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A Seminar Report on

3D PRINTING
Prepared by : Chintan C Diver
Roll No.

:10

Class

: B.E.IV (Electronics & Communication Engineering.)

Semester

: 8th Semester

Year

: 2005-2006

Guided by

: Mrs.Ketki Joshi

Department
of
Electronics & Communication Engineering.
Sarvajanik College of Engineering & Technology
Dr R.K. Desai Road,
Athwalines, Surat - 395001,
India.

Sarvajanik College of
Engineering & Technology
Dr R.K. Desai Road,
Athwalines, Surat - 395001,
India.

Department
of
Electronics & Communication Engineering.

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the Seminar report entitled 3D PRINTING
is prepared & presented by Mr.Chintan C Diver Class Roll No. 10
of final year (B.E.IV) Electronics & Communication Engineering
during year 2005-2006. His work is satisfactory.
Signature of Guide

Signature of Jury Members

Head of Department
Electronics Engineering

LIST OF FIGURES
NAME OF FIG.

FIG
NO

PAGE
NO

1.1

Basic View

03

1.2

Evolution Of 3D Printer

04

1.3

3DPrinter Used By Different Fields

05

2.1

Basic Process Of 3D Printing

07

2.2

Working Of MJM Head

08

2.3

Material Deposition Process Of 3D Printer

09

2.4

Block Diagram of Basic Working

10

2.5

The 3D Physical Model Created After The Process Of 3DP

12

2.6

The 3D Physical Model Is Being Finished After The Process Of


3DP

12

4.1

3D Printer

17

4.2

CAD Design

18

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I take this opportunity to express my sincere thanks and deep sense of gratitude to my
guide Mrs . Ketki Joshi for imparting me valuable guidance during the preparation of
this seminar. She helped me by solving many doubts and suggesting many references. I
am also thankful to Prof. Mehul Rawal Department incharge (DIC) of Electronics &
Communication Department of Sarvajanik College Of Engineering And Technology,
Surat.
I would also like to offer my gratitude towards faculty members of Electronics &
Communication Department, who helped me by giving valuable suggestions and
encouragement which not only helped me in preparing this presentation but also in
having a better insight in this field. Lastly, I express deep sense of gratitude towards my
colleagues and also those who directly or indirectly helped me while preparing this
seminar.
Chintan C Diver
Roll Number - 10
B.E. IV E&C, 8th Semester

ABSTRACT
The revolution in biological sciences and bioengineering has created an environment in
which the advances in the life sciences are not only amenable to, but require, the active
participation of modern engineering. This revolution, along with the advances of design
and manufacturing, CAD/CAM, information technology, biomaterials and biomedicine
have emerged a new field of Computer-Aided Tissue Engineering (CATE). CATE
enables the application of advanced computer-aided technologies and biomechanical
engineering principles to derive systematic solutions for solving complex tissue
engineering problems
Three dimensional printing (more commonly referred to the abbreviation 3DP), a tool for
Solid Modeling is a type of rapid prototyping system developed by MIT in the late 1980s
which turns the 3D data into a physical model for conceptual evaluation. The paper
described both the colored and uncolored versions of "cut-on-the-stack" lamination on a
self-replicating 3D printer and was widely distributed from April 1987 to April 1991.
Using an adapted inkjet printing system, layers of a fine powder (either corn flour or
plaster) are selectively bonded by "printing" a water-based adhesive from the inkjet print
head in the shape of each cross-section as determined by a CAD (computer aided design)
file.3D printing - also known as "rapid prototyping" - transforms a blueprint on a
computer into a real object by building up a succession of layers. The material is bonded
by either fusing it with a laser or by using alternating layers of glue.
Three-dimensional printing technology is used to build physical models from sketches,
blueprints, 3D scans, CAD Files and many other formats. Using a computer and proper
software, a 3D mesh is created to represent the object to be printed. This mesh data is
then sent as many thin horizontal slices to the printer, which interprets the data and joins
together liquid and powder materials to form complex parts layer by layer. Threedimensional printing is the least expensive rapid prototyping process, which turns the 3D
data into a physical model for conceptual evaluation. Where an ordinary printer lays
down a single layer of ink on a single sheet of paper, these printers add the extra
dimension by printing layer after layer in a vat of starch or plaster until you have a
physical model identical that accurately reflects the original design. Parts with a wide
variety of sizes, strengths, flexibility and surface finish can be produced with this method.

