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Sound and Structural Vibration

Radiation, Transmission and Response

FRANK FAHY
Institute of Sound and Vibration Research
University of Southampton
Southampton, UK

PAOLO GARDONIO
Institute of Sound and Vibration Research
University of Southampton
Southampton, UK

AMSTERDAM
PARIS

ELSEVIER

BOSTON

SAN DIEGO

HEIDELBERG

SAN FRANCISCO

LONDON

NEW YORK

SINGAPORE

SYDNEY

Academic Press in an imprint of Elsevier

OXFORD
TOKYO

Contents

Preface to the First Edition


xui
Preface to the Second Edition
xvii
Acknowledgements
xxi
List of Permissions
xxiii
Introduction
xxv

1. Waves in Fluids and Solid Structures


1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9

Frequency and Wavenumber


1
Sound Waves in Fluids
8
Longitudinal Waves in Solids
11
Quasi-Longitudinal Waves in Solids
13
Transverse (Shear) Waves in Solids
14
Bending Waves in Bars
19
Bending Waves in Thin Plates
26
Dispersion Curves
27
Flexural Waves in Thin-Walled Circular Cylindrical
Shells
30
1.10 Natural Frequencies and Modes of Vibration
38
1.11 Forced Vibration and Resonance
50

Vlll

CONTENTS

1.12 Modal Density and Modal Overlap


64
1.13 The Roles of Modal Density in Vibroacoustics
Problems
72

69

2. Structural Mobility, Impedance, Vibrational Energy and Power


2.1
2.2
2.3

2.4

2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8

Mobility and Impedance Representations


75
Concepts and General Forms of Mobility and Impedance
of Lumped Mechanical Elements
79
Mobility Functions of Uniform Beams in Bending
84
2.3.1 Infinite Beam
84
2.3.2 Finite Beam (Closed Form)
87
2.3.3 Finite Beam (Modal Summation)
90
Mobility and Impedance Functions of Thin Uniform
Flat Plates
102
2.4.1 Infinite Plate
102
2.4.2 Finite Plate
106
Radial Driving-Point Mobility of Thin-Walled Circular
Cylindrical Shells
110
Mobility and Impedance Matrix Models
115
Structural Power
121
Energy Density and Energy Flux of Vibrational Waves
129
Problems
134

3. Sound Radiation by Vibrating Structures


3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6

3.7

The Importance and Mechanism of Sound Radiation by


Vibrating Structures
135
The Simple Volume Source
138
Sound Radiation by a Pair of Elementary
Surface Sources
141
The Baffled Piston
143
Sound Radiation by Flexural Modes of Plates
145
Sound Radiation by Plates in Multi-Mode Flexural
Vibration
159
3.6.1 Formulation in Terms of Structural Modes
159
3.6.2 Formulation in Terms of Elementary Radiator's
165
Independent Radiation Modes
168
3.7.1 Formulation in Terms of Structural Modes
169
3.7.2 Formulation in Terms of Elementary Radiators
170
3.7.3 Radiation Modes and Efficiencies
171
3.7.4 A Comparison of Self- and Mutual Radiation by
Plate Modes
172

CONTENTS

ix

3.8 Sound Radiation by Flexural Waves in Plates


175
3.9 The Frequency-Average Radiation Efficiency of Plates
185
3.10 Sound Radiation due to Concentrated Forces and
Displacements
195
3.11 Sound Radiation by Non-Uniform Plate Structures
204
3.11.1 Beam-Stiffened Plates
204
3.11.2 Corrugated Plates
209
3.11.3 Sandwich Plates
210
3.11.4 Composite Sound Insulation Panels
212
3.12 Sound Radiation by Curved Shells
213
3.13 Sound Radiation by Irregularly Shaped Vibrating Bodies
227
Problems
240

4. Fluid Loading of Vibrating Structures


4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9

Practical Aspects of Fluid Loading


243
Pressure Fields on Vibrating Surfaces
245
Wave Impedances of Structures and Fluids
256
Fluid Loading of Vibrating Plates
261
Natural Frequencies of Fluid-Loaded Plates
267
Effects of Fluid Loading on Sound Radiation from
Point-Excited Plates
268
Natural Frequencies of Fluid-Loaded, Thin-Walled, Circular
Cylindrical Shells
270
Effects of Fluid Loading on Sound Radiation by Thin-Walled,
Circular Cylindrical Shells
270
Damping of Thin Plates by Porous Sheets
275
Problems
275

5. Transmission of Sound through Partitions


5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6

Practical Aspects of Sound Transmission through


Partitions
277
Transmission of Normally Incident Plane Waves through
an Unbounded Partition
278
Transmission of Obliquely Incident Plane Waves through an
Unbounded Flexible Partition
284
Transmission of Diffuse Sound through a Bounded Partition
in a Baffle
296
Transmission of Sound through a Partition between
Two Rooms
299
Double-Leaf Partitions
303

