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Afghanistan

Public Policy Research Organization





Afghanistan Rights Monitor
Monitoring Cycle 1: January April 2016

May 2016


Project Report


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Acknowledgements

This is the first monitoring report of Afghanistan Rights Monitor (ARM) following a baseline assessment
released in April 2016. This report was made possible through funding from Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
The Netherlands. APPRO wishes to express its sincere thanks to all those who agreed to be engaged for
data collection for this report.

About Afghanistan Rights Monitor

Afghanistan Rights Monitor (ARM) is designed to meet the following objectives:


1. Regular monitoring of the current conditions of fundamental rights in Afghanistan using a set of
indicators based on internationally recognized standards for monitoring Civic, Social and
Economic rights.
2. Informed, pragmatic, and constructive advocacy messaging on fundamental rights needs, based
on empirical data, and delivered by civil society actors.
3. Increased capacity and responsiveness of public institutions in attending to fundamental rights
needs of Afghan citizens.

For more information on ARM, see: www.nac-pp.net

About APPRO

Afghanistan Public Policy Research Organization (APPRO) is an independent social research organization
with a mandate to promote social and policy learning to benefit development and reconstruction efforts
in Afghanistan and other less developed countries through conducting social scientific research,
monitoring and evaluation, and training and mentoring. APPRO is registered with the Ministry of
Economy in Afghanistan as a non-profit non-government organization and headquartered in Kabul,
Afghanistan with offices in Mazar-e Sharif (north), Herat (west), Kandahar (south), Jalalabad (east), and
Bamyan (center). APPRO is a founding member of APPRO-Europe, registered in Belgium.

For more information, see: www.appro.org.af and www.appro-europe.net
Contact: mail@appro.org.af

About the Researchers

The researchers who worked on this report were (in alphabetical order): Fareba Auob, Enayat
Bashardost, Samad Ebrahimi, Tairah Firdous, Ehsanullah Khalili, Fatima Khavari, Lucile Martin, Marzia.
Naqebullah, Nazanin, Mahmood Omar, Saeed Parto, Baryalai Qayoumi, Marzia Rahmani, Mohammad
Anwar Rahimi, Ehsan Saadat, Mohammad Sabir, Zarghona Saify, Lema Sakhizai, Sarwar Sultani, Ismail
Zahid and Ahmadullah Ziar.

Tairah Firdous, Lucile Martin, Saeed Parto, and Ehsan Saadat authored this report.

APPRO takes full responsibility for all omissions and errors.


2016. Afghanistan Public Policy Research Organization. Some rights reserved. This publication may be
stored in a retrieval system or transmitted only for non-commercial purposes and with written credit to
APPRO and links to APPROs website at www.appro.org.af. Any other use of this publication requires
prior written permission, which may be obtained by writing to: mail@appro.org.af
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List of Abbreviations

AIHRC
AGO
ALP

ANP
AOG
APPRO
ARM
BHC
DOWA
EUI

EVAW
FGD
FRU
IDP

OHCHR
STD

UN

UNAMA
UNHCR
UNICEF
UNESCO
VAW

Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission


Attorney Generals Office
Afghan Local Police
Afghan National Police
Armed Opposition Group
Afghanistan Public Policy Research Organization
Afghanistan Rights Monitor
Basic Health Center
Directorate of Womens Affairs
European University Institute
Elimination of Violence Against Women
Focus group discussion
Family Response Unit
Internally Displaced Person
United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner
Sexually Transmittable Disease
United Nations
United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan
The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
United Nations Childrens Emergency Fund
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
Violence against women

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Table of Contents

Executive Summary ................................................................................................................ 5


Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 7
Objective and Methodology............................................................................................................. 8
Scope, Sample Selection, Methods ..................................................................................................... 8
Limitations and Challenges ............................................................................................................... 10
Findings from Qualitative Data ............................................................................................. 11
Balkh ............................................................................................................................................. 11
Bamyan ......................................................................................................................................... 13
Daikundi ........................................................................................................................................ 15
Herat ............................................................................................................................................. 17
Kabul ............................................................................................................................................. 20
Kandahar ....................................................................................................................................... 22
Khost ............................................................................................................................................. 24
Kunduz........................................................................................................................................... 26
Nangarhar...................................................................................................................................... 28
Nimruz........................................................................................................................................... 31
Survey Results ...................................................................................................................... 34
Civic Rights .................................................................................................................................... 34
Social Rights................................................................................................................................... 37
Economic Rights............................................................................................................................. 38
Conclusion ............................................................................................................................ 39
Civic Rights .................................................................................................................................... 39
Social Rights................................................................................................................................... 40
Economic Rights............................................................................................................................. 40
Appendix 1: Monitoring Indicators........................................................................................ 41
Appendix 2: List and Definition of Codes............................................................................... 43

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Executive Summary
This report is the first of six monitoring cycles planned for the Afghanistan Rights Monitor (ARM)
project, to be conducted between January 2016 and December 2017. The periodic monitoring reports
are intended to support informed policy and action on fundamental rights protection and promotion in
Afghanistan based on applied research and monitoring, capacity development, and constructive
advocacy.

Data for this monitoring report were collected between January and March 2016 in 29 urban and rural
districts across ten provinces. The report is designed to record changes from the baseline conditions as
of December 2015, and does not provide in-depth analysis of the underlying causes of these changes. Six
in-depth case studies on key topics selected based on the findings from the different rounds of
monitoring will be produced to analyze significant changes and the underlying causes.

Despite the slightness of the changes across the vast majority of the indicators under the Civic, Social,
and Economic pillars of fundamental rights, it is worth highlighting that:

Corruption, nepotistic practices, and discrimination based on gender, ethnicity, language, and
kinship remain pervasive threats to the fulfillment of fundamental rights across all sectors.
With the exception of Nangarhar and Kunduz, insecurity is not reported as a significant direct
impediment to service delivery.
The interference of power holders, armed opposition groups (AOGs), and government officials
remains as a consistent threat to freedom of expression.
Awareness of the Access to Information Law is minimal among public entities and almost
nonexistent among ordinary citizens.
Access by Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) to basic services such as housing, electricity, water and
sanitation remains particularly limited.
Access to social rights, i.e., health, education, food, shelter, and employment, remains severely
limited with food security being a critical issue in most provinces.

Some significant and visible changes were nevertheless noted as follows:

In Nangarhar, security deteriorated significantly during the period covered under this round of
monitoring (January-April 2016). In Kunduz, insecurity remains an impediment in accessing key
services such as health and education, particularly in less stable districts.
Also in Kunduz, in the center and Aliabad where there is relatively higher stability (and security),
residents report improved behavior of security forces though ALP remains criticized for various
violations and abuses.
Child labor has increased in all ten provinces due mainly to a drop in sources of income for adults
throughout the country. Child labor is also pointed to by many as a major reason for the increase in
school dropout rates.
Skepticism about democratic processes and political parties has increased in most provinces since
December 2015, with a drop in the interest to participate in elections. One notable exception is
Nangarhar where discontent with current governing officials appears to foster greater dispositions
to vote, primarily in order to bring changes to the provincial government.
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In all provinces, political parties continue to be viewed as undemocratic structures riddled by


discrimination and corruption. Only in Kabul there was clear willingness to engage in politics,
particularly by youth.
Freedom of expression is compromised by routine threats from strongmen, officials, and local
power holders. In Bamyan, Herat and Kandahar, media censorship, intimidation and threat against
journalists and outspoken individuals were said to have increased.
Access to paid employment continues to decrease across all provinces. Poor economy, lack of
employment opportunities, inability of the government to create jobs, and corruption and
discrimination in the job market are the main drivers of the discontent about employment
opportunities.
Working conditions remain unchanged but inadequate across all provinces with some exceptions in
Nangarhar and Khost, where employers are said to have made additional provisions for the security
of their employees.
Respondents from Balkh, Bamyan, and relatively secure areas of Kunduz reported a decrease in
corruption in ANP.
Corruption in ANP is said to have increased in Nangarhar, Imam Saheb district of Kunduz, and
Nimruz center.
There are reports of increased corruption within the formal justice system in Balkh, Daikundi, Khost,
and Nangarhar.
Across the provinces corruption remains pervasive in the delivery of basic services such as health,
education, housing and basic facilities.
Gender discrimination has increased in accessing paid employment in Herat and Daikundi but
remains unchanged across other provinces.
In Bamyan and Nimruz there are reports of some employers giving preference to employing female
staff in recruitment within both governmental and non-governmental entities.