INDEX
List Of Figures.....(I)
Acknowledgement......(II)
Abstract .....(III)
1. Introduction ...(01-05)
1.1 Evolutionary History of 3-D Printing...02
1.2 What is 3-D Printing.03
1.3 How and Where 3-D Printing Models Are Utilized .....04
1.4 3DP Used By Different Fields.05
2.

Process of 3-D Printing......(06-12)


2.1 How 3-D Printing works ?.............................................................................07
2.2 Process of 3-D Printing..08
2.3 Important
considerations
at
the
time
of
Printing
...10

3. Theory of 3-D Printing.......(13-15)


3.1 3D Printing Techniques ...14
3.2 Methodologies for 3d printing...14
3.2.1 Preparing a geometric specification....14
3.2.2 Generating STL files on a CAD system.14
3.2.3Using a modeling library3.2.4 Direct generation...15
3.2.4 Direct generation.....15
3.2.5 Getting 3-D data from 3D Scanner..15
3.2.6 Verifying the specification..15

4. Software & Hardware. ..(16-19)


4.1 Devices or Tools...17
4.3 Software used in 3-D Printing. 18
4.3 Machines specifications used in 3-D Printing...18

5. Applications of 3DPrinting .........(20-24)


5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

Basic Applications of 3DP ...21


More Application...22
Future developement of 3DP.....24
Advantages of 3DP.24

Conclusion ..25
Bibliography ..26

CHAPTER 1
Introduction

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Evolutionary History of 3-D Printing :


Capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment is a big challenge. A
number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include EDM, GPS and
photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. In this paper, we
discussed 3D printing technology, which can acquire high density point data in a
accurate, fast way. Therefore, it can provide benefits for refurbishment process in the
built environment. The scanner can digitize all the 3D information concerned with a
building down to millimeter detail. A series of scans externally and internally allows an
accurate 3D model of the building to be produced. This model can be sliced" through
different planes to produce accurate 2D plans and elevations. This novel technology
improves the efficiency and quality of construction projects, such as maintenance of
buildings or group of buildings that are going to be renovated for new services.
Terrestrial laser scanning is the use of a ground based device that uses a laser to measure
the three-dimensional coordinates of a given region of an objects surface automatically,
in a systematic order at a high rate in near real time.
In the bad old days (in some places as much as a full decade ago), when designers
designed a product or a part, they normally had to take the plans to a machinist to have a
prototype made, to validate (e.g.) ergonomic data and fit between components.
Three dimensional printing ( more commonly referred to the abbreviation 3DP ), a tool
for Solid Modeling is a type of rapid prototyping system developed by MIT in the late
1980s which turns the 3D data into a physical model for conceptual evaluation. And was
widely distributed from April 1987 to April 1991. .
In a digital age however, when design itself is now almost entirely digital everywhere
around the world, it can and should quite simply be just the 'Print' button of one's
computer that addresses this task. And indeed, this process of producing material objects
from 3D Computer Aided Design is pretty widespread today and commonly known as 3DP.

