut up: it’s their turn to hit the gas. down the yellowing sky-waste. a g ro u p o f h o u se s / fla ts . frilling in the distant sound. We’re scripture-safe in our examined lives. what it was to drive that borrowed chariot. They say we stole the magic brand. books. that flood. as children should. using the verbs in the box to ta lk about them. etc. What expressions talk about clim ate change? th a t flood. We drove death into childhood. Did you make the sam e points? d Do you know of any other 'dynamic effects' connected to clim ate change? 2084 READING 1 a You are going to read a poem called 2084 by Carol Rumens about a future vision of the world. will be measured and contained the government says so. for each estate. 5 a » iE > Read and listen to the whole poem. stitched by hand) declare our ground. W hat does he say is its main message? Do you agree? b Which parts of the poem talk about: • • • • It’s slow. Just let us be children they wail from blazing consoles. That ice-bar. in m o tio n inches fro m the cro s s -ro a d s b Find expressions which refe r to: • • • • 3 i Q D Read and listen to the second part of the poem. earth grew nothing. c o m p u te rs . The children want to burn anything that burns. just being children.

so th e w o rld as w e k n o w it is u n lik e ly to s u rvive . 1 W h ich of th e se o p in io n s does th e book exp re ss? • G lo b a l w a rm in g is irre v e rs ib le . b Conduct a debate with the other group. W hy do you th in k M o ira la u g h s? 2 TASK LANGUAGE 2 S aying if a c tio n s are ju s tifie d a Which sentences best match J am e s Lovelock's point of view? 1 G lo b a l w a rm in g is n ow in e v ita b le . 2 3 U 5 6 It's a b s o lu te ly c ru c ia l th a t w e re d u ce CO2 e m is s io n s o v e r th e next 50 ye ars. It's c e rta in ly w o rth w h ile h o ld in g c o n fe re n c e s on c lim a te change. and any others you can th ink of to support your view. 110 . a P repare to debate the issue. The a m o u n t of m o n e y w h ic h w e in v e s t in w in d p o w e r is n 't re a lly ju s tifie d . U sing lo w -e n e rg y lig h t b u lb s is p o in tle s s . • It's n ow im p o s s ib le to s lo w dow n c lim a te change. read a b o u t J a m e s L o v e lo c k on p 134.6 to express the sam e meanings? ju s tific a tio n p o in t d iffe re n c e n o th in g sense w o rth achieve 7 There's n o th in g we can do to p re v e n t g lo b a l w a rm in g . D ra w on arg u m en ts used in the inform atibn you read. b Divide into group A or group B according to your point of view.and a n s w e r th e q u e s tio n s .3 goals The Doomsday debate TASK LISTENING 1 a © talk about climate change © describe an ongoing process You are going to listen to part of a radio discussion about the book The Vanishing say if actions are justified ® conduct a debate Face o f Gaia by scientist Jam es Lovelock. • G roup A. • G roup B. It w o u ld be q u ite fe a s ib le to re ve rse g lo b a l w a rm in g if w e a ct soon. v -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------We are b e tte r in fo rm e d th a n e v e r a b o u t th e h a rm we do to th e p la n e t. read a b o u t th e 'D o o m s d a y C lo c k ' on p 139 and a n s w e r th e q u e s tio n s. TASK PREPARATION 3 a Which view is closer to your own? Today's s o c ie ty is e v e r m o re irre s p o n s ib le and s e lfis h . so th e re is re a l hope fo r h u m a n ity . • H u m a n s a re n o t re s p o n s ib le fo r ca u s in g c lim a te change. b Which h ig h lig h te d adjectives in 2a mean: a b c it has no p u rp o s e ? it's p o s s ib le to do it? th e re 's no good re a so n to do it? d e f w e re a lly m u s t do it? it's c e rta in to h a ppen? it's a good idea? c How could you use these words in sentences 1 .Target activity 1 1 . 1 2 W h a t do you th in k th is title m e a n s? W h a t do you th in k it says a b o u t J a m e s L o v e lo c k 's v ie w of c lim a te ch a n g e? b • $ H > Listen to th e discussion. • H u m a n s caused c lim a te ch a n g e w ith o u t re a lis in g w h a t th e y w e re d oing.

"There's an external beam antenna on the roof fo r the phone and a satellite dish fo r an In te rn e t connection. a figure th a t Perez says has been increasing by a third every year fo r the past decade. 1 2 3 U H ow do you th in k 'o ff." Too much electricity and no more bills. He can afford to be smug." says Suzanne Galant." says Perez.unconnected to the power grid and the water. Once the preserve of mavericks.g r id ' liv in g be in each of th e m ? Give rea son s. "There are tim es when the grid blacks out.000 off-grid households in the US. b u t having a 215t-c e n tu ry life s ty le ? W hy do you th in k it is b e co m in g m o re p o p u la r? Do you th in k 'o ff. tw o laser scanners. • 111 . pioneers like Perez have proved th a t it can be done. we can fix it ourselves. He lives "o ff-g rid " .g r id ' liv in g co u ld becom e p o p u la r w h e re you live? W hy / W hy not? T h in k a b o u t th re e d iffe re n t re g io n s of th e w o rld . gas and sewerage supplies th a t most of us rely on. But unless you live on a sunny. vacuum cleaners . H ow easy w o u ld 'o ff.. a convection oven." Perez is not alone. free energy that's not from fossil fuels. I've got 70 kWh in batteries th a t could last me five days. " I like the security of having my own electricity company." Now even urbanites are seeing the appeal of generating some if not all of th e ir own power needs.g rid d e r s ' in a p o sitive lig h t? W h ich in a n e g a tive lig h t? Discuss these questions. a w rite r who lives off-grid in rural Wales. For people who live offgrid. U n p lu g g in g fr o m th e grid " I haven't paid an electricity bill since 1970. So is energy freedom an eco pipedream or the ultimate good life? Well. That's got to be worth aiming for.EXPLORE Across cultures Living oft-grid’ What do you think off-grid' refers to? W h at clues can you find in the photo? 2 a Read the first paragraph of the article to check. I have too much electricity. n o tice a b le glee. " I t feels brilliant to use clean.. there's only one way to find out: begin to explore the possibilities of solar. sources his own w ater and manages his own waste disposal . He generates his own electricity. th a t m ight prove prohibitively expensive! There is no doubt th a t being off-grid has its problems. 1 Find n o u n s and a d je c tiv e s w h ic h d e s c rib e 'o ffg rid d e rs ' and th e ir life s ty le . south-facing hillside with access to a nearby river or stream .g rid d e r s ' w o u ld be view ed in y o u r c o u n try : as p io n e e rs o r d re a m e rs ? H ow w o u ld you d e s c rib e P erez's to n e a t the s ta r t and th e end of the a rtic le ? Do you see a c o n tra d ic tio n in liv in g 'o ff." he says. there are now approximately 200.and prefers it th a t way. and w ithout giving up a 21st-century lifestyle: "I'v e got five computers.you name it. 2 W h ich one s s h o w th e 'o ff.g r id '. a microwave. and it is not always the cheapest way to get your energy. Even so. s m u g . b Which verbs collocate with these nouns to describe w h a t an 'o ff-grid d er' does? e le c tric ity 3 ow n w a te r ow n w a s te d is p o s a l Now read a ll of the article. self-sufficiency means guilt-free energy consumption and peace of mind. wind o r hydro-power. "And if something goes wrong." says Richard Perez with noticeable glee. hippies and survivalists. tw o fridge-freezers.

On s p e c ia l occa sio ns. C oyotes do n o t n o rm a lly a tta c k h u m a n s . r a th e r lim e ju ic e . ____ a ll fo rm s of a rt. 5 B a s k e tb a ll p la y e rs u s u a lly re a ch th e ir peak at a b o u t 25... I'd p re fe r to cycle to w o rk . These exam ples show o th e r ways of saying things are s im ila r or dissimilar. I live in c o n s ta n t fe a r of being m a d e re d u n d a n t.. in c o n t r a s t . he explains. is c o m m itte d .. j u s t . an artificial tree would have a structure to hold it u p . 112 ... where the leaves are spread out because they have to see sunshine for the purpose of photosynthesis... 2 3 I* E co -co la is m ade o n ly fro m n a tu ra l in g re d ie n ts . 1 Just like a real tree. as o p p o se d . a re p ro h ib itiv e ly e xp e n sive to sh ip overseas.. lik e m a n y o th e r w o rld le a d ers. th e y have th e e q u iv a le n t. How could you express the same meaning using these expressions? as w ith 2 a s im ila r to w h e re a s ra th e r th a n Here are some more examples.. Give reasons._______ n o te b o o k c o m p u te rs .the equivalent of a trunk.. th e ea st co a st o f th e is la n d has w id e sa n d y beaches. T a m a rin d p u lp has a s o u r ta ste .. The DNA a n a ly s is fo u n d th a t th e b lo o d s ta in s w e re id e n t ic a l.. How many sentences can you m ak e about th e ir differences and sim ilarities? < b Think about different aspects of w h e re you live (society. M any a n tib io tic s are n o t a v a ila b le o ve r th e c o u n te r in p h a rm a c ie s in th e US. The p re sid e n t. b U a Listen to check. How do you think they might continue? W hat w ill the next word probably be? 1 2 3 S y n th e tic tre e s re s e m b le re a l tre e s in m a n y w ays. people. p eople s t ill sin g tr a d itio n a l fo lk so n g s. U 5 6 b Add 1 3 a inform ation with lik e or u n lik e to these sentences to expand the meaning. H e r re fu s a l to a n s w e r th e q u e s tio n in c o u rt w a s ta n t a m o u n t. the leaves on an artificial tree could be packed much more tightly.. One e u ro is no w e q u iv a le n t.EXPLORE Keywords describing similarities and differences 1 Look at these exam ples from the unit.. U 5 6 7 8 T ra d itio n s ru n deep here. F or e x a m p le . p o p u la r m u s ic d e s e rv e s to be d is c u s s e d and a n a lysed . probably a pillar. 2 Unlike in a real tree. etc.. W hat words in the sentence helped you to choose the answer? 1 2 3 th e ru g g e d w e s t coast. neighbourhoods. Com plete the gaps with lik e or u n lik e . D eskto p P C s ... The p re s id e n t is c o m m itte d to fin d in g a d ip lo m a tic s o lu tio n to th e c ris is . The fin a l w a s played m a in ly w ith o u t d is c ip lin a ry p ro b le m s .). la s t F rid a y's s to rm y q u a rte r-fin a l.. We b elieve th a t b a n ks s h o u ld be re g u la te d in th e sa m e w a y . Look at these pairs of images. He so ld fr u it fro m a s m a ll box on w h e e ls w h ic h lo o ke d a b i t a c h ild 's p ra m . W rite about th em expressing sim ilarities and differences.

• It s e e m s to m e . I think what he really means is that we’d have to do something quite drastic. . I think things aren't nearly as bad as he says they are. so there’s no point in doing anything. 1 2 W h a t is each p e rs o n ta lk in g a b o u t? M atch th e m w ith th e photos.oh. • I th in k s h e 's s p o t on . 1 b Read w h a t the people said.but it would probably have to be something quite radical. like taking CO2 out of the atmosphere again... they're talking a lot. Politicians. We can't stop it. Find three more expressions like those in B.. yeah. I think. But 14 (see). p a rtly a g ree o r d isa g re e w ith J a m e s L ovelock? W h a t is each s p e a k e r's view ? 2 ® report a point of view ® react to a point of view b Listen to the two sentences in B again... p a rtly a g re e o r d isa g re e .. 12 (exaggerating) a bit... • One e x a m p le she g iv e s is . 3 T h in k o f w ays to re p o rt th e o p in io n .. He says th a t p o litic ia n s are n e ve r go ing to say how bad th in g s re a lly are.. B 1 W h a t h e 's re a lly s a yin g is th a t g lo b a l w a rm in g is a lre a d y h a p p e n in g . I think he may be. T h in k of w a ys to e xp re ss y o u r ow n o p in io n on th e to p ic. • W h a t h e 's s a y in g is . • I p a rtly a g re e w ith . • I th in k it's t e r r ib le th e w a y .. I think it's worth trying anything . it’s not going to make any difference. How do the expressions in B change the meaning? A 1 2 He says th a t g lo b a l w a rm in g is a lre a d y h a p p e n in g . (right) Choose one of the opinions you heard and prepare to com m ent on it. • I d o n 't a p p ro v e o f . P ila r What he’s really saying is that global warming is already happening. P a trick His point really is that politicians are never going to say how bad things really are.. partly agree or disagree? Jane c When he says it’s too late. Cover the scripts and listen to each speaker in turn.. Patrick and Jane reacting to J a m es Lovelock's ideas about global w a rm in g . Lovelock makes the point that people don’t react to things until it’s too late. like . Uri. • T he p o in t s h e 's m a k in g is . 3 a Listen to four people expressing opinions.EKPLORESpeaking Goals 1 a *E D You w ill h ear Pilar. T h in k of w ays to agre e .. W h a t s e e m s to be th e ir p o in t of view ? Uri _ (agree) when he says that there's no point in using low-energy light bulbs. OK.. Something like that. • I th in k he m a k e s a v a lid p o in t . 11 (agree). but what are they actually doing? That’s exactly what he’s saying. Practise saying them. it. right? 15 (a point). I don’t know ...invent new technology to deal with it. d Talk about the opinion you chose. W h e re is the emphasis placed each time? C Look again at what the speakers say. Do you agree. 2 H is p o in t re a lly is th a t p o litic ia n s are n e v e r going to say h ow bad th in g s re a lly are. Note down expressions you could use. 1 D oes th e p e rso n agree. Do other people agree with you? . I' (a valid point) b* Listen to check. Com pare these two ways to give the sam e inform ation.. I think ‘ (spot on). W hat expressions do you think go in the gaps? c a 2 Listen again to check. maybe he’s right about that.

n e w d ro u g h t-re s is ta n t c ro p s . Continue each with a verb from the box. Which exam ples of the present progressive can you find? 2 a These sentences are from env iro n m e n ta l news items. b The p la ce I'd re a lly lik e to liv e is V ancouver.. w ho b e n e fit fro m th e p re s e n c e o f h u m a n s . 1 2 a W h a t is th e p e rs o n ta lk in g a b o u t in each case? H ow w o u ld you say th e s e n te n c e s in a n o n e m p h a tic w ay? It's p eople w h o have no civic re s p o n s ib ility th a t a n n o y m e . 5 I lik e liv in g h ere because it's c lo s e to th e sea.th e y ju s t leave th is here. U n e m p lo ym e n t is ris in g ra p id ly . ^ everywhere in the world. using the present progressive active or passive. The re a so n w h y I le ft is th a t I ju s t c o u ld n 't sta n d th e n o ise any m o re . I re m e m b e r o u r fir s t h o lid a y to g e th e r cle a rly.. Listen and compare your answers. you know .. te m p o ra ry s itu a tio n s and a c tiv itie s (= it's h a p p e n in g a ro u n d now).. The n u m b e r of sea tu r tle s c o m in g to th e is la n d to breed . C anada. p 1 4 5 V . s tro n g cu p of coffee. b c d W h a t E rika did have w a s a ra re g ift .. sentence in 2a? g ra d u a lly ra p id ly n o tic e a b ly e x p e rim e n ta lly im p e rc e p tib ly s te a d ily a la rm in g ly d ra m a tic a lly Which adverbs go most naturally before the main verb? Which go afte r it? W rite sentences about th ree things happening w h e re you live.. I th in k sh e 's try in g to g e t a tte n tio n .it's s o m e th in g no o th e r a n im a l can give. W h a t re a lly irrita te s m e a t th e m o m e n t are th e road w o rk s go in g on o u ts id e m y fr o n t d o o r . a lw a ys be re a d y to lis te n . Are they sim ila r to the ones on p 1 13? How are they different? \ / W h a t I'd lik e m o re th a n a n y th in g is a good.s h e ’d a lw a ys have tim e fo r you. ----------- Look at these examples. Which use do they show? Which uses the passive? 1 Climate change is being experienced 2 One scientist is p roposing to put a huge Here are exam ples of speakers giving emphasis and focus to an idea.. b Which of these adverbs could you add to each c 5 a 1 2 3 A L ig h t g re e n re a lly w o rk s w e ll fo r a b e d ro o m . Talk about it in an expressive way. th e y dep e n d on you b u t th e y give you a lo t back.it's p ra c tic a lly a ll day long. — G ra m m a r re fe re n c e . The p o p u la tio n of foxes in th e re g io n .Look again O Grammar P re s e n t p ro gressive active and passive 1 a We can use the present progressive to describe: a C le ft sentences U a g ra d u a l on g o in g p ro ce sse s (= it's h a p p e n in g a ll th e tim e ). th e y d o n 't p u t it in th e b ins provided.. 3 Richard Branson is offering $25 million. glass sunshade into space. I co u ld h e a r e v e ryth in g . a m a jo r fis h -s p a w n in g g ro u n d w h e re th e fis h . Include adverbs if appropriate. In m a n y are a s. b Look back at The S e rm ilik F jo rd in G re e n la n d on p 108.. The lo w -ly in g fa rm la n d n e a r th e co a st is s u s c e p tib le to flo o d in g . erode in tro d u c e in c re a s e d e c lin e d is a p p e a r 1 2 3 A 5 The g o v e rn m e n t a re re fu s in g to a llo w c o n tin u e d in d u s tria l d e v e lo p m e n t a t C h e rry P oint. More than one a n s w e r may be possible... The speakers divide th e ir message into two parts to add emphasis. The c o m p a n y th e y give you is s p e c ia l . I h ate ru d e sh o p a s s is ta n ts . 114 b Think of something that ir ritates or pleases you.... 4 Experts from around the w o rld are landing 5 Arctic temperatures are warming more b How could you emphasise and focus on the underlined parts of these sentences? on the ice s h e e t .. M any pe o p le a re b e ing la id o f f . quickly than in other parts of the world.th e w a lls w e re w a fe r-th in . and th e co a st i t s e l f . Did the speakers add other words or expressions? Which word s did they emphasise? Look at these examples.

she re m a in e d c h e e rfu l. The s tre e ts w e r e q u ie t.Vocabulary 9 A dverb / ad jective collocations 6 a L o o k a t th is s e n te n c e fro m th e u n it. In s p ite o f a ll h e r p ro b le m s . H ow s im ila r w e re th e y to y o u rs ? 1 0 a W o rk a lo n e . Unit 11 115 . 1 U n fo rtu n a te ly he is c r itic a lly /t e r m in a lly ill in ® talk about climate change l 2 h o s p ita l. The c ro s s w o rd w a s d iffic u lt to solve. L is te n to each o th e r ’s e x p e rie n c e s and a s k q u e s tio n s to fin d o u t m o re . c lo se to th e edge o f th e 5 6 7 8 I h e a rd fa m ilia r voices in th e ne xt ro o m . reference and saving your work -» e-Portfolio • For more practice -» Self-study Pack. The riv e r lo o k s easy to cross. How do th e two adverbs in each pair differ in meaning? c r it ic a lly / te r m i n a lly d a n g e ro u s ly / te r rify in g ly re a s s u rin g ly / s tra n g e ly e e rily / p le a s a n tly d e c e p tiv e ly / re la tiv e ly o b s tin a te ly / ta c tfu lly im p o s s ib ly / fr u s tra tin g ly re s o lu te ly / irre p re s s ib ly L is te n to th e s e d e s c rip tio n s . C o m p a re w ith a p a rtn e r and g ive re a s o n s . We could also describe the icebergs using these adverbs. How do they add to the meaning? b itte r ly h ig h ly n o to rio u s ly b lis s fu lly s tiflin g ly w ild ly h id e o u s ly 1 2 h o t w e a th e r a cold w in d 3 4 5 6 u g ly a p a rtm e n t b lo c k s an in te llig e n t p e rso n a d a n g e ro u s road a happy co u p le 7 a s u c c e s s fu l book b Match each pair of adverbs with a sentence. ® describe inventions and how they work D He r e m a in e d m e e tin g . ® describe an ongoing process 1— ® understand imagery in a poem K— ® say if actions are justified M ©conduct a debate E— I— ® report a point of view W W 3 s ile n t th ro u g h o u t the 4 We w e re d r iv in g road. How would they change the meaning? • • • • • s tra n g e ly b e a u tifu l b re a th ta k in g ly b e a u tifu l e x q u is ite ly b e a u tifu l a s to n is h in g ly b e a u tifu l s tu n n in g ly b e a u tifu l • h e a rt-re n d in g ly b e a u tifu l b Which expressions from 6a could describe: 1 2 3 4 a a a a d re a m ? fa s h io n m o d e l? ro m a n tic song? m o u n ta in la n d sca p e ? 5 a piece o f je w e lle ry ? Add adverbs from the box to 1 -7 . C hoose th re e e x p re s s io n s fro m 7 o r 8 w h ic h d e s c rib e e x p e rie n c e s you have had. a T h in k o f a d v e rb s and a d je c tiv e s to d e s c rib e th e s e im a g e s fr o m th e 1960s. » D » 1 D E E I ® discuss proposals M l T— 1 i l a ® react to a point of view • For Wordcards. The journey of these sculptures of ice from glaciers to ocean is eerily beautiful and utte r l y terrifying. 1 = I can’t do th is. b W o rk w ith a p a rtn e r. Self-assessm ent Can you do th ese th in g s in English?(^ irc le )a n u m b e r on each lin e . 5 = I can do th is w e ll.

4 0 0 years ago. th e nam e of C h e ls e a ’s stadium .” A ▼ V//. being able to rely on w h a t is w ritte n . it ’s th e ease w ith w hich we can look it up. “ There is so m uch m ore info o u t there. 116 . Is th a t w h a t th e fu tu re holds fo r us? Using an In te rn e t search engine (once you have keyed th e w ords in) ta k e s a broadband u se r le ss th a n a second. th e n : is th e In te rn e t th re a te n in g general know ledge? W hen I p u t th a t to M oira Jones. It was to ld by Plato 2 . Of course.. and te lls him : “ This invention w ill induce fo rg e tfu ln e s s in th e s o u ls o f th o s e who have learned it. A ctually know ing th e fa c t and c o m m ittin g it to m em ory do e s n o t seem to be an issue. W riting is n o t a rem edy fo r m em ory. And soon w ith o u r sm a rtp h o n e s a t hand. declaring it an ‘elixir o f m em ory and w is d o m ’ . but he delivered him instead to th e village of Stam ford Bridge in Yorkshire.” Who wants to be a m illionaire fin a lis t David Sw ift. giving people fa r m ore o p p o rtu n itie s to b o o s t th e ir general know ledge. However. 1 2 W hy do you th in k th e m is ta k e happened? W hose fa u lt do you th in k it w as? One day last year a middle-aged man asked a ta x i to ta k e him to see Chelsea play Arsenal at football. recognises th a t th ere w as a problem o f young people saying: “ I d o n ’t need to know th a t” . It goes like th is : Thoth invents w ritin g and proudly o ffe rs it as a g ift to th e king o f Egypt. If a sked a fa ctu a l q u e stio n . B ut th e king is horrified. she referred me to th e s to ry o f th e Egyptian god Thoth. or o f finding it out. he missed th e m atch. often abso rb in g fa c ts w ith o u t realising. he fe lt th a t he did n o t need to know w here he was going. Today. b W h a t p o in t is th e jo u r n a lis t m a k in g ? W h a t do you th in k he w ill go on to say? Read th e n e x t p a rt to ch e ck. He co n fid e n tly outso u rce d th e jo b o f know ing th is in fo rm a tio n. we pick it up from all s o rts o f so u rce s as we go along.1 goals © ta lk about knowledge and technology ® discuss how to access info rm a tio n Knowledge and technology The end of general knowledge? SPEAKING 1 In w h a t w a y s c o u ld you fin d o u t: • h ow to kayak? • b io g ra p h ic a l data a b o u t a p e rso n fo r a re s e a rc h p ro je c t? • th e c a p ita l of B u rk in a Faso? • a b o u t d is a b le d fa c ilitie s at a p a rtic u la r h o te l? • y o u r c u rre n t d e s tin a tio n w h e n tra v e llin g by car? READING 2 a Read th e s ta r t o f an a rtic le a b o u t te c h n o lo g y and g e n e ra l k n o w le d g e . they w ill usually click on a search engine w ith o u t a second th o u g h t. responding to th e sam e q u e stio n . I looked it up. a lm o s t all o f us w ill be online a lm o s t all o f th e tim e . general know ledge has never been so m e th in g th a t you acquire form ally. W hat had happened? The m an in th is s to ry had handed over re sp o n sib ility fo r know ing geography to a m achine. The q u estion rem ains.. to th a t little c o m p u te r on th e dashboard . He told th e driver “Stam ford B ridge” . e xp e rt in d esigning IQ te s ts .12. and th e process will only g e t quicker. b u t fo r rem inding th e m o f w h a t th e y have d iscovered. because they w ill n o t need to exercise th e ir m e m o rie s. th e average s tu d e n t s e e m s n o t to value general know ledge. W ith th e Sat-Nav syste m in place. b u t he is fa r m ore excited a b o u t th e ed ucational p o tential o f th e Internet. Instead. nearly 1 5 0 m iles in th e opposite direction. That w as th e m a ch in e ’s jo b . The sa m e could be tru e o f university education.

L o o k a t th e im a g e . A re you s u rp ris e d by th e e n d in g ? W hy? a C o ve r th e a rtic le . W h ic h o f th o s e to p ic s do th e y ta lk a b o u t? • go in g o u t • go in g on a long jo u rn e y • tra v e llin g to w o rk • k n o w in g h is to ric a l fa c ts A re th e y g e n e ra lly in fa v o u r of. W as it easy o r d iffic u lt to fin d ? W ere you s a tis fie d w ith th e re s u lt? Have you e ve r received u n re lia b le in fo rm a tio n ? 117 . 1 2 3 A T e ch n o lo g y It saves you It saves you It h e lp s you m a ke s go in g o u t m o re in te re s tin g . o r a g a in s t te c h n o lo g y ? b M a tch th e s e o p in io n s w ith th e s p e a k e rs . 1 W h a t does th e jo u r n a lis t e m p h a s is e a b o u t o b ta in in g in fo rm a tio n u sin g new te c h n o lo g y ? 2 3 A W h a t do you u n d e rs ta n d 'g e n e ra l k n o w le d g e ' to m e a n here? W h a t are th e p a ra lle ls b e tw e e n te c h n o lo g y and w ritin g in th e W h a t is th e d iffe re n c e b e tw e e n J o n e s 's o p in io n s and S w ift's ? s to ry of T h o th ? C H ow do you th in k th e w r it e r w ill c o n c lu d e th e a rtic le ? Do you th in k he w ill a g re e th a t g e n e ra l k n o w le d g e is n o w dead? d LANGUAGE _____________ FOCUS A Read th e fin a l p a ra g ra p h on page 134. 1 2 T h in k of s o m e in fo rm a tio n you lo o ke d up o n lin e . to u n d e rs ta n d th in g s in g re a te r de p th . 1 T a lkin g a b o u t in fo rm a tio n and kn o w le d g e W h ich o f th e s e v e rb s c o llo c a te d : w ith in fo rm a tio n o r fa c ts ? w ith k n o w le d g e ? va lu e know 2 3 A lo o k up a c q u ire LIS TEN IN G and SPEAKING c o m m it (to m e m o ry ) a b s o rb W h ich v e rb s have a s im ila r m e a n in g ? W h ich co u ld c o llo c a te w ith both in fo rm a tio n and k n o w le d g e ? Can you re m e m b e r h o w th e s e o th e r v e rb s w e re used? handover b fin d o u t p ic k up key in c lic k on o u ts o u rc e boost Read th e a r tic le a g a in to ch e ck. tim e w h e n tra v e llin g . having to m e m o ris e u s e le ss in fo rm a tio n . a * S E > L is te n to th re e p e o p le d is c u s s in g th e id e a s in th e a rtic le . 1 2 W h a t do you th in k it re p re s e n ts ? W h a t is th e c o n n e c tio n w ith th e a rtic le ? D iscu ss th e s e q u e s tio n s . c W h ic h o p in io n s do you a g re e w ith ? W hy? D iscu ss th e s e q u e s tio n s .

A fter six m inutes. h e ’s online.. h e ’s learn t how to control th e cursor.2 goals The Hole in the Wall LISTEN IN G 1 a ® describe technological advances © ta lk about how th in g s develop W h a t do you th in k th e s e p h o to s sh o w ? b Read p a rt o f a r e p o r t a b o u t th e p h o to s . 1 2 3 99 99 . W h a t do you th in k th e p ro je c t c o n s is ts of? ii With a h idden vid eo cam era. A fter ju st tw o m inu tes. ii The children are falling over th em se lv e s to look a t som eth in g new. w hich w ould go on to in spire the hit m ovie Slumdog Millionaire READING a 99 W h a t kin d o f o n lin e s ite s do you th in k th e c h ild re n w ill access? W h a t do you th in k th e y lik e b e st a b o u t c o m p u te rs ? H ow do you th in k th e y b e n e fit fro m th e p ro je c t? b Read th e in te rv ie w . One double click an d four m inutes later. w hile a clock kept tim e d ow n below . W h a t do yo u u n d e rs ta n d a b o u t th e p ro je c t n o w th a t you d id n 't b e fo re ? 2 a I L is te n to a TV n e w s re p o r t a b o u t th e H ole in the W all p ro je c t. 1 W h a t w a s th e m a in c o n c lu s io n th a t th e re s e a rc h e rs re a ch e d a b o u t th e c h ild re n 's 2 3 A b e h a v io u r? H ow do th e c h ild re n le a rn to use th e c o m p u te rs ? W h a t is in s ta lle d on th e c o m p u te rs ? W h a t is th e re p o rte r's fin a l p o in t and m e ssa g e fo r th e fu tu re ? b W h a t im a g e s do you th in k w e re s h o w n on s c re e n a t th e s e p o in ts ? ii H e's been com in g h ere from the start. learn in g b y w atch in g others. h e 's o p en ed a file. c L o o k a t th e p h o to on page 139.. W e re y o u r id e a s th e sa m e ? 118 to a w hole n ew w orld an d valu ab le life skills T a lk to g e th e r. w e record ed th e launch of the project. 99 ii g iv in g the children a c c e s s ii .1 2 . T h is boy h ad never u se d a com puter before.