CONTENTS

5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13
5.14
5.15
5.16
5.17

Transmission of Normally Incident Plane Waves through an


Unbounded Double-Leaf Partition
304
The Theoretical Effect of Cavity Sound Absorption on Normal
Incidence Transmission Loss
310
Transmission of Obliquely Incident Plane Waves through an
Unbounded Double-Leaf Partition
314
Mechanical Stiffening and Coupling of Double
Partition Leaves
323
Close-Fitting Enclosures
330
Transmission of Sound through Stiffened, Composite, Multilayer
and Non-Uniform Panels
337
Transmission of Sound through Circular
Cylindrical Shells
352
Coupling between Shell Modes and Acoustic Modes
of a Contained Fluid
353
Vibrational Response of Pipes to Internal Acoustic
Excitation
358
Transmission of Internally Generated Sound through
Pipe Walls
364
Transmission of Externally Incident Sound through
Large-Diameter, Thin-Walled Cylinders
366
Problems
372

6. Acoustically Induced Vibration of Structures


6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7

Practical Aspects of Acoustically Induced Vibration


Decomposition of a Sound Field
376
Response of a Baffled Plate to Plane Sound Waves
The Principle of Vibroacoustic Reciprocity
385
Modal Reciprocity: Radiation and Response
386
Radiation Due to Point Forces and Response to
Point Sources
391
An Application of Response Theory to
Building Acoustics
396
Problems
400

375
379

7. Acoustic Coupling between Structures and Enclosed Volumes


of Fluid
7.1
7.2

Practical Importance of the Problem


403
A Simple Case of Fluid-Structure Interaction

404

CONTENTS

xi

7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9

Harmonic Sound Fields in an Enclosed Volume of Fluid


408
Sound Field in a Closed Space with Rigid Surfaces
414
Interaction Analysis by Green's Function
415
Modal-Interaction Model
418
Solutions of the Modal-Interaction Model
422
Power Flow and Statistical Energy Analysis
427
Wave Propagation in Plates Loaded by Confined
Fluid Layers
433
7.10 Wave Propagation in Fluid-Filled Tubes of Circular
Cross Section
443
Problems
447

8. Introduction to Numerically Based Analyses of Fluid-Structure


Interaction
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4

8.5

8.6
8.7
8.8

The Role of Numerical Analysis


449
Numerical Analysis of Vibration in Solids and Fluids
451
Finite Element Analysis
453
Finite Element Analysis of Vibrations
in Solid Structures
455
8.4.1 Flexural Vibration of Slender Beams: Rayleigh-Ritz
Method
456
8.4.2 Flexural Vibration of Slender Beams: Finite Element
Analysis
461
8.4.3 Flexural Vibration of Thin Flat Plates: Finite Element
Analysis
470
8.4.4 Finite Element Models for Other Types
of Structure
478
Finite Element Analysis of Acoustic Vibrations of Fluids
in Cavities
479
8.5.1 One-Dimensional Acoustic Vibration of a Fluid in a
Uniform Straight Pipe: Rayleigh-Ritz Method
480
8.5.2 One-Dimensional Acoustic^ Vibration of Fluid in a
Uniform Straight Pipe: Finite Element Analysis
484
8.5.3 Acoustic Vibration of a Fluid in a Three-Dimensional
Cavity: Finite Element Analysis
489
Coupled Fluid-Structure Analysis
496
Boundary Element Analysis for Vibroacoustic Problems
503
8.7.1 Direct Boundary Element Method
505
Coupled Structure-Fluid Analysis
515
Problems
519

xii

CONTENTS

9. Introduction to Active Control of Sound Radiation and


Transmission
9.1
9.2
9.3

9.4

9.5

Introduction to Active Control


521
Fundamentals of Active Control Theory
522
9.2.1 Feed-Forward Control
523
9.2.2 Feedback Control
532
Sensor-Actuator Transducers
548
9.3.1 Strain Actuators
549
9.3.2 Inertial Electrodynamic Actuators
555
9.3.3 Strain Sensors
561
9.3.4 Inertial Sensors (Accelerometers)
565
From Active Noise Control to Active Structural Acoustic
Control and Active Vibration Control
569
9.4.1 Feed-Forward Active Noise Control
and Active Noise-Vibration Control
570
9.4.2 Feed-Forward Active Structural Acoustic
Control
573
9.4.3 Feedback Active Structural Acoustic Control
575
9.4.4 Decentralised Feedback Active Vibration
Control
576
Smart Panels for ASAC and AVC Systems
580
9.5.1 Models of Smart Panels
580
9.5.2 Smart Panels with Feed-Forward MIMO and SISO
Control Systems
584
9.5.3 Smart Panel with Feed-Forward SISO Control
Systems Using a Volume Velocity Distributed Sensor and
Uniform Force Distributed Actuator
588
9.5.4 Smart Panels with Feedback MIMO and SISO Control
Systems
590
9.5.5 Smart Panel with a Feedback SISO Control System
Using a Volume Velocity Sensor and Uniform Force
Actuator
595
Problems
596

Answers
References
Index

597
607

621