1.2 What is 3-Dimentional Printing :


Three-dimensional printing technology is used to build physical models from sketches,
blueprints, 3D scans, CAD Files and many other formats. A 3D printer is exactly what it
sounds like: a printer that prints in 3D. However, we're not talking about stereoscopic
images (3-D) that you wear special colored glasses to view. We're talking about 3D
objects that you can hold in your hand. A 3D printer allows you to go directly from your
3D CAD data to a physical prototype in a matter of hours.
Founded in 1986, 3D Systems is a leading provider of rapid 3-D printing, prototyping and
manufacturing solutions. Its systems and materials reduce the time and cost of designing
products and facilitate direct and indirect manufacturing by creating actual parts directly
from digital input. These solutions are used for design communication and prototyping as
well as for production of functional end-use parts.
Fig 1.1 Basic view

R/P Machine

Finished R/P
Object

Using a computer and proper CAD software, a 3D mesh is created to represent the object
to be printed. This mesh data is then sent as many thin horizontal slices to the printer,
which interprets the data and joins together liquid and powder materials to form complex
parts layer by layer. Three-dimensional printing is the least expensive rapid prototyping
process, which turns the 3D data into a physical model for conceptual evaluation. Where
an ordinary printer lays down a single layer of ink on a single sheet of paper, these
printers add the extra dimension by printing layer after layer in a vat of starch or plaster
until you have a physical model identical that accurately reflects the original design. Parts
with a wide variety of sizes, strengths, flexibility and surface finish can be produced with
this method.

1.3 How and Where 3-D Printing Models Are Utilized :

3.55

3.5
3.00

3
2.34

2.5
2

1.86

1.5
1
0.5
0
1998

1999

2000

2001

Fig 1.2 Evolution Of 3D Printer


The primary applications for 3-Dimensional Printing are in the development of functional
models, prototype parts, creating patterns for prototype tooling and metal casting, and in
creating visual aids to support engineering and tool making. With hundreds and
sometimes thousands of layers,
Three Dimensional Printing has led the field of Rapid Prototyping (RP) in the creation of
functional parts and tooling directly from a CAD model. It was the first technology to
achieve the fabrication of ceramic parts, and pioneered the direct fabrication of ceramic
molds for casting. Three Dimensional Printing was a leader in the creation of metal parts
directly and in the use of these parts for dies.
Three Dimensional Printing can substantially reduce the time to market for new products,
enhance product quality by improving the coupling between design and manufacturing,
and lower product cost by reducing development and tooling costs. Furthermore, the
flexibility of the process makes totally new technologies and applications possible and
has already generated novel solutions to engineering problems. 3D Printing is at the
forefront of the coming revolution in manufacturing brought about by Rapid Prototyping.

1.4 3DP USED BY DIFFERENT FIELDS


Leading companies such as Sony, Adidas and BMW are using the 3D printing technology
to create prototype models as it is faster and less expensive than using traditional
methods.

Direct manufacturing Other


4.5%
3.8%
Tooling components
4.0%

Visual aids for


engineering
16.5%
Visual aids for
toolmakers
4.5%

Patterns for cast metal


7.2%
Patterns for prototype
tooling
13.6%
Proposals
5.0%
Quoting
1.5%
Ergonomic studies
3.7%

K o re a
1 .8 %

C h in a
4 .7 %

Functional models
19.8%
Fit/assembly
15.9%

O th e r
9 .6 %

U .S .
4 2 .8 %

Ja p a n
1 8 .7 %
Ita ly
3 .5 %

UK
4 .3 %

C anada
Sw eden
F ra n ce G e rm a n y
1 .0 %
1 .2 %
9 .3 %
3 .0 %

Fig 1.3 3DPrinter Used By Different Fields

CHAPTER 2
PROCESS
OF
3-D PRINTING

CHAPTER 2

PROCESS OF 3-D PRINTING

2.1 How 3-D Printing works ?

Fig 2.1 Basic Process Of 3D Printing


The completed CAD solid model is transferred to a STL file, ready for the build process.
Parts are built by an innovative process, that uses a multi jet modelling (MJM) head to
apply a material in three dimensions. The print head comprises multiple jets that build the
model layer by layer. If the part is larger than the MJM head the build platform will
reposition within the Y axis such that the process may continue.