T he p ro ject has now e x p a n d e d th ro u g h o u t India to m any d ifferen t provinces. girls.there has been a m arked d ifference persistent. d e p e n d in g on th e g e o g ra p h ic location children w h o w ere go in g to sch o o l b u t not using and on cultural. th o u g h eager. P sychologist Ritu . m ore to le ra n t to w a rd a m b ig u ity in how th e child re n and c o m m u n ity re a ct to a . LANGUAGE FOCUS D e ve lo p m e n ts and advances A a Do the h ig h lig h te d verbs mean: become popular or successful? improve? increase? 1 2 3 U 5 6 7 8 9 10 It gives people fa r m o re o p p o rtu n itie s to b o o st th e ir g e n e ra l kn o w le d g e . children I d o n ’t see th e H ole in the Wall as a purely Indian are going to sites like to u rs and travels. C hildren are th e sam e all across new s. E thiopia and th e P hilippines have all show n ? 5 interest in th is project. c W rite a question for each of the answers. B ut yes. th e y are do in g fa r m ore c o n s tru c tiv e w o rk as w ell anyw here in th e w o rld . T hey ju s t s to p near th e kiosk site and w a tch . etc. T e le c ity is lo o k in g a t ra is in g c a p a c ity in its data c e n tre s a c ro s s E urope. A t th e end th e w orld . T h is e d u c a tio n a l p ro je c t has s p re a d lik e w ild fire o v e r th e p a st six years. d Do you think th e project could be criticised? Think of arg u m en ts for and against. If P D ang w al has o bserved kids using th e kiosks since its in ception. 4 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ? A t th e o th e r extrem e. She g re a te st w onder. b ro w sin g th e Internet is like a ch ild sittin g w ith a 2____________________________________________ ? b o o k in th e ir hands. The title o f th e ta lk is 'C o m p u te rs and h ow th e y have a d v a n c e d '. added p ic tu re s . H ow w ell th e y seem to have organised th e m se lve s to tea ch in g in Delhi U n iversity e ntitled C o m p u te r p ic k up skills. W h o ’s looking through the H ole in th e W all and w h a t are th ey really getting out of it? fo u n d th a t children using th e kio sk w ere m ore D efinitely . it can o f th e day. d o not co m e to th e kiosk. Then check on page 135. e th n ic and racial b a ckg ro u n d s. increase The idea has c a u g h t on a c ro ss th e w o rld . o r m aking a tte m p ts to d o so. We a s k w h y DJ s c h o o ls are th r iv in g in a re ce ssio n . T heir q u e st fo r in fo rm a tio n is the E n vironm e nt a n d C ognitive D evelopm ent. reading ph enom enon.th e ir a sp ira tio n s w ere m ore realistic than com puter. H ow in tu itive ly these 3 ? There w as a s tu d y don e by a p ro fe sso r slum ch ild re n have taken to co m p u te rs. It's n e a rly 10%. th e kiosk. • w ays it has g o t w o rs e . C a m bodia. C lickin g around th e Internet m ay not dire ctly lead to any kind o f im p ro ve m e n t. The p ro je c t has no w e x p a n d e d th ro u g h o u t India. A p p le are s t ill g a in in g g ro u n d in c o m p u te r sales. but don't mention the topic. 1 2 3 H ow did you le a rn y o u r ow n c o m p u te r s k ills ? H ow m u c h w e re you ta u g h t? H ow m u c h have you p icke d up by y o u rs e lf? W h a t do you th in k th is te lls us a b o u t th e w ay w e a c q u ire ne w s k ills ? W hat im p a c t do you th in k c o m p u te r te c h n o lo g y has had on y o u r life? T h in k about • w ays it has im p ro ve d . W ith o u t kn o w in g it. It's n e a rly 10% v r' SPEAKING Talk together. b W rite about something that has become popular or increased. J u s t a b o u t everything. R a jin d e r's s e lf-c o n fid e n c e so a re d a fte r he ta u g h t h im s e lf how to use a com pu ter. If it can hold tru e in India. U n e m p lo y m e n t is s o a rin g rig h t now. Can other people guess w h a t it is about? It's s o a rin g rig h t now. . Read out your sentence. In som e places there is no g e n d e r difference. w o rk than th e y w o u ld have d o n e in a classroom . We e n h a n c e d th e h e lp s e c tio n fo r th e s o ftw a re .

C Com pare w h a t you found surprising in the article. As y o u r p a rtn e r is s p e a k in g . 1 2 3 W h a t in fo rm a tio n does he add a b o u t his c o m p a n y and h ow it w o rk s ? H ow is it d iffe re n t fro m th e w a y tra d itio n a l c o n te n t m e d ia w o rk e d ? W h a t does he m e a n by "We added a scie n ce to th e a rt of c re a tin g c o n te n t"? A H ow w o u ld you d e s c rib e h is a ttitu d e ? a Look at these statem en ts from the interview. so th a t you so u n d c o n fid e n t and have c o m p le te b e lie f in it. 99 99 c * G 3 Listen to check. 1 2 120 Take tu r n s to e x p la in y o u r m essage. b W ork in pairs. Use th e s e ideas o r y o u r ow n: • an idea fo r im p ro v in g y o u r to w n . w e w ith su rety can tell th rough the scien ce an d algorithm s. ♦$ED Listen to an interview with the CEO of Demand Media.3 goals Deliver a confident message © explain an idea © d e live r a positive message -mm ^ J_V r how to how how how how how how to to to to to to 'W Search now! g e t rich find love re p a ir yo u r m o to rb ik e m a k e th e p e rfe c t cup of c o ffee g e t th e jo b of yo u r d rea m s play ch ess like a g ra n d m a s te r a Demand Media is an online company which aim s to a n s w e r the g ene ral public's most burning questions on th e ir websites.Target activity 1 2 . We definitely think th at it’s c au sin g p eo p le to rethink th eir b u sin e ss m odels. is g o in g to b e su c c e ssfu l. 1 2 3 T h in k o f an idea th a t you th in k is u n iq u e . ii We se t out to create a w hole n ew form of content. . a a 99 . A n tic ip a te any q u e s tio n s th a t you m ig h t be asked. Find as m a n y 'h o le s ’ in th e ir a rg u m e n t as you can. W hat kind of questions do you think TASK PREPARATION people might ask? b Read the article on p i 37 and a n s w e r the questions. Richard Rosenblatt. d e ta ile d way... Which words contribute to the strength of Rosenblatt’s message and make him sound confident? b W h e re you would place the emphasis in each statem ent? Try saying th e m out loud. • a b u s in e s s idea th a t w o u ld f i l l a gap in th e m a rk e t. and h ow to d e a l w ith th e m . • a w a y o f s o lv in g a s o c ia l o r an e n v iro n m e n ta l p ro b le m . th in k o f d iffic u lt q u e s tio n s to 'te s t' o r c ritic is e th a t m e ssa g e . P lan to d e liv e r it in a p o s itiv e lig h t. d Which sentences in 3a could these expressions be used in? How would the sentences need to change? c u ttin g -e d g e th e re 's no q u e s tio n to ta lly u n iq u e in n o va tive to flo u ris h w ith o u t an y d o u b t a b s o lu te ly c e rta in g ro u n d -b re a k in g c a tch on A a W ork alone. P re p a re to e xp la in y o u r m e ssa g e in a c le a r.

Discuss these questions. But what happens when the virtu a l becomes real? Where do our com puters go when they die? Increasingly this i-waste is finding its way to West African countries like Ghana. 1 Do you a gre e w ith th e p re s e n te r’s in te rp re ta tio n o f th e tw o im a g e s? .2 W h at do you th in k th e re p o rt w ill go on to say . to salvage the copper.0 Move to the recycle bin. Over 5. 1 2 3 W h at p e rce n ta g e of p e o p le do you th in k have: • an In te rn e t c o n n e c tio n at hom e? • a m o b ile pho n e o r a n o th e r. mostly by children. Norw ay Com puter nerds of the w orld unite! The w orld's largest convention of com puter enthusiasts is called. W h at uses can m o b ile p h o n e s have in: • India? • Kenya? • M oldova? W hat lesson does th e re p o r te r th in k developed c o u n trie s can le a rn fro m th e d e v e lop in g w o rld ? W h a t c o n c lu s io n does th e re p o r te r leave us w ith ? Think about w h e re you live. hard drives and other components that can be sold later on. Many hardly see daylight or taste fresh a ir for the entire five days as they compete with th e ir fellow geeks fo r cash prizes and the honour of being the best com puter programmer. s im ila r device? W h a t do peop le use th e ir m o b ile p h o n e s fo r? Do m o s t pe op le fe e l any p re s s u re to ow n the m o s t inn o vative ne w g a d g e t on th e m a rk e t? W hy / W hy not? U Is it c o m m o n to re p la c e o r u p g ra d e te c h n o lo g ic a l devices? W hy / W hy not? Accra. 1 2 3 U W ha t do you th in k th e y show ? W h ere w e re th e p h o to s ta k e n ? W hy have th e y been p la ce d to g e th e r? W h at do th e y say a b o u t te c h n o lo g y in th e w o rld today? Do you th in k it is a fa ir re p re s e n ta tio n ? b Read the captions which accompany the images. Their fin a l resting place is the Agbogbloshie dump where they are broken apart. a b o u t m o b ile phone usage in th e W est and in th e d e ve lop in g w o rld ? b Listen to the full report. w h y has th e m o b ile phone opened “ a new fr o n tie r of in n o v a tio n "? Ham ar. It's an operation we perform every day on our com puter desktops. simply. Do they make you change your mind about your a nswers to 1a? 2 a » P H L is te n to th e in tro d u c tio n o f a p ro g ra m m e about technology in different parts of the world. Discuss these questions. Ghana Rubbish dump 2.EXPLORE Across cultures Technology 1 a Look at the images. Discuss these questions. 'The Gathering'. 121 .000 young people come together each spring. some travelling long distances. each carrying th e ir own com puter equipm ent to the massive Vikingship sports hall in the city of Hamar. 1 2 3 k 5 6 W h a t p e rs p e c tiv e is th e re p o rte r sp e a k in g fro m ? H ow do you know ? W hat does she see as th e key d iffe re n c e be tw e e n th e USA's a ttitu d e to w a rd s te c h n o lo g y and th a t fo u n d in m a n y d e ve lo p in g c o u n trie s ? A cc o rd in g to th e re p o rte r.

M a u re s m o looked lik e a s u re w in n e r. the D e m o cra ts w ill w in again. Hong Kong no w fa ce s . It is a s u re b e t th a t no c la s s ic a l m u s ic re le a se th is season o ffe rs . th o u g h . re g a rd le s s o f th e o u tc o m e . B ut th a t's n o t th e p o in t. w o u ld they? T h e ir a c h ie v e m e n t in re a c h in g th e fin a l m u s t be vie w e d as a success. Chances are.. b W h a t do you th in k is h a p p e n in g o r g o in g to hap p e n in each p h o to ? W rite s e n te n c e s u sin g e x p re s s io n s in 4a. H ow do you th in k th e s e s e n te n c e s c o n tin u e ? 1 2 3 4 5 3 a doubt T h e y're ju s t la te . 2 Schools are surely right to encourage them. sh e th o u g h t th a t a s u re w a y of g re e tin g h e r ne w frie n d s .EXPLORE Keywords sure... They w o u ld n 't have fo rg o tte n . A head 7 -6 . bound c e rta in chance chan ce s u n d o u b te d ly sh a d o w of a d o u b t fo re g o n e c o n c lu s io n in e v ita b le su re The D e m ocrats a re s u re to w in again.. C Read o u t y o u r s e n te n c e s . L is te n to ch e ck. b W h ich s e n te n c e s c o u ld be re p lie s ? W h a t a re th e y re p lie s to? c Do th e s e n te n c e s in 2a and 3a so u n d w r itte n o r s p o k e n ? W h a t do e s th a t say a b o u t h o w s u re and s u re ly a re o fte n used? a H ow co u ld you e x p re s s th e s e s e n te n c e s in d iffe re n t w ays? Use th e w o rd s in th e box to h e lp you. B eing E n g lis h . You’ re jo k in g w ith m e! It's n e ve r happe n e d befo re . 2 -1 ... certain 1 a L o o k a t th e s e s e n te n c e s . b H ow c o u ld you re p la c e th e h ig h lig h te d w o rd s w ith th e w o rd s in th e box? W h a t o th e r ch a n g e s w o u ld you need to m a k e to th e s e n te n c e ? e n s u re 2 a b fu n d a m e n ta l of c o u rs e u n q u e s tio n a b ly m ake It w a s a s u re s ig n th a t w e h it th e 'te r r ib le tw o s ' w h e n m y d a u g h te r . Do o th e r p e o p le a g re e w ith you? ... Does it ch a n g e th e m e a n in g ? 1 Be sure to write about something y o u enjoy. The D e m o c ra ts w ill c e rta in ly w in again. W h e re c o u ld you add s u re ly in th e s e e x a m p le s ? H ow w o u ld it a ffe c t th e m e a n in g o f each s e n te n c e ? 1 2 3 4 5 U h e s ita tio n S u re can m o d ify n o u n s . W ha t w a s once a s u re th in g s u d d e n ly b e ca m e m u ch m o re c o m p e titiv e .. b u t .. 1 2 It's c e rta in ly g o ing to be s u c c e s s fu l. T ry re p la c in g th e h ig h lig h te d w o rd s w ith c e rta in o r c e rta in ly .

Once you have checked it all. • Always 4 the spell check! You are the expert and experts d o n ’t make mistakes. b W h a t 'h o w to ' a rtic le s do you th in k th e e x tra c ts a re fro m ? 123 ..or at least have enough experience to teach others. T h e _______ h ere is to use a s tro n g d e o d o ra n t. If your article is intended for beginners. When coming up with the topic. so th a t. u the word out! Share your article with friends and fam ily by emailing it to them . but could prove invaluable for newcomers to the subject. n o t a cheap s u p e rm a rk e t kin d . check it again! • M ost of all. so you should be the best . . or sim ply ask them to go online and check it out where they can leave com m ents on what they think.. right? Articles should be well written and free of spelling. C hoose one of th e s e to p ic s o r y o u r ow n. Spelling things out might be annoying for those who already know the subject. u s e fu l on th is s u b je c t? 2 W h a t k in d s o f e x p re s s io n s a re ty p ic a lly use d fo r g ivin g advice in th e te x ts ? 3 a 1 im p e ra tiv e s and m odals: Try t o . because you’ll want to share what you know. C Can you th in k o f an y o th e r a d vice th a t w o u ld be H ow to . don’t 3 them with needless descriptions. can sta y d e p re sse d fo r long w h e n c u d d lin g up.. The topics that seem to be m ost profitable fo r me are related to finance. In c lu d e b e tw e e n th re e and six steps.. b W h a t is th e d iffe re n c e b e tw e e n A and B? W h a t do th e y have in c o m m o n ? C o n s id e r s ty le . ' a rtic le . you fin d o u t w h a t y o u 're good at.. A dd im p e ra tiv e s to th e gaps. Starting with the title . _ content. gram mar and punctuation errors. • re m e m b e r y o u r d re a m s . ® w rite steps in a process ® describe how to do som ething bear get w rite be tr y choose b ore use le a rn add o o familiar with the topic.. • v is it a p a tie n t in h o s p ita l. • o ve rco m e a fe a r o f s p id e rs . people enjoy reading som ething with a bit of personality to it. If your article is for experts. • behave w e ll on th e road. health. but try to give your article a bit of flair. Lo o k a t th e s e e x a m p le s fro m d iffe r e n t a rtic le s . • m e e t people lik e you. • read s o m e o n e 's p a lm . W o rk in g ro u p s . making money online. Those w ords will make it easier fo r people to find your article. It m o re th a n ju s t w ritin g dow n w o rd s on a piece o f p a p e r to cre a te a song. 1 2 3 4 5 6 O rgan ise y o u r d e s k . Be sure to w rite about som ething you enjoy as your enthusiasm will be evident in your w riting. • keep y o u r d e sk tidy. Steps should be written in laymen’s term s so that anyone can follow their 2 your audience in mind. Read o u t y o u r ad vice to o th e r c la s s m e m b e rs . You should . 3 _ _ _ to use words that people will search fo r on the Internet. . C o m p le te th e g a p s w ith p o s s ib le w o rd s o r e x p re s s io n s . W h e n _______ fo r c lo th e s . s tic k w ith it! 2 5 B ra in s to rm ideas. C re a tin g a cosy ho m e w ill h e lp you fe e l c o m fo rta b le and w a r m . think about your hobbies and interests . • a p p re c ia te a b s tra c t a rt. 6 som ething appealing! People can tell if yo u ’re writing about a subject that bores you.. re c e ip ts . and business. your topic wisely. D ecide on th e b e st piece o f a dvice. • e n jo y a party. then similarly..your best articles will come from there.. You d o n ’t have to be a com edian. th e n w rite th e a rtic le to g e th e r.. 2 lin kin g w ords: i f .EXPLOREWriting Goals a ® give w ritte n advice Read th e s e tw o e x a m p le s g iv in g a dvice on w r itin g an o n lin e a rtic le . • keep y o u r c a r clean.______ w o rk in g . Remember. • im p ro v e y o u r h a n d w ritin g . from direction to get to the result. then you need to cater for them. a lw a ys m a ke s u re you lo o k a t th e la b e l fo r n a tu ra l fib re s .. credit cards. etc.. 1 and to n e . People want to learn from the best. th ro w aw ay any un u se d pa p e rs. c o n te n t U W rite y o u r o w n 'H o w to . • g e t rid of a g h o st. They are only trying to help you.. Listen to their critiques and 5 them.

. I .. I re tu rn e d th re e m o n th s la te r and fo u n d th e se tw o k id s w h o w e re p la yin g a ga m e on th e co m p u te r.. Why is it not always possible? a Join these sentences using participle clauses. sh e re fe rre d m e to th e s to ry o f th e E gyptian god T h o th . j Once you have checked it a l l ... think about y o u r hobbies and i n t e r e s t s . a lw a y s m a ke su re you lo o k at th e la b e l fo r n a tu ra l fib re s . 1 1 2 3 4 5 3 W hen I p u t th a t to M o ira Jo n e s.Look again O Grammar b W ork in pairs. I b u ilt a n o th e r h o le in . W h a t m ig h t com e b e fo re and a fte r th e m ? despite being injured far from apologising after resigning fro m the jo b w ithout being searched w ithout saying goodbye on arriving at the airport before opening the door on hearine the new s 2 3 4 I de cid ed to ta k e th e e x p e rim e n t o u t to a v illa g e c a lle d M a d a n tu s i. find. "I com e h ere e ve ry day. change the underlined expressions in these sentences. Ask each other questions to find out more. L o o k in g to th e fu tu re . 4 Read o u t y o u r s to rie s . U sing an In te rn e t se a rc h e n g ine . He left without saying goodbye. (once you have keyed th e w o rd s in) ta k e s a b ro a d b a n d u s e r le ss th a n a seco n d . I . Which are present and which is a past participle? 1 C hoose one of th e e x p re s s io n s in 3a and expand it in to one o r tw o s e n te n c e s . Pass it to a n o th e r pair. as if p a rt o f a story. the n a m e o f C h e lse a 's s ta d iu m . sentences. using a present or past participle. p 1 4 5 124 . The underlined expression can be replaced by a participle clause. ch e ck it a g a in ! If possible. G ra m m a r re fe re n c e . T h in k in g back o ve r m y life .. thoughts or feelings. H aving b e e n fo r . I . As soon as th e y sa w m e th e y said "w e need a fa s te r p ro c e s s o r and a b e tte r m o u s e " in E n g lis h ! So th e n I m e a s u re d th e ir p e rfo rm a n c e . W hat words do you have to add in each case? Which of these exam ples are more common in spoken or writte n English? Look at this example.. I u s u a lly . I th in k . T h in k o f a c o n te x t fo r th e e x p re s s io n s b e lo w . in c lu d in g a n o th e r e x p re s s io n fro m 2 W h e n coming up w i t h the topic. If asked a factual question. try to use 3 3a. 1 H aving lived h e re f o r 2 3 4 5 W hen a sked w h y . W o rd s lik e exit.. b Express the sentences with out using a participle clause. c h e c k it again! H aving che cke d i t a ll. He to ld th e d riv e r "S ta m fo rd B rid g e ". Pass it to a n o th e r pair.” says 9 -y e a r-o ld S h a b a n a m as she p lays w ith th e e d u c a tio n a l g a m e s. Writing game. n o t to do w ith th e c o m p u te rs b u t in th e ir d a y -to -d a y c o n v e rs a tio n s . th a t kind of th in g . and I re a lis e d th e y w e re u sin g 200 E n g lis h w o rd s w ith each o ther... b Check on p 138. th a t's w h y I a m h a p p y . Then w rite a single paragraph from all four sentences. they will u s u ally click o n a search engine without a second t h o u g h t . a We o fte n use p a rtic ip le s a fte r p re p o s itio n s . stop..th e . save. and th e pro ce ss w ill o n ly g e t qu icke r. to sum up experiences. Starting with the title. b C om pare y e a rs.w a ll th e re . Add one o r tw o m o re s e n te n c e s to c o n tin u e th e s to ry. Complete each sentence in a way that is tru e for you. P a rtic ip le clauses a Look at these exam ples from the unit. b u t he d e liv e re d h im in ste a d to th e v illa g e of S ta m fo rd B rid g e in Y o rksh ire . and underlin e the participles. W hat are the differences? Which version sounds m ore fo rm al? a We often use participle clauses in fo rm a l speeches. a d d in g a n o th e r e xp re ssio n fro m 3a. I le ft th e c o m p u te r th e re w ith lo ts of CDs. C o n tin u e th e s to ry .. W hen you shop fo r c lo th e s . words that people will search for on the Internet.

A u th o ritie s re vealed th a t th e y had no a b o u t th e s u s p e c t's w h e re a b o u ts .Vocabulary C o m p u ter icons and collocations 6 a know ledge and inform ation Look at these icons. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 c a file a s y ste m th e net an im a g e a p ro g ra m 1 2 3 4 5 6 th e c u rs o r b ro w s e o p e n __ c o n tr o l. Unit 12 125 .. 1 b Make collocations about computing. s u r f and c ra s h be used? W h a t do th e s e w o rd s m e a n in re la tio n to c o m p u te rs ? W h a t is th e ir 'n o rm a l' m e a n in g ? • m o use • bug • v iru s • co okie • b o o k m a rk • sp am • d e s k to p • hom e Do you k n o w any te c h n o lo g y -re la te d b ra n d na m e s th a t have b ecom e everyday w o rd s ? google. 1 2 3 7 a Which of these words can collocate with k n o w le d g e o r in fo rm a tio n ? H ow m a n y are fa m ilia r to you? Can you g uess w h a t th e o th e rs m ean? W h ich ones n o w lo o k o u t o f date? W hy? ne w p r io r b a c k g ro u n d c o n fid e n tia l f u r t h e r / a d d it io n a l re le v a n t / u s e fu l com m on g e n e ra l a c c u ra te o b C o m p le te th e ga p s w ith a c o llo c a tio n fro m 7a. L a b e ls s h o u ld h a v e w h ic h w ill n o t sca re c o n s u m e rs . p h o to s h o p . reference and saving your work -» e-Portfolio • For more practice -» Self-study Pack. 1 = I can 't do th is. D iscu ss th e s e q u e s tio n s . commonly used in computers and mobile phones. 5 = I can do th is w e ll.. I © talk about knowledge and technology ® discuss how to access information ® describe technological advances ® talk about how things develop © explain an idea ® deliver a positive message ® give written advice © write steps in a process i ® describe how to do something • For Wordcards. r u n ___ d o w n lo a d / u p lo a d ______ c ra s h ______ to in th e ir lives. go to h e r w e b s ite a t .. T h is is n o t th e tim e to s u b je c t m e to so m e quiz. In o u r w o rld w e le a rn by w a y o f ru s h in g th ro u g h o u r b ra in e ve ry day.. I t 's ______ th a t la te -o n s e t d ia b e te s is m o re c o m m o n in o v e rw e ig h t people. For a b o u t D r Takada and h e r book. Can you do th e s e th in g s in English?(0 ir c le )a n u m b e r on each lin e . It's n o t c le a r if M r Yu had any ro le in th e le a k of to a H ong Kong co u p le accu se d of in s id e r tra d in g . E very c h ild c o m e s to s c h o o l w ith d iffe re n t because of w h a t th e y ’ve been exposed 2 3 4 H ow m u c h in fo rm a tio n do you ta k e in on a d a ily basis? H ow w o u ld you d e s c rib e it? W h e re do you a ccess it? H ow m u ch of it do you re m e m b e r th e next day? Self-assessm ent C D iscu ss th e s e q u e s tio n s . 1 2 3 In w h a t o th e r c o n te x ts can b ro w s e .

being from another world Is unbelievable. o What w as it called? o What street w as it in? o What w as your first teacher’s name? 2 Think about last Saturday. it says English peoples talk like this: ‘H o w are you?' 7 am very well. repugnant (to). How to do? In my text book I study back China. Remember that you want to create a relaxed atmosphere. Prepare what to say and what questions to ask. Then repeat the interview with another candidate. My English so bad. 1 Decide on the qualities and abilities you are looking for and how formal the interview should be. like Hollywood film Alien. I standing in most longly and slowly queue with all aliens waiting for visa checking. because just not ‘London Airport’ simple way like we simple way call 'Beijing Airport! Everything very confuse way here. Think about tone and register. 2 Welcome the first candidate. what did you buy? How much w as it? 3 Think about the children on page 6. H ow are you?' 7 am very well. W ho re m e m b e rs m o s t c le a rly ? N ow d is c u s s q u e s tio n s k . I arriving London. Which seven countries did they come from? Unit 2. 4 Think about the student. Explore speaking m alien ad ] foreign. but have not met the candidates before. I live in another planet. 3 Decide who is the best candidate and why. Make him / her feel at ease and ask questions. I feel little criminal but I doing nothing wrong so far. 1 Think about your first school.Activities Unit 1. p8. Unit 3.’ 126 . from another world n foreigner. with funny looking and strange language. I am alien. Sign in front of queue say: ALIEN and NON ALIEN.10 a b o u t th e p ic tu re s you lo o k e d at. Report back to the class. D iscu ss q u e s tio n s 1 -3 . passengers is separating in two queues. Memory ia W o rk w ith a p a rtn e r. o What time did you get up? o What colour clothes did you wear? o Did you go to a shop? If so. p20. ‘Heathlow Airport! Every single name very difficult remembering. o What is her name? o When w as the card valid? o What is her card number? 5 What kind of hair has the student got? 6 What kind of university is Athabasca? 7 What images can you remember from the sign on the road? 8 What kind of trousers is the woman wearing? 9 What time of year is it? How do you know? 10 What colour is the pram? What about the wheels? Target activity 3 (student« You are an employer. p33.

5 Of th e fo u r s k ills . No 'h e ro ic '-s ty le photos of L in co ln had been take n by th a t p o in t. note th a t th e firs t p e rm a n e n t p h o to g ra p h ic im age w a s create d in 1826 and th e E astm an Dry P late C om pany (la te r to becom e E astm an Kodak) w as cre a te d in 1881. 1 I s ta rte d le a rn in g E n g lis h . I need E n g lish fo r .0 0 0 .I need to vary that and move on. □ A knowledge of colloquial / informal expressions is what I need right now.. 1 I have no / little / so m e / p le n ty o f o p p o rtu n ity to use E n g lish o u ts id e class. □ I’d like to immerse m yself in an Englishspeaking environment. Fake photos 2 (Student A) T h is n e a rly iconic p o rtra it of US P re s id e n t A b ra h a m Lin co ln . □ I need to socialise more with English speakers. I've se nsed a s l ig h t / so m e / a g re a t d e a l of im p ro v e m e n t recen tly. 127 . a n o th e r 3 . S outhern Asia and Eastern Asia n u m e ric a lly th is is th e sam e as if all th e w orld's c u rre n t po p u la tio n lived ju s t in th e se regions. 2 I fe e l not at a ll / re a s o n a b ly / v e ry c o n fid e n t w h e n s p e a k in g in p u b lic . 9 o r 11 billion people in th e y e a r 2 0 5 0 . 6 I am o n ly s lig h tly / q u ite / n ig h ty m o tiv a te d to 7 im p ro v e m y E n g lish level.0 0 0 are set to spread across th e re st o f th e w orld.lis te n in g / re a d in g / s p e a k in g re m a in s m y w e a k p o in t. Unit 3. is a co m p o s ite of L in c o ln 's head and th e S o u th e rn p o litic ia n John C a lh o u n 's body. In a d d itio n . 3 Im p ro v in g m y g ra m m a r is o fte n .0 7 billio n . □ Reading more in English is how I can best pick up new vocabulary." (U nited Nations Population Fund. 4 I fe e l I have a lim ite d / e xte n sive active v o ca bulary. □ English rem ains just another ‘subject’ that I study. lo n g e r an issue fo r me. T h is c o m p o s ite m ay have been crea ted so as to a d d re ss th a t. Maps of the world 3b(student ai T h e w o rld 's p o p u la tio n in th e y e a r 2 0 5 0 "T he choices th a t to d a y's g e n e ra tio n o f young people aged 1 5 -2 4 m ake a b o u t th e size and spacing o f th e ir fa m ilie s are like ly to d e te rm in e w h e th e r Planet Earth w ill have 8. □ I still tend to translate from my mother tongue . p37.. □ I have a set way of saying things .. Are these statem ents true for you? Rank them 1 -1 0 (1 0 = very true / im portant)..I need to learn how to think in English. th e E arth's po p u la tio n is due to reach 9 . c a rrie d o u t w ith th e aim of e n h a ncing th e P re s id e n t's s ta tu re . taken a ro und 1860./ a lw a y s /... C hoose th e b e st o p tio n a b o u t y o u r c u rr e n t a b ilitie s in E n g lis h . P57. E n g lish is h e lp fu l w h e n . P u ttin g th e date of th is im age into context.. 5 2 % o f people w ill be living in A frica.n o .Unit 4. Target actiuity 4a C o m p le te th e s e s e n te n c e s a b o u t y o u r g e n e ra l s itu a tio n .0 0 0 .. □ I get a lot of benefit from classroom work. 2 0 05) By 205 0 . p30. □ Learning another language may help me with my English. 2 3 4 I use E n g lish [w he n ? w h e re ? ) . w rjtin g /. Unit 6. D I want to become familiar with different world ‘Englishes’.