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Introduction
The Government of Afghanistan is signatory to numerous international human rights conventions and
treaties and continues to reaffirm the importance of institutionalizing and enforcing Afghanistans
constitutional commitments to human rights. There is general admission and recognition, however, that
progress towards meeting treaty obligations has been slow in such areas as violence against women,
mistreatment of children, rights violations by security forces, unaccountability of formal authorities,
neglect of protractedly displaced persons, limitations in freedom of speech and persecution of dissent,
and ongoing impunity for former human rights violators, among others.1 Weak governance mechanisms,
inadequate access to formal justice, endemic corruption, insufficient institutionalization of various
protective laws, and gaps in knowledge of rights violations have been pointed to as the main obstacles
to Afghanistan meeting its fundamental rights commitments.2

At the same time, gains made since 2001 in promoting and protecting fundamental rights in Afghanistan
are increasingly under threat, with a resurgence of criminal and political armed violence in many parts of
the country. The security situation remains dire, with an increase in attacks by AOGs in Kabul and other
parts of the country in early 2016, causing high levels of casualty among civilians, public officials, and
security forces. UNAMA reported 1,943 civilian casualties, consisting of 600 deaths and 1,343 injured, in
the period January-March 2016. These figures show an overall increase in civilian casualties of two per
cent compared to the same period in 2015.3 In the first quarter of 2016, the number of displaced people
reached to 747,325. At the same time, around 9.3 million people in Afghanistan are in need of food
assistance, according to a report released by World Food Program.4
The existing Afghan legislative framework, though necessary, is not sufficient for protecting and
promoting fundamental rights and human rights defenders. There is an urgent need to complement the
regulatory and legal provisions on rights protection with ongoing monitoring information, public
discourse, and advocacy. A necessary component for reconciling rights according to the law and rights in
practice is the role to be played by civil society and rights organizations in creating the crucial linkage
between the states regulatory provisions and the basic rights needs of the general population. This
linkage can set in motion a process of fostering the institutionalization of fundamental rights protection
and promotion in Afghanistan through ongoing, evidence-based interface between civil society and the
government.
Afghanistan Rights Monitor (ARM) was designed in 2015 to support informed policy and action on
fundamental rights protection and promotion through research, constructive advocacy, and increased
capacity of public institutions in responding to citizens rights needs. Following the baseline assessment,

Amnesty International, Too many missed opportunities: Human rights in Afghanistan under the Karzai
administration, April 2014.
2
See, for example, Common Wealth and Foreign Office Corporate Report, October 2014, at:
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/afghanistan-country-of-concern/afghanistan-country-of-concern
3
See, for example, Do more now to protect civilians April 2016, at: http://unama.unmissions.org/un-chiefafghanistan-do-more-now-protect-civilians-unama-releases-civilian-casualty-data-first
4
See, for example, World Food Program Afghanistan Country Brief, May 2016, at
http://documents.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/ep/wfp269062.pdf?_ga=1.137140848.175602804
0.1461494867
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completed in December 2015, monitoring reports are to be released three times a year to take stock, on
an ongoing basis, of changes that occur in the fundamental rights of the citizens across the three pillars
or Civic, Social, and Economic rights. These monitoring rounds are not intended to provide in-depth
analysis of the underlying causes of changes. Additional case studies on topics identified and selected
through the monitoring rounds will investigate specific aspects of rights and the causal factors with
significant bearings on citizens fundamental rights. This report is the first of six monitoring reports to
be published over the course of 2016 and 2017.

Objective and Methodology


The objective for ARMs monitoring rounds is to assess changes in fundamental rights conditions across
10 target provinces from January 2016 to December 2017. Fundamental Rights are conceptualized
broadly to include Civic, Social, and Economic rights.5


A baseline assessment was concluded in December 2015 to establish the basis against which to monitor
changes in fundamental rights conditions. The reporting period for this first monitoring cycle covers
January-April 2016. Data were collected in 29 rural and urban districts across 10 provinces in the Central,
Northern, Southern, Eastern and Western geographical zones of Afghanistan.


Composite indicators designed based on international rights monitoring standards were tested during
the baseline assessment and refined for subsequent monitoring rounds. Table 1 provides a breakdown
of the composite indicators for each of the three pillars.

Table 1: Indicators by Pillar 6


Pillar
Civic Rights

Social Rights




Economic Rights

Indicator
Rights to Life, Liberty, Security and Dignity of Person
Right to Efficient and Fair Justice
Childrens Rights
Right to Participate in Public Affairs
Right to Freedom of Opinion and Expression
Right to Health
Right to Adequate Housing and Facilities
Food Security
Right to Education
Family Rights
Right to Work and Fairness in Employment
Right to Decent Working Conditions

Scope, Sample Selection, Methods


Twenty-nine districts in 10 provinces were selected for fundamental rights monitoring (Table 2). The
provinces are Kabul, Bamyan, Daikundi, Balkh, Kunduz, Nangarhar, Khost, Kandahar, Nimruz, and Herat.

Rights pillars were conceptualized based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), the international
Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
(ICESCR), and protocols of the Geneva Convention as they relate to protection of rights in situations of armed
conflict. The working definitions for each rights pillar have been adapted for the Afghan context and were after
the baseline assessment to reflect ground realities.
6
For a full list of the proxies for each of these indicators see Appendix 1.
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Selection of target provinces is based on factors including geographical representation across


Afghanistan and heterogeneity of socio-economic conditions, civil society engagement, security
situation, and development focus.

Table 2: Breakdown of provinces and districts
Province

Districts

Balkh

Mazar-i-Sharif, Khulm, Balkh

Bamyan

Bamyan Center, Shibar, Yakawlang

Daikundi

Nili, Shahristan

Herat

Herat, Kohsan, Guzara

Kabul

Kabul Center, Khak Jabbar, Istalif

Kandahar

Kandahar Center, Arghandab, Daman

Khost

Matun, Mando Zayi, Tere Zayi

Kunduz

Kunduz Center, Imam Sahib, Aliabad

Nangarhar

Jalalabad, Kama, Surkhrod

Nimruz

Zaranj, Chakhansur, Chahar Burjak

10 Provinces

29 Districts


A total of 589 individuals were engaged for this monitoring report, consisting of 56 females and 82
males who were interviewed as key informants, and 225 females and 226 males who participated in
focus group discussions. Of these, 309 individuals were over 36 years of age. A breakdown of sources of
information is provided in table 3 below.

Table 3: Sources of Information
Provincial Centers
Outlying Districts
Working women, in particular teachers and EPD
provincial women network members
Working men, including Maliks and community
elders (council / jirga members)
Representatives of one youth-focused CSO
Representatives of one woman focused CSO
Representatives of media organizations / journalists
Representatives of AIHRC
Men involved in politics
Women involved in politics
Government officials

Influential women, including those working in


government service, housewives, etc.
Working men, including Maliks and community
elders (council / jirga members)
Community leaders
Government officials


Semi-structured individual interviews, focus group discussions, and a quantitative survey questionnaire
were the main tools for the collection of monitoring data. The research teams used guiding questions
for semi-formal key informant interviews and focus group discussions while a quantitative survey
questionnaire was used to collect additional quantitative data from the focus group participants and key
informants. The monitoring findings reported below are referenced in footnotes using the coding keys
described in Appendix 2.

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Limitations and Challenges


A number of challenges were met, and overcome, during the data collection though without having an
adverse impact on the findings as follows:

A number of bureaucratic hurdles were associated with gaining approvals and permissions to
engage with individuals and groups for data collection in the target provinces and districts. This
required substantial convincing by the researchers to gain the officials approvals and support.
Additional interviews were required to collect data on sensitive indicators, including general
security conditions. This was also the case for indicators where only limited firsthand
information was available, such as food security.
In Arghandab and Daman districts of Kandahar and Khak Jabbar district of Kabul working women
were not available for participating in focus groups. Housewives introduced by key contacts in
the community as knowledgeable on living conditions of their fellow community members were
engaged in focus group discussions to compensate for this shortage of data sources.
In Balkh province, the monitoring period coincided with the school winter break. No data could
be collected on changes in access to, and quality of, education.

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Findings from Qualitative Data


Balkh
Respondents reported some improvements in the performance and behavior of ANP toward citizens,
coordination between formal and traditional justice, and access to information from government
offices. Security, access to formal justice, access to employment in government positions, and freedom
of expression remained unchanged between January 2015 and March 2016. Childrens wellbeing,
however, deteriorated, with higher obstacles in access to education and increase in child labor. Citizens
interest in participating in elections and political parties seemed to have decreased while there were
concerns about increased community violence.

Deterioration in delivery of basic services such as health, food security, education, and family rights was
noted in the two rural districts studied. In provincial centers, no change was reported over the reporting
period. Access to water deteriorated while land disputes increased in the province. Because monitoring
was carried out during schools winter break, no data was available on evolutions in access to education.

Poor economy and limited job creation have resulted in an increase in unemployment over the reporting
period, especially among women and youth. Administrative corruption and discrimination based on
ethnicity, gender, and language had an adverse impact on fair employment in public positions.

Fundamental rights are routinely compromised by corruption and discrimination based on gender,
ethnicity, and kinship.