2.2 Process Of 3D Printing :


MJM head is illustrated below:The process starts by depositing a layer of powder object material at the top of a
fabrication chamber. To accomplish this, a measured quantity of powder is first dispensed
from a similar supply chamber by moving a piston upward incrementally. The roller then
distributes and compresses the powder at the top of the fabrication chamber. The multichannel jetting head subsequently deposits a liquid adhesive in a two dimensional pattern
onto the layer of the powder which becomes bonded in the areas where the adhesive is
deposited, to form a layer of the object.

Fig 2.2 Working Of MJM Head


Once a layer is completed, the fabrication piston moves down by the thickness of a layer,
and the process is repeated until the entire object is formed within the powder bed. After
completion, the object is elevated and the extra powder brushed away leaving a "green"
object. No external supports are required during fabrication since the powder bed
supports overhangs.
Three dimensional printing offers the advantages of speedy fabrication and low materials
cost. In fact, it's probably the fastest of all 3DP methods. Recently color output has also
become available. However, there are limitations on resolution, surfacefinish, part
fragility and available materials.

The material deposition process of the 3D printer is illustrated below:-

Fig 2.3 Material Deposition Process Of 3D Printer

In this case these models can be strengthened by infiltrating with wax, and ink can be
added to the initially transparent wax to produce parts that have a variety of colours.

Fig 2.4 Block Diagram of Basic Working


2.3 Important considerations at the time of Printing :
Print jobs are costly and time consuming. Careful planning will eliminate wasteful prints.
There are a number of important considerations to take into account when designing a
model for printing. 'Design for 3D printing' is somewhat different than design for other
forms of manufacturing.

Accuracy: The printer accuracy is about 0.25mm in the horizontal plane, and
about 0.5mm vertically. The finest feature that can be printed is about 0.5mm.
Change orientation to maximize the accuracy in your critical dimensions.
Scale: Parts are most effectively printed laying down, so avoid parts that do not
fit in the recomended square if possible. Consider printing your model in parts or
reduced scale, so all parts can fit.
Strength: Material properties of ABS are similar to plastic. However, because the
printer deposits material in fibers, the actual properties are more similar to
hardwood: They depend on the orientation of the fibers. Consider printing your
model in parts, so that each part can be printed in an orientation that maximizes its
strength.
Moving parts: If you are planning to print pre-assembled mechanisms (e.g.
assembled prismatic, cylindrical or ball joints), leave 0.4mm between surfaces
that move relative to each other. Consider printing your model in parts, then
assembling the parts, if you require tighter tolerances in your model joints.
Support material removal. The printer uses washable support material to fill in
temporary gaps and to construct scaffolds for printing overhanging structures. The
support material is washed away using detergent after the print is complete. Allow
adequate pathways for the water to seep in to flush out the support material. Do
not leave support material sealed in closed or nearly closed cavities: add openings
if necessary. Consider printing your model in parts, so that overall support
material use is minimized.

Cost: Material cost is approximately $20 per cubic inch (both structure and
support materials). It is not necessary to hollow out large volumes to save material
- the printer does that automatically. However, there are many other ways to
reduce material (and consequently print time). Whenever possible, use large
chamfers, fillets and cuts to remove material that is not structurally necessary.
Print time: Print time is roughly proportional to net print volume, at about 2
hours per cubic inch. Part orientation may also dramatically influence print time so consider several options before you proceed.
Part orientation: Before sending your part to the printer, consider various
orientation to maximize resolution and minimize required support and print time.
Consider printing your model in parts and optimize the orientation of each part
individually.
Testing. It is advisable to print uncertain portions of your model to verify they
print correctly, before printing the entire model. For example, if your model is
large and has a joint in it, print just the joint first to make sure it works, before
printing the entire model

Very Basic steps :