You think developments to food production are beneficial to everyone. o intensive farming. L o o k at w h a t you have w ritte n .Unit 4. Unit 4. Can you: • m a ke y o u r ca p tio n m o re e c o n o m ic a l and m o re vivid? • th in k of o th e r adjectives. o hygiene. o developing new crops and types of food. It can be seen at th e M u s e u m of M o d e rn A rt. p43. its a tm o s p h e re and w h a t w o u ld be w o rth saying a b o u t it. p a in te d by Jo h n M yatt. 128 . o GM foods. o pesticides and artificial fertilisers. Unit 6. p a in te d d u rin g . p58. Nutrition transition 4 (student a > You are the successful owner of a large farm and use modern methods of intensive farming. Genuine fakes 2x M aisons s u r La C olline is a g e n u in e P icasso. 1 2 3 Im a g in e th e place. Talk about your ideas with Student B. Explore writing 4 C hoose a p h o to . ve rb s o r e xp re ssio n s w h ich w o u ld b e tte r ca p tu re the a tm o s p h e re you w a n t to describe? Read o u t y o u r fin is h e d c a p tio n s to o th e r s tu d e n ts . N ew York. Cadaques is th e fake. p39. Prepare some ideas to support your point of view. o processed and packaged food.his C u b ist p e rio d in 1909. W rite a c a p tio n o f tw o o r th re e s e n te n c e s . Think about: o the transport of food. o multinationals.

The best guess is over four million. • how you pro p o se to solve th e m . Target activity 4a Role play. You will agree to any solution that gives priority to pedestrians and cyclists rather than cars. Your priority is that the traffic flow should not be blocked on the three access roads leading to the square. Police hours spent going through the tapes must also be considered. Your main contribution is to suggest creative ideas for using the space. p a ve m e n ts and p e d e s tria n areas. W o rk in groups of four to find a solution for the square at Harras.. but you should not agree to any solution which would involve unnecessary expense. You want the square to be a quieter. say the critics of CCTV. c a r p a rk s . cycle p a th s and bus sto p s. but also consider the needs of drivers. CCTV is reckoned to operate in around 500 British towns and cities. but you will agree to any solution that makes the square an attractive place for people to come to. It has also been shown that improving street lighting "is a rather more effective form of prevention". p48. The square should be attractive to pedestrians. 11 in Austria. Professor Clive Norris. more pleasant place to live. th e a p p e a ra n ce o f th e s q u a re (tre e s.. Student C You own a shop on the square. d ra w y o u r s o lu tio n on th e p lan and m a ke n o te s fo r a p re s e n ta tio n . 129 . flo w e rs . head of the department of sociological studies at Sheffield University. During the 1990s. thinks public funding explains much of the difference. including children and old people. roughly 75% of the Home Office crime-prevention 1 2 budget is said to have been spent on installing CCTV. • th e a d va n ta g e s of y o u r s o lu tio n . Student B You are a landscape architect.. p lay areas. Surveillance 3 B ut that. Your main interest is in making it easier and safer for people to use the shops around the square. There has been a singular failure to produce evidence that it has achieved that. even though no-one can be sure that it works: "The primary justification for CCTV is the reduction of crime. m a k in g th e sq u a re a c c e s s ib le to people.). • o th e r fe a tu re s [sea ts. s c u lp tu re s . BUS ST A T IO N W hen you reach a g re e m e n t." Norris quotes case studies in Australia and the United States showing CCTV's paltry success in leading to prosecutions. paving sto n e s. Meanwhile. You would like to create an attractive area that will be used by people. No-one even knows how many cameras there are in Britain. as against 50 in Italy. and one in Norway.Unit 5. Student D You live on the square. p50. Student A You work in the town council.). and a place where it is safe for children to play. g ra s s . In c lu d e : • an a n a ly s is o f th e m a in p ro b le m s . w a te r fe a tu re s . the hunt for all the identified Manchester hooligans is still continuing. There is money available. buses and cyclists.. Does th e w r it e r of th e a rtic le th in k s u rv e illa n c e c a m e ra s have h e lp e d to re d u ce c rim e ? W h a t do you th in k m ig h t be th e re a so n s fo r th is ? Unit 5. tr a ffic lig h ts and p e d e s tria n c ro s s in g s . T h in k a b o u t: • • • • • • th e la y o u t of th e roads. is the problem: the House of Lords constitutional committee recently noted that there was no regulatory framework for adequate protections against invasion of privacy by CCTV. a year later.

Although you know it’s a fake (painted by John Myatt). He paused. and be prepared to bluff. She stood by th e w in d o w .Unit 4. his fin g e rs d ru m m in g on th e d e sk as he c o n s id e re d h o w be st to b re a k th e new s. Morning ride on the beach (Anton Mauve 1838-1888) Unit 6. th e w in d s tre a m in g th ro u g h h e r h a ir and th e m ud fly in g up fro m u n d e r th e h o rs e 's hooves. Tell B that: o it’s typical of Anton Mauve’s early style. lo o k in g n e rv o u s ly up and d o w n th e path . he w o u ld g la n ce a n x io u s ly a t h is w a tc h . F rom tim e to tim e . He w a s s ittin g on a p a rk bench. You want to sell B this painting. p64. w a tc h in g as tw o m e n in th e ir la te 20s g o t o u t o f th e c a r and w a lk e d to w a rd s th e house.09 Unit 6. g a zin g up at th e M ilk y W ay and lis te n in g to th e d is ta n t s o u n d s of m u s ic flo a tin g a cro ss th e w ate r. She ca n te re d alo n g th e path. o you have documents stating that it w as painted in 1851 when Anton Mauve w as living on the Dutch coast. p38. Genuine fakes s (student ai You are an art dealer. What the world eats 3a (Group a> 1 2 3 U W h a t are th e m a in th in g s th e C asales fa m ily se e m to eat and d rin k ? H ow m u ch o f th e ir food is: • fre s h ? • p rocessed ? • pa ckaged ? Do you th in k th e y have a h e a lth y d ie t? W h at se e m s to be th e ir m a in so u rc e of: • v ita m in s ? • c a rb o h y d ra te s ? • p ro te in ? Mexico: the Casales fam ily of Cuernavaca Food expenditure fo r one week: $189. p59. He often painted people on horseback by the sea during this period. look again 4b 1 2 3 U 5 130 He lay on th e beach. try to convince B that it’s genuine. .

malaria can become fa ta l.Unit 7. headache. This leads to m ore widespread poverty. These problem s can appear a t any tim e between one and fourteen days a fte r being b itten. and provides a c o n sta n t challenge fo r a lm o st 1 0 0 governm ents. If not tre a te d . M alaria is one o f the m o st severe health problem s worldwide. Malaria causes a negative cycle. and th u s increases th e num ber o f vulnerable people. Then a g re e on an icon to add in th e e m p ty space. So are m ethods o f prevention. 3 Loo k at G roup B ’s im a g e s on p 137. An estim ated 3 0 0 -5 0 0 m illion cases o f m alaria occur every year. M osquito repellent and m osquito nets are often enough to prevent th e one. Target activity 2 Malaria is a serious disease which can a ffe ct anyone. The spread o f m alaria to countries with fragile governm ents and social services reduces th o se co u n trie s ’ econom ic growth. It is a risk fo r nearly h a lf the w o rld ’s population. o GM food David Beckham the iPhone . But th ose regions are increasing. People w ith o u t access to preventative resources or health care are am ong th o se m o st a t risk. sm all bite which would tra n s m it the disease. Target activity 5 (Group A) 1 C hoose th e im a g e s you th in k are m o s t s u ita b le as ico n s fo r o u r tim e . especially in developing countries. with more than one m illion fa ta litie s . Unit 9. tw o African children die o f the disease. Sym ptom s include fever. It is an infection spread by m osquito b ites. 2 T h in k of a rg u m e n ts to de fe n d y o u r choice. Treatm ent is available. M ost victim s are young African children. p86. Apples 5 E xp la in th e re la tio n s h ip w ith a p p le s in each im a g e . p90. Every m inute. m uscle ache and fatigue. It is necessary to spread knowledge and resources to th o se regions m o st in need. p70. T h in k of a rg u m e n ts a g a in st th e m being ch o se n a s ic o n s f o r o u r t im e . Unit 9.

Target activity 4a (student ai The AIRpod is powered by compressed air. Each car has an onboard pum p th a t can refill the tank overnight. 132 . It can reach speeds o f ju st less than 45m ph. Brand images 3b W o rk in A /B /C g ro u p s . But Negre has also developed a high-pressure air pum p . w hich drive the wheels. and it takes less than tw o minutes to refill the 210-litre air tank. lo o k a t a d v e rts 1 and 2. w in d or solar . Unlike conventional internal com bustion engines. These could be powered by clean electricity .Unit 8. G roup C. The air is released through pistons in the engine.tr. W h a t h e lp e d you d e cide? W h ich a d v e rt is c le a rly GULF* lin k e d to a p a rtic u la r tim e ? M atch th e s e q u a litie s to th e a d v e rts . lo o k at a d v e rts 3 and 4. Can you g u e ss w h ic h one and w hy? N D M B E G F O O R E R o Lipsm ackinthirst quenchinacetast inm otivatingood buzzincooltalkin highwalkinfastliv inevergivin r ~ . p77. b u t n o t to heat it. e n e rg y v ic to ry frie n d s h ip p o p u la rity ta s te h e a lth y o u th re fre s h m e n t a ttra c tiv e n e s s m o d e rn ity W h ich a d v e rt is a ss o c ia te d w ith a p a rtic u la r: m o m e n t o r fe e lin g ? p le a s u re o r le is u re a c tiv ity ? c o u n try ? fo rm o f w o rd p la y ? H ow are w o m e n p resented in a d ve rts 4 and 5? A W hat does th is say abo u t how th e p re se n ta tio n of w o m e n in a d v e rtis in g has changed? W h ich a d v e rt do you th in k is m o s t e ffe ctive ? W hy? One of th e s e a d v e rts b e ca m e v e ry w e ll-k n o w n . air-powered engines run very cold and th ick ice quickly form s on the engine.th a t can fill the tanks in less than a m inute.m aking the air car com pletely pollution-free. 1 2 P ut th e a d v e rts in c h ro n o lo g ic a l o rder.hydro. although the air-powered engine produces only 8 horsepower. CO2 emissions are still only 10% o f a petrol engine's. p80. c o o lf iz z in L v J Unit 8. 1 2 W h a t e ffe c t do th e a d v e rts s u g g e s t th e d rin k has on people? W hat q u a litie s do you th in k th e y p ro m o te ? 3 W h a t do th e p e o p le re p re s e n t? H ow old do you th in k th e a d v e rts a re? H ow do you know ? now its Peosi-for those who think mune — •nti (Wti « » • too ui. w hich is stored at high pressure in shatter-proof therm oplastic tanks surrounded by a carbon-fibre shell (the same tanks used to contain the fuel in gas-powered buses).9ri i n * M th tgIn rtb rtj*w IHrtl W o rk w ith s tu d e n ts fr o m th e o th e r g ro u p s . Even if carbon-generated electricity is used.like a version o f the tyre pumps fou n d on a garage fo re co u rt . This means th a t the engine can be used to cool the inside o f the car. G ro u p A. G roup B. so acceleration is slow. lo o k a t a d v e rts 5 and 6 . Lo o k a t a ll th e a d v e rts to g e th e r. The car has a range o f more than 112 miles.

raising public cobntry in th e nam e o f football! awareness of the fragility of the G rass-roots football projects housing market. w hich he believes could solve global warming. where the leaves are spread o u t as much as possible because they need to catch sunlight.000 hom eless and excluded people around the year.a steel pillar (like a trunk) and tw o steel 'branches' w hich would hold the 'leaves'. internatio n a l event brings to g e th e r homeless people and m iddle-class home people fo r a o n c e -in -a -life tim e owners com e together in this chance to represent th e ir open-air event. Large quantities o f C02 could be removed from the atmosphere. and growing have been kicked o ff in m ore homelessness. Zeus killed Phaethon with a thunderbolt. like a Venetian blind.as much as is produced by 20. His invention is an artificial tree. p100. 2084 Article la Discussion L o g in/create a c co u n t In Ancient Greek mythology. A series o f fu rth e r chemical reactions w ould extract the carbon from the sodium carbonate and turn it into a concentrated. So an a rtificia l tree could extract far more C02 than a natural tree. Target activity ib o e In cities around France. p107. unlike a real tree. The story was retold by the Roman poet Ovid. Unit 11. 133 . 1 2 In w h a t w ays are th e 'tre e s ’ lik e re a l tre e s ? In w h a t w a ys a re th e y d iffe re n t? H ow do th e y a b s o rb C 0 2? 3 W h at hap p e n s to th e C 0 2 a fte r it has been e x tra c te d ? Unit 11. Artificial trees i Read th e p ro p o s a l and a n s w e r th e q u e s tio n s . P109. homeless This annual.000 tonnes o f C02 a year from the atmosphere . The slats would be coated in liquid sodium hydroxide. Just like a real tree.000 cars. solid form o f C02 th a t could be buried deep underground. and could be stored deep beneath the earth's surface in a solid form which w ould be stable and safe. Unlike in a real tree.Unit 10. It w ould be quite feasible to produce thousands o f artificial trees and put them in any available space. His father allowed him to drive the sun chariot for a day. but Phaethon couldn’t control it and the chariot fell out of the sky and threatened to burn up the Earth. so as the air passed over them the C02 w ould be extracted andconverted into sodium carbonate. and o f course. the sun god. The synthetic tree w ould stand more than 100 metres tall and 60 metres wide and would look like a huge u p rig h t tuning fork w ith slats between its uprights. even at the North Pole or in the Sahara Desert. It's made o f metal but works in the same way as a real tree by extracting C02 from the air as it flow s over its 'leaves'. w orking w ith 25. than 60 countries. the leaves on an artificial tree could be packed much more closely together and be parallel w ith each other. an artificial tree w ould have a structure to support it . they could be'planted'anywhere. Professor Klaus Lackner has invented an ingenious way o f counteracting C02 emissions. who referred to Phaethon in Latin as ‘infelix Phaethon’ (= unfortunate Phaethon). Each tree w ould collect 90. Phaethon was the son of Helios. To prevent disaster. The apparatus would work by using a series o f simple chemical reactions.

The end of general knowledge? 3d Fools will always be here. renewable energies? It won't make a difference. What can we do? Well. Remember to present yourself in a positive light: how can you appear confident. Scandinavia and the Arctic. But a t the same tim e. Let's assume he's right. The Internet. Describe your skills and abilities in line with what the interviewer asks. P117. Target activity 3b (Groupu Lovelock's prophecy At nearly 90 years old. however. Millions will go north looking for food and water. is how Lovelock views this doomsday scenario. We've already passed the moment. 1 Think of skills and abilities which might be suitable for the job. Methane (a more powerful greenhouse gas than CO 2 ) is released from the previously frozen areas of the north. It may be right th a t such a tool will ju s t help us to forget more and more. there will always be teachers and parents who see the real value in possessing and sharing knowledge. is entirely the wrong approach. changes everything. And their foolishness will always make the news headlines. The rainforests will collapse. But on the other hand. At this point. By 2100. he believes.Unit 11. However. Beijing. rising seas. Like tourists enjoying a boat ride at the top of Niagara Falls. 3 Listen to the evaluation. more than 6 billion people will have died. not much. and Paris will be as hot as Cairo. Sustainable development. p20. where cutting greenhouse gas emissions would help us. Lovelock believes drought and other extreme weather will become normal by 2020. simplified. we should be concentrating on a sustainable retreat. We can’t help but use it to check what's happening (or has happened) in the world. we have no idea that the engines are about to break down. Miami and London will suffer drought. Schools are probably right to encourage young people to use the Internet to find out about the world. This means more water. Then move to another interview. he believes. What about using biofuels. This increases the temperature (ice reflects sunlight but open land and water absorb it). p110. Unit 12.is strong enough to remain. Do you think it is fair? What comments do you have about the employers and the interviews? 134 . The seas rise.shared knowledge among a m ass o f people all part o f the same culture and tim e . This nightmare vision of a 'tipping point' has been rejected by many climate researchers. By 2040. or floods. Here. The survivors will mostly be in Canada. Increasing temperatures melt the ice at the poles. There will be intense rainfall in some places.. drought in others. Unit 2. Target activity 3 (student b) You are a candidate.. Lovelock stands by his opinions. 1 2 3 W h a t does L o ve lo c k th in k w ill happen to: m o s t m a jo r c itie s ? p eople in tro p ic a l c o u n trie s ? p e ople in n o rth e rn c o u n trie s ? W hy does he th in k th is w ill happen? W h a t does he th in k w e s h o u ld and s h o u ld not do? 4 M a rk any p o in ts you a g re e and d is a g re e w ith . he says. the continuing popularity o f quizzes and game-shows shows us th a t general knowledge . And so on . and more ice melts. James Lovelock has arrived at a worrying conclusion: we are doomed. 2 Introduce yourself appropriately. Europe will be a desert. but not arrogant? How will you sell yourself? What will you ask the employer? Use strategies from p20.

Unit 12. o intensive farming. W h a t do you say to th a t? W h at has s u rp ris e d you th e m o s t o ve r th e s e pa st fe w y e a rs as yo u 've o b se rve d how c h ild re n use th e H ole in th e W a ll c o m p u te r k io s k s ? 5 Unit 8.500. o hygiene. holding just three passengers. and the driver uses a joystick to tu rn . In spite o f its flim sy appearance. o developing new crops and types of food. Talk about your ideas with Student A.Unit 4. Because the air ta n k and engine d o n 't take up much room. p119. o processed and packaged food. w eighing in at 2 2 0 kg. so the car w o u ld probably cost about £3. But the cost o f a tank refill w o u ld probably only be abo u t £1! 135 . the car is actually very safe. A lth ough air pow er means the car drives emission-free. The technology o f air-powered engines is relatively cheap and simple. w ith a single seat facing forw ards fo r the driver and a bench facing backward fo r tw o more people. rather than a conventional steering wheel. The car is a three-wheeler. Prepare some ideas to support your point of view. p80. Think about: o the transport of food. Target activity 4a (student b > The AIRpod is small. The Hole in the Wall 3c 1 2 Have you ob se rve d any d iffe re n c e s b e tw e e n u rb a n and r u r a l a re a s in ho w c h ild re n in te ra c t w ith th e H ole in th e W a ll k io s k s ? A re th e re e le m e n ts o f th e H ole in th e W a ll p ro je c t th a t m a ke it u n iq u e ly In d ia n ? Do you see a H ole in th e W a ll p ro g ra m c a tc h in g on in o th e r c o u n trie s ? 3 Have you seen any d iffe re n c e s in p ro b le m -s o lv in g b e h a v io rs and a c a d e m ic a c h ie v e m e n t b e tw e e n th e k id s w h o re g u la rly use th e H ole in th e W a ll c o m p u te r k io s k s and th e kid s w h o d o n 't? U S om e a rg u e th a t ju s t le ttin g k id s c lic k a ro u n d th e In te rn e t w ill n o t im p ro v e th e ir p e rfo rm a n c e in e d u c a tio n a l d o m a in s lik e re a d in g and scie n ce . o GM foods. You think developments to food production have mainly had a negative effect on the environment and on people’s diet. some energy is required to compress air into its tank. Nutrition transition 4 (student b > You work for an environmental organisation. o pesticides and artificial fertilisers. The car is designed to be exceptionally light. p39. The Pod itself is made o f strong com posite materials th a t make a safe cell protecting the passengers. most o f the car is devoted to passenger space. as it has airbags outside the car w hich inflate w hen a crash is im m inent. o multinationals.

Unit 4. Unit 4. when m easured by GDP per person. European te rrito rie s w ere som e o f th e w e a lth ie s t on e a rth . T h is fa ke photo w a s c irc u la te d by e m a il in 2001. a cco m p a n ie d by a m e ssa g e saying th a t it had w o n "N a tio n a l G eographic P hoto o f th e Y ear". The o rig in a l im a g e o f th e s h a rk w a s a c tu a lly ta ke n by a c o n tr ib u to r to N a tio n a l G e o g ra p h ic . Maps Of the world 3b(Student B> P rep are to te ll S tudent A about your m ap.Unit 6. T h e w o rld 's w e a lth in th e y e a r 1 5 0 0 "S laves captured in raids and w a r grew in im p o rta n ce as a co m m o d ity. as w ere th e d y e stu ffs o f n o rth e rn Nigeria. It w a s n o t c le a r w h e th e r th e e m a il w a s h o p ing to convin ce peop le th a t th e pho to w a s re a l. All these goods w ere h ig h ly prized in and around th e M editerranean basin." (R ichard E ffland. What the world eats 3a (Group b > 1 2 3 4 W h a t are th e m a in th in g s th e B a ts u u ri fa m ily se em to eat and d rin k ? H ow m u ch o f th e ir food is: • p rocessed ? • packa ged? • fre s h ? Do you th in k th e y have a h e a lth y d ie t? W h a t s e e m s to be th e ir m a in so u rc e of: • v ita m in s ? • c a rb o h y d ra te s ? • p ro te in ? Mongolia: the Batsuuri fam ily of Ulaanbaatar Food expenditure fo r one week: $40. Kola nu ts w ere also im p o rta n t.02 136 . Fake photos 2 (Student B> G re a t w h ite s h a rk a tta c k ! Two c o m p le te ly d iffe re n t p h o to s have been jo in e d to g e th e r to give th e im p re s s io n of a s h a rk a tta c k in fr o n t of San F ra n c is c o 's fa m o u s la n d m a rk . p38. These regions also had th e low est GDP per person.it w a s p re s u m a b ly ch o se n so th a t th e c la im w o u ld se e m m o re g e n u in e . These w ere also th e m ost populous regions a t th a t tim e . o r w h e th e r it w a s in te n d e d as a jo ke . 2003) In th e ye a r 1500. th e G olden Gate B rid g e . P57. p37. The regions w ith th e la rg e st to ta l GDPs w ere Eastern Asia and S o u th e rn Asia. The regions w ith th e lo w e st GDP in 1500 w ere central and so u th ­ east A frica.

within a few hours. He has a list of 10 videos to shoot on this warm June morning. Demand is using an army o f M unoz-Donosos to crank out articles and videos. Target activity « If Christian Munoz-Donoso is going to make this job pay. Give a million monkeys a million WordPress accounts and you still m ight never get a seven-point tutorial on how to keep wasps away from a sw im m ing pool. p90. But w hat Demand has realized is that the Internet gets only half of the sim plest econom ic form ula right: It has the supply part down but ignores demand. his em ployer for the day. and endless. To get there. fo r w hich he’ll earn ju st $200. the equivalent of four English-language W ikipedias a year. W h a t does th e w r it e r th in k o f D e m a n d M e d ia 's a p p ro a c h ? W h a t a d je c tiv e s re ve a l his a ttitu d e ? H ow does th e w r it e r p ro vid e h u m a n in te re s t and h u m o u r in th is s to ry ? W h a t do you th in k is his o p in io n of th e g e n e ra l p u b lic and th e ir in te re s ts ? Unit 9. The process is autom atic. you soon will. and keyword rates to determine w hat users want to know and how much advertisers will pay to appear next to the answers. f D em and M edia are s u c c e s s fu l because th e y can fin d o u t w h a t p e o p le re a lly w a n t to know . which mines nearly a terabyte of search data. he’ll have to do it all in tw o hours. random. racing to produce the 4. Internet traffic patterns. T h in k o f a rg u m e n ts a g a in st th e m being ch o se n as ico n s fo r o u r tim e . Plenty of other com panies have tried to corner the market in online advice. 1 2 3 A re th e se s e n te n c e s tru e o r fa lse ? a C h ris tia n M u n o z -D o n o s o w o rk s fo r D e m a n d M edia. Shifting w inds and changing light require him to adjust his setup. Then a g re e on an icon to add in th e e m p ty box. Today’s to p ic is kayaking. and if you haven’t stum bled on a Demand video or article yet on sites like ehow or livestrong. P120. 9 Nelson Mandela Burj At Arab hotel. They pum p out an endless stream o f bulleted lists and tutorials about the m ost esoteric of subjects. th a t’s w hat people w ant to know. c T hey a ll w o rk to a h igh p ro fe s s io n a l s ta n d a rd . T h in k of a rg u m e n ts to de fe n d y o u r choice. Target activity 5 (Group b> 1 2 C hoose th e im a g e s you th in k a re m o s t s u ita b le as ico n s fo r o u r tim e . To get anything close to his usual rate. Yet. b T h e re are th o u s a n d s of p e o p le do in g s im ila r w o rk . scientifically. but it’s fast. The com pany’s am bitions are so enorm ous as to be alm ost surreal: to predict any question anyone m ight ask and generate an answer that will show up at the top of G oogle’s search results. By next summer. Pieces are not dreamed up by trained editors nor com m issioned based on subm itted questions. cheap. d D em and M edia fin d s o u t w h a t p e o p le w a n t to k n o w by tra c k in g In te rn e t se a rc h data. But none has gone about it as aggressively. Dubai 137 . They shoot slapdash instructional videos with titles like ‘How to draw a Greek helm et’ and ‘How to stop snoring’ .Unit 12. he has uploaded his w ork to Demand Media. it’s hard to argue that the world needs another massive online content company. M unoz-Donoso has enlisted a local instructor to meet him and to bring along four o f his boats. 3 Look a t G roup A's im a g e s on p131. Instead they are assigned by an algorithm. and single-m indedly as Demand. he’s got to move quickly. It is a database of human needs. In an era overwhelm ed by FlickrYouTubeW ikipediaBloggerFacebookTwitter-borne logorrhea. Demand will be publishing a million items a month. M unoz-Donoso gets m ost of his shots in one take. according to founder and CEO Richard Rosenblatt. It isn’t Scorsese. Thousands of other film m akers and writers around the country are operating with the same loose standards.000 videos and articles that Demand Media publishes every day. But conditions are working against him. e D em and M edia e m p lo y s h ig h ly tra in e d s ta ff to in te rp r e t th e data. and good enough. Even so.

Other Anton Mauve paintings you know have similar themes.Unit 5. 138 ion . realising that they were using 200 English words with each other like exit. Decide: o how much you are prepared to pay for it. You have seen this painting and you want to buy it. returning three months later to find two kids playing a game on the computer. but you’re not convinced it’s genuine. Target activity 4c Unit 6. Morning ride on the beach lAnton Mauve 1838-18881 Unit 12. You have seen no information about where or when it w as painted. p124. I left the computer there with lots of CDs. o what questions you will ask A. save. I built another hole-in-the-wall. On seeing me they said “we need a faster processor and a better m ouse” in English! So then I measured their performance. not to do with the computers but in their dayto-day conversations. p50. Look again 4b Having decided to take the experiment out to a village called Madantusi. Genuine fakes s (student b> You are an art collector. p59. stop. find. but they are darker and the figures aren’t so sharply defined.

p110. The reasons for this? World leaders are showing a stronger commitment to reducing their arsenals of nuclear weapons and other nations' means to make them. 1 2 3 W h e re is th e c lo c k and w h a t is its p u rp o se ? W h a t a re a s of ris k a ffe c t th e tim e sh o w n on th e clo c k ? A c c o rd in g to th e B u lle tin o f the A to m ic S cie n tists. P118. However. Also. The hole in the wall ic 139 .nuclear war and climate change . Targe! activity 3b (student b > It's six minutes to m idn igh t. The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists has been updating its 'Doomsday Clock' since 1947. there are positive signs that tackling the two greatest threats to civilisation . According to the Bulletin.Unit 11... climate change and new life-science technologies have become important new factors. developed and developing countries alike are making promises to limit the climate-changing gas emissions that would make our planet uninhabitable. The clock was re-adjusted on 14 January 2010. The clock conveys how close we are to destruction (or midnight) and identifies the ways that humans could obliterate themselves. w h a t re a s o n s do p e o p le have to be o p tim is tic ? U M a rk any p o in ts you a g ree and d is a g re e w ith .are at last receiving worldwide political attention. Unit 12. moving from five minutes to midnight to six minutes to midnight. One of the main reasons since the late 1940s has been a possible nuclear war.

2 relative clauses: I rented the flat to a young couple who had been looking for somewhere to live for months. have]. Past (equivalent to past simple o r used fo): /4s a student. I'd left the house in good time. To express a future idea which is set in the past: When she joined Sony.. 2 to mean wanted to or was willing to-. we often use these verb tenses: Past sim p le To relate the main events of a story: In 1990 we moved to London and I got a job in an engineering company. (not I was having a free afternoon} Past p e rfe c t sim ple: had + past p a rtic ip le To go back from the past and relate events that happened earlier: It was already 8. We'd been looking for months. offers. Sorry I'm late. (more cautious than 'I think') 1 reported speech and thought: They were lucky to find a flat. so I decided to . they w ill be in the simple form : It was the weekend and I had a free afternoon.g. know. To go back from the past and describe earlier activities: I felt very relieved when we finally found a flat. He knew that only one person would get the job.. One day. I'll carry that. I'll talk to him. When acid is added. 140 . He told me they’d been looking for months. but there hadn't been anything suitable. the impurities in the liquid will gradually dissolve. I like the job. 2 to make decisions. Past progressive: was + -ing To give the background to events (what was going on at the time): At that time I was living in London and working in an engineering company. 1= I ’m sure it isj Verb tenses in narration When relating events in the past. They would always keep an eye on our flat while we were away. 4 to make requests: Would you help me with these bags? We often use the above tenses in: 5 to 'soften' assertions and suggestions: I ’d suggest getting a new printer.. she was 22 and had only a year's experience. promises and threats: Don't worry.will and would w ill and w ould fo r h a b itu a l action We often use will and would for a habitual [or repeated) action in the present o r past: Present (equivalent to present simple): People will usually keep to the same brand unless they have a good reason to change. or I would have called you. The car wouldn't start. but it would be nice to have a bit more free time. w o u ld /w a s going to (‘fu tu re in th e past*! 3 conditional would. be. 3 to make requests or give orders: Will you please stop talking? 4 to make deductions: That will be the postman now. fo r hypothetical ('unreal') situations: I didn't know you were in town. (less direct than 'I suggest') I would think sh e’s probably in her mid 40s. but the traffic out of town had been very slow. O th e r uses of w ill 1 to make predictions: From tomorrow morning. She knew that it would be an enormous challenge. I would often work through the night and then sleep in the afternoon. O th er uses of would Past p e rfe c t progressive: had been + -ing 1 past of will.30 and I was still 10 kilometres from the airport. It would be Iwas going to bel an enormous challenge for her. in reported speech or thought: I told you they wouldn't agree. flights will operate normally. If we use 'state' verbs (e..