Table 4: Summary Profile Balkh



Pillar / Indicators
Civic Rights:
Right to Life, Liberty, Security, and Dignity
Right to Efficient and Fair Justice
Childrens Rights
Right to Participate in Public Affairs
Freedom of Opinion and Expression
Social Rights:
Right to Health
Right to Adequate Housing and Facilities
Food Security
Right to Education
Family Rights
Economic Rights:
Right to Work and Fairness in Employment

Unchanged


2

4

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17

Deteriorated



5

7

Right to Decent Working Conditions


Crosscutting Themes:
Gender
Corruption

10

12

14

Status
Improved

11

13

15

18

19

11

Notes:7
1. Current reforms in the police reportedly improved the performance and the behavior of ANP in the
province.
2. Access to formal justice system has not changed in the province over the reporting period. Main
challenges include corruption, expensive legal services and delays in resolving cases.
3. The number of cases referred to traditional judicial institutions increased over the reporting period,
allegedly due to swifter resolution processes than in the formal system.
4. Most of the issues related to children have not improved over the last four months. This includes
access to justice and school drop out. Childrens access to rehabilitation centers, orphanages and
kindergartens has not changed in the center during past four months. They are inexistent in target
outlying districts.
5. Child labor has increased in the province. Boys mostly work as carpenters, mechanics, shoemakers,
and laborers in agriculture and construction, and girls are engaged in handcraft work, such as
embroidering and weaving.
6. No changes were reported over access to public positions in higher leadership levels.
7. Respondents interest in participating in elections declined over the reporting period. There is also
less inclination towards joining political parties, perceived as riddled by discrimination based on
ethnicity, religion and language.
8. In the center, threats against people exercising their right to freedom of expression remain
uncharged. Public awareness of Access to Information Law remains unchanged in the outlying
districts.
9. In outlying districts, respondents mentioned a decrease in intimidation and threats toward
outspoken individuals. In the center of the province, access to information in government offices has
improved.
10. No change was reported in access to sexual and reproductive health.
11. In the center, respondents considered quality of general health services and adequacy of health
facilities deteriorated over the reporting period. Discrimination based on ethnicity, kinship and
power has reportedly increased.
12. There has been no change in basic housing facilities in the center and outlying districts.
13. Land disputes reportedly increased in the province over the reporting period. Access to water
decreased in Khulm.
14. Change in quality of education and adequacy of the education facilities couldnt be assessed
because the schools were off for the winter break.
15. Interviewees mentioned an increase in unemployment in the province; with a sharp decline of
womens access to jobs in particular. Discrimination based on ethnicity, language and religion has
also reportedly increased.
16. Gender discrimination in traditional justice organizations continues as before, so does in accessing
public leadership jobs.
17. Corruption levels in relation to access to shelter, water and electricity remained unchanged.
18. A decrease in corruption levels in ANP was reported.
19. Corruption increased in formal justice institutions, hiring in the education department, and access to
paid employment.

Based on interviews with: FGD-F-Bal-Go-3, FGD-F-Bal-Go-4, FGD-F-Bal-Go-5, FGD-M-Bal-CS-1, FGD-M-Bal-CS-2


FGD-M-Bal-CS-3, KI-M-Bal-Go-2, KI-F-Bal-Go-8, KI-F-Bal-NG-1, KI-M-Bal-NG-2, KI-M-Bal-NG-3, KI-M-Bal-NG-4, KIF-Bal-Go-1, KI-F-Bal-Go-6, KI-M-Bal-Go-7, KI-F-Bal-Go-9, KI-M-Bal-CS-4, KI-M-Bal-CS-5, KI-F-Bal-CS-6, KI-F-Bal-CS-7
and KI-F-Bal-PI-1

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Bamyan
Male respondents reported significant improvements in police behavior toward the public, while
women complain of mistreatment by police forces. In access to justice, both men and women continue
to face the same challenges noted in the baseline. Data suggest an increase in violence against children,
including child labor and sexual abuse, and threats against outspoken individuals such as journalists and
civil society activists. Public interest in participating in elections shows a decline compared to December
2015.

Social rights in terms of healthcare, food security, and education appear unchanged since December
2015. Housing and access to basic services have deteriorated and there has been an increase in land
disputes and family related violence, including violence against women.

Limited opportunities in the private sector, lack of investment in the province, development projects
coming to an end, and lack of security on roads connecting the province to Kabul and elsewhere have
lead to a sharp decrease in paid employment for both men and women. Monitoring data suggests,
however, a decrease in gender discrimination in accessing employment and improvement in treatment
of women at the workplace. Corruption is reported to have decreased in most key sectors or has
remained unchanged since December 2015.

Table 5: Summary Profile Bamyan



Pillar / Indicators
Civic Rights:
Right to Life, Liberty, Security, and Dignity
Right to Efficient and Fair Justice
Childrens Rights
Right to Participate in Public Affairs
Freedom of Opinion and Expression
Social Rights:
Right to Health
Right to Adequate Housing and Facilities
Food Security
Right to Education
Family Rights
Economic Rights:

Unchanged

1


12

14

Deteriorated



4


5

11

13

15

10

Right to Decent Working Conditions

Right to Work and Fairness in Employment


Crosscutting Themes:
Gender
Corruption

Status
Improved

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Notes:8
1. According to female respondents, misbehavior by police forces towards public, especially towards
women, remained high.
2. Male respondents stated that there has been a improvement in police behavior towards the public.
These improvements were reportedly witnessed after complaints were sent to the provincial
security commander.
3. Access to formal justice improved, allegedly due to efforts by the new provincial governor.
4. Violence against children increased, with reported heightened levels of child labor and sexual abuse.
5. An increase in threats against journalists and civil society activists was noted, including from
influential government employees and members of parliament.
6. Access to health services deteriorated, with a shortage of specialists and female doctors across the
province.
7. Access to water, electricity and housing facilities has reportedly decreased. While disputes over land
had decreased in the winter, an increase was reported over the last months of the reporting period.
This is allegedly due to growing investment opportunities in property construction.
8. General perception is there has been an increase in domestic violence over the reporting period.
9. Political and ethnic discrimination in access to employment has not changed and nepotism in hiring
process continued to exist.
10. Decline in employment security is attributed to a variety factors including fewer opportunities in the
private sector, lack of investment in the province, development projects coming to an end,
reduction in salary scale, and lack of security on roads connecting the province to Kabul.
11. In some cases, there were reports of improvements in treatment of women at the work place
improved, with less violence against women within the work place. However, working conditions
remain generally unfavorable towards women.
12. Women continue to have limited access to formal judicial system and are often asked for sexual
favors by judicial administrators.
13. Gender discrimination in accessing paid employment has reduced over the reporting period. In cases
where women and men score equal points, priority is reportedly given to female candidates.
14. Corruption continues remains high in the education department, with residents reportedly forced to
pay bribes to the Directorate for jobs and receiving diploma certificates.
15. Corruption in the police department has reduced and government vehicles are consequently
maintained properly.

Based on the interviews with:KI-M-Bam-GO-2, KI-F-Bam-NG-3, KI-F-Bam-GO-8, KI-F-Bam-G0-1, KI-M-Bam-NG-4,


KI-F-Bam-NG-1, KI-M-Bam-NG-2, KI-M-Bam-PI-1, KI-F-Bam-CS-6, KI-M-Bam-CS-4, KI-M-Bam-CS-5, KI-F-Bam-CS-7,
KI-M-Bam-GO-7, KI-M-Bam-GO-9, FGD-F-Bam-GO-5, FGD-M-Bam-CS-1, FGD-F-Bam-GO-3, FGD-M-Bam-CS-2,
FGD-F-Bam-G0-4 and FGD-M-Bam-CS-3


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Daikundi
Deteriorations in the performance and behavior of police, access to justice, childrens rights, and
freedom of speech have been noted. There also appears to be a loss of interest in participating in future
elections.

There have been improvements in access to education services in the center but not in outlying districts,
where a recession was noted over the reporting period.

Poor economy, lack of government initiatives to create jobs, and limited investment in the province
have led to a sharp decrease in employment opportunities for both men and women. No change is
reported in working conditions, sexual harassment, or gender discrimination.

Access to basic rights is routinely compromised by corruption and discrimination based on gender,
ethnicity, power and family relations. Corruption and discrimination in accessing basic rights have either
remained unchanged or deteriorated since December 2015.

Table 6: Summary Profile Daikundi

Pillar / Indicators
Civic Rights:
Right to Life, Liberty, Security, and Dignity
Right to Efficient and Fair Justice
Childrens Rights
Right to Participate in Public Affairs
Freedom of Opinion and Expression
Social Rights:
Right to Health
Right to Adequate Housing and Facilities
Food Security
Right to Education
Family Rights
Economic Rights:

Unchanged

1

2

3


11

15

17

10

12

13

14

Right to Decent Working Conditions

Deteriorated



4

5

Right to Work and Fairness in Employment


Crosscutting Themes:
Gender
Corruption

Status
Improved

16


18

Notes:9
1. Police forces continue to engage in corruption, take sides in conflicts, abuse the public, misuse
government vehicles, and harass women on the streets.