Run CAD, then:
1. Use File|Open to load your STL file.
2. Use STL to set the units and scale of your print.
3. Use the zoom buttons and orientation ball at the top right to zoom, pan, and rotate
your model.
4. Use the STL|Orient or STL|Rotate to change orientation.
5. Press the Slice, Support, Toolpath buttons on the toolbar.
6. Press the build button on the toolbar. Pack multiple parts, then submit.
On the machine now :
1. Make sure foam base is clear and ready, and temperatures have reached their
settings. Then release the pause button.
2. The machine will self test, then enter pause mode again.
3. Release the pause button. The printer should start printing.
4. Observe the first few layers .
Completing the print
After the print has competed successfully,
1. Reduce the temperature settings back to idle temperatures
2. Remove the foam base, and remove the models from the foam.
3. Clear the print chamber from excess strands and dirt.
Removing support material
Break off large pieces if support material from the model if possible.

Here, There sre some 3 Dimensional physical models which are created by the use of
the 3 DIMENSIONAL PRINTING.

Fig 2.5 : The 3D Physical Model Created After The Process Of 3DP

Fig 2.6 : The 3D Physical Model Is Being Finished After The Process Of
3DP

CHAPTER 3
THEORY
OF
3-D PRINTING

CHAPTER 3

THEORY OF 3-D PRINTING

3.1 3D Printing Techniques :


Desktop 3-D Printing machines are based on desktop printing technology. They are no
larger than a photocopier, run just as cleanly and quietly and have a number of
advantages over other these techniques, the machines have lower purchasing costs, parts
are cheaper to construct.
Early design iterations are streamlined by the installation of desktop 3D printers with
CAD workstations. High precision parts are unnecessary during early development.
Precision models are introduced using more accurate techniques at the final step before
production.
As the development stage processes near manufacture, costs of change increase
accordingly. Changing a functional prototype has the disadvantage of high cost and delay
to production. Desktop 3D printing is the best solution to concept modelling where
changes can be introduced early within modelling. Introducing a change in the concept
phase can be easily absorbed.

3.2 Methodologies for 3d printing :


3.2.1 Preparing a geometric specification :
The standard format used to specify the geometric shape of the part to be printed is called
STL (Stereo lithography). This is a very simple format that essentially describes the
boundary of the part as a list of triangles with normal vectors pointing to the exterior side.
Typically only the pure part geometry is described without supports, bases and other
auxiliary structures that are usually added at the preprocessing stage. Note that an STL
file has no units. Most STL processors assume by default the file to be in either
millimeters or inches, but the final units of measurements and scale can be user specified.
There are four ways or can be said that three methods to generate the file:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Using a CAD system (most most popular method)


Using a modeling library
Direct generation
Getting 3-D data from 3D Scanner

3.2.2 Generating STL files on a CAD system :


Typically a design is manually created using solid-modeling CAD software, and then
exported in STL format. Most commercial CAD systems have an export or save as
option for this purpose; 1 A critical parameter in generation of an STL file is the
resolution in which the part surface is facetted. The resolution is typically measured as
the maximum deviation permitted from the true surface of the model. The maximum

deviation should be, say, an order of magnitude finer that the printer resolution. Print jobs
are costly and time consuming. Careful planning will eliminate wasteful prints.

3.2.3 Using a modeling library :


In some cases it is easier to generate part specification from within a program In this
case, use a library such as Unigraphics Solutions' Parasolid or Spatial Technology's ACIS
(available at CCSL) to generate the solid definition of the object, and then use geometry
inquiry functions to obtain the precise boundary and generate an STL file. Some libraries
might provide an explicit STL Export function.