Common adverb / adjective collocations acceptable clear norm al fully aware (of) booked inform ed (of) deeply disturbed shocked moved The differences between rich and poor have got bigger over the last few decades.. Problems associated with obesity are more widespread than they were a generation ago...Talking about change Adverbs We can use adverbs to modify: Tim e comparison structures 1 a verb: She sang beautifully. auxiliaries are usually repeated (are. A Are the classes worth going to? have an effect on have an influence on have an im pact on affect have consequences for B Oh yes. highly Most people eat more meat than they used to.. gradual1 transformation make a (rapidl transition undergo a (complete] revolution go into Igradual.. 2 an adjective: He seems reasonably happy with his progress. Main verbs are omitted or replaced by a form of do le a f. Fifty years ago. 3 a noun or prepositional phrase: It's really a form of baseball. increase evolve collapse deteriorate decrease develop improve fall improve rise decline spread Other expressions undergo a Irapid. don't you? B Absolutely. had. than they used to-. g e t / becom e + adjective 4 another adverb: We've read your proposal extremely carefully. Adverbs that absolutely completely totally can be used in this way: definitely precisely certainly exactly not really hardly probably possibly 141 . noticeable) improvement Cause / effect expressions A causes B give rise to lead to re su lt in trig g e r bring about Common adverb / verb collocations deeply / profoundly regret vividly/clearly remember strongly support highly / strongly recommend thoroughly enjoy entirely/ totally agree fully recognise strongly/ firmly believe B is caused by A re su lt from be a (direct) consequence of stem from have its o rig in ls) in originate from Short responses A influences B We often use adverbs as single-word responses in conversation: A I think she did the right thing.. The car was completely out of control. Access to information has become more freely available to everyone. most people in Europe had a much more restricted diet than they do today. definitely. than they do). It's extremely difficult to follow what he’s saying. than they were). rapid. I enjoyed the performance immensely. O ther verbs competitive effective intelligent unlikely significant questionable perfectly In comparison structures. terminalI decline show a Imarked.

want • verbs describing perm anent qualities and states: consist. (Here they are) P re s e n t p e rfe c t progressive To refer to activities or feelings that started in the past and are s till going on: I ’ve been trying to contact her for days. but I don't know where she is. need. admire. Compare: Info rm al. know. It has been shown that better street lighting reduces crime. where the focus is on the fact that something has happened. (= now I've succeeded in contacting you) Look . The event is connected w ith the present Iwe can see the result now). 2 Passive verb + fo + infinitive Pasta is generally believed to have originated in China. There are two ways of using passive reporting verbs: 1 It + passive verb + that. not on when it happened. we use the present perfect simple instead of the progressive: Fashion photography has always involved manipulating images. but I never seem to find the time. (= I s till intend to write) We also use it to refer to activities that have been continuing up to now. I've been meaning to email you. This enables the w rite r to distance him /herself from the facts or opinions being reported. We’ve had this sofa for years. There has been a serious train crash on the main London to Glasgow line. Infinitives afte r passive reporting verbs Passive reporting verbs can be followed by: 1 the simple infinitive: Better street lighting has been shown to reduce crime. |= in my life up to now) The present perfect simple is often used fo r announcing news. (= now it has stopped. The number of teachers retiring early is reported to have risen dramatically. (= I'm s till trying). especially in news reports or in academic w riting. involve. own.. but the ground is wet) ’S tate’ verbs Some verbs are not norm ally used in the progressive form.it's been raining. (= they are living) 3 the past simple infinitive: More than 50 people are reported to have been killed in the blaze. This is the first time I've used this software. but have now stopped. These include: • verbs describing m ental states and feelings: think. have 1= possess!. (= they were killed) 4 the past progressive infinitive: They are believed to have been conducting informal negotiations. More fo rm al and ’distanced’ It is thought that the expression 'OK' is of French origin. less 'distanced' Many people think that the expression 'OK' is of French origin. Better street lighting has been shown to reduce crime. be. love. It is generally believed that pasta originated in China. Some verbs can be used in the simple or progressive with no difference in meaning: They've lived / They've been living in London ever since the war. . (= they have been conducting) Common passive reporting verbs say consider acknowledge understand believe 142 calculate suppose show report know th in k reckon estim ate feel presume Present perfect P re s e n t p e rfe c t sim p le To refer to events in a period 'up to now': The country has experienced three major earthquakes this year. It is reported that the number of teachers retiring early has risen dramatically. believe. respect. (= it reduces crime) 2 the continuous infinitive: They are supposed to be living in the Bahamas. (= so far) You may have to help me.. (The line is s till out of action) I ’ve bought some strawberries. With these verbs. contain.Passive reporting verbs Passive structures are often used in reporting what people say or believe. Where have you been? I ’ve been trying to contact you for days. include.

Referencing and substitution
S ub stitu ting nouns
To avoid repeating a countable noun, we can use one (singular)
or som e/any (plural);
Notepads are really useful. You should get one. (= a notepad)
We need to buy some more paperclips. We haven't got any.
To avoid repeating an uncountable noun, we can use
some / any.
A Do you want coffee?
B Yes, I'd love some.
A fter an adjective, we can use one (singular) or ones (plural] to
replace the noun:
I don't need a window envelope. An ordinary one will be fine.
They replaced their beautiful old wooden windows with cheap
metal ones.
We can also use other pronouns to avoid repeating a noun:
I spend time in London and New York.
I like them both in different ways.
I ’ve heard Shanghai is an exciting city, but I've never been there.
S ub stitu ting verb s
To avoid repeating a main verb, we can use a form of the
auxiliary do:
Malaria doesn't k ill as many people as it once did.
He s till smokes, but not as much as he did a year ago.
A Who wants tea?
Bldo.
We usually repeat auxiliary verbs, or (if the meaning is clear)
we can om it them:
Malaria isn't as dangerous as it once was.
Fortunately, the accident wasn't nearly as serious as
it could have been.
She’s more fluent in Russian than Ishe isl in English.

whatever
We can add -ever to pronouns to make the following words:
whatever
whenever
wherever
whoever
however
They are used in various ways.
1 = it doesn’t matter, regardless
Whenever you want to arrive, let us know and we'll meet you at
the station.
Whatever people may say about her, I think she's an excellent
leader.
We'll get the job done, however long it takes.
2 = I don’t mind, you’re free to choose
You can sit wherever you like. (= anywhere)
There’s no dress code - just wear whatever you want. (= anything)
3 to give emphasis to a question.
Wherever did you get that tie? It’s awful!
Whatever did you say that for? (= What on earth ...?)
Whatever can also be followed by a noun phrase:
Whatever the time, feel free to call me. (= Whatever tim e it is ...)
Whatever the reason, he's not speaking to me.
In conversation, whatever can also be used on its own, to mean
'I don't care' or 'It doesn't m atter':
A Shall we take them flowers or chocolates?
B Whatever. /= whatever you like1
Whenever can also be used to mean 'every tim e':
We go walking in the mountains whenever we get the chance.
However is also used to express contrast (= but):
Schumacher started the race well ahead. However, engine failure
forced him to drop out in the third lap.

R e fe rrin g to e a r lie r ideas
To refer back to an ea rlie r idea, we can use this or which:
They used detergent to try to disperse the oil slick. This caused
further damage to the marine ecosystem.
They used detergent to try to disperse the oil slick, which caused
further damage to the marine ecosystem.
[this / which = the fact that they used detergent)

143

Modifying a sentence
We can use adverbs and expressions to modify a complete
sentence. They can come at the beginning o r the end of the
sentence, or as a parenthesis w ithin the sentence (usually with
a comma before and after].
She didn't get into Oxford, unfortunately.
Naturally, we’re very disappointed with the result.
We are, of course, delighted to hear that the family are safe and
well.
Signalling attitude

Sentence adverbs and expressions are often used to comment
on the sentence or signal the speaker's attitude.
1 = it's understood:
naturally, of course, obviously
2 positive comm ent:
fortunately, luckily, I'm glad to say
3 negative comment:
unfortunately, sadly, I'm sorry to say
U

expressing surprise:
surprisingly, astonishingly, incredibly, amazingly, oddly,
strangely Ienough1

5 expressing tim e or duration:
suddenly, gradually, eventually, in the end
6 expressing contrast:
however, nevertheless, all the same
Softening

They can be used to 'soften' what we are saying or make it less
definite.
maybe
presumably
I think
probably
perhaps
sort of
possibly
in a way
to some extent
Adding emphasis

They can be used to reinforce or add emphasis to what we are
saying.
really
definitely
actually
indeed
clearly
in fact
certainly
literally
as a matter of fact

144

Inversion
A d v e rb ia l phrases
Certain adverbial phrases can be moved to the beginning of a
sentence to give special emphasis. A fter these phrases, the
subject and verb change position ('inversion').
Compare:
He not only evaded tax, but he then lied about it.
Not only did he evade tax, but he then lied about it.
I didn't realise my wallet was missing until I got home.
Not until I got home did I realise that my wallet was missing.
The following adverbial phrases can be used in this way:
not only
only rarely
at no time
very rarely
in no way
only recently
not once
not until Inowl
These phrases can be used with different tenses:
Not once did they get in touch to ask how I was.
At no time have I claimed money from the company for personal
expenses.
Only very rarely was / consulted about managerial decisions.
The main sentence stress shifts onto the adverb phrase:
• •
Not only did he evade tax, but he then lied about it.
• •
Not once did they get in touch to ask how I was.
Only very rarely was I consulted about managerial decisions.
The expression no way is common in conversation, meaning 'in
no way' or 'not at all'. It is followed by inversion:
No way would I want to do a job like that. (= I certainly wouldn't
want to do it]
We also use inversion after tim e expressions: no sooner,
hardly, scarcely. These are usually followed by the past perfect.
No sooner had we taken off than the plane started shaking.
Hardly had I started reading when Jane came in and started
telling me about her homework.

Cleft sentences
To g iv e e m p h a s is to o n e p a r t o f a s e n t e n c e , w e c a n d iv id e it

Participle clauses
T h e r e a r e t h r e e k in d s o f p a r t ic ip le c la u s e in E n g lis h .

in to tw o c la u s e s . T h is is c a lle d a 'c le f t ' s e n t e n c e .

P re s e n t p a rtic ip le clauses
C left sen ten ces w ith W h a t...
C o m p a re :
W e need a new car.
—> What we need is a new car.
I'd really like to give up my job.
—» What I ’d really like to do is give up my job.

+ -ing]
We lay on the beach, gazing up at the night sky.
When shopping for clothes, always check the label.

( fo r m : v e r b

P r e s e n t p a r t ic ip le c l a u s e s c a n b e u s e d to s h o r t e n a s e n t e n c e
w it h a n a c t iv e v e r b :
We

lay on the beach and gazed up at the night sky.
lay on the beach, gazing up at the night sky.

S t a r t in g w it h a c la u s e w it h

What... g iv e s a d d e d e m p h a s is to
th e s e c o n d p a r t o f t h e s e n t e n c e (a new car. give up my job)

—> W e

W e c a n a ls o b e g in th e s e n t e n c e w it h a g e n e r a l e x p r e s s io n

after closing the door...
before going to bed...
without saying anything...
on hearing the news (= w h e n I h e a r d )
while walking through the park...

r e f e r r in g to t im e , p la c e , r e a s o n , e tc .:

the thing
the time
the person / people
the place
the way
the reason
What / The thing I need now is some money.
The time I like best is just before sunset.
The first thing I ’ll do when I get home is have a hot shower.
The reason it didn't work was Ithatl it wasn't plugged in.
The people I really admire are traffic wardens.
C left sen ten ces w ith I t ...
It
f o llo w e d b y a
who o r that. C o m p a r e :
My aunt first got me interested in politics.
—> It was my aunt who first got me interested in politics.
We only heard he was ill yesterday.
—> It was only yesterday that we heard he was ill.

P r e s e n t p a r t ic ip le c l a u s e s o ft e n s t a r t w it h p r e p o s it io n s :

Past p a rtic ip le clauses
+ -ed]
Although badly wounded, I managed to crawl back into the
building.
If asked his opinion, he usually remained silent.
( fo r m : v e r b

P a s t p a r t ic ip le c l a u s e s c a n b e u s e d to s h o r t e n a s e n t e n c e w it h
a p a s s iv e v e r b :

Although I was badly wounded,...
Although badly wounded,...

W e c a n a ls o b e g in a c le f t s e n t e n c e w it h
c la u s e w it h

P e rfe c t p a rtic ip le clauses
( fo r m : having + v e r b + -ed)
Having lived in London all my life, I couldn't imagine moving.
Having finished the shopping, we went to a cafe for lunch.
P e r f e c t p a r t ic ip le c l a u s e s c a n b e u s e d to s h o w t h e s e q u e n c e o f

It ... g iv e s a d d e d e m p h a s is to th e
f ir s t p a r t o f th e s e n t e n c e [my aunt, yesterday].

S t a r t in g w it h a c la u s e w it h

It ... to c o r r e c t p e o p le :
It w a s actually London that I flew to, not Manchester.
It wasn 't my husband you spoke to, it was my brother.
W e o ft e n u s e c le f t s e n t e n c e s w it h

tw o e v e n t s :
W e finished the shopping. Then we went to a cafe.
—» Having finished the shopping, we went to a cafe.
P a r t i c i p l e c l a u s e s m u s t h a v e th e s a m e s u b j e c t a s th e m a in
c la u s e . S o w e c a n s a y :

After going online, type a word into Google.
B u t n o t:

After going online, Google will appear on the screen.

145

I got d iffe re n t p assw ords fo r o n lin e b anking. fo r w o rk . when I w as young. I m ean. j u l ia One of m y e a rlie s t m e m o rie s is the day th a t we w e n t to w ash m y aunt's w ool. w e ll th in g s. a ll the d iffe re n t ones. it was kind of em b a rra ssin g . •O m e m o ry and a good s p a tia l m em ory. m in d. I'm OK w ith nam es of th in g s and o b je cts and place nam es. going to the beach and w e'd stay in a cottage in the New Forest and w e'd som eone at the. I found it really d iffic u lt at firs t because I d id n 't speak the language very w e ll. I can alw ays re m e m b e r are n u m b e rs . I guess th a t's you know. So. bank account n u m b e rs. we w ere at such a high level of excitem ent. th e re 's a new boy w ho's com e to And I re m e m b e r the excitem ent. I 'll see s o m e th in g t h a t 'll jog my m em ory. Quite an easy one as w e ll. And a lth o ug h I fe lt accepted and w elcom ed at the beginning. Yeah. I do have a very e arly m e m o ry fro m m y childhood. as long as I'm paying a tte n tio n . Isn 't th a t incredible? So.. fo r Facebook. I’ve got a m ental block about keys. th a t s o rt of th in g .Unit 1 but th e n I fo rg o t th e m a ll. OK. I'm only doing 70. very e a rlie s t tim e you could do. w e re n 't any cars at th e tim e. pack a ll o u r th in g s up and set off fo r the i o beach and the excitem ent of th a t journey. It's u su a lly m y keys. even th o ug h I d id n 't speak the language. m y m um . 2 I'm rea lly bad. e sp e cia lly on th e bends.. I d o n 't fo rg e t th e m ! »c o 1 sarah Yeah. I used to have one passw ord fo r e ve ryth in g . because it te n d s to crash b suddenly. b u t I'm re a lly hopeless w ith p eople's nam es and faces. And she's alw ays p u ttin g h e r hand up and c a llin g out th e an sw e rs. And back hom e . th a t kind of period. so I have to p retend to kn o w th e ir nam e. I've no pro b le m 5 tina I d id n 't speak a w ord. n e a r the villa g e . o r I th in k it was kind of sad fo r a fo u r-y e a r- and I kn o w it's re a lly easy to offend people w h e n you do th a t. W hen I firs t a rrive d here everyone was rea lly w elco m in g. the thing I rea lly re m e m b e r is th a t as we w ould drive tow ards the coast. but the thing I re m e m b e r re m e m b e r w h e re I kn o w th e m fro m . so it's easier ju s t to ta lk ago. But I ju s t re m e m b e r loving that. ju s t fo r no reason. So. I th in k I've a m e m o ry fo r places. She's ve ry b rig h t b beforehand. I guess if I th in k about it. J u s t keep ca lm . sh o u ld be a ll rig h t a . we'd a ll spin out and s ta rt digging sandcastles and stuff. And I get into a re a l panic. by th e tim e we arrived at the beach. There w ere lots of th in g s I m issed from 1 th e re w ere a lot of o th e r kids as you can im agine. I found th a t hard to get used to. ben w ith re m e m b e rin g pin n u m b e rs. m y siste rs. 1A p artners. Yes. it ’s got a bug in it. I th in k I'd ju s t started p rim a ry school. e rm . so I had to use a d iffe re n t strategy.th a t the beach was nearby . I also was lu cky to m eet a lot of expats here. So. se e m s to be OK. my Anyway look. really. I th in k it's the p ro g ra m . o lga I don’t have a very good m em ory. e rm . It's lia b le to get re a lly s lip p e ry w h e n it's been raining . there incredible thing is th a t nearly AO years la te r. really nice. I know t h e ir faces look fa m ilia r b u t I c a n 't d a n ie l •o b e a u tifu l th e villa g e childhood was. pubs. my gra n d p a re n ts. And at the tim e I th o u g h t of som e a sso cia tio n s th a t w o u ld re m in d m e of th o se w ords. I th in k I'm going to have to s ta rt w ritin g notes and leaving th e m on the fro n t d o o r to rem ind me to pick th e m up. 2 a and w hen we firs t got the little glim pse of the w a te r refle ctin g in the distance w e'd a ll open the w in d o w s and see if we could s m e ll th a t p a rtic u la r s m e ll of the 3 forever. 146 on m y own any m ore.and the firs t s m e ll of the rottin g seaweed was ju s t som e th in g th a t's stayed w ith me A m I OK w ith him on m y own? Oh yes. even if I c o u ld n 't have visu a lise d the place before going back th e re . the firs t refle ctio n of lig h t on th e horizon . once he's got used to you. and b irth d a ys . m y frie n d s. Yeah. a Good lu ck. So. a happy m em o ry of m eeting I re m e m b e r w hen I was little .. I re m e m b e r the te a ch e r said to m e: "Your p a rtn e r has arrived. d o n 't d isco u ra g e her. And it w as a ll You need to be ve ry c a re fu l on th is bit. I had to jo t th e m a ll down in an ad d re ss book as rem ind ers. So. b W ell. She w as g e tting m a rrie d and A b Oh. the m ore I fe e l like an outsider. w e 're s till rea lly close friends. W hen I get th e re . And looking back now on th is occasion re m in d s m e of how As I got o ld e r. So th e re w ere 28 o th e r kids. And yeah. th o u g h ." s o m e tim e s th e nam e's on the tip of my tongue but I ju s t c a n 't re m e m b e r it.. he's u s u a lly fin e w ith s tra n g e rs . I rea lly m iss m y frie n d s at home but the people that I've m et here are really. th e m ore I le a rn about the cu ltu re here.we w ere staying in a kind of forested area . not living in an I'm going back to a place th a t I've been to before. they a ll have sets of keys now so I tend not to get stu ck 3 o utside in the cold any m ore.. th a t kind of th in g . I'd s lo w dow n a bit.and as we got to w a rd s the coast.p eople's n u m b e rs. m y bank card o r my keys.. e s p e c ia lly fo r n u m b e rs. We w e n t down w ith horses. So one day. And in m y class. e rm .. lo tte ry n u m b e rs. Anyone else? Then th e re 's Amy. I'm enjoying it and I probably w ill stay always fe e l like an o u tsid er. I ju s t alw ays leave the house and fo rg e t at jan e least s o m e th in g w h e th e r it's like my phone or. I 'll be back in a b o ut 10 m in u te s anyway. B ut you sh o u ld be OK. I feel th a t I've adapted to the country and 2 b ro th e rs and it w as such good fun to go down th e re and have a picnic . I p a rtic u la rly re m e m b e r w hen I was about five o r six. you need to keep saving th e data. Anyway. I th in k it re a lly annoys the o th e rs so m e tim e s . I th in k I'll never be accepted re a lly u n til I can l ia m w hich m ade me feel very unhappy at the tim e was th a t I d id n 't have a partner. the firs t glim pse. I t 'll m ake m e re c a ll w h e re s o m e th in g e lse w a s in th e scene. I can't.. a beach. kind of.food. but one th in g I can. and I d id n 't have one and so I can re m e m b e r a ll kin d s of re m e m b e r th e m fro m . but to be honest m ost of the expats th a t I've m et here speak English. lots of frie n d s w ho live nearby. it a ll comes back to me. J u s t sh o u t if you've got a a p ro b le m . I've also made a rea l e ffo rt to learn the language. now I've given. d o n 't le t him see yo u 're a fra id . my m em ory started to fade a bit. and te n d s to kn o w a ll th e an sw e rs. of the preparation. So. we w ent down to a s m a ll riv e r nearby w here we live. S o rry! See w h a t I m ean? a the fa m ily to g eth e r. It ’s very e m b a rra s s in g . th e tree s w ould th in out and you'd get g lim p se s of the sea as you arrived h im . the tree s . . w hatever.. really. w e ll I 'll ju s t keep pre ssin g 'save'. and then a frie n d to ld m e th a t's not w h a t a passw ord is about. I. so d o n 't w o rry. but it was pretty A uri easy to fit in a fte r a w h ile because people are very friendly. a ll the cousins. I. I was th in kin g I'm not going to be speak the language flu e n tly. old boy. I'll I th in k I do have a good v isu a l I had to w o rk and play w ith the teacher.. a b I 'll w a tch o u t fo r th a t. e rm . w h e n I get th e re . his name w as Noah and he became m y p a rtn e r w hen I was fo u r years old and the andrew fo r th in g s th a t I’ve seen.. But yeah. a ll the fa m ily got to g eth e r. te le p ho n e n u m b e rs but fro m years in English to them . I m ust have been about fo u r years old. b u t w h e n I see so m e o n e I fin d it re a lly hard to kn o w w h e re I here fo ra long tim e. If school and he's going to be yo u r partner. She's a nice kid. she had to do th is preparing of th e m attre sse s fo r h e r fu tu re wedding. I w as at school. w ith the buckets and the spades and checking everybody was ready and getting in the car. then. my mind goes blank E n g lish -sp e akin g country. m y . but the m ost 1 a b He does have a te n d e n cy to get a bit excited if he th in k s y o u 're a fra id of .. the expectation of seeing w ho th is was going to be.

w ho at firs t w a s re a lly angry. erm . to the United States o r the UK.. Uri. Once the youngest. I spend a lot of tim e around Italian people. w e ll. but I th in k . N obody could fin d m e. My m o th e r got q u ite w o rrie d and I th in k she w anted to in te rru p t m y fa th e r spe a kin g. m e m o ry's playing tric k s a fu n -lo vin g person. please. R eally? W ell. so everybody loved me and I could do w h a t I like d s o m e tim e s . Ms Faber. So. but I like to th in k th a t I can adapt to o th er c u ltu ra l situations as w ell. cu sto m er W ell. a fte r a ll these m o n th s of e m a ilin g each o th er. Yes. Then. He did a lo t o f p u b lic spe a kin g. I'm not w ith you. C You've got p le n ty of n a tu ra l a b ility . •o s 1 says 2 saw 3 kn e w 4 w as 5 'd seen 6 'd decided 7 w as s ittin g 8 cam e 9 ch a tted 10 ca lle d 11 've been 12 have 15 cam e A amanda uri 1 You m issed the show. Erm . The th in g is. w e 're keen to get s ta rte d as you can im a gine . I need to feel p a rt of a close c irc u it of frie n d s and a close set of ja n e •■m i A I th o u g h t th e y had re a l t a le n t e sp e cia lly th e guy on th e keyboard. th e re 's so m uch new.. yeah. I th in k I c o u ld n 't bear not to be th e c e n tre of a tte n tio n . life is centred a lot on th e m ra th e r than on m yself. So. you've got a m e m o ry like a sieve.alw ays m ade sure th a t th e y ke p t th e ir distance fro m m e because I co u ld be re a lly na u gh ty and they c o u ld n 't b e a r th a t. you know? ♦C D Oh. I'm the yo u n ge st by m any ye a rs so m y o th e r b ro th e rs tre a te d m e as if I w a s n 't re a lly a b rother. ju s t to get th e b a ll ro llin g . My b ro th e rs w ere e m b a rra s s e d ... som ebody w h o loves th e ir jo b and also loves th e so cia l aspect of life as w e ll. One day I was w a tc h in g m y fa th e r ta lk in p u blic.. young ta le n t. So. B I th in k she has tre m e n d o u s le a d e rs h ip s k ills . yeah. 6 He said he w o u ld leave e a rly today. yo u 're . yo u n ge r I really d id n 't know w ho I was o r w h a t rea lly defined me. H e 'll be back to n o rm a l soon. m em ory.. and w h a t has happened is th a t I have adopted som e of the values and the experiences th a t I had inte ra ctin g w ith o th e r people in these countries. It's one m y m o th e r s till te lls today because I th in k th e w h o le fa m ily w e re so e m b a rra sse d .. as som eone who can adapt to diffe re n t cu ltu re s.Gary and C huck . w hich is so m e th in g quite d iffe re n t from w hen you're young and w hen you're ju s t th in kin g about yo u r own prospects in life. You're rig h t. I fo rg o t m y pen. They alw ays fe lt s u p e rio r to m e. w it n e s s S orry. it's ju s t so nice to be back hom e! 1 4 're having 16 w o u ld have m et I n n a gain. 2 3 He's s u ffe rin g fro m s h o rt-te rm m e m o ry loss. It's g re a t to be back. I w as up on stage w ith m y fa th e r in fu ll vie w o f th e cam eras. w h a t w e re you m e a n t to do today? w il l e m ana Eh? S orry. but th e re ’s n o thing to w o rry about. o lga I w ould say my fa m ily defines m e a lot. you rea lly have! Really.. th a t's rig h t. I re m e m b e r. as a tra v e lle r I suppose. F ollow me. I . So I suppose the to be around people w ho I find fun and enterta in in g and interesting. it's re a lly nice to have you back here w ith us. o f f ic e r "T h in k so " is no good. It's q u ite u n d e rs ta n d a b le a fte r a blow to th e head tike th a t. it's nice to m eet you at la st! of G erm any and I spent m ost of my Yeah. in fact. 5 I w o u ld go th e re every ye a r in A ugust. w h y is it th a t y o u 're in te re ste d in w o rk in g w ith us? m ic h a e l I grew up in the so u th -w e st c o rn e r So. Of course. very in te re ste d by it. W hat has also had a great in fluence on me w as my stay in o th e r m countries. alw ays th e youngest. it's ju s t so you . D They la ck basic s k ills in reading and w ritin g . it's kind of nice to see som eone face to face. is th e re a n yth in g e lse you need? th a t kind of thing. you can im a gine I w as ve ry in te re s te d in. no p ro b le m . Oh. e rm . w a tch in g m y fa th e r speak. This is a s to ry a b o ut w h e n I w as th re e o r 5 fo u r ye a rs old. T ha t's because th is m od e l has p le n ty of m em ory.. st u d e n t 1 OK. I th in k so. and the language and people around there have defined m ost of w h a t I consider is im p o rta n t to me at the m om ent. I’m going to te s t you on u n it 13. •m 1 W ould you open the door? • • • 2 I asked him but he w o u ld n 't say a word. I th in k I'm s t ill like th a t today. Oh yes. and ideas. 6 frie n d s. Should I go th ro u g h ? E rm yes. And th e re 's th is one.*D ben salesm an I'm th e y o u n ge st of th re e boys. a lso th o u g h t it w as fu n n y in th e end. I got lost. Erm . m y jo b and m y frie n d s.. I like to see a nerves . My b ro th e rs . W hen I was. see w h a t th e y look like. amanda T ha n ks a lo t. w o u ld you like to say a little a bit about y o u rs e lf firs t. Most of th e ir houses are flooded and trea su re d possessions have been lost beneath the w aters. Erm . fo r exam ple. w hen I saw th is jo b a d ve rtise d . And so I suppose I like to th in k th a t I'm reflected in the people b You know . 7 She w o u ld say th a t. because I'm looking a fte r tw o s m a ll ch ild ren now and e rm . yeah. R ight here goes. c A m anda Woods. it's alw ays good put a face to a nam e. but you also need to p ra ctice . yes. W e ll. ca n d id ate s are here. So I th in k I'm probably largely a product of w here I come from .. The s e m in a r begins in a few m in u te s. yo u n g e r th a n I im a gine d you w o u ld be. I've Unit 2 Probably w h a t defines me m ost is th e background w h e re I grew up. th is is a lo t m ore sa lesm a n expensive. th a t's ju s t too bad! 4 A rriv in g on tim e ? I guess th a t's ju s t too m uch to expect! been out of w o rk fo r a w h ile now and *Q D a norman B I sa w th is as an o p p o rtu n ity.. Do you w a n t m e to give you a p ro m p t? stu den t 2 No. The press loved it and m y fa th e r. I've been in te re ste d in th is fie ld fo r. W ille m . but she c o u ld n 't because it w as a p u b lic event. and d e sig n s go out 147 .she's e xa ctly th e le a d e r th a t Europe needs. fo r m any years now. yes. I th in k I can do it fro m Are you su re th a t's th e m an you sa w at th e scene of th e crim e ? w it n e s s I th in k so. In fa ct he w as on te le visio n quite a lot and of course you had to be q u ie t at th is kind of event. w o u ld n 't she? • • • • • • • • 1 The rains have not stopped fo r over 48 hours. I w a s in th is very fo rm a l se ttin g w ith m y m um and m y b ro th e rs. it's tim e fo r you to m e e t th e o th e rs now. The th a t I like and the people th a t I get on w ith . h o ld in g on to m y dad and w aving at everyone. M rs Santos. the m o rtg a g e . I th in k now w hat defines me is probably my. 3 W ould you p re fe r to go by bus? 4 She w o u ld never fo rg e t th a t favour. I like m yself as. 2 3 13 w o rk s m C co u ld n 't im a gine w h a t you . I see m yself. people who like books and m usic. B ut I w as th e youngest. U n it 13 fo cu ses on fa m ily la w . he w a s am azing. They c o u ld n 't look.you sh o u ld buy it! H ello. ana So. o r you w o n 't get anyw here. l ia m I th in k of m y identity p a rtly in te rm s of m y frie n d s and people around me. here I am ! R ight. I sa n d y childhood there. V illa g e rs say th a t th e y're the w o rst in living m em ory. I appeared. s m ilin g . debate. So. o f f ic e r You have to be su re a b o ut th is. E It's ve ry co m p e titive . a o t h e r . I've lived in France and I've lived in Vietnam . Com e th is way. I alw ays fo rg e t to do w il l e m 4 an ything relate d to paying money. T hat's th e m ain p ro b le m w e ’re try in g to ad d re ss here. 150 GB. And you are? carm elo a I th in k th a t says a lot about my id e n tity at the m om ent. Yes. and so. On one occasion. I see m yse lf as a happy person.