Based on the interviews with: FGD-M-Dai-CS-1, FGD-F-Dai-GO-5, KI-M-Dai-NG-4, KI-F-Dai-GO-8, KI-M-Dai-G0-9,


KI-M-Dai-GO-3, KI-M-Dai-GO-2, KI-M-Dai-PI-1, KI-M-Dai-NG-2, FGD-M-Dai-CS-2, FGD-M-Dai-CS-2, KI-F-Dai-NG-1,
KI-M-Dai-GO-6, KI-F-Dai-CS-6 and KI-M-Dai-CS-4

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2. According to official accounts, access to justice improved following a change of staff in the Provincial
Directorate of Justice. However, the general sentiment expressed by focus group participants is
corruption increased, impeding fair access to justice.
3. The Childrens Development Center of the Directorate of Justice and pre-school facilities of the
Directorate of Social Affairs have reportedly shown no improvement in safeguarding rights of
children.
4. Respondents mentioned violence against children reportedly increased the districts of Kiti and
Kejran, with growing numbers of early and forced marriages, baad, child labor, and denial of girls
right to education.
5. Major factors behind public disinterest in upcoming elections include lack of transparency, far off
polling stations, expected interference by powerful individuals, poor rule of law and inappropriate
use of the budget for the election.
6. Powerful individuals within and outside the government continue to threaten media, and no
measures have been taken by government authorities to provide support or safety for these
organizations.
7. Already poor health services further deteriorated further over the reporting period. Some of the
major challenges faced by the Health Department include shortage of specialists and female
doctors, lack of blood banks, unavailability of beds in hospitals, and lack of access to medication.
8. There has been no improvement in access to basic facilities like shelter, water and electricity. The
majority of province residents live in old mud-houses and use water from rivers and wells. Those
living in rented houses do not have access to electricity.
9. Access to education remains satisfactory in the center of the province.
10. While access to education remains satisfactory in the provincial center, the overall quality of
education has reportedly deteriorated. There is a shortage of teachers and education facilities
including classrooms, books and stationary. In outlying districts, girls have limited access to schools.
In Shahristan district, many schools had not opened months after the official start of the academic
year.
11. No change was noted in divorce practices.
12. Most common causes of family-related conflicts include non-payment of alimony, husbands drug
addiction, and domestic disputes. These conflicts have reportedly increased over the reporting
period.
13. A decline in employment opportunities and access to income was noted for both men and women.
This is allegedly due to lack of government initiatives to create jobs, lack of investment in the
province, closing down of many NGOs, reduction in wages and lack of security. Discrimination based
on ethnicity and political affiliation in recruiting has increased.
14. There is no significant change in the working conditions of employees.
15. Womens treatment by the police and the justice system remains unchanged. Girls continue to have
limited access to education.
16. Womens access to employment has deteriorated due to gender-based discrimination. Increase in
sexual harassment and gender discrimination has been noted within the work place.
17. Corruption continues to affect the police department with no improvement noted over the
reporting period.
18. Corruption in judicial organizations and in accessing paid employment increased.

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Herat
Deterioration was reported in police behavior and performance, child labor, and freedom of speech with
higher media censorship. Community violence, respondents views on upcoming elections and
participation in political parties and access to government positions remained unchanged. Sexual
violence against children is said to have decreased. Discontent was expressed with the formal judiciary
in the center but not in outlying districts, and there are reports of more women using formal judicial
institutions.

In terms of social rights, access to education reportedly increased, and mechanisms for resolutions of
land and water disputes improved. Violence against women and access to health services have
deteriorated. There have been no changes in access to food, housing and basic facilities, and womens
access to their rights in divorce cases.

Decreasing employment opportunities are a major concern. Widespread corruption and insufficient
security have deterred business investments. There have been no changes in working conditions and
administrative corruption.

Table 7: Summary Profile Herat

Pillar / Indicators
Civic Rights:
Right to Life, Liberty, Security, and Dignity
Right to Efficient and Fair Justice
Childrens Rights
Right to Participate in Public Affairs
Freedom of Opinion and Expression
Social Rights:
Right to Health
Right to Adequate Housing and Facilities
Food Security
Right to Education
Family Rights
Economic Rights:

Unchanged

1

9

10

Right to Work and Fairness in Employment


Right to Decent Working Conditions
Crosscutting Themes:
Gender
Corruption

Status
Improved

12

13

Deteriorated

2

3

4


6

11

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Notes:10
1. No major change was noted in community violence, with continuing disputes between ethnic, tribal,
and linguistic groups.
2. Abuse of power by police forces continued to increase. Respondents explained police officers did
not provide protection to citizens and occasionally perpetrated abuse.
3. Respondents living in the provincial center mentioned approaching formal judicial structures more
often than those living in outlying districts, and expressed more discontent than in outlying districts,
such as Kohsan. Women, however, explained they still preferred to approach formal institutions,
where they expected to received better treatment.
4. Due to increased poverty, there has been an increase in child labor and the number of homeless
children increased. That being said, there were mentions of successful attempts to impede sexual
violence against children through community awareness.
5. Respondents continue to remain skeptical of upcoming elections being fair and transparent. There
has not been any significant change in the hiring process for government vacancies. The
examination process implemented by the Administrative Reform Committee had no positive impact.
Respondents remain disinterested in joining political parties due to ongoing discrimination on basis
of ethnic and national affiliations continued.
6. Media censorship reportedly increased due to threats from powerful individuals.
7. Overall, both access to and quality of health services deteriorated over the reporting period. There
is a perceived increase in discrimination in access to clinics and hospitals, mostly based on family
relations and geographical background. District residents going to the center for health treatment
face discrimination in accessing health services. That being said, some female respondents
mentioned treatment of women in health centers had improved.
8. No change was reported in housing conditions and access to water and electricity, which remain
low. Respondents also mentioned continued discrimination in access to water, shelter and energy,
with powerful individuals securing better access than the rest of the population. IDPs continue to
face acute housing problems. Disputes related to land and water, however, have reportedly
decreased over the reporting period.
9. Female students access to schools continued to remain limited because of the fragile security
context, which also impedes the affects the appointment of teachers in insecure areas. Some
improvements, however, were noted in access to education facilities, reportedly due to initiatives by
the new leadership within the provincial education department.
10. Divorce cases in outlying districts continue to be referred to traditional institutions, preventing the
divorced women from receiving their rights. There is no change in access to, and perception of, safe
houses. There were reports of decreasing instances of violence against women due to increased
legal awareness and access to judicial institutions, with more women referring divorce to legal
institutions, reportedly due to increased awareness. Nonetheless, women do not receive their full
rights.
11. Access to paid employment has reportedly decreased, and there is continued discrimination in
access to employment, especially for women.
12. Girls access to education continues to remain limited especially in outlying districts. Discrimination
against women in recruitment and lack of job opportunities for women remains high.


10

Based on the interviews with: FGD-M-Her-CS-1, FGD-F-Her-Go-4, FGD-F-Her-Go-5, FGD-F-Her-Go-3, KI-M-Her-CS5, KI-M-Her-CS-4, KI-M-Her-PI-1, KI-F-Her-CS-6, KI-F-Her-CS-7, KI-M-Her-NG-4, KI-F-Her-Go-8, KI-F-Her-Go-9, KIM-Her-Go-2, KI-M-Her-Go-7, KI-M-Her-NG-3, KI-M-Her-NG-2, KI-F-Her-NG-1, KI-F-Her-Go-1, FGD-M-Her-CS-2 and
FGD-M-Her-CS-3

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13. There has been no change in corruption levels within police departments, health services in the
center, public employment, housing and basic facilities, and in accessing paid employment. There
were, however, mentions of improvements in education services, and no corruption was reported in
district health services.

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Kabul
Changes in access to civic rights since December 2015 include reports of a relative increase in womens
access to justice, decreasing corruption in courts, and more willingness among citizens to participate in
politics. There have been no changes in perceptions of the performance and behavior of the security
forces. Evolutions in childrens rights include reports of increased child labor throughout the province to
palliate to higher unemployment of adults.

Access to and quality of health services remained unchanged, though inadequate, since December 2015.
There have been no major evolutions in the availability of and access to basic facilities such as housing
and electricity, and access to food. Access to water has deteriorated and there has been an increase in
land disputes. Education services deteriorated in terms of access and quality.

Poor economy and lack of jobs opportunities resulted in high levels of unemployment. Widespread
corruption and nepotism continue to present serious challenges for qualified job seekers. There have
been no changes in working conditions or reported level of harassment of women at the workplace.

Table 8: Summary Profile Kabul

Pillar / Indicators
Civic Rights:
Right to Life, Liberty, Security, and Dignity
Right to Efficient and Fair Justice
Childrens Rights
Right to Participate in Public Affairs
Freedom of Opinion and Expression
Social Rights:
Right to Health
Right to Adequate Housing and Facilities
Food Security
Right to Education
Family Rights
Economic Rights:
Right to Work and Fairness in Employment

Unchanged



Deteriorated



2


Right to Decent Working Conditions


Crosscutting Themes:
Gender Relations
Corruption

Status
Improved

Notes:11
1. Sentiments in the center were womens access to formal justice had increased. In outlying districts,
women primarily use the traditional system.