3.2.4 Direct generation :


It is always possible to generate an STL file directly. Again, this is mostly useful if it
describes a mathematical function or is a result of some algorithm. The STL file can be
generated in ASCII or in binary form (which is more compact).
BINARY STL file format is accessed by byte. The format is as follows: the first 80 bytes
are used for description, and the next 4 bytes represents the total number of the
facets(Long Int), followed by the facet information (normal and 3 vertices), the normal
and vertices are stored in floating point format, each occupying 4 bytes. At the end of
each facet information section, there are two bytes spaces, then the next facet is repeated
till the end of the file. When BINARY format is used to describe STL file, the data size is
much smaller than ASCII format, so most STL files available now use BINARY format.

3.2.5 Getting 3-D data from 3D Scanner :


This is another technique for getting the 3 dimensional digital data for the 3d printing. By
use of some 3d scanners , datas are input to the printer.

3.2.6 Verifying the specification :


It is strongly advised that the geometry be inspected using a third party software before
printing. Although the Printers software does verify and display the STL file, it is often
hard to see details, and impossible to perform measurements or see internal/hidden
geometries. There are several STL viewers around, e.g. Solid Concepts' SolidView. This
is an excellent viewer (free for academic use) that not only renders the part from STL, but
also allows making various measurements, changing transparency setting to make hidden
parts visible, as well as cross sectioning. It also has an option for computing volume
this option is useful for estimating print time (about 2 hours per cubic inch) and for
checking for leaks in the boundary definition.

CHAPTER 4
SOFTWARE
&
HARDWARE

CHAPTER 4

SOFTWARE & HARDWARE

4.1 Devices or Tools :

Fig 4.1 3D Printer


This is a one of the 3 Dimentional Printers. this printer is from Z corporation compney
making 3 d printers. Lots of 3 D Printers are available in the market.most of
Zcorporation, Roundstone digital , Dimention printing are the most leading names of
compneys in making 3D printers and physical models from that.

4.2 Software used for 3 dimentional Printing :


C A D (Computer Aided Design) :
The term 3-Dimentional Printing refers to a class of technologies that can automatically
construct physical models from Computer-Aided Design (CAD) data.Typically a design
is created using solid-modeling CAD software.for that mostly a file having Extention of
.STL is created on a CAD software.and then from that file .
The .STL file format has become the 3 Dimentional Printing industry's defacto standard
data transmission format. This format approximates the surfaces of a solid model with
triangles. For a simple model such as the box shown in figure 1, its surfaces can be
approximated with twelve triangles, as shown in figure 2. The more complex the
surface, the more triangles produced as shown in figure 3.

Fig 4.2 CAD Design


Almost all of today's CAD systems are capable of producing an STL file. For the user the
process is often as simple as selecting File, Save As, STL. Below are steps for producing
high quality STL files from a number of today's leading CAD systems. In all cases,
export your STL file as a Binary file. This saves on time and file
size.

4.3 Machines specifications used in 3D Printing :


Network Connectivity:
TCP/IP 100/10 base T
Workstation Compatibility:
Windows NT/Windows 2000/Windows XP
Build Size:
Maximum size 203 x 203 x 305 mm (8 x 8 x 12 inches)
Materials:
ABS plastic in standard white, blue, yellow, black, red or
green colors. Custom colors available.
Support Structures and Removal:
Catalyst software automatically creates any needed
support structures to complete the part. Two support
removal processes are available. With Dimension, a

Break Away Support System allows for easy support


removal simply break away the supports. Dimension
SST offers a soluble support removal process for handsfreemodel completion.
Material Cartridges:
One autoload cartridge with 922 cu. cm.
(56.3 cu. in.) ABS material.
One autoload cartridge with 922 cu. cm.
(56.3 cu. in.) support material.
Layer Thickness:
.245 mm (.010 in.) or .33 mm (.013 in.) of precisely
deposited ABS and support material.
Size and Power Requirements:
Size: 686 x 914 x 1041 mm (27 x 36 x 41 in.)
Weight: 136 kg (300 lbs.)
Power Requirements: 110-120 VAC, 60 Hz,