so it w as very d iffic u lt to even have a basic conversation. So. w h e n I had m any frie n d s fro m th e US and the UK and th a t helped me a lot to express m yse lf a little bit m ore. W ell. They've got a m assive v illa . So obviously now yo u 're flu e n t in English. And it's nice as w e ll to be able to recognise: oh. but also th e re are m any m any people fro m o th e r w a s u n b elie vab ly brave. and I le a rn e d a lo t of th e ir exp re ssio n s th a t are ty p ic a l A u s tra lia n . E rm but as.I d o n 't speak a w ord of Italian o r Portuguese either. m ainly because I d id n 't put as m uch e ffo rt into it. th e N o rw e g ia n e x p lo re r and s c ie n tis t. have you ever th o u g h t about le a rn in g any o th e r languages. A lso. s o rt of. o r p e rh a p s m ore lik e 20 . at the beginning it w as very d iffic u lt because I had to tra n s la te w h a t I p il a r 1 get to g rip s w ith . S o m e tim e s it sounds a b it stu p id to read it a fte rw a rd s . but it w a s w o rth reading it. I v iv id ly re m e m b e r reading it and being a b s o lu te ly fa scin a te d . I re m e m b e r being a b s o lu te ly fascin a te d by th e m . to tra v e l to th e se c o u n trie s and spend m ore tim e le a rn in g th e sp e cia l e xp re ssio n s th a t are used in th e se c o u n trie s . so. l the A rctic ice in a w ooden ship called the Fram. And fo r exam ple. it is busy at w eekends. o r w e ll. it w a s a bit like S cott of th e A n ta rc tic . And w h a t w as it in p a rtic u la r ab o ut th is th a t m ade an im p re s sio n on you? w ere. B ut o th er. and in the s u m m e r of course. The s tu ff th e y did sch o o l. e rm yeah. p i It m ust have been quite a fo rm a tive book fo r you because in fact fo r m any years th a t's exactly w h a t you did. j And have you ever le arned any o th e r fo re ig n la n g u ag e s a p a rt fro m English? p Erm . w e ll. I th in k m ost of m y norman b a sic-le v e l E n glish I have picked up at sch o o l. I sh o u ld say. because I w rite q u ite fast and I th in k q u ite flu e n tly but I n e ve r take too m uch care to re -c h e c k if I used th e p ro p e r w o rd.? n T hat w a s m o s tly d u rin g m y stu d ie s. so and . a T ha t's w o n d e rfu l. conversations can happen quite often in English and in everyday life s itu a tio n as w e ll. w hen you have a lot of th in g s to say. anyone had done previously.ab o ut 10 m in u te s' w a lk. th o u g h t in Spanish into English. I trie d to learn French fo r a w hile. get by 3 express m y s e lf 2 exposure to A being im m e rs e d in 5 have a basic co n versation 6 to o k up. and the books th a t changed you as a youth are always going to be a d isa p p ointm e n t. I th in k th e best w ay to do th is is firs t w a tch m ovies com ing fro m a ll these d iffe re n t c o u n trie s . W hen did you le a rn ? W hen did yo u r Lia m sp e aking by th e sea. s o rt of. as w e ll as I learned English. fo r exam ple. rea lly. It gave m e the English. It also gave m e a re a l in te re s t in m aps. It's a book by F rid tjo f Nansen. at the beginning. l W hen w as th a t? W hat w e re you doing th e n? Was th a t w o rk o r stu d y o r . A c tu a lly th e sch o o l e d ucation th e re in te rm s of E n g lish is s o rt of Unit 3 p i vo ca b u la ry in o rd e r to get by.. it's an account of an a tte m p t in the late 19th ce n tu ry to d rift th rough le a rn e d in th e co n text of having had exposure to native E n g lish sp e a kers. I d id n 't get a lot of exposure to the language. It m u s t have been a th o usa n d pages of tin y type. That's to say. » So te ll m e about com ing to th e UK fo r the firs t tim e and being im m e rse d in. get to g rip s w ith • if h I fe e l q u ite c o n fid e n t w ith ta lk in g . w hen you have a b it m ore m oney. w hen I say private. w hich m eans 'fo rw a rd '. sh a rin g my th o u g h ts . The ship got stu ck in ice. an a p a rtm e n t rig h t by th e sea. I to o k up French som e tim e ago. And I re a lly like d th e idea of g e ttin g out i Did you ever m anage to read th e book again la te r on in life? Yeah. So. But secondly and sadly. not a ll th e tim e. in G erm any y o u ’re expected to speak at le a st basic E nglish once you leave They w ere eventually forced to head back. I th in k . I was depressed by how b o ring it was.. so th a t helped me w ith th e language. to be honest. a condensed ve rsion th a t was ab o ut a th ird as long. to c o m m it to it. I d id n 't quite get to g rip s w ith the language. b A v illa ? How w o n d e rfu l. F We need som eone w ith proven c o m p u te r and te c h n ic a l s k ills . but m uch less w e ll-k n o w n . It's ca lle d Farthest N o rth . I s t ill have a hard tim e ca tch in g the re g io n a l accents. S cottish accent. I th in k I p robably need a bit m ore exposure to th e se re g io n a l la n g u ag e s fro m a ll around th e w o rld . Yes. My m ain p ro b le m in E nglish. m ost G erm an people th a t I've m et speak p re tty good kayak to reach the N o rth Pole. m ore of an a p a rtm e n t. I w e n t to A u s tra lia tw ice already. T his is fo r m e no p ro b le m .. it's kind of teenager. you le a rn fa irly q u ickly how to. A ca d e m ic a b ility is n 't so im p o rta n t. if I got s tu ck w ith a w ord they w o u ld help me. W ell. th is guy is A u s tra lia n because I recognise these expressions! I th in k it's p a rt of th e ric h n e s s of the . Erm . e rm .. th a t's ju s t the way it is. th is cu ltu re and the language. W hat w as it like having to speak English? jan e Erm . I re -re a d Farthest N o rth as an p a d u lt. And how w as it again? i W ell. b but it is p re tty em pty m ost of th e tim e.. erm . I m ean. w h y are people expected to speak English? It's very im p o rta n t to speak English in o rd e r to find w o rk fo r exam ple. they co u n trie s living in Germ any. I w as very lu cky th a t I got a lot of exposure to d iffe re n t accents quite early on. e rm . l n idea th a t I'd like to go on exp e dition s and d isco ve r th in g s . I have a hard tim e . not re a lly a v illa . but no.. if not an o u trig h t e m b a rra ssm e n t. b u t it's not fa r fro m th e sea . * done. I th in k I p e rs o n a lly need to co n ce n tra te on m y w ritin g . not lite ra lly private. Texan accent. I m u s t have read it w h e n I w as a n e rdish lad of about 12. I d o n 't th in k. but they got c lo se r to the pole than p So. to say th e m . I fe lt th a t people helped me get to g rip s w ith the language quite a bit. e n o rm o u s ly long. a p They spend th e s u m m e r in th e Cote d'A zur. I mean. and I also. it's ve ry d iffic u lt to stay ahead of th e gam e. I w as am azed firs t of a ll th a t I'd read the w h o le th in g w hen I w as a young A m azing. m aybe also. on ch e ckin g m y w ritin g . a Yes. pro b a b ly because I'm ta lk a tiv e . He was accom panied by one o th e r crew m em ber. e n o rm o u sly d e taile d and e n o rm o u s ly d iscu rsive. I d o n 't th in k I learned French. school in G erm any gets you a kind of w o rkin g knowledge but s till quite basic level of English. o r have you? p W ell. basic but q u ite good and it helped me to get to g rip s w ith th e m ost im p o rta n t In th is p ro g ra m m e . c o n ve rsa tio n a l E nglish I m ostly us about a book th a t changed his life. in th e so u th of France. W ell. it's not s tric tly b a * N o rm a n . as tim e w ent th e re w ith n a ture and lo o kin g at th in g s. Maybe private. I mean. biological and geographic expedition. And also in G erm any people co n s id e r th e m se lve s often q u ite in a m ore in te rn a tio n a l context. For instance. yo u r E n glish is e xce lle n t. w hy do you th in k th a t is? I th in k it's pro b a b ly because of. very d a rin g books. B ut s till. a c tu a lly is. so Nansen set out by dog-sled and n i It w a s one of th o se ve ry d a rin g . It's a ve ry ob scu re book but it re a lly m e a n t a lot to m e. we ask e x p lo re r and w r ite r Ian M cDonald to te ll presenter ia n by. in places like F ra n k fu rt w here th e re is a big in te rn a tio n a l c o m m u n ity there. E n glish get to th is level? T hank you. o r W elsh accent. 15 m in u te s . o r ve ry deep A m e rica n accent.of fa sh io n so q u ickly. very. For instance. And second. It's a kind of m eteorological. so it w a s q u ite a s tru g g le to read. b u t w ith its own private beach. ra th e r th a n a b o ut science itse lf. j but I d id n 't have enough tim e to. because I d o n 't th in k it w as like w hen I cam e here th a t there w ere lots of English people around me. I th in k it w as th e fir s t book I'd ever read a b o u t th e way science was So w hy do you th in k . And w h a t is th e book about? W ell. lis te n in g to people s y b il l e and so . as an ad u lt. So it h e lp s a lot.

th o u g h not a fflu e n t in a m a te ria l sense. 3 D on't w o rry about this. do you th in k th is is convincing? Yes. Erm . you know . e sp e cia lly E nglish. and th is w as a direct consequence of jo in in g the EU. fo r exam ple food. And th e n Europe stayed w e a lth y. not sm a lle r... So Chinese a lp h a be t. For T hat's lo o kin g nasty .. they're a very w o rth w h ile organisation. 5 a How do you ju s tify yo u r actio n s. som e of th e m very fa r-re a ch in g . w e re rig h t up th e re w e a lth ie r te c h n ic a lly at th e expense of o th e r c o u n trie s . th e c h a ra c te rs are people's a ttitu d e to food and to cooking. 5 T his w a s a d ire c t consequence of jo in in g the EU... th e sp e a ke r kept beating about the co n fid en tly. th e se m aps is how little has a c tu a lly I th in k th a t's a d iffic u lt jo b to do . m ore c o m p lica te d . I'm a c tu a lly not re a lly su re w h a t the sig n ifica n ce of th e m aps is. th e sentence becom e lo n g e r. it w as ju s t nerves. I lik e th e way she sets up the broken E n glish in th e fir s t p a rt of the novel. fo r m e fo r th e fir s t h a lf a year. but w e a sse m b le th e m M ed ite rra n e a n food. in fa ct it got I guess. How did the s exam ple. At one point. th a t is Europe and the M e d ite rra n e a n . But take it easy . •I B 1 > It ta ke s a long tim e to get th e re . he ju s t tim e d it w ro ng .. now m ake sure you change th e dre ssin g o r it w ill get in fe cted . The e le c to ra te d o n 't like e ve ryth in g w as ve ry new. jo in in g the European Union in the 1970s. in fa ct it m irro re d m y own e xperience quite closely. w h e n I le ft China. if I w rite the w ord m ountain in Chinese d id n 't have developed technology. I d id n 't m ean to do anyone any harm . she m ake s an im age of th a t w o rd . 2 T his had an im p a ct on people's a ttitu d e to food. They pro b a b ly had a good. And s o m e tim e s it's d iffic u lt . I m ean th e balance betw een rich and p o o r c o u n trie s has p re tty m uch stayed th e sam e. Maybe th a t's ju s t beg in ning to change now. I th in k th a t's th e d iffic u lty w ith a new language. And th is gave rise to a w hole new style of Unit 4 E nglish. So. fresh e a sterly w in d s w ill cool th in g s rig h t down. In th e o ra l p a rt.. but you have e ve ryw h e re d iffe re n t c u ltu re s using it. In a sense.. And th is is sam e fe e lin g I g o t fro m th is novel.. Oh yes. I m ake th e shape w h e n I w rite .E n glish language th a t it's spoken s e ve ryw h e re in th e w o rld . The th in g is. say the fir s t 20 pages. 3 T his gave rise to a w h o le new style of B ritis h cooking. N o rth A m e rica is show n ve ry s m a ll... to convey. 3 4 . W ell. * 1 b stayed the sam e. it's a w o n d e rfu l a ch ie ve m e n t. very d iffe re n t fro m th e stereotype of bad B ritis h food th a t fo re ig n e rs used get a w o rd in edgew ays. if I w rite a b o ut th e m o u n ta in . «1E> p re se n t te n se. and in a way I need to kind of ta ke o u t th e Chinese w ay of th in k in g and . So. I re m e m b e r before B rita in jo in e d Europe. It's not ju s t a nim als. very d iffe re n t? p o in t as q u ic k ly as you can. And th e n I th in k th a t shapes Chinese way of th in k in g .. it's w o n d e rfu l to » 1 T his had a ll kin d s of consequences fo r th e way people live. and e rm . It's such a fa n ta stic. at least tw ice o r even th re e tim e s a day fo r a w eek. 2 see if you look at A frica . so it re fle c ts th e c h a ra c te r's own p ro g re ss in le a rn in g E nglish. We w ere to ld to alw ays s tic k to th e p o in t w hen you do th e se th in g s. I th in k . they do a lot fo r the environm ent and fo r c o m m u n itie s as w e ll. T hat's th e ir te ch n iq u e . I th in k th is had a ll kinds of consequences fo r the way people live. Europe. So. above a ll..ing. ju s t em pty p hrases. if I tr y to say so m e th in g in E nglish. Please ask if you have any serious doubts. yes. In the I c o u ld n 't fo llo w th e p re se n ta tio n very w e ll. Guo Xiaolu com es to a new c o u n try and she has to go back to th e be g in ning . they p e riod . W hat do th e y re a lly in d ica te about w e a lth ? I suppose th e y 're based on th e GDP of c o u n trie s . by using . And I th in k th is had an im p act on 1 You read Chinese-English 2 novel s trik e you? Yes.. So I'd see th is as a rea lly positive developm ent . And you can 4 T his led to a new wave of TV chefs. and I kn o w I can do so m uch better. He had a b s o lu te ly n othing w o rth w h ile to say a t a ll. she uses th e p re se n t tense in a ce rta in way. w hose books are sa le sm a n ju s t w o u ld n 't s h u t up. er. A n o th e r th in g th a t in te re s ts m e is th e d iffe re n c e betw een th e Chinese and th e English la nguages. people's a ttitu d e to food. rep la ce it w ith E nglish way. and th is led to a new wave of TV chefs and cookery w rite rs . a p o litic ia n s w ho d o n 't seem to have a c lu e w h a t th e y 're ta lk in g about. she . th e w r ite r said w hen she w rite s a Chinese c h a ra c te r. so it te lls us how m uch co u n trie s produced. th e c h a ra c te r s ta rt to use past te n se and th e n th e fu tu re tense. Because w hen I cam e here. It w as m y tu rn to say s o m e th in g b u t the B ritis h cooking w h ich was based m ore on people like Ja m ie Oliver. I got re a lly to n g u e -tie d . not only m aking a good in th e m se lve s.I can see th e m ou n ta in . ve ry exciting i w e re poor. o r so it lo o ks . T om orrow . th in g s like olive o il o r French cheese o r Italian pasta w ere lu xu ry goods . So B ritis h food becam e rea lly co sm o p o lita n . like le a rn in g e ve ryth in g fo r th e fir s t tim e . I do fin d it's a co m p le te d iffe re n t way of th in k in g . d id n 't he? He m ade a break too e a rly and he got le ft behind on th e la s t lap th e re . In E n glish we have an a lp h a b e t c o m p ris e d of le tte rs th a t m ean n o thing bush. speak c le a rly and slo w ly and.people eating w e ll. I got ca rrie d away in the excitem ent of it all. I d e finitely su p p ort them . but it d o e sn 't reveal m uch about say. The sto ck m a rk e t's c e rta in ly w o rth yo u r » sze So. it w a s re a lly w o rth w h ile going th e re .10 years o r m ore. y o u 'll learn it on the job. So I suppose th is m eans th a t it w a s n 't pro d u cin g m uch Low pressure w ill b uild up on th e coast and it w ill get m ore h um id as the day goes on. life style . and she c a p tu re s th is fe e lin g ve ry w e ll. a ctu ally.it's shan . and it w o rk s v e ry w e ll. You can see even in 1500. one th in g th a t is a p p are n t fro m changed. M r Rossi? b Erm . I m ean. So. My advice is to g e t on and m ake yo u r d rie d up as w e ll! fo r exam ple.she * W ell. and th a t's story.. the d iffe re n ce betw een rich and p o o r has got big g e r. I ju s t c o u ld n 't s trin g a se n ten ce to g e th e r eating m uch be tter. 3 4 One fa s c in a tin g th in g a b o ut the novel is th e w ay th e lan g u ag e changes. And then a fte r we joined Europe you could buy anything fro m France o r G erm any o r Italy. so o u r chances of a m e d a l have gone. and to g e th e r in w o rds.. if you lo o k at th e m ap of 1500. I need to be very c le a r to fin d th e w o rds w e re p robably ve ry w e ll off. I've never seen an ything like it. to have. but it's ju s t am azing. because in Chinese we d o n 't have te n se s lik e in have th e se tw o sid e s to th e novel. I d o n 't kn o w w h y he bothered.. fo r me. As a Chinese speaker. th a t you do need to pay g re a t a tte n tio n to w h a t is happening w ith language. su sta in a b le w ay of life. Then la te r in th e book.. 149 . it's easy to get 4 overw helm ed on yo u r firs t day. In fa ct as the m aps show.they d o n 't you le t you now b e s t-s e lle rs even in o th e r co u n trie s. w ild 2 place. th o se c o u n trie s w e re n 't w e a lth y in 1500.. But th a t d o e sn 't n e ce ssa rily m ean th a t they w h ile if y o u 're in vesting over a long in t e r v ie w e r i w e a lth . I do. D ictionary fo r Lovers as a Chinese person livin g in B rita in . So if you.they w ere quite d iffic u lt to get hold of. My p a rtn e r w a s n 't m uch help e ith e r . O bviously th a t's because it to give th e e m o tio n I w a n t to . I th in k one very sig n ifica n t thing that happened to B rita in w as jo in in g Europe. I th o u g h t. the w ay you get y o u r m essage a cro ss m u st be very. am ong th e ric h e s t c o u n trie s .. so e ve ryth in g is spoken in the s o m e tim e s e q u iva le nt to w h o le w o rd s in E nglish. So it was like a renaissance re a lly of B ritis h food. It w as a re a lly d is a p p o in tin g speech. o r q u a lity of life.

leaving th e a c tu a l sq u a re in th e m id dle co m p le te ly cu t o ff fro m th e sides. o r ju s t leave it open and use it to w a lk in a ll d irectio n s. T his p la tfo rm in clu d e s the m ain u n d erground access. and we th o u g h t 'W ell. and c h a lle n g e s us to th in k about m ore fle x ib le . We also placed a fountain in th e m id dle of the square u n d e r the trees. rid ic u lo u s ly at th e m o m e n t. It is a tr ia n g u la r shape. P avem ents m ay be tra n s fo rm e d into m a k e s h ift s tre e t m a rk e ts . I do th in k it's a bit unfair. We also created som e c irc u la r seats a round the tre e s w h e re people could s it and look in a ll d ire ctio n s in the square. like. th e spaces ta ke n up by th e road need to be reduced. I w a s a bit disa p p ointe d by the A c ro p o lis . And it's not as if any sch o o lch ild re n w ere a ctu ally crossing the road at tw o in the m orning. I m ean la st tim e I w e n t th ro u g h . We also put the leaves in the a u tum n . and th e access to the bus s ta tio n s m u st a lso becom e easier. th e re w a s a huge queue of people sta n ding W e ll in o u r design fo r the square. I m ean if you th in k about it it does m ake it s a fe r to buy th in g s. th is island needs to be linked u rb a n a c tiv itie s are b e com ing m ore and m ore h om ogenous. And like P ost-its. 150 police can earn so m e money. th e y are a rt nouveau. and it is s u rro u n d e d by som e very. B ut th e c o u rs e s are re a lly good. so nobody re a lly w a n ts to stay here. M ind you. th e road. as you know. And the lig h t was changing to red. w h e re there are seats. and also accessible fro m a ll p a rts of th e square. In o rd e r to tu rn th is sq u a re into an u rb a n space w ith high q u a lity it needs re o rg a n isin g and it needs a new co n ce pt fo r th e w h o le layout of the square. N ew York has re a lly changed. The m ain p ro b le m s are re a lly caused by tra ffic .. o r le fto v e r spaces can often have a new and s u rp ris in g purpose. so in sta lla tio n s can be m ade. and we closed som e side accesses to the underground. w h e re people can m eet. so th e re is a lack to th e shore'. un d erp a sse s m ay becom e refu g e s fo r th e ho m e le ss. so it's very co m m u n ica tive . it w a s rid ic u lo u s . and also to a ttra c t people because we th o u g h t w h ite is a very frie n d ly c o lo u r and it's also fu ll of lig h t. and added som e o th e r kin d s of tree s w h ich w o u ld have a d iffe re n t aspect. The ve ry te rm P o st-it com es fro m the idea th a t city d w e lle rs m ake im p ro vise d . a lte rn a tiv e use of th e ir city. It's m uch s a fe r th a n it w a s w h e n I fir s t w e n t th e re . and th e re was a fla sh . Looks m uch b ig g e r w h e n you see it 2 a b in photos . th e police. You e ith e r go back and buy a sp e cia l bag to put it in o r you c o u ld n 't ta ke it th ro u g h . w h e re people can say 'M e e t you at of co m m u n ic a tio n betw een th e b its of th e square. Som e of th e m . I'd had m y photograph taken. it w as about tw o in the m o rn in g . It w a s n 't n e a rly as im p re ssive as I th o u g h t it w o u ld be. th e re s t ill e xist spaces in th e city th a t are u n p re d icta b le . firs t of a ll w e looked at th is island concept. But a lth o u g h and th e n you'd get to th e t i l l ready to pay and a ll you have is yo u r card.W hat th e y 're re a lly th e re fo r is so the *J O 1 a b How w as A thens? Oh. but th e y are in th e m id d le of a. like you can put in som e m a rk e t stands. And p rio rity to p e d e stria n s and cy c lis ts is im p o rta n t. Pa t r i c k Yeah. so th e y ju s t slo w down w hen th e y com e to th e m . The space is basically open. and th e y create a very nice e n se m b le to g e th e r. The sq u a re its e lf is a ve ry u n u su a l shape. And th e re are th e se w o n d e rfu l old plane tre e s in th e m id dle. and m any o th e rs. It used to be re a lly dan ge ro u s to go out at nig h t. Looking a t th e c ity as o rg a n ic and alive. I w a s n 't rea lly doing anything th a t dangerous. a fa n ta s tic Bauhaus b u ild in g . I have to w o rk q u ite hard fo r exam s th is year. w h ich w o u ld w h e re they can easily go fro m shop to shop. u ri I th in k th e y se rv e no pu rp o se w hatsoever. and B avarian renaissance. spend tim e . to m yself. i f B It w as re a lly late at night. And I c o u ld n ’t re m e m b e r th e n u m b e r. We im agined it as a tongue of land ra th e r th a n an island. It w as re a lly e m b a rra ssin g . o r th e re is a p ro b le m g e ttin g on th e bus and th e u n d erg rou n d . And th is is m a in ly caused by tra ffic w h ich flo w s a ll a ro u n d th e square. so we th o u g h t th a t w o u ld a ttra c t people and m ake it into a very special space. w h e re people w o u ld w a n t to com e. fo r cafes and pedestrian areas and m eeting points. The m ain aim is re a lly to create an urban space fo r th e in h a b ita n ts w h ich w o u ld have high q u a lity. m ee t w ith each o th er. s h o rt-te rm . w h ich w o u ld a c tu a lly be the h e a rt of th is p a rt of M unich. people ca n n ot get fro m shop to shop. So yeah. on th e ir w ay hom e. I m u st say th o u g h . fro m side to side. w h ich now access to th e m id d le is. and so th e re 's quite a lot going . F irst of a ll. and then th e y speed up again. o r people c a n 't go to th e post office. everyone goes b a ttin g along at 80. because th e y need to occupy th e space now. like a d iffe re n t co lo u r of w h ich is s u rro u n d e d by tra ffic . and so I drove s tra ig h t jane th ro u g h . 100. th e se in fo rm a l. d o -it-y o u rs e lf spaces are spo n ta n e o u s. o r tim e w ith my g irlfrie n d . s h o rt-te rm p a rkin g flo w s around th is peninsula. t in a I do th in k th e y 're a ve ry se n sib le idea. And I suppose. they w ere rea lly s tric t because it is a crossing by a p rim a ry school. We used w h ite paving stones fo r the square to stand o u t in co m p a riso n w ith the su rro u n d in g pavings and roads. We re -a rra n g e d the tra ffic . and lik e ly to d is a p p e a r w ith o u t trace . •1 9 H a rra s as th e c e n tra l sq u a re of S e ndling has a lo t of p ro b le m s at th e m o m e n t. but so m e tim e s I th in k it's behind me. th e h e a rt of S endling. Like. and go a g a in st w h a t a rc h ite c ts designed. as long as you re m e m b e ry o u r PIN th a t is. but I did th in k it was a bit over th e top. Then th e bus rou te s need also and we have q uite a busy so cia l life I suppose.. These 'n o -m a n 's la n d s'. but e n a blin g th e flo w of tra ffic fo r th e sam e a m o u n t of ve h icle s and w ith o u t causing tra ffic ja m s . I'd be at the ♦C J •D s u p e rm a rk e t buying loads of th in g s The s o c ia l c h a ra c te r of p u b lic spaces is in flu e n c e d by a rc h ite c ts . s o rt of session at the police sta tio n over a w eekend. I m ean we have quite a lot of frie n d s get th e ir th in g s q u ic k ly and go on. «@ d a v id I th in k to me it's about having tim e needs to be enabled fo r q u ick shoppers. ju s t a bit out of p ro p o rtio n . we had som e spe cia l pla n n ers fo r the tra ffic w ho ca lculated the a m o u n t of tra ffic and the flo w of tra ffic . so we connected the island to th e shore and m ade it into a peninsula. because people o b vio u sly w a n t to stop. m ore in fo rm a l m o d e ls of urban p la n n in g . it w as g re a t. w h e re a s th e post o ffice in the so u th is a fa n ta s tic b u ild in g . So I 3 d o n 't go o u t as m uch as I'd like to. and they are. S till enjoying u n ive rsity? Oh yes. w h ich is co m p le te ly c u ttin g o ff the fu n c tio n s of th e square fro m each other. b u ild in g ow ners. That gave us a lo t of space in fro n t of the houses. And so they m ade me pay a £200 fine and they m ade m e go to a spe cia l education. But at no p o in t did th e y a c tu a lly ask to see m y p a ssp ort. Talk ab o ut g e ttin g p rio ritie s w ro n g . use it as th e ce n tre of th e ir co m m u n ic a tio n and a lso have enough space to p robably create som e C h ris tm a s m a rk e t o r have som e fe s tiv itie s here. a focus. D rive rs kn o w e xa ctly w h e re th e y are.00'. T he re 's one on the bypass I go on every m o rn in g to w o rk. A lso. And we le ft these provide shade and a nice place to stay. o n ly th ro u g h u n d erg rou n d in som e a d d itio n a l pedestrian crossings th a t w o u ld put pe d estria n s into a position tu n n e ls . T here w as even a s m a ll tu b e of shaving crea m I had. w h ich w o u ld be done in very nice m a te ria ls . in the n o rth p a rt and also in th e east. w h ich gives a 'p la tfo rm ' fo r a ll th e activities. So the the fo u nta in at 7. I th in k th e y 're pro b a b ly necessary. it's q uite lu d icro u s. I had to ta ke off m y b e lt and m y shoes and th e y looked th ro u g h e ve ryth in g . so obviously. depending on th e ir needs. an island w o n d e rfu l old plane trees. and I u n derstand th a t road safety's really im p o rta n t. Unit 5 w h e n th e y fir s t cam e out. and the fo u nta in is also a place. so th a t th e y w ould m ake the square look very nice in every season. I re m e m b e r be reo rg a n ise d. th e P o st-it City p ro je ct exa m in e s how p u b lic spaces are used. th e n th e y a ll s lo w dow n to 60. com e fro m th e tu rn of th e ce n tury. ve ry fin e b u ild in g s.