11

Based on the interviews with: KI-F-Kab-NG-1, KI-M-Kab-NG-2, KI-M-Kab-NG-3, KI-M-Kab-NG-4, KI-F-Kab-Go-1, KIM-Kab-Go-2, FGD-F-Kab-Go-4, FGD-F-Kab-Go-5, KI-F-Kab-Go-6, KI-M-Kab-Go-7, KI-F-Kab-Go-8, KI-F-Kab-Go-9, KIF-Kab-Go-10, KI-M-Kab-CS-1, FGD-M-Kab-CS-2, FGD-M-Kab-CS-3, KI-M-Kab-CS-4, KI-M-Kab-CS-5, KI-F-Kab-CS-6,
FGD-F-Kab-CS-8 and KI-F-Kab-PI-1

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2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

7.
8.
9.

Child labor reportedly increased in the province, particularly in Kabul city. Other child-related issues
remained unchanged.
There is a growing interest among respondents, especially youth, to join political parties. No change,
however, was noted in perception of elections, with continued skepticism.
Discrimination based on ethnicity, power and family relations continues to prevail in health services.
Both in Kabul city and the outlying districts, access to water has reduced over the reporting period.
Access to sanitation facilities in Kabul city has reportedly decreased. Respondents felt there had
been an increase in disputes over land in the province. No change was noted in access to basic
facilities and housing, including shelters for IDPs and electricity.
The general sentiment was that both quality of and access to education had deteriorated. There is
shortage of qualified teachers, and lack of basic facilities such as laboratory and books in the
schools. Access to education, however, remains slightly better in the center as compared to outlying
districts.
Though there were reports of increasing family disputes, there has been no change in womens
access to inheritance and divorce rights, and access to FRUs and shelters in the province.
Access to paid employment for both men and women has allegedly declined over the reporting
period, due to lack of access to financial capital, widespread corruption and nepotism in job market.
General sentiments was corruption had increased in health and education services, and continued
to prevail among security forces, though improvements were noted in courts.

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Kandahar
There have been no significant changes in access to civic rights since December 2015. That being said,
deteriorations were noted provision of fair justice within traditional institutions. According to
respondents, childrens rights are also increasingly under threat, with increasing reports of early and
forced marriages, child labor, deprivation from education, and sexual abuse. Some improvements were
reported in the behavior and performance of the security forces.

Access to health and education services have allegedly witnessed improvements in the center, while
they remained unchanged in outlying districts. No change was noted in access to health, education,
food, housing and basic facilities. Land and water related disputes have reportedly increased over the
reporting period.

Access to work and working conditions remain unchanged, though access to government positions has
reportedly improved.

Table 9: Summary Profile Kandahar

Pillar / Indicators
Civic Rights:
Right to Life, Liberty, Security, and Dignity
Right to Efficient and Fair Justice
Childrens Rights
Right to Participate in Public Affairs
Freedom of Opinion and Expression
Social Rights:
Right to Health
Right to Adequate Housing and Facilities
Food Security
Right to Education
Family Rights
Economic Rights:
Right to Work and Fairness in Employment

Unchanged



Deteriorated



1


Right to Decent Working Conditions


Crosscutting Themes:
Gender
Corruption

Status
Improved

10

Notes:12
1. Overall, violation of childrens rights has reportedly increased in the province over the last four
months. General perception is that there has been an increase in child labor. Sexual abuse cases
have been reported to the AGO over the reporting period.


12

Interviews based on the interviews: KI-F-KDR-NG-1, KI-M-KDR-NG-2, KI-M-KDR-NG-3, KI-M-KDR-NG-4, KI-F-KDRGo-1, KI-M-KDR-Go-2, FGD-F-KDR-Go-3, FGD-F-KDR-Go-4, FGD-F-KDR-Go-5, KI-F-KDR-Go-6, KI-M-KDR-Go-7, KI-FKDR-Go-8, KI-F-KDR-Go-9, FGD-M-KDR-CS-1, FGD-M-KDR-CS-2, FGD-M-KDR-CS-3, KI-M-KDR-CS-4, KI-M-KDR-CS-5,
KI-F-KDR-CS-6, KI-F-KDR-CS-7and KI-M-KDR-PI-1

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2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.
8.
9.

10.

There is no change in respondents perceptions of elections. Most are still disappointed with the
election process. Participation in political parties continues to be very limited for common people.
The affiliation with a political party is mainly based on ethnicity, family relations and power.
Freedom of expression and speech continues to be limited in the province. Those who try to
exercise these rights are reportedly threatened by state and non-state groups. Awareness about
Access to Information Law remains very limited among public and government employees.
In outlying districts, access to and quality of health services, including reproductive health services,
remained unchanged. Discrimination in access to health services, mostly based on family ties and
kinship, remains pervasive. By contrast, health services in the center are considered to have
improved. This includes greater quality of services within the public hospital of Mirwais Rukhtun,
and an increase in private health services facilities of higher quality.
Conflicts related to land and water have escalated, mainly because of irrigation water shortage. No
change in access to basic housing, safe drinking water and electricity was noted in the province.
However, housing as well as public facilities are better in the center than in the districts. Displaced
people continue to live in desperate conditions, with minimum or no basic facilities of shelter, water
and sanitation, and electricity. Discrimination based on ethnicity, power and family ties in these
departments continue as before.
While children, especially girls, continue to have limited access to schools in the districts despite
increasing willingness among parents, there has reportedly been recognizable improvement in
education services in Kandahar city over the reporting period.
Family related conflicts, including violence against women, reportedly receded over the reporting
period. This is attributed to increased public awareness of family rights.
A sharp decline in job opportunities was noted as a consequence of the withdrawal of international
troops and NGOs working in the province.
Girls access to education continues to remain limited, mostly because of the cultural restrictions
and lack of schools for girls in the province. Women continue to face sexual harassment at work
places. Because of perceived lack of safety at work, families are reluctant to allow women to work
outside of their homes.
No significant change was perceived in levels of corruption in education and formal justice
institutions in the provincial center, with traditional justice mechanisms still considered as less
corrupt. In outlying districts, however, respondents mentioned a recession of corrupt practices
among judicial officials. By contrast, corruption in district education services is considered to have
intensified. That being said, there is a sentiment that corruption in police forces decreased over the
reporting period, allegedly due to regular monitoring by the Chief of the Police and the District
Governor. Likewise, general perception is corruption in health services has decreased. Corruption in
housing services and accessing paid employment remained unchanged.

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Khost
General security, performance and behavior of the police, access to formal justice and freedom of
speech witnessed little evolutions since December 2015. Respondents were increasingly skeptical of the
election process. There are reports of a higher number of children working than in December 2015.

In terms of social rights, there are no changes in the provincial center in access to health services,
housing and education in the center of the province, basic services of water and electricity, and food. In
targeted districts, however, access to education and housing receded, and family related violence
including domestic violence has reportedly increased. The extent of water and land related conflicts in
the province remains similar to that noted in the baseline.

There has been a decline in employment as a consequence of the reduction of aid projects in the
aftermath of the Security Transition. Working conditions have remained unchanged since December
2015.

Access to basic services and rights is undermined by corruption and discrimination based on gender,
ethnicity, power, and family relations.

Table 10: Summary Profile Khost



Pillar / Indicators
Civic Rights:
Right to Life, Liberty, Security, and Dignity
Right to Efficient and Fair Justice
Childrens Rights
Right to Participate in Public Affairs
Freedom of Opinion and Expression
Social Rights:
Right to Health
Right to Adequate Housing and Facilities
Food Security
Right to Education
Family Rights
Economic Rights:

Unchanged



1

Right to Decent Working Conditions

Deteriorated




3

Right to Work and Fairness in Employment


Crosscutting Themes:
Gender
Corruption

Status
Improved

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Notes:13
1. No changes were noted over the occurrence of violence against children, including early marriage,
child labor, and limited access to orphanages and judiciary. Some improvements were noted in
awareness of child abuse, leading to perceived decrease of abuse cases.
2. Public interest in participation in coming elections receded.
3. There has been no significant improvement reported in health services, which remain relatively
better in the provincial center as compared to outlying districts. Poor security in the districts limits
doctors physical access to facilities and patients.
4. In the center, where both male and female students have access to schools, some improvement has
been reported in the quality of education. This is allegedly due to implementation of a recent
Presidential Decree requiring the teachers only teach their subjects of expertise. In outlying districts,
however, quality of education reportedly deteriorated. Girls schools are lacking in Terizai district.
5. General perception is that domestic violence has increased in the province over the reporting
period. Women face physical and verbal abuse and are forced into marriage at a young age.
6. Job opportunities continue to decrease in the province in the aftermath of the withdrawal of
security forces, reduction in aid projects, and weak governance. Discrimination based on power,
ethnicity and kinship continued to limit fair access to paid employment.
7. Over all, there has been no change in security and health services at work places, though some
organizations, both governmental and non-governmental, have reportedly started to provide health
services to the employees over the reporting period.
8. Women continue to have limited access to traditional judicial institutions and no property rights. In
outlying districts, girls access to schools remains minimal. Women continue to face gender
discrimination in accessing employment and at work places.
9. General perception is corruption increased in both formal and traditional justice institutions.