CHAPTER 5
APPLICATIONS
OF
3 D PRINTING

CHAPTER 5

APPLICATIONS OF 3 D PRINTING

5.1 Basic application of 3D printing


3-DIMENTIONAL PRINTING benefits a wide range of clients, including:

Mechanical Engineers
Aerospace Engineers
Automotive Engineers
Architects
Industrial Designers
Physicians and Dentists
Artists
Sculptors
Filmmakers
Set Designers
Prop Fabricators

Now, we will discuss one application of 3dp in

Now you have access to todays cutting-edge technology without investing time and
money in costly and labor-intensive jewelry-making software and hardware.WB&C can
convert your customers sketch/photo/artwork into a ready to cast wax quickly,
accurately, economically, and perfectly! The product with a full-color, perfect art
rendering of the finished piece, allowing your customer to see the piece before it even
exists. This service alone has proved to increase sales by more than 75%.

5.2 MORE APPLICATIONS:


Architecture

Study Model , Finished Model , Presentation Pieces


Engineering:

Structural , Electrical , Hydrodynamics , Wind tunnel testing , Aerodynamics


Construction:
Task Methodology , Planning , Development
Industrial Design/ Product Development:

New product design , Special effects , Functional prototypes , ,Ergonomics testing


Motor Vehicles:

Concept design, Engine component design , Mechanical component strategy


Education:

Architecture, Anatomy, Genetic code, Molecular structure, Chemistry

Medical:

MRI, CAT scan, Surgery procedures, Bone reconstruction,


Government/ Military:
Planning, Training , Wind tunnel and radar cross section testing.

5.3 FUTURE DEVELOPMENT :


Rapid prototyping is starting to change the way companies design and build products. On
the horizon, though, are several developments that will help to revolutionize
manufacturing as we know it.One such improvement is increased speed. "Rapid"
prototyping machines are still slow by some standards. By using faster computers, more
complex control systems, and improved materials, RP manufacturers are dramatically
reducing build time.Another future development is to improve ccuracy and surface finish.
Another important development is increased size capacity. Currently most
3DP
machines are limited to objects 0.125 cubic meters or less. Larger parts must be built in
sections and joined by hand. To remedy this situation, several "large prototype"
techniques are still in the works.
One future application is Distance Manufacturing on Demand, a combination of RP and
the Internet that will allow designers to remotely submit designs for immediate
manufacture.

5.4 Advantages of 3DP:


Reduce product development time and cost, Get products to market sooner, Enhance
communications between marketing, engineering, manufacturing, and purchasing,
Present physical model at critical design reviews, Perform functional prototype testing
before committing to tooling, Generate precise production tooling.

CONCLUSION
3 DIMENTIONAL PRINTING is a new tool, which allows the manufacturing enterprise
to run smoother increases throughput and product quality New uses and applications are
discovered everyday Future areas include new materials directly deposited (metals,
ceramics) Fast prototyping greatly reduced time to market and enabled faster decision
making Development time was cut in half from previous high-end programs Substantial
savings on development costs over previous programs
These tools can both accelerate the existing process and allow the process to be changed
in more dramatic ways. So by the use of 3 dimensional printer .one can convert own idea
into physical models.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
[1] Modeling 3D Scanned Data to Visualize the Built Environment, Yusuf Arayici,
Andy Hamilton The University of Salford, Greater Manchester Proceedings of the
Ninth International Conference on Information Visualisation (IV05) 1550-6037/05
2005 IEEE
[2] http://www.inition.co.uk/inition/guides_rapid.htm
[3] http://www.uni.edu/%7Erao/rt/major_tech.htm
[4] http://www.warwick.ac.uk/atc/rpt/Techniques/3dprinting.htm
[5] http://web.mit.edu/afs/athena.mit.edu/org/t/tdp/www/whatis3dp.html
[6] http://tenyearsofmylife.com/2005/03/15/
[7] http://www.media.mit.edu/physics/pedagogy/fab/laserprint/print/tutorial.html