th e hotel. Unit 6 to do. to create space fo r people to sit and m eet frie n d s . so ju s t begin so m e w h a t at th e beginning. rem oved. we've the eyes also they've been w hitened. So far.. it's got a bedroom and a s m a ll kitchen. And look at the teeth. M ilita ry h e lic o p te rs have sp e n t days rescu in g s u rv iv o rs fro m th e floods. here it is fro m a d iffe re n t angle. This b o rd e r co n tro ls.. w ilt co n tin u e w ith both sides in th e hope of fin d in g a d ip lo m a tic so lu tio n to the co n flic t. cook.. And here's a shot of the inside. and go online. Help is offered in c o m p le tin g fo rm s. and here it is .and th is is in fact w h a t you get in the hotel. . We are w illin g to w o rk to g e th e r to search fo r a m u tu a lly agreeable so lu tio n . And th a t's OK if I'm on m y own. in d ivid u a l m e m b e r states have suggested p a rtia l so lu tio n s to the problem . you w a lk hom e in the evening and th e re 's lite ra lly no-one around. It's not a private beach. th is is a g e n e ra l view of the 3 G eorge's .. really. 1 re o rg a n is in g 2 a new concept 3 to be reduced i style. B ut firs t I'd ju s t like to give a g e n era l idea about w h e re we a r e . As you can see. we go out and see people quite a lot. stayed w ith my parents 3 W ell. I suppose I am quite in tro ve rte d .. liste n to m usic. re a lly peaceful . we have th e ple a su re of ta lk in g to i n t e r v ie w e r 1 a rtis t John M yatt today. The w h o le system is in need of a co m p le te overhaul. m y g irlfrie n d 's in the room it's not . so it's rea lly green and trop ica l. A ll I know is. such as stren g th e n in g Reading. but discu ssio n s about the h o tel in a m in ute . th e e ld e rly and o th e rs in need of assistance. I m ean. j o h n m y a tt So. You can see lig h t behind th e curtains. However. c u ltu re shock in reverse. really. how you g ot involved in a rt fo rg e ry.... so fish e rm e n bring th e ir boats in here . OK. so th e y're a tin y bit less bushy. ju s t p alm tre e s and the sea. I was a single parent. so it's now w hiter.. lots of th in g s happen. you rare ly see an in d ivid u a l w a lkin g on th e ir own down a street. I hope I've given you to begin is have you te ll us so m e th in g a b o ut how th is a ll happened. but you can't see anybody. jm •0 1 firs t of a ll I'd ju s t like to 2 I'd ju s t like to give you 3 I 'll ta lk a b o ut th e h o te l 4 fir s t I'd ju s t like to give 5 le t's go on now to 6 hope I've given you som e idea of 7 if anyone w o u ld lik e to ask 8 I'd be ve ry happy to It sta rte d about 1983. And th is is th e view fro m the cottage looking out. you know. And I th in k. and you know keeping the 151 .. you see th e background has been changed slig h tly. if you to be agreed on by a ll th e co u n trie s tim e w h e re you have p rivacy . the lips have been reddened. St was. And I've known like and w h a t it's like to stay there. w e are c a llin g on extro ve rts in the past w ho ju s t d o n 't need that.. but a ll the bedroom s have got netting on the w indow s. 4 It's a glo b a l problem . It's very nice sp lashes here. but I s o rt of need th a t tim e to s o rt of process w h a t's going on in my life I th in k. and can see. Our proposed solution is to relocate the bus stations. thatched roof.I d e fin ite ly need tim e and space to kind of process w h a t's happened to me. and also the tines below the eyes. w ritin g . Erm . and a lth o u g h co nsidered a la n d m a rk b u ild in g at th e tim e . ta lk to my g irlfrie n d .lo n g e r eyelashes have been added. b ut th o u s a n d s of people are now in d e sp era te need of food and shelter. t ir o From a rt fo rg e r to genuine fake. as I'm sure you noticed fro m the firs t picture ju s t now . I'd ju s t like to give you an idea of w h a t the h o te l is w h ich is ju s t here.and of course w h a t you *o 1 Over 60% of tra in s w e re delayed over th e la s t year. The h o tel is on the island of Grenada.. how w o u ld you ty p ic a lly spend y o u r tim e ? w a n t to tra v e l round the is la n d . I 'll ta lk 2 The ce a se -fire provides an in te rim so lu tio n to th e c risis. they've been w h ite n e d. M eanw hile. You can see the skin here has been enhanced. quite b u stlin g as you can see . you know. providing tra n s p o rt and giving legal advice. th is is a c lo s e r view of it here.. I'm th e m an a g e r of Petit Bacaye and firs t of a ll I'd ju s t like to th a n k you very m uch fo r com ing th is a fte rn o o n . they can spend tim e w ith people. I'd be very happy to a n sw e r them . so it cle a rly req u ire s a g lo b a l so lu tio n w h ich needs th is is also w here th e bus station is. so it's m uch sm oo th e r.so the food's c e rta in ly fresh. There's only one m ain tow n.. and the h a rb o u r. But my w ife had le ft home and she w a s n 't com ing back.. It's not re a lly visible in th is photo. w h a t yo u 're doing now. and also very good .. W elcom e John. good a fternoon. these are b u ilt in tra d itio n a l the cottages. th a t's it. And as you can see. I re a lly th in k th a t th is is a re a lly fa scin a tin g sto ry.. T hank you. a ll the face has been thinned down a bit.. it's the h o tel grounds . in the Eastern C aribbean. so they are now a b rig h te r red. w hen I came back if you look at th is p ictu re you can see th a t OK.. th is in fact goes down to the beach.and one th in g about it is th a t it's covered in forest. th is is tow n . It's quite funny because it's com pletely d iffe re n t w hen I lived in Egypt fo r a w h ile and. and the spots around the m outh they've been the cottages are se lf-c a te rin g . the background. there w ere two very young ones to take care of. not too fa r from the m ain tow n. Erm . and m oney into e q u ip m e n t and to provide b e tte r fa c ilitie s fo r w o rk e rs .on. th e re are no private beaches on Grenada. I w rite fictio n . you can see the beach and a fish in g boat here . and fa r too little m oney is being invested in new s ta tio n s and e q u ip m e n t. play m y guitar.. B u t . I had two very s m a ll children.. quite sim ple. And if you look at th e eyes . and they... so now she has fla w le ss skin. so I th in k th e best place every day and catch fish fo r s u p p e r . I m ean I'm quite sociable I th in k.th a t's Grenada there .. and then they can th e U nited N a tio n s to provide ob se rve rs to m o n ito r th e s itu a tio n ... people move around in groups a ll the tim e.. »0 4 1 We th in k we've come up w ith a p ractical so lu tio n to the problem of how to develop the ce n tra l space.. w h e re I'm ju s t pointing to now . And yet.. it's very thera p e u tic... as you can te ll fro m th e pink involved. w hen I was. so if we ju s t zoom in on th is . is now u rg e n tly in need of repair. 2 The s ch o o l w as b u ilt in 1965.. w hich you can see here. So I was trying to find a way of w o rkin g from home. and you know.so privacy is n 't necessarily being on m y own. And a fte r a weekend I re a lly enjoy and also need tw o o r th re e days w here I d o n 't see o th e r people. If anyone w o u ld like to ask any questions. And th is is w h e re we are on the island. So. I suppose people are e ith e r e xtroverted o r in troverted.. and the eyebrows have been thinned slig h tly... I was a school te a che r at the tim e. you know. s o rt of. the w h o le th in g took about five hours altogether. OK . and here's a q u ick g lim p se of the m arke t. and quite spread out so you get a lot of p riv a c y . Not a very big island .. OK. so if you com pare the tw o photos we can see w h a t's been done to the o rig in a l they lived on an estate in B rita in . and th is is a close up view of th e m bring in g the catch in . . but it's in quite a peaceful little b a y . to keep th e insects o u t . So. My nam e's Len G riffith s... and it's been d e scrib e d as th e biggest a rt fra u d of the in t e r v ie w e r 2 got a s m a ll re sta u ra n t .. im age of Stacey. w a tching TV o r so m e th in g o r if Em m a... the place is obviously fu ll of people. w e fe e l th a t th e only lo n g -te rm so lu tio n is to invest m ore see people a ll the tim e and process a ll th a t w h ils t th e y're s till so cia lisin g .and they go out 20th ce n tury. Er.. som e idea of w h a t the h o tel is like. So »m y o u r hands I th in k. single storey. th e re ’s no re a l difference fo r me betw een the tw o really. let's ju s t hom e in on one of look in a ll these little separate houses and everybody's got th e ir cu rta in s drawn. very s im p le style as you and it's such a. in t e r v ie w e r And w h a t do you do in th is d *ID can see here a ll belongs to the hotel. so le t’s go on now to Petit Bacaye itse lf. 1984. And you it's not so m uch a sin g le h o tel but ra th e r a co lle ctio n of ch a le ts o r cottages. The co u n cil has se t up a new co m m u n ity p ro je ct to help the poor.. so m e th in g p ra ctica l w ith show s you roughly w h a t it looks like. Erm .

There are large and s m a ll ta b le ts w rapped of th e case. and childhood a sthm a by an inhaler. I thought. pale grey net. w a s th a t C ubist. b u t th is ju s t stre n g th e n e d o u r d e te rm in a tio n to w in . a te xtile a rtis t. and proceeded re a lly to go into . The in s ta lla tio n explores o u r approach to health in B rita in today. o r w as th is 2 d im ly th ro u g h th e fog. And it ju s t said 'Genuine fakes.? No. a p a in tin g th a t 5 1 They trie d to bla cke n m y nam e b u t at th e tria l. I liked him a lot. th e y'd k n o w p e rfe c tly w e ll th a t th e re a l one is a im in g to leave at 5.. Each length contains over 14. how w o n d e rfu l th a t w o u ld be!" c rie d M arianne. 2 3 tw o -ye a r period he probably had about 14 o r 15 paintings off me. the ta b le ts fo rm solid blocks of one colour. brow ns and sca rle t. w a itin g fo r m ore p ills to be added. At th e age of 75. v ita m in s o r o th e r s e lf-p re s c rip tio n pills. over a him very w e ll. and he th readed his way between th e m . and sp o tted som e people in th e distance. On the m an's side. it w as a m a d e -u p one. sewn into tw o le n g ths of textile. And anyway one day he. the m an's sto ry ends a b ru p tly. and so th a t's not th e Mona Lisa . W hat happens w h e n th e m oney ru n s out? in fo il o r unw rapped in d iffe re n t shapes: round. H e r pulse qu icke n ed w h e n he sa w him sta n ding at th e b u sin e s s -c la s s ch e c k ­ in. The re s u lt is a visu a l chronology of the d ru g s we take th ro u g h the d iffe re n t p eriods of o u r lives. a rth r itis dia b e te s a sth m a hay fever ch e st in fe ctio n high blood p ressure h e a rt a tta c k s tro k e p re scrib e d d ru g s p ills in je ctio n im m u n is a tio n a n tib io tic s p a in k ille rs • tiU The co n te m p o ra ry a rt in s ta lla tio n 'Cradle to Grave' dates fro m 2003. presented it d iffe re n tly to the way I'd le ft it to him . T hey're an e ndangered sp ecies in th is p a rt of the 3 vacancies at the present tim e. A nyw ay . accom panying the length of • n r> th e . th e help of som e d ra w in g s I'd seen in 5 Can you e n la rg e th e p ictu re a bit? It's 6 im p o rta n t th a t people can see the p re se n ta tio n clearly.30 in the m o rn in g . And I. pay-off. The average th e a tre -g o e r is aged betw een 55 and 85. On e ith e r side fabric. c h a ttin g to you know. they ca ll them selves P harm acopeia.. A young w om an in c h ild b irth breathes deeply l ir a fro m an entenox gas and a ir m ask. David C ritchley. He introduced h im se lf as Professor John Drew from .000 d ollars. fo rm in g a com posite im age of life. diam ond-shaped.fa m ily to g e th e r really. gazing at a c o m p u te r screen. Together. despite being prescribed m edication fo r diabetes. but now I'm o u t of w o rk . from th a t advert. p o p u la r m agazine a im ed a t w o m en aged 25 and over. and Dr Liz Lee w ho is a GP. w a s th a t C ubist p a in tin g a. Please let me know if there are any 4 W ell. as a s ta rk w h ite death ce rtifica te in fo rm s us he has died of a stroke. and he m ust have taken it down to Christie's. high blood pressure and diabetes in la te r life.. fro m the Institute of Physics. An x-ra y of a boy's fra ctu re d a n kle show s the pins used to reb u ild it. By co n tra st. it w as to ta lly kin d of invented o u t of m y head. »{ J Q 1 We need to be th e re by six. in te rsp e rse d w ith vivid g e o m e tric p a ttern s w h e re d iffe re n t coloured ta b le ts lie together. A ll th e lig h ts w e re on. I enclose m y CV along w ith the cover letter. And C hristie's had said th a t they w ould s e ll the painting I th in k fo r 25. if you had a Mona Lisa hanging on.. the e stim ated She m ade th e m istake of m a rry in g a m an whose sole aim in life w as to have a average n u m b e r pre scrib e d to every person in B rita in d u rin g th e ir life tim e . The im age show s a s m a ll se g m e n t of the in sta lla tio n . one te llin g the m an's story and the o th e r the w om an's. He trie d to so fte n th e b lo w w ith the in France. i f .000 and I said yes. g lo w ing the o th e r cu sto m e rs really. C hildhood va ccinations are indicated by a set of syringes. th e w om an is s till going strong at 82. A young Unit 7 m an stands p roudly by his m oto rb ike . and w as made by Susie Freem an. he took a painting. a s m a ll Cubist painting off me. in doing copies because any a rt e xp e rt w o rth th e ir s a lt kn o w s th a t. are p h o tographs and objects th a t tra ce typ ica l events in a person's life. and th a t his d a u g h te r w as by his side at the end. he was a very w e ll-to -d o and im p o rta n t person. w hich is a s o rt of s a tiric a l m agazine we have in England. h e r eyes s p a rk lin g w ith excite m e n t. red and black. a im ed at im p ro vin g We w ere 5 -2 down a t h a lf tim e . Was th a t. In te rm in g le d w ith the photographs are p e rso n a l objects th a t also relate to th e course of th e m an's and w o m an 's lives.15 at th e la te st. you know . d raw n fro m the co m p o site m edical h isto rie s of fo u r w o m en and fo u r men. a c a re e r of a rt fa k e ry w ith th is m an over th e next six o r seven years. you know . The photographs com e fro m m any d iffe re n t sources. They are laid re la tio n s betw een th e tw o co u n trie s. th e ju r y found m e in n o ce nt. pink and blue. Laid out in groups. a c tu a lly existed at one point. . 13 m e tre s long and ju s t over h a lf a m e tre wide. Both the m an's and the w o m an 's side begin w ith b irth : a photograph of a baby boy w ith an oxygen tube in his nose. At each sat a m an o r a w om an. The piece co m p rise s a life tim e 's supply of pre scrib e d drugs. Two little g irls in sn o w -w h ite hats and m uffs stand in fro n t of a C h ristm a s tree.. but o u r new play is a im in g fo r an audience aged betw een 15 and 30. th a t cropped up was this idea of putting an advert in the back of 1 away so m e w h e re ? " said Edward. 3 She shaded h e r eyes w ith h e r hand. to cu t a long s to ry s h o rt he said to m e w o u ld I be in te re s te d in having h a lf of th e 25. had re -fra m e d the painting. And one of the people who replied was d iffe re n t fro m a ll “ Oh yes.. became frie n d s w ith him. I liked him very m uch. This does good tim e and spend lots of money. tablets. each ta b le t in d ivid u a lly sewn into a pocket in the fa b ric. An em aciated m an crad le s a sleeping baby.. tria n g u la r.000 pills. w e ll it's m uch m ore c re d ib le if not n e ce ssarily believable. Photographs in black and w h ite and co lo u r taken fro m fa m ily a lb u m s fro m the 1930s to the present day are a rra n g e d in o rd e r of the subjects' ages. and he kept com ing back fo r m ore paintings. Paintings from 150 to 250 pounds. to p u t it b lu n tly . A group of young m en lift an old m an's coffin onto th e ir sh o u ld e rs.. w ith a book. and a g litte rin g silve r blade on the w o m an 's side tu rn s out to be an a rtific ia l hip jo in t. lozenges and capsules. The te xtile s are fine. not include o v e r-th e -c o u n te r rem edies. leaning on th e co u n te r. and he jm They reached th e house at 2. and it w as a tin y b it of ripped p a p er and it w as a lt beaten up and a ll th a t.so it becom es a b it silly. The to u r s ta rte d w ith a v is it to Beijing th is w eekend. you know . se a rch in g fo r h im . T he re 's no p o in t in. B ut if you had a stu d y by Leonardo da Vinci on. an a shtray fu ll of cig a re tte b u tts are placed alongside th e ta b le ts used to tre a t his high blood p ressure. Some capsules are a co m b in a tio n of tw o colours: blue and yellow . n "W o u ld n ’t it be w o n d e rfu l to ju s t fly A group of fo u r m id dle-a g e d w om en blow cig a re tte sm oke de fia ntly at the cam era. And I to o k th e m oney. The end of th e fa b ric is rolle d up em pty. pinks. s tro llin g along th e beach to w a rd s th e house. a video a rtis t. oval. 2 We d o n 't eat tu n a an ym o re . side by side in a long glass case. I ran it fo r about tw o years. because of o v e r-fis h in g . There w ere around 20 desks in th is o p e n-p la n office. explaining its context. greens. And one of the th in g s that.' And I got quite a lot of replies from . th e caption reads ’A nthony e x p lo rin g ’. so w e 're 4 5 w o rld . Each has a h a n d -w ritte n note undern e a th. A rosy-cheeked to d d le r cram s h im s e lf in the sh e lf of a kitch e n cupboard. a tin y lila c -c o lo u re d fo o tp rin t on a baby g irl's id e n tific a tio n fo rm . th rough to d ru g s fo r a rth ritis . on th e w a ll of y o u r house. I got to know th e c le rk. fro m a ch ild 's a sp irin to m edication fo r com m on conditions such as a sthm a and indigestion. Women's Pages is a b roadly focused. There are m any d iffe re n t co lo u rs: blues. Private Eye magazine. 4 w hich is probably about 40.000 pounds.

o r people d o n 't set th e m up properly. w hy h a s n 't th is been done on a la rg e r scale? house n etting. but perhaps som e of them are also effects of th in k in g th a t you've taken caffeine. th e a n s w e r w ith no access to h e a lth ca re . ju s t believing th a t so m e th in g 's going So. one th a t could prove th a t w h a t people believed could re a lly a ffe ct th e ir bodies? W ell. M osquito nets are quite hot to sleep in. people w h o live in villa g e s. th a t th a t w a s re a lly w h a t th e y w ere g e ttin g . and w a s yes. But did it re a lly w o rk ? Did d rin k in g flu . w h ich is only a p ro b le m fo r ric h na tio ns. T h e ir p e rfo rm a n ce w o u ld be assessed before and a fte r they'd been given a c a ffe in e -fre e d rin k . B ut by providing good m osq u ito nets. in my view. in th e ru ra l se t-u p s. We asked people w h a t th e y th o u g h t w o u ld happen to th e ir a b ility to do these in it. So it's a p a rtly a p o litic a l issue as w e ll. The average hom es. every point of entry. So. th e e xp e rim e n t involved te stin g peo ple ’s responses before and a fte r d rin k in g . So th a t's w here a ttitu d e com es in. they becom e m ore a le rt. but fa r m ore m oney needs to be put into rese a rch . m osquito nets are d istrib u te d in it's a lso p a rtly an eco n om ic one. th e firs t th in g he w anted was to take an exam ple fro m daily life. So. If the sam e fu n d in g w as put in to research on m a la ria th a t. it is a k ille r disease. m a la ria is in fact preventable but the villa g e s. w h e n a v o lu n te e r tu rn e d up to do th e tria l. crannies. We w e n t th ro u g h th e w h o le r itu a l o f bre w ing the coffee. h d So.these ca n 't be taken fo r th e rest th e m osq u ito e s can ju s t fly under. People in villa g e s d o n 't the w a lls . th e idea w as to te s t w h e th e r having i h i h i h i d Yes. h re m e m b e r s trin g s of n u m b e rs. W o rk is being done on it. H assler about his experience of w o rkin g w ith P ro fe ssor K irsch on th e project. So. th in k in g th a t you've had a caffeinated beverage. 153 . as re a l caffeine. So. th e y d id n 't know. w h ich have a h ig h e r chance of m osq u ito e s being present. how d a n ge ro u s is m a la ria ? W e ll. so that you d o n 't have to set it up every night. th e y're able to concentrate be tter. poured th e m a cup. now you have s m a lle r e nclosure w ith m ore m osq u ito e s to feed on you. a p e rm a n e n t net. th a t kind of th in g . F irstly. the new te ch niqu e people are using is a to ta l 1 So. th is is a n o th e r so lu tio n . q u ickly. A lso people d o n 't g e n e ra lly help. th e a b ility to rea ct ve ry q u ic k ly w hen a in t e r v ie w e r d e ca ffe in a te d coffee w o u ld have the sam e e ffe ct on people's c o -o rd in a tio n i n e ce ssa rily kn o w how m a la ria is caused. We are looking at a w hole room w ith a net. w a s deca ffe in a te d coffee . W hat w ould a happen to people's a b ility to respond quickly. in cre d ib ly. He showed th a t th is could s ig n ific a n tly affect people's co -o rd in a tio n s k ills . w h a t's th e s o lu tio n ? Erm . It's also got a lo t to do w ith p a rtic u la r s tim u lu s w o u ld be show n. betw een w h a t people believed th e effects N ew s tra in s of m a la ria keep evolving th a t are re s is ta n t to the new d rugs.placebo coffee. th e y ’re too expensive so th e y 're beyond th e reach of p o o r people. ve ry m uch so. so of y o u r life anyway. but people d o n 't sleep in these. th e fir s t th in g to say is th a t i 0 *r n m a la ria is a very d a n ge ro u s disease. th o u g h w h a t w as re a lly i s im p le as you m ig h t th in k . w h e re does the fu n d in g a c tu a lly go? It's re a lly not as pro vid in g in fra s tru c tu re . p o o r people. a ll the holes. had th e m d rin k it. w o u ld have poor ve n tila tio n . w h a t about a n ti-m a la ria l d ru g s? Yes. you th is . is n 't it? Yes. m a la ria is p a rtly a h e a lth issue but know. and som e of these e ffe cts are c le a rly effects of caffeine. and so they w ill co m p ro m ise on enough a ir and th e re fo re . if they w ere given decaffeinated coffee w ith o u t th e m being aw are of it? So. it ’s p a rtly a q u e stio n of providing education. and we used a ve ry p ro fe ssio n a l lo o kin g m a ch in e to m ake espresso s tre n g th coffee. And p re s u m a b ly you used coffee w ith a T ha t's rig h t. g e ttin g people to change th e ir h abits. o r a long w ay fro m th e n e a re st h o sp ital. because of g re a t a ro m a . It's also very d a n ge ro u s to vu ln e ra b le g ro u p s of people . The m ain g e n e ra lly use tr a d itio n a l tre a tm e n ts . re g a rd le ss of w h e th e r you a c tu a lly have any of th e th in g ? lo n g -te rm so lu tio n involves developing a vaccine. to concentrate. These people te sts. if you w ill. So. say is put into h e a rt disease. And th e n w hat? you d is trib u te th e m ? How do you m ake su re th e y 're used p ro p e rly? C o rru p tio n is a big issue. a ll the nooks.♦<xn P ro fe ssor Irving K irsch devised his own e xp e rim e n t to see w h e th e r announcer m ere ly believing you have had so m e th in g can have the sam e effe ct as a ctu ally having it. W hen people in A frica get it th e y tre a t it like a cold o r 4 B it it is one of th e w o rld 's k ille r diseases.such as babies. th a t has caffeine in it. s m a ll c h ild re n . How do you m a n u fa c tu re m o sq u ito nets? How do sig n s th a t a ttitu d e s are changing. p rogress T ha t's exactly w h a t P ro fe sso r K irsch 's w o u ld p ro b a b ly be m ade m uch m ore data suggested. Because th e re are a lot of p ro g ra m m e s w h ich W orld Health sponsors and. We So a kind of co n ce n tra tio n te st. People re p o rt a ll kinds of effects: they i h a h assler h get jitte ry . it's kind of lo o kin g at th e ir e xp e cta tio n s of w h a t th e co ffe e ’s going had ju s t e m p tie d o u t th e bag of coffee and put in deca ffe in a te d coffee. T his is re a lly im p o rta n t but th is is n 't re a lly a lo n g -te rm so lu tio n . That in clu d e d th e a b ility to co n ce ntra te . d a n ie l So. A n o th e r fa c to r in th is is th e la ck of ava ila b le m edicines. and th e n w e w a ite d fo r a p e riod of tim e. so it w as re a lly convincing. c o m p rise d of h e rb a l re m e d ie s w h ich to do? T hat's exactly w h a t it is. It w as ve ry im p o rta n t to be co m p le te ly co nvincing.so it's not as if you get m a la ria and y o u 'll die. In m ore te ch n ica l te rm s th e re w as a c o rre la tio n . So th is net is a p e rm a n e n t net covering a ll d W ell. let th e caffeine (w hich d id n 't exist) take effect. We talked to D octor Thom as devise th is te st. w h a t w o u ld th e y experience? The fir s t th in g we did w a s w e gave people som e te s ts of co g n itive a b ilitie s and m o to r s k ills . And one of the th in g s th a t people do is they d rin k coffee o r tea. w e used a w e ll-k n o w n brand. in t e r v ie w e r So how did P ro fe sso r K irsch th e n re -m e a s u re d th e ir p e rfo rm a n ce on th e se va rio u s ta sks. The only of coffee w o u ld be and w h a t the e ffect of to m ake you b e tte r can m ake you b e tter. We brew ed th e coffee. It's also not as da n ge ro u s as 1 fa c to r in th is 2 a h e a lth issue 3 a q u estion of E uropeans th in k it is. to le t th e coffee go th ro u g h th e ir system . w hich defeats the w hole purpose. a b o ut 15 m in u te s . i so m e th in g w ith a b s o lu te ly no caffeine have th e sam e e ffe ct as d rin k in g the re a l th in g ? W ell. The. and then not by ta kin g expensive a n ti-m a la ria l d ru g s . yes. a sig n ifica n t co rre la tio n . an accu ra cy te s t and a speed test. a lth o u g h it d o e sn 't k ill as m any as it once did. not sleep in th e ir nets. to fo llo w w ith th e ir hand a m oving ta rg e t. you know. you need to d ra s tic a lly reduce costs to m ake th e m ava ila b le fo r developing na tio ns. This has trie d in certain co u n trie s and has proved to sig n ifica n tly reduce m a la ria cases there. People ju s t leave th e m hanging loosely. b u t th e re are (unknow ingly) decaffeinated coffee was on th e ir behaviour. so th is is also an issue w h e n it com es to fu n d in g . These a c tivitie s te ste d th e v o lu n te e rs ' c o -o rd in a tio n . d o n 't nece ssarily 5 a lo t to do w ith 6 a big issue 7 The m ain p ro b le m 8 The on ly lo n g -te rm so lu tio n 9 a ttitu d e s are changing * percy A ve ry com m on way of fig h tin g m a la ria is to sleep in m osq u ito nets. p ro b le m is the p ro b le m of resistance. so it's ju s t a vicio u s circle . how can m a la ria be prevented? W ell.