13

Interviews based on the interviews: FGD-M-Kho-CS-1, FGD-M-Kho-CS-2, KI-M-Kho-CS-4, FGD-M-Kho-CS-3, KI-FKho-NG-1, KI-M-Kho-CS-5, KI-F-Kho-CS-6, KI-M-Kho-NG-2, KI-M-Kho-Go-2, KI-M-Kho-Go-9, KI-M-Kho-NG-3, FGDF-Kho-Go-3, FGD-F-Kho-Go-4, FGD-F-Kho-Go-5, KI-F-Kho-CS-7, KI-F-Kho-Go-1, KI-M-Kho-NG-4, KI-M-Kho-Go-6, KIF-Kho-Go-8 and KI-M-Kho-Go-7


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Kunduz
While many services remain unavailable in the aftermath of combats in late 2015, there are feelings of
improvements in behavior and performance of the ANP, and in access to and performance of the formal
justice system in relatively secure areas at the time of monitoring, such as Kunduz city and Aliabad
district. Citizens interest in participating in elections remains unchanged. There were reports of
deteriorations in childrens access to rights, though sexual abuse is not considered as prominent as
before. Freedom of expression is also considered as receding.

There have been no significant changes in access to housing and basic facilities, food, and levels of
family violence. Access to healthcare remains unchanged in the provincial center, but decreased in areas
affected by fighting. Education follows a similar trend, with decreasing access in the districts.

There are major concerns among the citizens about the widespread lack of job opportunities. Working
conditions have remained the same as those noted in December 2015. Corruption has reportedly
increased throughout all sectors.


Table 11: Summary Profile Kunduz

Pillar / Indicators
Civic Rights:
Right to Life, Liberty, Security, and Dignity
Right to Efficient and Fair Justice
Childrens Rights
Right to Participate in Public Affairs
Freedom of Opinion and Expression
Social Rights:
Right to Health
Right to Adequate Housing and Facilities
Food Security
Right to Education
Family Rights
Economic Rights:
Right to Work and Fairness in Employment
Right to Decent Working Conditions
Crosscutting Themes:
Gender Relations
Corruption

Unchanged


Status
Improved

10

Deteriorated



3


4

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Notes:14
1. Respondents continue to show satisfaction with the security situations as well as the performance
and behavior of ANP, including in maintaining relative law and order in the province. Significant
improvement was noted in police behavior regarding case registration. Abuse of power and military
equipment has reportedly decreased. This positive change in the police performance is credited to
the new security commander and primary court judge, who are making efforts to implement laws in
the province. The behavior of the ALP, however, continues to be disregarded.
2. In the center and Aliabad district, interviewees mention that access to and performance of formal
judiciary has increased over the reporting period. This is attributed to change in leadership,
increased salaries for the judicial employees in the center, and appointment of a new judge in
Aliabad. In Imam Saheb, however, traditional justice institutions continue to be preferred over the
formal system.
3. Violence against children has increased across all indicators, especially child labor. This is reportedly
due to poverty, internal displacement and physical disability of some parents. One exception is that
of incidents of sexual abuse against children, which are mentioned to be less prominent as
compared to the previous reporting period.
4. Threats against individuals who speak openly on various issues have increased in the center and
some of the districts. Awareness of Access to Information Law remains unchanged.
5. The quality of health services deteriorated across the province over the reporting period. Access to
maternity health has decreased in the places affected by fighting. The only positive perception
noted is due to the appointment of a female doctor in the only forensic laboratory of the province.
6. Discrimination based on gender, ethnicity and power in access to services of housing, water and
electricity continue to prevail, with some reports of increase.
7. Access to and quality of education have deteriorated in the districts, particularly for girls. Little
change was reported in the provincial center.
8. Women were mentioned to be subject to increasing levels of domestic violence, though some
improvements were reported where awareness had been provided. Their divorce rights remain
unrecognized.
9. Access to paid employment has reportedly decreased in the province. Lack of job opportunities is
mainly because of the ongoing conflict and the governments incompetence to create jobs.
Discrimination in recruitment continues to be pervasive. Those who have personal relations within
government entities are reportedly much more advantaged than those who dont.
10. Reports on corruption varied, with mentions of recession of corrupt practices within the ANP and
the formal judiciary in relatively more secure areas such as Kunduz and Aliabad. Conversely, in Imam
Saheb, these institutions are considered as increasingly corrupt. Corruption is also considered as
widespread in healthcare, education, and access to housing and basic services throughout the
province.


14

Research based on the interviews: GD-M-Kun-CS-1, FGD-M-Kun-CS-2, FGD-M-Kun-CS-3, FGD-F-Kun -Go-3, FGD-FKun-Go-4, FGD-F-Kun-Go-5, KI-F-Kun-NG-1, KI-M-Kun-NG-2, KI-M-Kun -NG-3, KI-M-Kun-NG-4, KI-F-Kun-Go-1, KIM-Kun-Go-2, KI-M-Kun-Go-6, KI-M-Kun -Go-7, KI-F-Kun-Go-8, KI-F-Kun-Go-9, KI-M-Kun-CS-4, KI-M-Kun-CS-5, KI-FKun-CS-6,KI-F-Kun-CS-7 and KI-F-Kun-PI-1


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Nangarhar
General security declined throughout the province. The attitude and performance of ANP, is considered
to have deteriorated in the provincial center, as does access to justice, particularly for women.
Sentiments are opposite in the target districts, where respondents reported improvements in both
police behavior, and performance of formal justice officials. Land conflicts are said to have escalated
over the reporting period.

There has been no evolution in childrens access to justice, and the number of working children ahs
allegedly increased. No changes were reported in terms of access to government jobs, participation in
political parties, and freedom of speech.

In terms of social rights, limited change was noted in access to health, housing, and food. There have
been some improvements, however, in access to sexual and reproductive health and education in the
provincial center.

Decline in job opportunities, widespread corruption, and discrimination in the job market continue to be
prominent.

Gender discrimination and corruption remain unchanged and widespread across civic, social and
economic arenas.

Table 12: Summary Profile Nangarhar



Pillar / Indicators
Civic Rights:
Right to Life, Liberty, Security, and Dignity
Right to Efficient and Fair Justice
Childrens Rights
Right to Participate in Public Affairs
Freedom of Opinion and Expression
Social Rights:
Right to Health
Right to Adequate Housing and Facilities
Food Security
Right to Education
Family Rights
Economic Rights:

Unchanged


Crosscutting Themes:
Gender
Corruption

10

25

Deteriorated

1

2

3

Right to Work and Fairness in Employment


Right to Decent Working Conditions

Status
Improved


11

26





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Notes:15
1. Land conflicts are reportedly escalating. In the center, ANPs attitude and performance is considered
inappropriate. ALP behavior and performance is also generally viewed as deleterious, with ALP
accused of misusing weapons, taking bribes and forcing their decision on citizens, especially in cases
of land disputes. The security situation in the province has deteriorated over the reporting period,
especially in Shinwar, Batikut, Achin and Jalalabad. A military operation against Qadir foreign militia
was ongoing at the time of research. By contrast, in the target districts respondents expressed
satisfaction with the performance and behavior of ANP, noting improvements in police behavior
regarding case registration.
2. Access to justice organizations has receded over the reporting period, with women notably having
no access in most areas. This is allegedly due to deteriorating security, and increase in death threats
against judicial staff. Some Jirgas in the districts stopped functioning, following assassination of
some of their members, or displacement due to insecurity. The formal judicial system continues to
be adversely affected by lack of adequate staff and limited awareness of processes among the
public. However, some positive changes were noted in the performance of the formal judicial
organizations with the appointment of young individuals.
3. Childrens access to justice organizations and rehabilitation centers remained unchanged. There is
general consensus occurrences of child labor have increased, with children from poor and migrant
families in the center subjected to hard labor. Child sexual abuse is also reportedly on the rise.
However, a widespread sentiment among respondents that cases of under age marriage and
engagement are decreasing.
4. Access to government jobs continues to remain limited by nepotism and the necessity of using
middlemen. Public participation in political parties remains very low. Most respondents explained
not being willing to engage in political parties because of the security threats. That being said,
respondents expressed increased willingness to participate in elections, allegedly to overthrow the
current apparatus and vote for a deserving candidate.
5. Over all, there has been no change in the access to and quality of health services in Nangarhar since
December 2015. Discrimination based on ethnicity and kinship in the health sector continue to be
pervasive. In the center however, improvements were noted in access to sexual and reproductive
health services over the reporting period.
6. Access to electricity in the province has decreased. In the center, the cost of electricity and housing
has risen. No change was reported in housing conditions, including those of IDPs.
7. There is general consensus among respondents that access to education is improving.
8. Overall perception is violence against women has increased during the monitoring period, with
higher occurrences of forced marriage, deprivation of education, exchanging of women in marriage
(badal), and harassment in public. In divorce cases, womens rights continue to be ignored, and
women continue to face intimidation and harassment at court in divorce processes.
9. Access to employment is continuously decreasing in Nangarhar due to lack of opportunities.
10. Working conditions remain dire, though some improvements have been reported in the provincial
center.
11. Womens access to formal justice organizations is reported to have dropped to zero outside of the
center. Women continue to face discrimination in accessing employment and harassment in family
related cases throughout the province.