and c o m p ris e s a 6 4 -sq u a re board and 16 pieces. P o stu re's re a lly im p o rta n t. he says. a so it is really really im p orta n t. you know. and you feel 'Aha. From 7 then I belong to a sm a lt club of people who can say yes I can afford it. I suppose th e best th in g is a s p irin o r p a ra ce ta m o l. This is sta rtin g to irk the car com panies th a t organise th e m . being aw are of th a t a ll the «f* > j 3 a So you can open th e w indow s? So it's like a te n t inside the room in fact. a ll B ritis h su b je cts w ilt need a visa o r a p a ssp o rt co n taining b io m e tric data: fin g e rp rin ts and a d ig ita lly -e n h a n c e d p ictu re . You're a b so lu te ly rig h t. I was lite ra lly p ro s tra te on th e flo o r. R eally boring. curtains. if I w e a r a Boss su it. Is it often relate d to stress? I d o n 't know. and also they are a sym bol of style. do you? You th in k it's a b s o lu te ly fine? l I th in k. Yes. th a t people are fast who w e a r them . Wales. the pain can last fo r a long tim e. ce n tury building th a t now co m p rise s a bazaar piled high w ith carpets. but th is tim e I c o u ld n 't move. 2 Yeah. a sore thro a t. In fact. because these th in g s are not very cheap as w e ll. Or if I w e a r som ething like a top d esigner label. brands are fo r me . If I say. and N o rth e rn Ireland. so they w ill put you into a kind of category as w e ll. b So w h a t happened? a I m anaged to drag m y s e lf over to the phone and c a ll a d o cto r. M m . a few cars fu rth e r down. they say som ething about the person w ho's w earing them . Nowadays. w o n d e rfu l feeling of being part of a group. tw o rooks. The gam e of chess involves tw o players. lu n ch in New York is e n tire ly possible. and by w earing the brand you belong to a large fam ily. 2 I d o n 't see th a t at a ll. a w h ite spread fo r the bed. organising events and contacting jo u rn a lis ts . and they are m ade to a ce rta in style. And then? Yes. to lie down in a closed room . It se e m s to w o rk . th a t's a long tim e .And then w ith th is th e re 's m ore a ir space and so you get b e tte r ve n tila tio n and a ir c ircu la tio n . you have m uch m ore s e lf­ b . You are individual because they have so very d iffe re n t things. But brands define also your a ttitu d e to w a rd s life. and yo u r a ttitu d e s to w a rd s ce rta in things. F irst of all. I th in k he's on the road to recovery. There are m any th re a ts to w ild life in the b Danube D elta. it is very im p o rta n t . I alw ays ta ke a double dose I'd had th is s o rt of th in g before. Oh. a school tim eta b le pinned on a w h ite cupboard. in to ta l d a rkn e ss. Bagni di Lucca reta in s its 1 a th e end of O ctober. doing s tre tc h in g . Havana's only place of w o rship 4 It was a g irl's room . new b u ild in g pro je cts. and then queen. new te rm in a l and o th e r im p ro v e m e n ts . « B rands are really im p o rta n t because I th in k. I th in k. how are you going to prevent th a t fro m happening again? on. So th e re 's a p e rm a n e n t te n t. you know. like. b And now. B ut a irp o rt o ffic ia ls have tim e . you know. in t e r v ie w e r W hen I fe e l it com ing on. th a t kind of 1 The a tm o sp h e re at th e MTV o ffice s is e xtre m e ly casual. It d o e sn 't change me. in su ra n ce and a irp o rt taxes.they carry sa lty o r s u lp h u ro u s w a te rs. I th in k clothes and identifying w ith the label gives you this. And I th in k th a t is a good fe e lin g ju s t to be . 7 Yeah. robes and pottery. The w a rde n w a s s t ill th e re . but th a t's not re a lly w h a t it's a ll about. It defines you as belonging to a group. I know th a t th a t is som ething really sporty. the 6 inform ation.m ost of th e m reasonably priced. but it's not as sim p le as th a t. I th in k it is fine. 3 I th in k y o u 're exa g ge ra tin g . a M oo rish -style 17th- tucked away in the courtyard. is it? I mean. The 'Placebo e ffe c t' e xp e rim e n t a b consisted of giving coffee to vo lu n te e rs w hich contained no caffeine. W hat do you th in k? th in k of a n tib io tics? You c a n 't get th e m over th e c o u n te r and I d id n 't th in k it w as w o rth going to th e doctor. his body aches. Scotland. And you d id n 't of v ita m in s to p revent th is s tu ff happening. I found a p a rkin g tic k e t s tu c k on th e w in d scre e n . w ith conventional flow ered th in g . b re a kfa st in London. o r th a t people w ill d e fin ite ly see you in a very positive way if W h a t o th e r sym p to m s did he have? The usual. it d o e s n 't m ake any d iffe re n ce to m y p e rso n a lity. 4 Today. in t e r v ie w e r p 6 1 The m a jo rity of people w ho attend m o to r racing events are m ale. b 3 a A re tu rn flig h t fro m N ew York to P a ris costs $695. How long has it been going on? A b o u t te n days. And people P a in k ille rs and even p re s c rip tio n d ru g s d o n 't n o rm a lly w o rk . tw o k n ig h ts . because I like w earing brands. hang on. the cu t is im p o rta n t.I haven't been ill in a w h ile . B ut it's not real. And you fe e l accepted as w e ll. it c a lm s my nerves and th a t helps. 5 For B rito n s try in g to e n te r th e US. 2 conducting co -o rd in a tio n tests. it w as agony. But th a t's gone. I ju s t have in an a tte m p t to keep its debt in line w ith fa llin g revenue.P a u l In te rn a tio n a l A irp o rt w as in th e m id s t of a c o n s tru c tio n p ro g ra m th a t in clu d e s a new runw ay. th e re are a dozen hotels spread out along the valley se n t 2. These c o n sist of a king. bu t w h a t can you do? to be individual. kind of. it's ve ry d iffic u lt fo r d o cto rs to tre a t. you do that. you know . 4 I th in k Tina has got a point a It w as a case of staying in bed. w hen it w ent. T his in c lu d e s in -flig h t m ea ls. i B ut you see it as a positive in flu e n c e on people. I T O 154 also recognise w h a t you wear. tw o bishops. l are also very c a re fu lly made. they enhance yo u r appearance. N ear the centre of Old Havana lies the a b o ut 23 ye a rs old. but it w ill m ake people see you in a d iffe re n t way. 3 cut of the g a rm e n t.. and a lovely resta u ra nt 4 Unit 8 «t i J desk w ith schoolbooks laid tidily. but they w ill also m ake people see you in a d iffe re n t way. th e re is no tre a tm e n t as such. I feel good w ith th is. as w om en co m p rise n early half sa ilin g . Everyone looks the driving po p ulatio n and th e re fo re h a lf of th e ir p o te n tia l cu sto m e rs. b u t I fin d if I lie down a a *fSD 2 The United Kingdom co m p rise s England. th a t's th e best way. Rather sm all. And you see yourself. I th in k th a t's th e p ro b le m . of course. For decades. a cough. yeah. So you are p a rt of it but you are also allowed 1 B ut hang on a m in u te . like. I'm fit' if I w e a r Nike. a b My jo b w ith the PR com pany involves sending out press releases. They in clu d e drainage. a large group of people who a ll w e a r the sam e brand. M in n e a p o lis -S t. and they w ill give me a feeling 'Yes. yeah qu ite . it depends how severe the attack b is. so yo u r appearance w ill be enhanced by the a it as w e ll. you know. and also people w ill recognise you as a person who can afford He has a re a lly high te m p e ra tu re . So you d e fin ite ly have m ore a tte ntio n . tra v e l betw een A m e rica and Europe involved w e e ks o r m o n th s of W ell. w h ich is a m o sq u ito net in th e room . convalescence. If you w a n t to spend a day o r two soaking in the fo r M uslim s.. and e ig h t pawns. 8 Yes exactly.you put som ething 5 Yeah. a schoolgirl's. you ju s t have to lo o k a fte r y o u rs e lf.000 c o n s tru c tio n w o rk e rs hom e 5 l y d ia elegance and p re tty s u rro u n d in g s and the a tm o sp h e re is fa irly subdued. b a W ell. they have d iffe re n t colours and d iffe re n t cu ts and so on and so fo rth . a Casa de los Arabes. . and a ir and w a te r p o llu tio n . F or how long? s itu a tio n is a b o ut to get w o rse . 2 3 W hen I cam e back to th e car.keeping y o u rs e lf s tra ig h t. fo r exam ple 'N ike'. so you can have yo u r individual style w ith in the brand. firs t of a ll it w ill be very w e ll cut.' And so. because brands of course and stay re a lly s till. m u sic p o ste rs are p la ste re d e ve ryw here and CDs are stacked a g a in st th e w a lls . So if you w e a r a Boss suit.

m akes me th in k of a m b itio n . apple and death are a lm o s t th e sam e w o rd m alus and m alum . so you have a m uch m ore positive effect on people. w hatever. the sto ry of Eve seduced Adam w ith the apple in the Garden of Eden. Yeah.. e ith e r by the C oca-C ola C om pany n o r by M entos. So th is w as a very 2 m ake people a ro u n d it w a s caused by d iscu ssio n s of w h e th e r it w o u ld be dangerous. M aintaining a balance sheet is essential. W h a te ver you say Web 2. a ll rig h t th e n . I th in k w e 're supposed to look a bit at the background behind them and see the o th e r p a rts of the painting. of the apple. I d o n 't kn o w if th a t's got any m eaning? pat It s trik e s m e th a t th e re 's a w h o le lot m ore going on here. it's a te ch no lo g y th a t's re lia b le and innovative sp rin g s to m ind as w e ll. love. And th e n th e y m ade m ore videos.. w h ic h are p robably not a w e llknow n brand. pat So if we go back to the Bible though. 2 M uch of th is a d ve rtisin g ta ke s tim e to ta ke e ffe ct .i l assurance if you w e a r som ething th a t you th e re w as a new ve rsio n of th e m . . a p p re cia te good design.! 6 Oh. jane I d o n 't know. w h a t's anybody's im p re ssio n s of it? The obvious e le m e n t is the apple. erm . tra ffic on th e p e e r-to -p e e r death and of course.. and of course it's co m m o n ly kn ow n th a t th e apple re p re se n ts th e fo rb id d e n fru it. a Com e on! You kn o w I'm rig h t. they also fo rm th e ir own ca te go ry of b rands. uri pat n e tw o rk continues to rise. w h a te ve r business yo u're in. th e y’re ch e e rfu l. w as pat m in d. w ith g ro u p s of b o ttle s to g e th e r. 2 The h otel fo rg o t to give me my w a ke -u p 3 are the expressions on th e ir faces. W hat stands out fo r me uri sam e red hair. The young m en are sm ilin g . Yeah. A ja n e e £ *3 > Erm . w h a t the m e n tio n e d a lot. Book o f Genesis. m aybe th a t w ill help us to in te rp re t it. they m ake m e th in k of e rm d e fin ite ly sp o rt. th e goddess of love . B e rm . sin. th e th in g s th e y put on. th a t's the. w h a te v e r th a t is. w ith knowledge. but th e re is n 't a nything in th e w o rld th a t's not a brand. and there are tw o d a rk owl's faces peering over the boy in p il a r else. I d o n 't care about th e m . I w o u ld a d m ire him . e rm . being e xcellent in y o u r game.'? Ah. how ever s lig h t. w ith Coke sh o o ting o ut of b o ttle s. so m e th in g th a t's not quite Police say they have stepped up e ffo rts to ta ckle stre e t violence. You know. th a t's the. w e ll. it w a s associated w ith A p h ro d ite . re lia b ility . So both CocaCola and M entos got p le n ty of p u b lic ity 6 n o t in flu e n ce d fro m it. I th in k they m ake you look good because th e y're quite attra ctive . It's no co in cid e n ce th a t in La tin . It So you m ean th e y also have th e ir own im age? *t i j 4 pat uri black's sh o u ld ers.it's s u b lim in a l. we've got tw o birds. but it w a s p robably m ore th a n 50 m illio n g lo b a lly in to ta l. e rm . is m ore positive. you know.. th a t's not the top of the apple is it? T hat's the bo ttom of. o r even 3 4 5 be enhanced define has a positive effe ct le th a l. They s o rt of suggest perfe ctio n . then yo u r w h o le p e rso n a lity is. 2 The p a in tin g's called 'Two young m en' and it's by a Dutch p a in te r C rispin Van den B roeck who lived in the 16th century. e rm . th e y're u n se lf-co n scio u s. I w o u ld look at him and I w o u ld d e fin ite ly see how in d iv id u a l his style is o r h e r style is. is he o ffe rin g th e o th e r m an the apple? It's hard to te ll w h e th e r he's o ffe rin g it o r th e o th e r one's pushing it away fro m him . they had m o rb id c o n n o ta tio n s at th a t tim e . tem p ta tio n . of course. th is person as w e lt. can produce a negative e ffe ct on yo u r sense of w e ll-b e in g . A fte r fu rth e r questions. jan e « s o rt of great to liste n to. I th in k th a t’s w h a t they suggest.. erm . A lot of th e hype 1 m ake any d iffe re n ce u se r-g e n e ra te d videos. and I th in k th a t gives an im age to th e m w h ich is a ll a b o u t fu n and enjoying yo u rse lf. 4 average. And also th e apple w as supposed to have a sym b o lic va lu e in Greek m yth o lo g y w e ll before C h ristia n tra d itio n . 1th in k the firs t th in g they m ake klara me th in k of is top q u a lity definitely. th e fir s t co n n o ta tio n th a t com es to ja n e b » »-*«» So as you look at the painting. Because not w e a rin g b ra n d s is a lso a brand. It's hard to kn o w how m any people view ed it. W hat do they mean? T h e re ’s th re e b irds actually. it w as ve ry ve ry su cce ssful. so the apple became associated w ith various th in g s. O wls and crow s. And th e y're p re tty speedy and p o w e rfu l ca rs as on you. o r people ru n n in g about. and it gives you som ething th a t you. Yeah. of keeping fit and also e rm . w ith m ore b o ttle s of Coke. A ve ry s ym b o lic fr u it. e rm th e y com e in th e se p rim a ry c o lo u rs. pat But if w e go back to th e painting. in clu d in g both th e o rig in a l and a ll those I th in k th a t people w ho negate brands. d e fin ite ly c o m fo rt because th e y're co m fo rta ble to wear. yeah. too. she added: ''Few of us in the W hite House have had hands- you kn o w th o se p e p p e rm in t sw eets. th e y 're easy to pa rk. so good on m oto rw a ys. They could be b ro th e rs . th e y have the pat I w a s in a n o -w in situ a tio n w h e re I could not a ffo rd to stay here o r buy s o m e th in g ca ll so m y siesta lasted three hours. C k e it h I th in k th e fir s t w o rd s th a t w o u ld com e to m y m ind are th in g s like fast. th a t they have p e rfe ct sound quality. feel positive in as w e ll. th a t's tru e . e rm . th e se very b rig h t c o lo u rs. dynam ic. to a c tu a lly d rin k a Diet Coke and eat M entos at th e sam e tim e . Success. And yeah. 1 Of co u rse yeah.0. sta rte d o u t as an e x p e rim e n t on a w e b site called Eepybird. M eanw hile. is n 't it? I m ean. I m ean. 3 W h a te ver do you w a n t to do th a t jo b fo r? It's so badly paid." Unit 9 ♦o pat uri 1 I had a ta lk w ith him w h ich te ft no d o u bt w h a te v e r in m y m ind. It a ll fizzes up and sh o o ts o u t like a geyser. w h a t's any deeper im p re ssio n s of it? p il a r It's d iffic u lt to know w hat. uri p a in te r intended. o r on bikes o r w h a te v e r . of being fashionable. 1 because th e y're quite trendy. lik e in S h akespeare's Macbeth th e o w l and cro w are co n sid e re d as p il a r sym b o ls of death. so. T housands of people co n trib u te d th e ir own e ru p tio n videos. getting to the top of y o u r game. e rm . despite the fa ct th a t m ore than 5. It appears th a t they kn o w each o th e r very w e ll. if you have a good look. a little bit prem ier. p e rfe ct technology. I th in k it's a bit creepy. And quite sim ila r-lo o k in g faces. Also. s m a ll. I w o n d e r if th a t w ould. u n o ffic ia l ca m paign but it g e n era te d loads of PR. th e y're a little b it re tro because th e y used be fa s h io n a b le in th e sixtie s. it is also d e fined by s o m e th in g . 3 Any change in life style . T he y're fo r people who. So w hat's it supposed to m ean then? I th in k it has s o m e th in g to do w ith a re m in d e r of death. if you have som e th in g th a t has a positive effect cam e in a few years ago. th e re 's a crow 's head ju ttin g out fro m behind the head of the boy in red. It's a video sh o w in g tw o m en adding M entos to a b o ttle of Diet Coke. on experience w ith a c risis like th is. so it w as like a fire w o rk display. I th in k they also suggest a kind of executive life style . It w as never a c tu a lly p lanned. So w h a t w ould you say to som ebody who says 'W e ll I'm not influenced by brands at alt. I th in k they m ake me th in k of a m b itio n and s triv in g fo r som ething. you gain from . erm . th e y are also a brand. Yeah. i l «f r a This is a re a lly stra n g e v ira l ad cam paign.. Tough new law s w ill com e into e ffe ct next year. W hat w o u ld you lik e to d rin k ? 4 a 5 b Oh.000 copyright in frin g e m e n t su its have been b rought against in d ivid u a l file sharers. W hat else have we got? I m ean look. and then D rin kin g a lco h o l and ta k in g ce rta in o th e r p re s c rip tio n d ru g s can reduce the e ffe cts of th e m ed ica tio n .

Chloe. But th e n as a reaction.. I'm late. Bash th e m ? No. Obama w a s a gre a t ca m p a ig n had w o rk e d and th a t th e im age had helped it w o rk . it's so tru e . it's fin e . you m ake a w ish w h e n you put it on.. But then. I d o n 't know. T ha t's rig h t. 'm a rk e tin g '. So. 'cool' o r 'event' o r 'im a g e '. and I th in k it's inevitable th a t w ords fro m d iffe re n t c u ltu re s com e to Russian. I 'll do it later. but I d o n 't re a lly kn o w w h a t to do w ith it. 2 d iffic u lt to know 4 ap p ea rs th a t 5 hard to te ll 6 s trik e s me th a t 7 are co nsidered 8 se e m s to be saying it p re tty o u t-o f-d a te a lready? I ju s t d o n 't see th a t it's an e n d u rin g im age. very 1 I d o n 't know. I th in k y o u 're supposed to bash th e m to m ake th e m tender.is so m e th in g called e sp rit de corps. w o u ld be called 's u p e rm a rk e t' because the o w n e r w o u ld th in k it's very trendy Yeah. yo u 're a bit close. does it b ring you good lu ck? Yes. 'keyboard'. ♦* * r* E rm . English w o rds are used fo r it. Bye. d o n 't w o rry.. w ill he? »C D I like th is one.000 s tic k e rs and h a lf a m illio n p o sters. It w o n 't take you a m in u te . th e re sh ould be pat crea te d by th e a rtis t Shepherd Fairey w ho show s a very positive im age of Obama. •d 1 w as supposed 3 sta n d s o u t fo r uri «o W ell. lie s th e frig h te n in g re m in d e r of death. it's tru e to say th a t a ll th e kn o c k o ffs and p a rodies say how m uch re a lly th e im age has resonated and becom e a refe re n ce point.. oh I g o t in B ra zil.. to do so. one of the th in g s. I agree w ith Jane. the last 20 years. Good flig h t? Yes. I agree. it m eant a lo t at the tim e . g r e a t. I'd m uch ra th e r in clu d e . John Lennon. 300 at a tim e . is an im age th a t im m e d ia te ly captured p eople's im a g in a tio n . could you? I ca n 't. I c a n 't te ll you th a t.. and so on. I w o u ld say.. No. Unit 10 «o W hat w as y o u r e xp e rie n ce of being in th e a rm y and belo n ging to th is in t e r v ie w e r o rg a n isa tio n ? I w as in th e a rm y fo r fo u r years and grover I w o u ld say I enjoyed m y fo u r years in th e m ilita ry. W h a t's th a t? T hat. For exam ple the w ord 'handy' is used fo r a m ob ile phone a in Germ any. but Russian sh o u ld be s till pre d o m in a nt. It's nice w hen c u ltu re s m ix. C om e back in th e car. Lovely . the Soviet Union w as cu t off fro m th e rest of th e w o rld . Erm . It's ju s t not w o rth it.. so he c e rta in ly w o n 't be fo rg o tte n . y o u 're rig h t . For quite a long tim e. There w as a law passed th a t any shop nam e sh ould be t in a 156 a balance . Do you kn o w a n yth in g a b o ut th e m ? N ot rea lly. but I th in k one o f th e rea so n s is th a t Fairey w a n te d to create so m e th in g th a t was m a in s tre a m . people can a ctu a lly read it.OK. fro m a s ta ll in th e s tre e t and th e n it ju s t sn o w b a lle d and by th e end of th e cam paign he was s e llin g 300. We can alw ays try to m o rro w m o rn in g .. you th in k th e p a in tin g se e m s to be saying th a t behind th e happiness uri of y o u th. w ith a b o ttle o r so m e th in g . I m ean it's. it's p ride in and loyalty to a unit displayed by its m e m b e rs and th a t's so m e th in g th a t we. because it sh o w s th a t B a ra ck O bam a's develop. c o m p u te r language th e re are m any w o rds th a t have p a rtly no G erm an equivalent. I got th is octopus. a s ym b o lic refe re n ce point. it w a s fine.. C om e on. b a The way G erm ans use English w o rds has increased a lot in recent years Look. W hat? b b olga it becam e very p o p u la r to use English w ords. and it's tru e th a t he o b vio u sly fe lt th a t Obama th e re is a p e rfe ctly good Russian w ord m aybe so m e th in g m ore w o rth y than ju s t p o litic s . it is supposed to be a re a lly good e xh ib itio n . No. e rm . of life . OK.'tra in in g '. J u s t one m ore . I agree w ith. Ju st a m in u te . b W ell. It se e m s to m e th a t his objective in c re a tin g th is im a ge w as ju s t to m ake people c u rio u s a b o ut Obama. I th in k it's a very. lik e as an icon. And I th in k he m u st have been very happy th a t th is icon w as copied.. it's m ost com m on to use the English expression. predom inantly. Such a w a ste of tim e . er. and yeah that's. e rm . There w as d e fin ite ly a sense of fam ily. yeah I can. yeah. su p p osing it su d d en ly a i C D done in C y rillic as w e ll as in English. yeah John Lennon I th in k . e rm . Yeah. w h a t about a m ore crea tive fig u re like. I'm quite happy to go along w ith that. w h o know s w h e n th a t m ig h t happen again. In fact. it w a s th e n a very s p e c ia l ca ndidate and one th a t w as w o rth p u ttin g som e e ffo rt into. but e rm . He s ta rte d s e llin g th e se im ages. le t's go and get norman b I th in k. p o w e rfu l im age. Yeah I see y o u r point. so jan e a u Yeah. and I th in k th a t is w h y the im a ge has lasted and is s t ill ve ry reso n a n t today. For exam ple. w hereas it is used to say 'u se fu l' in English.. Hi. th a t w a s a ccessible. I th in k we sh o u ld go fo r it. supposedly. a W e're going to be here fo r h ours. th a t w as going to m ake an im p a c t w ith lo ts of d iffe re n t people. w as one th a t re a lly ca p ture d v o te rs' im a g in a tio n s at th e tim e . And then also in o th e r fie ld s a d rin k . As you say Tina. 'hard drive'. th e re are also o th e r expressions th a t have an English a b a b a b 5 a m eaning but are used in a d iffe re n t b context in G erm an. yeah I'd be in fa v o u r of th a t. d id n 't it. yes. and. th e m essage of th e poster. It was really. and if you leave it on th e w ish com es tru e . its going to la st. one of the firs t th in g s th a t they d r ill into you in basic . ju s t fo r a few pain tin gs.it's called basic tra in in g th a t we have . It's a w ish bra ce le t. He c la im e d th a t he d id n 't m ake any m oney fro m th e p o ste rs and th a t he put a ll th e m oney back into the ca m p a ig n its e lf and he also stated th a t he d id n 't m in d th a t th e im age had been parodied and copied. He's m uch m ore im p o rta n t than. th is is an im age fro m th e 2009 US p re s id e n tia l ca m p a ig n . P atrick. th a n an a rtis t. fo r shop nam es . e rm . as if I was p a rt of a la rg e r group. Can you live w ith that.. 'm a n a g e r' of course. fo r exam ple. In m y opinion. He fe lt th a t he w a n te d s o m e th in g th a t he fe lt was going to tra n s c e n d th e c o u n te rc u ltu re . I th in k it's va lid . and it was ju s t Russian. do it now please. instead of ju s t b lin d ly b o rrow ing w o rds fro m d iffe re n t languages. th a t's quite an ach ie ve m e n t. th a n. a W hat. It w as a c tu a lly t he fe lt th a t he sh o u ld m ake so m e th in g th a t im a ge is an in te re s tin g que stion . W hen it appeared d u rin g his cam paign it re a lly captured people's im a gina tio n . got i t . anyway. and th a t hope. 'URL'. tim e .. 'h ea d se t'.. o r . th e re is a reaction against it.. an a b So w h a t did you w ish ? W ell. And I th in k it's quite good because th e re should be som e balance. Yes . is n 't b 2 a b 3 a ch a rg e s at you? Com e on. L e t's go. But the la st few years. A lot of new w o rds w h ich d o n 't have equivalent in Russian. 'e m a il'. T his po rtra ye d w h a t A m e rica n people w a n te d at th e had been w e ll-k n o w n fo r his p o litic a l s a tire and p a rodies and it w as q u ite stra n g e w hen he fir s t cam e up w ith th is im age because it p o rtra ye d Obama as having vision and th e a b ility to lead and th a t's so m e th in g th a t's ve ry a b s tra c t. e specially in th e language of m a rke tin g fo r exam ple. A n o th e r thing w h ich I noticed. I agree w ith Tina and j a b ca p ture d p e o ple ’s im a g in a tio n . y o u 're provoking it. And so w h a t you've got here fo r it .So. Jane? Yeah. Some people m ig h t say th e re is a da n ge r o f too m any English w o rds com ing into Russian u n n ece ssa rily w hen I suppose you c o u ld n 't ta ke the ru b b ish out. if w e get in. e rm . C a refu l. but I'm ju s t n o t re a lly convinced th a t it's. I fe lt a pa rt of. everyone had to m e m o rise and le a rn and p ra ctise and so . Ah. I m ean he w as th e firs t A fric a n -A m e ric a n p re sid e n t. m um . o b vio u sly . E rm . A like.the language its e lf should re m e m b e re d fo r so m e th in g else. W hy it becam e such an iconic im age of som eone w h o 's going to be leader.

Could Scotland. Because e ve ryth in g is a rra n g e d fo r you? I suppose it m akes a difference to m y life as w e ll. Seem s fu n ny to th in k of it now. that it's quite a supportive environm ent. A fte r six m o n th s I w as w o rk in g in a bank. . w hen I w as in basic we i It's th e h ig h lig h t of the fo o tb a llin g ca le n d ar. F o o tb a ll has not m e re ly been consum ed by th e w o rld 's so cie tie s. th a t's rig h t. lH Q 1 2 a sense of A get te r r ito r ia l • • • For not o n ly had you escaped fro m jth e c la n kin g m a c h in e ry of th is le s s e r life. W e ll. a c tu a lly I w a s hopeless. w hose s u p p o rte rs are h isto rica lly th o u g h t of as being fro m the u p p er classes. th e day w h e n the fro m w o rk . especially known as the club of A rgentina's w o rkin g class.1Jnprame a s tro n g e r p e rso n . e rm we help each other. has th e ir hom e sta d iu m on the Asian side of Istanbul. p d And th e g re a te st of th e m a ll fo r you? W ell. Boca Ju n io rs . a key d e rb y is betw een In te r M ila n and AC M ilan. they.and River Plate fig h t it out fo u r tim e s a year in w h a t's known as the Superclasico. you do it. W e ll I tea m e d up w ith a few co lle a g u es an open.mefj. Erm . th e y m ake you. so I th o u g h t yeah great. those persons w ho w a s n 't quite used to erm . I ate do housew ork. In th e past. 5 As fo r th e ir in te re s t in fo o tb a ll.how can I say this? . I ju s t had to share. And fo r exam ple th is w eek I'm looking a fte r an e ld e rly couple. however. e rm yeah. Boca Ju n io rs has been sh a rin g . I suppose. and they c a ll th e m th e ir gangs. I've always th o u g h t of m yself as of a ll th e m oney th a t s u rro u n d s th e m . th e y're based on d iffe re n t co n tin en ts. at tim e s . Recently. so th a t was d e fin ite ly cool. e rm . I even joined the Scottish N a tio n a l P arty fo r a tim e . I can Since then. In contrast. day in and day out. I had som e free. is w h e n we m u st never lose hope. It's great to be of help to these people.. River Plate are nicknam ed Los M illonarios (The M illionaires]. then I take them out fo r a b re a k fa s t wviVr th e se people. s o 50. socialising and ju s t getting out of the house. only doing . It is called Derby della Madonnina in h o n o u r of th e statue of th e V irgin M ary on th e top of M ila n 's c a th e d ra l. be d isa p p o in tin g because of a ll th e te n sio n involved. of hard to leave.som eone gives you a piece of paper. ju s t help them avxd J’. I like m yself i w h a t to lo o k o u t fo r th is season. one day I'll be in th e ir p la c e . So. ydu really 1 tru ly d o n 't but you do see the purpose of it w hen you are in a situ a tio n and it's relevant because you m u st depend upon 2 loyalty to these people. It a ll w e n t fin e u n til th e tech a ll of a sudden he has to share his toys w ith o th e r people. Erm . o r the people's club. I'm going to s ta rt in Argentina. and w e se t up th is so ftw a re com pany to g e th e r.. new people. I learned th a t I w as a lot s tro n g e r than I th o u g h t I was.w wnrt. •U s till so im p o rta n t today? One reason th e se riv a lrie s provide such h ig h -p ro file m atch e s is because d a v id bubble b u rs t in th e 90s. That show s how globalised a sp o rt fo o tb a ll has becom e . Fenerbahce. to th is. s o rt. w h y th e se riv a lrie s are 3 you got o u t of being in th e a rm y? . it really m akes a difference to th e ir lives and You d o n 't th in k .harp. erm . I'm ju s t extending m yself to o th e r people. G alatasaray has som e th in g of a fan base in A u stra lia because som e of the co u n try's best-loved players w e n t to play there. today? Yes.. And.mes I team up w ith o th e r carers. Galatasaray. I th e person th a t's standing to yo u r le ft and to y o u r rig h t. I got involved w ith the organisation because a frie n d of m ine said th a t I m ig ht enjoy it.. so.k.f. Erm . w h e re a s you have evenings. w ith the the biggest rivalry being the Buenos Aires one. th a t's it yeah there is a huge te m p ta tio n fo r people to stay in the a rm y. Superclasico m atches th e y're s till in th e ir house and they w ant Did you m iss th e a rm y a fte r you le ft? and th a t's how th e y get you. So I go over and I B ecause I lived w ith th e sam e people fo r fo u r years. tra d itio n a lly associated w ith a m ore w o rk in g -c la s s fan base. Both clu b s have origins in La Boca. E xactly w h e n chaos com es in to o u r life. but you had escaped w ith m ost of y o u r 2 3 | 1 p a rt of a la rg e r group lo ya lty 3 b e longing to 5 bonded w ith are noted fo r the gigantic flags and . and it w a s re a lly good. I th in k th a t is not g city w akes up to the big m atch of the year. th e y are g e n u in e ly in te re ste d and passionate ab o ut fo o tb a ll. th e se are frie n d s fro m W3. because. In te r w as seen as th e clu b of th e M ila n m id d le -c la s s e s . you d o n 't t h i n k . you know. I had to share a bathroom w ith 80 m en. In terestingly. LJJvV u d ? In Italy. 157 . I can. And so th a t can be. the lady's in a w h e e lch a ir and they need assistance g I w ill be honest. I only became a m em b e r. River W ell. H ow did th a t a ffe c t you pe rso n a lly? Erm .tuak . o r belonging to a la rg e r group. but I g o t to kn o w a lo t of d w h ich can. th o u g h t of it as. I le arned yeah.i. and it's betw een G alatasaray and Fenerbahce.. of this. I w a s n 't any good at it. I suppose as a ca re r you do lots of d iffe re n t things. you develop a sense of g Believe it o r not. erm .. Is th e re a te m p ta tio n to stay in th e a rm y because in som e w ays life m u st be m uch s im p le r? It is because you d o n 't th in k . class su p p ort base. we need to tu rn to Turkey fo r that.iog . to show them the ropes and. No s in g le w o rld re lig io n can m atch its g e o g ra p h ica l scope.at the beginning you d o n ’t see the purpose of it. they can create th e ir own little groups of friends. Erm . They w a n te d to go to the m atches. W hat do you th in k are th e good th in g s devote som e tim e for. And if you do they w ill cause p roblem s. w e n t p a rtyin g . know new people th a t way. Ista n bu l was voted th e m ost exciting derby of them all. specific group recently. som ebody who is an only kid and now i presenter w as rea lly keen on independence fo r sense of fam ily. A I w a n te d to do so m e th in g in the like th a t n a tu ra lly and these are th in g s th a t th e y had to learn. e rm . yes. th in k in g is not required in the arm y. w ith a supposedly upper- w hen som ebody new joins. so old people can m eet up and they can get to of co u rse I m issed it and th e re w a s a s tron g te m p ta tio n to rejoin th e a rm y. m aybe I cook a little bit fo r th e m and. Erm . to be independent.1J-. W hat a b o ut in Europe. I've heard th a t m any people plan a trip to th e A rg e n tin e c a p ita lju s t to catch th e Superclasico. yeah. I signed up fo r one of th e ir tra in in g i g you te ll us David. David K le b e rs o n is here to te ll us com . er. It's a unique riv a lry because alth o ug h both te a m s c a ll the sam e city hom e. e rm th is m eans that as w e ll as me being able to ta lk to the carers. the w o rkin g class dockland area of Buenos Aires. I w e n t d rin k in g you know. are based on the European side. I've m ade a few life lo n g frie n d s. p A m ate s and n e ig h bo u rs. s u rp ris in g ly . so moved to a w e a lth ie r d is tric t in 1925. ju s t a few tim e s a week.b ip. w ith m any get started. I liked me. Erm . it has been e m b ra ce d by th e m . m o re o r less fo r m e but m ore o r less fo r erm . I m issed m y frie n d s. and loyal person. e rm . so you have to learn. afternoons. the th e la st fo u rs o f years of m y life.. c1w e n t sh o p ping .banners w hich each club's su p p orte rs hang from a ll over the stadium . because it's ju s t easier. you know. because you are so bonded w ith y o u r gro u p . However. you c a n 't get te rr ito ria l about th in g s. w ith 80 o th e r guys fo r exam ple. and it's kin d of Boca fans com ing fro m the local Italian im m ig ra n t com m unifv. honest.. and so you develop a i » —HI-» •E O w h e re a s AC M ila n w a s th e w o rk in g class team .fam ous fo r th e ir ye llow and blue strip . w e ca lle d it relax. there are o th e r people out th e re who w ere not courses. so I e n ro lle d in th is d ra w ing p You've chosen th re e riv a lrie s fo r us class. fo r exam ple. M edia coverage is m assive and a lm o s t o vershadow s the m atch e s th e m se lve s. I got very involved in p o litics at university.

no t a c c o rd in g to J a m e s s o c ie ty in th e fu tu re . p u ttin g it in m y c o n t rib u t e s to g lo b a l w a r m in g is fo rb id d e n o n e c o m p u te r. o f P h a e th o n . *JJ3 * jane Yes. t h is is a p o e m W e ll re a lly . T h e w a y th e b o o k d e s c r ib e s 2 H is p o in t r e a lly is th a t p o lit ic ia n s a re to n n e s p e r year. th e p e o p le c o o p e d up a n d they lo o k s o distre sse d ). th e r e 's an got a chance. b e c a u s e a c t u a lly it's s o im p o r t a n t to be a b le to S o t h is c o u ld h a v e h a p p e n e d a n yw a y . V e ry r a r e ly d o y o u g e t th e dre*am A n d th is is w h a t o u r g e n e r a tio n d id. no. . y e s . O n ce it's th a t w ay. p a r e n ts fo r c re a tin g th is s itu a tio n . p e o p le s t i l l s in g t r a d it io n a l 2 In no w a y d o e s th e c r is is th r e a t e n t h e ir s a y w e s to le th e m a g ic b ra n d . T h e y h a v e n 't g o t a c h a n c e . 8 M a n y a n tib io tic s a re not a v a ila b le o v e r th e c o u n te r in p h a r m a c ie s in th e U S . fire . 6 H e r r e f u s a l to a n s w e r th e q u e s tio n in c o u r t w a s ta n t a m o u n t to a d m itt in g sh e w h a t th e y w ill s a y to us. a re . 2 3 in t e r v ie w e r S c ie n t is t a n d w r it e r J a m e s L o v e lo c k h a s ju s t b ro u g h t o u t a n e w b o o k N o way did he write that himself. I m e a n lo o k . E r m . $ o re a lly . It c o m e to a n en d b e c a u s e o f c lim a te c h a n g e . That a Jet of people r o u n d th e You s e e t h o se b a tte ry c h ic k e n s a ll h a p p e n e d is th a t n o r m a l c iv ilis a tio n h a s w o r ld . to lig h t fire s . so I d o n 't s e e w h y w e s h o u ld it's 's c r ip tu r e s a fe '.h o w he b o rro w e d th e su n A 5 * • • • 4 T r a d itio n s r u n d e e p .) It d o e s n 't h u rt a n yo n e . an d th a t it's a lr e a d y too la te e x a g g e r a t in g to do a n y th in g a b o u t it. w e ll this is a p o e m a b o u t s o c ie t y in is if it b e c o m e s ju s t m u c h to o e x p e n s iv e a n d p e o p le c a n 't a ffo rd it.. is p o in t a n yo n e w h o c a n id e n tify a w a y to re d u c e th is b o o k a v e ry d e p r e s s in g re a d ? w h a t he s a y s is s p o t on g re e n h o u s e g a s e s . o r it's c o n tro lle d . p il a r (Of c o u rse I do w n lo a d m usic. th e e q u iv a le n t o f a t r u n k a n d b r a n c h e s S o in a w a y. c h a n g e . a n d p red icted th a t. A n d th a t's w h a t w e 'v e d on e: d e g r e e s by th e e n d o f th e c e n tu ry '. ju s t a s t h e ir p a r e n ts an d b u s in e s s . uri N o . d o n 't th e y ? A n d th e p e o p le •i T O 1 a t th e re c o rd la b e ls g e t a lo t o f m oney. b u t no w a y w o u ld m a k e s v e ry g lo o m y p r e d ic tio n s a b o u t th e I w a n t to liv e th e re . it s e e m s O K to m e. B u t it's a ls o v e ry c r it ic a l o f o u r g e n e ra tio n . it s o m e w a y s yes. in m y h o u se . w h o re a d th e boo k.REkP.s t a r t e d th e p r o c e s s ? th e fu tu r e an d it's c a lle d 2084. w e s to le fo lk s o n g s . H is s ta te m e n t c o m e s it. th e n W ith f o r m e r v ic e p r e s id e n t A l G o re w h o ca n d e v e lo p th e te c h n o lo g y to m T h a t's rig h t. w h ic h is m E x a c tly . th e p o e m is q u ite o p t im is tic . th e y w a n t 1 I s h o u ld a d d th a t n o t o n c e h a v e T. everyone 1 S o d o e s th a t m e a n w e s h o u ld ju s t e n jo y d o e s it. b ut it's u s th a t c a u s e d it.BXER M o ir a W e ll. w e m is u s e d th e s u n 's 3 S e v e n y e a r s I've k n o w n h im . A n d a n y th in g th a t d o e s n 't t h in k w e ca n . in o th e r w o rd s . A n d th e y b la m e th e c o m p la in t. th is p o e m • • • • O n ly r e c e n t ly h a ve w e d is c o v e r e d w h a t is p a r tly a b o u t h o w w e w ill be a c c o u n ta b le th e r e a l p r o b le m w a s . T h e y d id n 't in te n d to do b e e n c a u s e d by h u m a n s . H e p r e d ic ts th a t by I'd p r e fe r to c y c le to w o r k a s o p p o s e d to w a lk in g o r ta k in g th e b u s. A r t is t s a re no t g o in g to sta rve .• {JO c h ild r e n w a n t to u s e up e n e rg y . a n d th is is a th e y th in k th a t if w e 'r e g o o d a n d w e sto p s t o r ie s a b o u t it o r s e e it o n TV. b u t he beehives. p a n e l on c lim a te c h a n g e s a id 'G lo b a l a n d th e y a c c id e n ta lly p u ll th e tr ig g e r w a r m in g is m o re th a n 90% lik e ly to have a n d it g o e s off. r e c e iv e d a th e y a r e n 't a llo w e d to. th e y g e t p le n ty of m o n e y fr o m t h e ir in te r e s tin g c o n t ra s t b e tw e e n tr a d itio n an d te c h n o lo g y ru n n in g th ro u g h it in fa ct. o r is to s o c ie ty . In th e s e c o n d h a lf. th e y 'v e g o n e b a c k to p r e .in d u s t r ia l s o c ie ty . (t w o n 't.. g e t p la c e s a n d v is it p e o p le a n d it's an bu t w e 'v e j u s t k ic k . it d e s c r ib e s h o w th e 1R8 2 t h in k h e 's 3 I p a r tly a g r e e w h ic h h o ld up th e le a v e s . w e 'v e p u lle d a tr ig g e r on c lim a te c h a n g e . I d o n 't a g r e e w ith it II d o n 't think w a r is ever a so lu tio n ) b e c a u s e you d o n 't k n o w w h a t 's g o in g to h a p p e n . s u c h a s g o v e rn m e n t c a ll.. do y o u ? You c a n 't c o n t r o l it. d o in g r ig h t now . The Vanishing F a ce o fG aia in w h ic h he It's g r e a t fo r a h o lid a y . I ju s t c a n 't b e a r th in k in g a b o u t it II t in a L o v e lo c k . ju s t lis te n in g to it in m a n y w a y s . tr e a t a n im a ls th a t w a y . they use w in d m ills . o r a n y o n e on m y b e h a lf. If h e 's rig h t. i t 'll a l l go you w o u ld n e v e r tr e a t h u m a n b e in g s in. M o ira . $o. •C D • 1 • • • •m N o w a y w i l l U n ite d w in th e le a g u e . in s tit u t io n s w h ic h h ave a r e s p o n s ib ility t im e s .. th e a ir p o r t s a r e n 't u s e d o ff on lo t s o f h o lid a y s w h ile y o u 'v e s t ill p o c k e t . th e y h a ve te c h n o lo g y lik e s o la r p a n e ls an d c o m p u te r s . the way they trea t fa rm anim als. On s p e c ia l g r a n d p a r e n t s u s e d to do. th e y k in d of p u lle d th e tr ig g e r by te m p e r a t u r e s a re lik e ly to r is e o n e to s ix a c c id e n t. a c c o rd in g to th is b o o k ? re m o v e C O 2 an d o th e r g re e n h o u s e g a s e s fro m the a t m o s p h e r e at a rate of a billion A d o n 't 5 t h in k h e 's g o t a a v e ry d is tu rb in g boo k. It's a t r a d it io n a l life s ty le . a b o u t s o c ie t y in th e future. in fa ct. H e w a s g u ilty . a n d p ro b a b ly v e ry r e lig io u s .s o th e y 're a llo w e d ju s t r e a lly s h o u ld n 't . d o e s it. 7 copied it from the Internet. in c o n tra s t to p h a rm a c ie s in E u ro p e w h e re m a n y can be b o u g h t w ith o u t p re s c rip tio n . it's lik e s o m e b o d y w a lk in g in a fo re s t n e v e r g o in g to s a y h o w b a d t h in g s re a lly ju s t a w e e k a fte r th e U n ite d N a tio n s s o m e w h e re an d th e y p ic k up a g un . you c a n 't sto p it. it is n 't. a n d w h a t 's book. I r e a lly d o n 't t h in k p e o p le s h o u ld b u y th e m .th ey o c c a s io n s . w h ic h w a s a b o u t a to t a lita r ia n m N o. th e o n ly th in g th a t 's e v e r g o in g to s t o p p e o p le /travelling b y p la n e ) a n d n o w w e c a n 't s to p th e p ro c e s s . R ic h a rd B ra n s o n g lo b a l w a r m in g is a lre a d y o u t of co n tro l. o u r s e lv e s ? it's n o t lik e I'm g o in g in to a s h o p a n d you m W e ll y o u c o u ld ta k e it lik e th a t.. p a r tic u la r ly p o litic ia n s . T h a t's th e m a in p o in t o f th e mean. w h o o rg a n is e th e c lim a te c o n fe r e n c e s . J o h n H o lm re p o rts . fu tu re o f o u r p la n e t. I'd n e v e r b u y o ne . o b v io u s ly a re fe re n c e to G e o rg e O r w e ll's 1 S o is it r e v e r s ib le ? n o v e l 1984. 2 The DNA analysis found that the bloodstains w ere identical to those on the victim's body.. b u t th e y a ls o h ave re c o rd la b e ls . W e t a lk to M o ira r e a lly s e e th a t. I m e a n . 1 W h a t h e 's r e a lly s a y in g is th a t g lo b a l w a rm in c j is a lr e a d y h a p p e n in g a n d w e S o it's h u m a n s th a t a re c a u s in g c lim a te c a n 't s to p i t . A n d it's a ls o lik e a s ta r te d m o v in g .th e p o e m 1 C a n w e s lo w it d o w n ? t a lk s a b o u t fie ld s an d k e e p in g b e e s in m W e ll he d o e s n 't s a y w e c a n 't. F ly k n o w s te a lin g s o m e th in g . F o r e x a m p le . it's c e r ta in ly le n d in g h is s u p p o rt. a n d a t no en erg y. any m o re . to o u r c h ild r e n fo r w h a t w e 'r e d o in g n o w - d e p a r t m e n ts o r th e p o lic e . th o u g h new sreader T h e b illio n a ir e e n tr e p re n e u r R ic h a rd B ra n s o n is o ffe rin g $ 2 5 m illio n to M c C a n n . A n d th e la s t p a rt r e fe r s to th e s to ry tim e h a s h e le t m e d o w n . th e y w a n t to be c h ild r e n . th e y s m a ll fa rm in g c o m m u n ity ..e v e ry th in g is p ro b a b ly g o in g to be O K. s a y s he w ill a w a rd $ 2 5 m illio n to a n yo n e an d not o n ly that. S y n th e t ic t r e e s r e s e m b le r e a l tr e e s $ o . S o in a way.it s a y s b a c k to w h e r e it w a s . v e ry s t r ic t ly c o n tro lle d s o c ie ty th e y liv e b u rn in g fu e ls a n d e v e ry th in g . th e e n d of th e c e n tu ry c lim a te c h a n g e Unit 11 w ill m a k e th e E a rth a lm o s t u n in h a b ita b le 1 d o n 't r e a lly a g r e e %m n fo r h u m a n s . b ut 3 O n e e u ro is n o w e q u iv a le n t to 1 d o lla r 25 c e n ts . th e s e a re th e s u rv iv o r s .. a b s o lu te ly b r e a k s m y h e a r t w h e n I s e e $o . 1 ♦ a m a z in g th in g to b e a b le to d o I s o ! j u s t think p e o p le a re a lw a y s g o in g to c a r r y on flying). 1 6 th in k th a t 's a v a lid p o in t 7 th in k 8 h e 's a b s o lu te ly rig h t. ju s t lis t e n in g to it. 5 W e b e lie v e th a t b a n k s s h o u ld be r e g u la te d in th e s a m e w a y a s o th e r U s u a lly you a u d it io n f o r t h in g s s o m a n y g o d 's c h a r io t a n d he d ro v e it to d e s tr u c tio n .

it's s t ill a m azing how it can a ffe c t you. b u t now . One good th in g is th in g s tike tra n s p o rt. so w h a t yo u 're g e ttin g is q u ite sh a llo w in te rm s w a n d e rin g around th e city and th in k in g 'Ooh s h a ll we go here?'. so w ith re s ta u ra n ts . w e ll it's hard to say. he had le a rn e d h o w to o p e ra te a com puter. an event b u t it a lso ta ke s away.giving a trem e n d ou s boost to th e ir confidence. of kno w le d g e and in fo rm a tio n . the a rtic le su g g e sts th a t people th e se days inverted com m as s o rt of. They d o n 't have to go th ro u g h tim e it m u s t have been.it's a m yth. m icro pieces of content w h ich w e w ith surety. The people I hate m ore th a n anyone 0 else in th e w h o le w o rld are rude shop a s sista n ts. I d o n 't kn o w if th is is a p ro b le m nece ssarily. In sh o rt. e rm . I agree w ith you. th is is going to m ean th a t I can get w h a t I w a n t m ore qu ickly. There w as so m uch going on th e n.. So. w hat type of content people w ant. T here are c le a r p ra c tic a l b e n e fits to th a t kin d o f th in g . There are now 48 com puters installed thro u g h o u t the Indian capital. giving the ch ild ren access to a w hole new w o rld and valuable life s k ills . th e re b y also ge tting m ore in fo rm a tio n about so m e th in g to find th e ir Unit 12 * jtijj it unsupervised. o So you th in k te ch n o lo g y so m e tim e s rep la ce s y o u r own kno w le d g e o r y o u r own in itia tiv e to in ve stig a te and fin d out * 1 2 3 I th in k one c o lo u r th a t w o rk s re a lly w e ll j fo r a bedroom is lig h t green. it's going to be su n n y on Tuesday'. you w o u ld ju s t w a n d e r round th e to w n and fin d a place y o u rs e lf. but I th in k th a t th e in fo rm a tio n th a t people get w h e n they ju s t lo o k up. it ta ke s away the ro m a n tic is m of ju s t l answer. because of. you know. lives . w e can te ll w ith s u re ty th ro u g h a ll the science and a lg o rith m s . e rm . H ow ever fa m ilia r. The Hole in the W all project has spread like w ild fire . in h is to ry in a search engine. Right. a ll. And y o u ’re th in k in g a b o ut saving tim e .. you c a n 't do th a t.th e ir parents o r th e ir parents' frien d s . W hat w e 're doing instead is w e ’re using. We set out to create a w hole new fo rm of content. This. 3 . d e fin ite ly yeah. B ut you s t ill e xp e rt in one fie ld but not in th e o th e rs. le a rn in g by w a tch in g o th e rs. •m You se t o u t to tu rn tra d itio n a l m edia on its head back in 2006 w hen you s ta rte d D em and S tudios. it may o r m ay not tu rn tra d itio n a l m edia on its head. People d o n 't need a ll th is. a fte r a ll th e se years. dead kn o w ledge.people typing d ire ctly in w h a t they w a n t . I th in k . but th e crazy Slum dog M illionaire . so here you go. . j T ha t's so tru e . For exam ple. e rm . I th in k probably. *$53 1 We se t o u t to crea te a w h o le new fo rm of co n ten t.at V ie tn a m . say yo u r phone o r y o u r c o m p u te r before you leave fo r w o rk. the ch ild ren sta rte d to le a rn th in g s they w o u ld n 't n o rm a lly le a rn in a cla ssroo m . w h e n you th in k th a t w e w ere able to do th a t. c o m m u te to w o rk or. the Hole in th e W all p ro je ct - co m p u te rs to the In te rn e t at som e point. opposed to w h a t w as before. as you say. it alw ays does. Before long. you go abroad and you need to eat 1 th e review . how have you redefined m edia? T hank you fo r th a t. They ju s t need to fin d som e o th e r way. W hat we did w as we added a science to the a rt of creating content. in the very lim ite d tim e th e y have now. And w h a t did it achieve? N o th in g . it's w e ll kn ow n fo r it. The project aim s to connect the for. you tr u s t it as w e ll. in a ce rta in tim e . It s u m s up fo r som e people th e w o rs t kind of p o s t-w a r Soviet a rc h ite c tu re .to fig u re out w h a t type of people . e rm . im agine going fro m big. hid e o usly 3 j l ia m 0 te c h n o lo g y has a do w n sid e to it? Erm . We actu ally d id n 't set out to tu rn it on its head. a lm o s t re a s s u rin g ly fa m ilia r. H e’s been com ing here fro m th e s ta rt. Each co m p u te r has educational softw are. I th in k w h a t s h e ’s re a lly try in g to do m ore th a n an ything else is get a tte n tio n .. you kn o w because it's so easy to access. T ha t's a very fa ir point. W hat do you th in k ? ja n e Yeah. th a t kind of th in g . This n in e -ye a r-o ld g irl com es every day to use it. you've found a re s ta u ra n t. th e y w a n t to live th e ir lives j 1 W e ll. C hildren w o u ld be able to use w o rd-p roce ssin g softw are and so on.began w hen a Delhi advance if you are going to be late. I w o u ld olga say th e re is no yes and no. it's s t ill an a s to n is h in g ly p o w e rfu l im age. T his 1 2 -ye a r-o ld has no c o m p u te r at hom e. Three and in t e r v i e w e r h a lf ye a rs la te r. th e y have th is ea sily a va ilable in fo rm a tio n .. playing w ith the educational gam es. th e n you can alw ays lo o k up on. new technology. It's im p ossibly c o lo u rfu l and exciting. s c ie n tist decided to in s ta ll a c o m p u te r in a w a ll in a p o o r p a rt of the city and see w hat happened. say fo r exam ple.c lic k c lic k c lick. go on this so rt of le a rn in g jo u rn e y to get to th e ir answer. it's a new th in g th a t people have less tim e and w a n t th in g s w h ich w o u ld go on to in spire the hit movie. installed. can te ll th ro u g h a ll the science and a lg o rith m s . Erm . huge budgets of content w hich no one know s if it's going to w o rk to sm a ll. I th in k th a t c e rta in ly th a t it's so easy to find the a n sw e r th a t th e y're looking new tim e . It's h e lp fu l. th a t they d o n 't a ctu a lly have to. but you w o n 't n e ce ssa rily fin d o u t a b o ut the co n text of it o r any kind of b ro a d e r d e ta il. because it's w ritte n down. th a t som ebody w o u ld be an so m e w h e re . 4 The th in g I re m e m b e r m ost c le a rly of a ll is o u r fir s t holiday together. in a way. you know. we de fin itely th in k th a t it's causing people in tra d itio n a l m edia to re th in k th e ir business m odels. like ra il c lo su re s o r any tr a ffic p ro b le m s. They ju s t find it and th a t's that. social m edia and d irect navigation . d o n 't you th in k ? In fa ct. th is is going to save tim e . « The ch ild re n are fa llin g over them selves to look at so m e th in g new. th a t's w h a t it's going to be lik e '. q u icke r. If you. you've found a c q u ir e . It's not ju s t th e m u sic of the B e a tle s th a t it re p re se n ts. it's fa m o u s th is one. you lo o k at th e m and th in k 'R ig h t. The idea has caught on and is spreading internationally. I q u ite agree w ith th a t but I th in k it's th e y need it. and *p n 2 th in g s? It b rin g s o u t th e lazy side. For these slu m kids. som e of these disadvantaged kids are learning m ore than the adults . kin d of.th o s e in n o ce n t people k ille d . and th e y get m ore and m ore value.w h a t fo r? It w e n t to ta lly out of c o n tro l. It's a com puter.. and th a t's a c tu a lly in va lu a b le because th e n you w o n 't be la te o r you can te ll som e o n e in 1 a p p a re n tly it's the House of Soviets in K a lin in g ra d in today's Russia. m atch it w ith a d ve rtise m e nts and then only m ake the content th a t people w a n t th a t's profitable. 5 W hat I like m ost of a ll a b o ut living here is th a t it's close to th e sea. Before long. lo o k at it and th in k 'oh great. 2 We d e fin ite ly th in k th a t it's causing people to re th in k th e ir b u siness m od e ls. There are som e c h ild re n in India w ho have never used one before. This is one th a t I w o u ld choose to sum up q u icke r. in th a t tim e . So the idea fo re ve r was le t's m ake a piece of content and w e 'll r ic h a r o see if it w o rks. The d o n 't va lu e g e n e ra l kn o w le d g e as m uch as people used to. w h a te ver. it's not ju s t fate th a t is shaping th e ir a process. let alone seen one. Like kind of fiv e -d a y w e a th e r fo re ca stin g .it's also the hard w o rk of a h a ndful of good people w ho know w h a t ch ild ren are capable of. I th in k th e re 's an in s tin c t w h e re . I d id n 't kn o w w h e re th is w as but fin d o u t if th e re 's any. and th e y can extend th e ir kno w le d g e w h e n th e y need it and w h e re So do you th in k th a t m od e rn o c h ild re n w ere teaching them selves. T ha t's tru e . Before. And ju s t like Slumdog M illionaire. search. you kn o w . is going to be su cce ssful. to ugly.. A t th e sam e tim e . I 'll have m ore tim e to kind of spend enjoying m yself. But. is going to be successful. y o u 'll get a ve ry concise vie w of th e key po in ts of th a t event in h isto ry. W hat a g re a t im a ge of the 60s.

. In India. The USA and o th e r p a rts of the w o rld seem to be m oving in d iffe re n t directio n s. phones helped to o rganise p ro te sts a g a in st th e g o v e rn m e n t. .•t i j m o b ile a llo w s vo te rs. Text m essa g in g . b u t she lo st h e r c o n c e n tra tio n in th e th ird set. the 160 It w a s a s u re sign th a t w e 'd h it the 'te r r ib le tw o s' w h e n m y d a u g h te r s ta rte d cryin g a lot. using th e ir phones as video o r m usic players. M au re sm o looked lik e a su re w in n e r. w ith o n e -c e n t-a -m in u te phone c a lls across India and o n e -ce n t text m essages and no m o n th ly charge. And w ill th e United S tates. T housands of nerds c o lle ctive ly sta rin g into to check on e le ctio n can d id ate s' incom es and c rim in a l ba ckg ro u n d s. co n su m e rs pay a relative fo rtu n e ju s t to own the la te st gadget. In A fric a . Hong Kong now faces co m p e titio n fro m m a in la n d China. Poland to A u stra lia . In A frica . C om pare th is w ith India or Kenya. Of course. A m e ric a n s d o n 't seem to have fa lle n c o m p le te ly in love w ith th e m ob ile. 5 Ahead 7 -6 . c h u rch e s reco rd s e rm o n s w ith m ob ile phones. Is th e d ig ita l divide as a p p a re n t as these tw o im ages su g g est? Is the developing w o rld re a lly losing th e in fo rm a tio n re vo lu tio n ? Sarah V ernes re p o rts on the ric h e s t so cie tie s and th e poo re st . They w ill get a lis t of p o te n tia l jobs. on the o th e r hand. fo r exam ple. m o b ile s are tr u ly u n iv e rs a l technology. she th o u g h t th a t a sure w ay of g re e tin g h e r new frie n d s w o u ld be to shake hands. m o n ito rs w h ich e ve n tu a lly go on to fo rm m o u n ta in s of ru b b is h in the s tre e ts of th e developing w o rld . m ore e le g a n t devices m ake it h a rd e r fo r th e US to innovate fo r th e huge developing w o rld o u tsid e. B ut p ro je c ts like PesaPal in Kenya have m ade the m ob ile a to o l of p e rso n a l finance. handsets s e ll fo r u n d er $25. « • 1 From Spain to B razil. a llo w in g you to co n ve rt cash into 'c e ll-p h o n e m oney' at y ^ u r lo ca l g ro ce r. but in how you use it. It is alw ays w ith you. basic m obiles. w h e re m ost c h a ttin g se e m s to be done via the In te rn e t. In th e W est. th e in e q u a lity co n tin u e s and every te c h n o lo g ic a l innovation th a t a p p ea rs in th e developed w o rld m ay w e ll end up a decade la te r on a ru b b ish d u m p th o u sa n d s of m ile s away. cheap and easily repaired. In m any places. Here. A ll th is su g g e sts an innovation gap betw een the th e screens.. has yet to becom e m a in s tre a m . 3 It is a su re bet th a t no c la s s ic a l m usic release th is season o ffe rs b e tte r value fo r money. One Indian com pany o ffe rs a te x t m essage se rvice fo r jo b h u n te rs. sen d in g th e m out to rem o te v illa g e s . so v ita l to Indians. fa ste r. A Being E nglish. p la s tic cards have becom e the n o rm .not in how fancy o r expensive yo u r phone is. In places lik e M oldova. The tw o im ages are p o ig n an t and sh o ckin g but m ay w e ll give a d is to rte d im p re ssio n of c o m p u te r te c h n o lo g y in th e w o rld today. th e focus is on creating m ore and m ore uses fo r cheap. along w ith e m p lo ye rs' phone n u m b e rs. In the US. In developing co u n trie s. In India. s till d o m in a te d by everyday needs? s u b je c t of m o b ile phones . B ut th a t's o n ly h a lf th e story. 2 -1 .a m assive w o rld w id e m id dle class w ith a sim p le m ob ile and a le s s -is m ore se n s ib ility ? W ill d o m e stic dem and fo r sle e ke r. the m o b ile phone is opening up new w ays of m an a g in g money. view ing th e ir bank accounts on th e ir 2 m obiles. jo b se e ke rs can re g is te r by te xtin g in fo rm a tio n a b o u t th e m s e lv e s . the phone has m oved to th e c e n tre of c o m m u n ity life . A m e rican com panies are co n ce ntra tin g on fancier. w h e re m ost people have bank accounts. w h ic h can in s ta n tly be w ire d to anyone w ith a phone. Even w ith o u t th e In te rn e t. be able to p ro fit fro m th e b illio n s of m ob ile u se rs in developing c o u n trie s . people are w o rk in g via text message. m ore expensive devices w hich give th e ir cu sto m e rs status. w h ich gained so m uch fro m the In te rn e t re vo lu tio n . opening a new fro n tie r of in novation. W hat w as once a su re th in g su d d en ly becam e m uch m ore co m p e titive . via te xt m essage.

f _______________________ A1 Starter A2 Elementary B1 Pre-intermediate B2 ) -al V Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary • The e-Portfolio combines with the Self-study Pack DVD-ROM. real life objectives. • The Advanced Coursebook provides 80 to 90 core teaching hours. extendable to 120 hours using the range of extra material in the Teacher's Pack with DVD-ROM.with additional speaking and writing skills sections based on realworld communication.guaranteed by the Cambridge International Corpus. • Windows XP. dependable and that meets the needs of Advanced learners .10. fully customisable by the learner.cambridge. • Explore sections provide the extra ingredients for enhancing communicative ability . with topics and activities to inspire learners worldwide. leading to more sensitive and more effective communication.6 (1 GHz G4 processor or better for PowerPC. It also features an interactive wordlist and vocabulary testing tool. System requirem ents B1+ Intermediate (J ® . 1. audio and video. • Authentic audio throughout builds learners' ability to understand the natural English of international speakers.English Advanced Unlimited Coursebook with e-Portfolio DVD-ROM For Windows and Mac Adrian Doff & Ben Goldstein English Unlimited is a goals-based course for adults. every part of every unit contributes to achieving purposeful.83 GHz processor or better for Intel) • minimum 512 MB RAM (1 GB recommended) Upper Intermediate Advanced • Encouraging learner autonomy. C1 Meeting flexible needs p i C English Vocabulary in a m b r id g e i f p p UNIVERSITY PRESS www.4.org MMMVJn) 9780521144452 M ichael McCarthy Felicity 0 Dell ISBN: 978 0 521 71266 8 ISBN: 978 0 521 67746 2 REAL ENGL I SH G U A R A N T E E . • Includes language that's natural. Vista or Windows 7 (1 GHz processor or better) • Mac OSX 10. • Ideal for mixed and single nationality groups. creating a real 'can do' record of their progress. integrating interactive practice. pronunciation support. the e-Portfolio DVD-ROM enables learners to build a portfolio of their work. • Across Cultures sections develop learners' intercultural competence as a ‘fifth skill’.5 or 10. which prepares learners to use English independently for global communication. Real life every step of the way Building global relationships • With practical CEF goals at the core of the course.