15

Research based on the interviews: I-F-Nan-NG-1, KI-M-Nan-NG-2, KI-M-Nan-NG-4, KI-F-Nan-Go-1, KI-M-Nan-Go2, KI-F-Nan-PI-1, FGD-F-Nan-Go-5, FGD-M-Nan-CS-1, FGD-F-Nan-Go-3, FGD-M-Nan-CS-2, KI-F-Nan-CS-6, KI-MNan-Go-6, FGD-M-Nan-CS-3, FGD-F-Nan-Go-4, KI-F-Nan-CS-7, KI-M-Nan-CS-5, KI-F-Nan-GO-8, KI-M-Nan-NG-3, KIM-Nan-Go-7, KI-F-Nan-GO-9 and KI-F-Nan-GO-1

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12. Perceptions of corruption within police forces and the education department have increased.
Corruption remains prevalent throughout all other sectors.

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Nimruz
Findings differed sharply between the provincial center of Zaranj, and outlying districts. In Chahar Burjak
and Chakhansur, general sentiment is police behavior and performance is improving, and there are no
reservations about both access to formal justice or the performance of the traditional justice system. IN
the center, however, concerns were expressed about the behavior of the police, the occurrence of
kidnappings, and child labor. Childrens access to justice and sexual violence against children are
reported as unchanged. Public interest in participating in future elections and in political parties seems
to be declining.

Access to education is said to have improved in the center, and remains problematic in the districts.
There have been no changes in access to heath, housing, water and electricity, and food.

Lack of job opportunities remains a major challenge for many, though improved access of women to
employment has been made possible through positive discrimination. There has been no major change
in working conditions.

Corruption remains widespread but unchanged since December 2015.

Table 13: Summary Profile Nimruz

Pillar / Indicators
Civic Rights:
Right to Life, Liberty, Security, and Dignity
Right to Efficient and Fair Justice
Childrens Rights
Right to Participate in Public Affairs
Freedom of Opinion and Expression
Social Rights:
Right to Health
Right to Adequate Housing and Facilities
Food Security
Right to Education
Family Rights
Economic Rights:
Right to Work and Fairness in Employment
Right to Decent Working Conditions
Crosscutting Themes:
Gender
Corruption

Unchanged


Status
Improved

10

13

11


12

Deteriorated

2

4

5

14

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Notes:16
1. In Chahar Burjak and Chakhansur, there was a feeling of improvement in police behavior and
performance.
2. Sentiments were different in the center, where respondents complained about police behavior
and mistreatment of public by police forces. The security commander in the province was
dismissed from his position following allegations of involvement in kidnapping and murder. There
was dissatisfaction in the ability of police forces to provide security to residents over the reporting
period.
3. Access to formal judicial organizations has reportedly improved in the center. The directorate of
women affairs is active in women related cases. The performance of traditional justice systems is
counted as decent.
4. In the outlying districts of Chahar Burjak and Chakhansur districts, there has been an increase in
discrimination based on ethnicity, power and kinship in formal justice organizations.
5. Over all, childrens rights deteriorated. Child labor, kidnapping and begging have reportedly
increased throughout the province. Children continue to lack access to justice organizations and
there has been no change in childrens sexual abuse in the province. Sexual abuse is reportedly
more prominent in districts than in the provincial center.
6. Discrimination in accessing government positions remain unchanged. Competition for higher
positions is believed to be just symbolic, with only powerful individuals recruited. The crisis in the
Unity Government has reduced public interest in participating in the electoral process. There is
least interest among the public to join the political parties in the province, mostly because of the
bad reputation of the parties.
7. Rights related to freedom of opinion and expression remain limited. There were some reports of
freedom of speck of journalists being further curtailed.
8. No change was noted in access to and quality of health services. There is shortage or nurses and
medicine in the hospitals. Healthcare lacks forensic and blood testing labs and only a few vaccines
are available. Access to reproductive and maternal health also remains limited in the province and
there has been no improvement. The awareness campaign run by a non-government organization
supports and motivates women to go to hospitals for delivery is the only positive change
perceived by respondents. In the center, discrimination based on gender, ethnicity, power, and
family relations has reportedly increased.
9. There is no change in access to housing, water and electricity in the province. In both the center
and the outlying districts, access to safe drinking water is limited. Residents continue to face
discrimination in accessing the basic facilities of water and electricity, and government employees
and wealthy individuals are advantaged in their access to water and electricity services. There has
been no change in the nature and number of conflicts over the reporting period.
10. Limited change was noted in outlying districts, with continued shortage of qualified teachers and
facilities. Schools have no access to drinking water and hygiene conditions are poor.
11. In Zaranj, respondents felt the quality of education was increasing, with more schools in the
center. This positive change is credited to efforts by the Directorate of Education.
12. Despite increasing government positions opening access to employment in the public sector,
discrimination in accessing employment is still pervasive.


16

Research based on the interviews: FGD-F-Nim-Go-5 FGD-M-Nim-CS-2 FGD-M-Nim-CS-3 FGD-M-Nim-CS-1


FGD-F-Nim-Go-3 FGD-F-Nim-Go-4 KI-F-Nim-Go-6 KI-M-Nim-Go-7 KI-F-Nim-PI-1 KI-M-Nim-NG-4 KI-M-NimNG-2 KI-M-Nim-Go-9KI-F-NIM-NG-3 KI-M-Nim-Go-2 KI-F-Nim-CS-6 KI-F-Nim-CS-7 KI-F-Nim-Go-8 KI-F-NimNG-1 KI-M-Nim-CS-5

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13. Though both governmental and non-governmental organizations are said to give preference to
female candidates at equal qualification with a male candidate, women continue to have
minimum or no access to high-level government jobs.
14. There has been no change in corruption levels in health services.
15. In the provincial center of Zaranj, corruption increased in ANP, traffic police and passport
departments. Corruption in justice system and government departments responsible for the basic
amenities such as water, land and electricity has increased over the reporting period. By contrast,
there were no reports of corruption within government departments in outlying districts.

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Survey Results
This section reports selected findings from the analysis of the quantitative data collected through a
survey instrument applied to all the individuals (589) engaged for this monitoring round. These graphs
are not statistically representative and serve only as suggestive illustrations.

Civic Rights
As for baseline findings, sentiments were mixed concerning formal justice authorities. Respondents from
both sexes reported improvements in the treatment of citizens in the formal justice system in Kabul,
Kunduz, Balkh and Herat. In Daikundi, where dissatisfaction had already been expressed in December
2015, further deterioration was noted. While women appear less inclined to deal with justice
authorities, in provinces where female respondents reported having visited institutions, such as in
Nangarhar and Khost, their perceptions vary significantly from those of men, most expressing
satisfaction with the evolution of justice authorities behavior towards them (Figures 2 and 3).

Figure 2. Treatment of Citizens By Formal Justice Authorities by Province Womens Views








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Figure 3. Treatment of Citizens By Formal Justice Authorities by Province Mens Views


General improvement was reported by interviewees from both sexes on the behavior of national police
and army forces, except in Daikundi and Nangarhar, where results were contrasted. Most female
respondents in the latter considered the treatment of citizens by ANP/ANA had improved, while male
respondents were more divided in their assessment of police and army behavior (Figures 4 and 5).

Figure 4. Assessment Of Treatment Of Citizens By ANP/ ANA by Province Womens Views


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Figure 5. Assessment Of Treatment Of Citizens By ANP/ ANA by Province Mens Views


There was generally little change in perceptions of violence against children over the reporting period.
Perceptions of male and female respondents varied quite significantly, with more women reporting
increase in violence than men, who, except in Herat and Kunduz, were more inclined to report a
decrease in perpetration of violence against children (figures 6 and 7).

Figure 6. Womens Views on Violence Against Children By Province



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Figure 7. Mens Views on Violence Against Children By Province

Social Rights
Except for respondents from Balkh province, there is a general sentiment of deterioration of access to
health services. In Kunduz, perceptions of male and female respondents differed drastically, with most
men reporting deterioration while women considered access to services had improved.

Figure 8. Access to Health Services Womens Views


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Figure 9. Access to Health Services Mens Views

Economic Rights
As in baseline findings, main challenges in access to employment remain lack of employment
opportunities, closely followed by nepotism and corruption. Differences were noted, however, in
perceived challenges in the provincial centers and in the districts, corruption and nepotism being most
prominent in the centers, while lack of information, skills, infrastructure and access to capital where
reported to be the strongest challenges in outlying districts (Figure 11).

Figure 11. Main Challenges in Access to Licit and Stable Employment


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Conclusion
Observations from the baseline remain largely unchanged across most indicators. Findings suggest
corruption, nepotistic practices and discrimination based on gender, ethnicity, language, and kinship
remain pervasive threats to fundamental rights across all sectors. Womens fundamental rights are
relatively less fulfilled than men while women are also more vulnerable to shocks than men. The
interference of power holders, armed opposition groups (AOGs), and government officials remains as a
threat to freedom of expression. Awareness of Access to Information Law is minimal among public
entities and almost nonexistent among ordinary citizens. Access by Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs)
to basic services such as housing, electricity, water and sanitation services remains particularly limited.
Food security is a critical issue in most provinces and there is little or no evidence of formal efforts to
address food security systematically and on an ongoing basis.

Corruption and nepotism remain significant obstacles in access to numerous rights across all sectors.
Justice, health, and education sectors are particularly affected, as are access to housing and related
services. Access to government positions is also subject to corrupt practices, discrimination, and
nepotism.

Civic Rights
There have been some improvements in the security situation in Kunduz center and Aliabad, where trust
in the ANP has also increased. In Nangarhar province there has been a severe deterioration in security
and more instances of land related conflict are reported. Also in Nangarhar, there are reports of
increased violence against women and children, and increased disenchantment of the citizens with the
security forces.

The situation of childrens rights has deteriorated across all provinces. A major concern is the
incremental growth in instances and types of child labor, attributed to a generally weak economic
situation, forcing many parents to find new sources of income including sending children to work, thus
depriving childrens right to education and exposing them to physical danger and sexual abuse.
Collecting data on sexual abuse of children remains sensitive and challenging, however. In Bamyan there
are reports of an increase in sexual abuse of children, particularly working children.

The general disappointment about electoral processes noted in the baseline appears to have evolved
into widespread skepticism. Respondents in all provinces except Nangarhar feel reluctant about
participating in future elections, expressing distrust in the ability of the government to reform the
electoral process, characterised by many as being riddled with inefficiency, corruption and interference
of power holders. In Nangarhar, however, disenchantment with the current provincial leadership is said
to have increased the sentiment among many citizens for elections and voting. In all provinces, political
parties continue to be viewed as undemocratic structures riddled by discrimination and corruption. In
contrast, to all other provinces, in Kabul there appear to be willingness and a desire to engage in politics
and elections, particularly among youth.

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Freedom of expression is threatened by multiple sources including some government quarters, local
power holders, and AOGs. In Bamyan, Herat and Kandahar media censorship, intimidation and threats
against journalists and outspoken individuals are said to be on the rise.

Social Rights
Findings on social rights vary across provinces, but access remains largely limited and / or deteriorating,
particularly in outlying districts. This is the case for food security, education, family rights and access to
housing.

There is deterioration in access to, and quality of, health services in Bamyan, Daikundi, Herat, Kunduz,
Nangarhar, and Nimruz. Assessments of access to various services are different among men and women.
Women report improvements in health services, for example, possibly due to greater attention to
maternities in Balkh, while in Kunduz, women report improvements in the security situation, likely due
to increased mobility for women. Male interviewees tend to have largely pessimistic views of the quality
of, and access to, health services.

Access to adequate housing facilities remains limited, particularly for IDPs. A general increase in the
number of land-related disputes is also noted across provinces.

Economic Rights
There is continued and sustained decrease in access to employment and job security across all
provinces, for both men and women. Corrupt recruitment practices and nepotism are pointed to by
many as deterrents for many job seekers. Women continue to face discrimination, with increases
reported in Herat and Daikundi. In Bamyan and Nimruz, however, there were some reports of women
being given preference over men in recruitment.


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Appendix 1: Monitoring Indicators


Rights Pillar

Indicator

Proxies

Civic

Rights to Life, Liberty,


Security and Dignity of
Person

Right to Efficient and Fair


Justice

Childrens Rights

Right to Participate in Public


Affairs

Right to Freedom of Opinion


and Expression
Economic

Right to Work and Fairness in


Employment
Right to Decent Working
Conditions

Trust in ANP
Police Performance and Behavior
Security
Corruption (Crosscutting Theme)
Access to Formal and Traditional Justice Systems
Performance of Justice Officials
Womens Access to, and Treatment by, Justice Systems
(Gender as Crosscutting Theme)
Corruption (Crosscutting Theme)
Violence Against Children (Degree and Types of
Violence)
Access to Justice
Access to Rehabilitation centers, Juvenile Homes and
Orphanages
Child Labor
Sexual Abuse
Participation in Elections
Access to Public Positions (Gender as crosscutting:
Women in Senior Positions)
Participation in Political Parties (Gender as Crosscutting:
Female Party Members)
Corruption (Crosscutting Theme)
Discrimination (Gender as Crosscutting)
Freedom of Speech (threats)
Freedom of Gathering
Right to Information Law
Access to Paid Employment
Corruption (Jobs for Sale, Nepotism)
Discrimination (Gender as Crosscutting)
Safety and Security at Workplace
Job Security
Harassment (based on Gender or Ethnicity)

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Rights Pillar

Indicator

Proxies

Social



Right to Health

Right to Adequate Housing


and Facilities

Food Security

Right to Education

Family Rights

Access to Health Services


Access to Reproductive Health
Quality of Health Services
Corruption (Crosscutting Theme)
Discrimination (Gender as Crosscutting)
Access to Housing, Water and Electricity
IDPs (Housing)
Disputes Related to Land and Water
Corruption (Crosscutting Theme)
Discrimination (Gender as Crosscutting)
Sufficient Food (Number of Meals per Day)
Adequate Food (Type of Food Eaten)
Food Assistance (Sources, e.g., Government, INGOs,
other)
Access to Education
Quality of Education
Gender Discrimination
Corruption (in Hiring Teachers and in Giving Grades)
Inheritance Rights and Related Conflicts
Domestic Violence
Violence Against women
Divorce Cases and Womens Rights to Divorce
Access to FRUs and Shelters

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Appendix 2: List and Definition of Codes


Non-Government = NG
KI-F-Kab-NG-1 (KI=Key informant, F=Female, Kab=Kabul, NG=Non-government, 1=Sequence)
KI-M-Kab-NG-2 (KI=Key informant, M=Male, Kab=Kabul, NG=Non-government, 2=Sequence)
KI-M-Kab-NG-3 (KI=Key informant, M=Male, Kab=Kabul, NG=Non-government, 3=Sequence)
KI-M-Kab-NG-4 (KI=Key informant, M=Male Kab=Kabul, NG=Non-government, 4=Sequence)

Government = Go
KI-F-Kab-Go-1 (KI=Key informant, F=Female Kab=Kabul, Go=Government, 1=Sequence)
KI-M-Kab-Go-2 (KI=Key informant, M=Male Kab=Kabul, Go=Government, 2=Sequence)
FGD-F-Kab-Go-3 (FGD=Focus Group Discussion, F=Female, Kab=Kabul, Go=Government, 3=Sequence)
FGD-F-Kab-Go-4 (FGD=Focus Group Discussion, F=Female, Kab=Kabul, Go=Government, 4=Sequence)
FGD-F-Kab-Go-5 (FGD=Focus Group Discussion, F=Female, Kab=Kabul, Go=Government, 5=Sequence)
KI-M-Kab-Go-6 (KI=Key informant, M=Male, Kab=Kabul, Go=Government, 6=Sequence)
KI-M-Kab-Go-7 (KI=Key informant, M=Male, Kab=Kabul, Go=Government, 7=Sequence)
KI-M-Kab-Go-8 (KI=Key informant, M=Male, Kab=Kabul, Go=Government, 8=Sequence)
KI-M-Kab-Go-9 (KI=Key informant, M=Male, Kab=Kabul, Go=Government, 9=Sequence)


Civil Society = CS
FGD-M-Kab-CS-1 (FGD=Focus Group Discussion, M=Male, Kab=Kabul, CS=Civil society, 1=Sequence)
FGD-M-Kab-CS-2 (FGD=Focus Group Discussion, M=Male, Kab=Kabul, CS=Civil society, 2=Sequence)
FGD-M-Kab-CS-3 (FGD= Focus Group Discussion, M=Male, Kab=Kabul, CS=Civil society, 3=Sequence)
KI-M-Kab-CS-4 (KI= Key informant, M=Male, Kab=Kabul, CS=Civil society, 4=Sequence)
KI-M-Kab-CS-5 (KI= Key informant, M=Male, Kab=Kabul, CS=Civil society, 5=Sequence)
KI-F-Kab-CS-6 (KI= Key informant, F=Female, Kab=Kabul, CS=Civil society, 6=Sequence)
KI-F-Kab-CS-7 (KI= Key informant, F=Female, Kab=Kabul, CS=Civil society, 7=Sequence)

Public Institutions = PI
KI-F-Kab-PI-1 (KI= Key informant, F=Female, Kab=Kabul, PI=Public Institution, 1=Sequence)

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