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yaSaEaI @laasaosa (ENGLISH GRAMMAR COURSE)

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WAGH

Kinds of words
`mnwT>o AmnU Words Mo dJuH$aU `m`m H$m`mZwgma
H$go hmoVo Vo nmh - AmnU gwdmVrbmM nm{hbo H$s Sentence
(dm`) Words nmgwZ ~Zbobo AgVo. naVw dm`mVrb `oH$
Word Mo H$m` doJdoJio AgVo. `m H$m`mZwgmaM AmnU Words
Mo dJuH$aU H$ eH$Vmo.

1) Noun - Omo eX EImm `VrMo OmJoMo qH$dm dVwMo


Zmd hUwZ dmnabm OmVmo, `mbm Noun Ago hUVmV. Vmo
dm`mV g~moYZmMo H$m` H$aVmo.
CXm. Shivaji was a king.
Delhi is big city.
Noun
Noun
Noun Mo H$ma
a) Common NounEH$mM H$ma`m `Vr qH$dm dVwgmR>r
{Xbo`m Zmdmbm Common Noun hUVmV.
CXm. Player, Singer, Boy, Girl, Man, Woman

gm_m`nUo

Common Nouns
dVwgmR>r dmnabo OmUmao Common Nouns ruler
table
truck
cooker
chair
ship
television
ladder
hammer calculator
pencil
train
bicycle crayons loyalty lamp
truth
sofa
drill
carpet
pen
axe
book
bus
{R>H$mU Am{U
Bank
mall
Hotel
zoo
gas
theater
station factory
park
animal

m`mgmR>r Mo Common Nouns elephant mosque


calf
temple
bear
shop
lion
synagogue
tiger
church

{d{e> H$m_ H$aUm`m


Singer secretary
manager
pilot
sailor
officer doctor
gardener
artist
dancer teacher farmer

bmoH$mgmR>rMo Common Nouns drivermagician


plumber
dentist
clerk
writerathlete
lawyer

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b) Proper Noun EImm {d{e> `Vr qH$dm {R>H$mUmbm {Xbo`m Zmdmbm


Proper Noun hUVmV.
CXm. Marathi, Shivaji, Nasik, Godavari
1) Nasik is the city.
2) Sachin is a great palyer.
d[ab dm`mV Nasik d Sachin ho Proper noun Va city d Player ho
Common noun AmhoV.
Proper noun ho Zoh_rM Capital AjamZo gw hmoVo.
CXm. Washington, Maharashtra, Mahatma Gandhi, Sachin
Tendulkar
C) Collective Noun.
`Vr`m qH$dm dVw`m g_whmgmR>r dmnabo`m Zmdmg
Collective noun hUVmV.
CXm. Class, Team, Crowd, Assembly, Family
Crowd - A collection of people - bmoH$mMm g_yh
Family - A collection of family member - Hw$Qw>~mVrb
gX`mMm g_wh.
CXm.
a team a gang
a club
the army
a choir
the government
a committee a bond.
People, Police `mgma`m Collective
{H$`mnX (are, have) dmnamdo.

nouns

ZVa

AZoH$dMZr

D) Abstract noun JwUdmm, AdWm qH$dm H$Vr`m {Xbo`m ZmdmZm Abstract


noun hUVmV.
CXm.
Kindness - X`miynUm
slavery - Jwbm_r
theft - Mmoar
poverty - Jar~r
E) Countable & Uncountable Noun Or Zm_o g`oV (EH$ XmoZ........) Aer _moObr OmD$ eH$VmV,
`mZm countable noun hUVmV.
CXm. Tree, Pen, apple B.
Or Zm_o g`oV _moOVm `oV Zmhr `mZm Uncountable noun
hUVmV.

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yaSaEaI @laasaosa (ENGLISH GRAMMAR COURSE)

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CXm. Milk, Suger, Water B.

dm`mV noun 3 dnmV AgVo.


1) Nominative Case (W_m)
Zmd Oohm dm`mV Subject hUyZ `oVo, Vohm `mbm
Nominative Case hUVmV.
CXm.Rahul works hard.
S
Pimpalgaon is famous for grapes.
S
d[ab dm`mV Rahul, Pimpalgaon hr Zmdo nominative case _`o
AmhoV.
2) Accusative Case ({Vr`m)
Zmd Oohm dm`mV, object hUyZ `oVo, Vohm Vo Accusative
Case _`o AgVo.
CXm.
I helped Rahul. (_r amhbbm _XV Ho$br)
O
3) Possessive Case (f>r)
Apostrophe s ('s) OmoS>bobm
Possessive Case _`o AgVo.
CXm.Anil's bag (A{ZbMr ~J)
Possessive Case Mm dmna
hmoVmo.
Zmd

AgVmo,

Vohm

Vo

Zmd

_mbH$s

XmI{d`mgmR>r

H$moU`m Case _`o `mZwgma Pronoun R>aVo Nominative - Subject Pronoun (SP)
Accusative - Object Pronoun (OP)
Possessive - Possessive Pronoun (PP)

Possessive Case _mbH$s hH$ XmI{d`mgmR>r Zm_ Possessive case _`o


dmnaVmV. Zmdmbm apastrophe's ('s) OmoS>bm OmVmo.
CXm. Ram's Pen.
's Mm AW - "Mm, - Mr, - Mo' Agm hmoVmo.
Oa eXm`m eodQ>r "g' Agm CMma Agob Va Vohm
apostrophe s Imbrb_mUo XmI{dVmV.
Players' Choice () Players's Choice ()
Students' bags () Students's bags ()
AZoH$ dMZmbm XoIrb apostrophe Imbrb nXVrZo dmnaVmV.
CXm. Justice' choice `m_`o apostrophe s Q>mibobm Amho.

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\$V g{Odm`m ZmdmbmM apostrophe s bmdVmV.
hUOoM {ZOudm`m Zmdmbm apostrophe s OmoS>V
Zmhr.
CXm. Rahul's book. (amhb Mo nwVH$)
naVw "nwVH$mMo H$ha' hUVmZm Book's Cover ()
Cover of the book ()
Noun in apposition Oohm XmoZ Zmdo EH$m{df`r nmR>monmR> dmnabo OmVmV,
Xwgao Zm_ n{h`m {df`r _m{hVr XoVo Aem doiog `mbm noun in
apposition hUVmV.
CXm. Sachin, the Indian batsman, scored a century.
Dr. Singh, Prime minister of India, announced the new project.

EH$dMZr, AZoH$dMZr Zm_o Zm_o (nouns), EH$dMZr (Singular) VgoM AZoH$dMZr (Plural) hr Agw
eH$VmV.

EH$m dVw qH$dm `Vr~b ~mobVmZm EH$dMZr


(Singular) Zm_ dmnaVmV. Singular Zm_ XmI{dVmZm `m
AJmoXa a qH$dm an ho article dmnaVmV.
CXm.
a bat
an idea
a lady
a cat
an aeroplane a boy
a taxi
a house
an hour.
XmoZ qH$dm XmoZ nojm OmV `pV~b, dVw~b qH$dm
{R>H$mUm~b ~mobVmZm AZoH$dMZr (Plural) Zm_ dmnaVmV.
Plural (AZoH$dMZ) XmI{d`mgmR>r 'S' OmoS>VmV.
CXm.
a computer
a bat
a teacher

Singular Plural
computers
bats
teachers

H$m{h ZmdmZm
OmoS>VmV.
CXm.
witch
brush

AZoH$dMZ

Singular
witches
brushes

(plural)

H$a`mgmR>r

Plural

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'-es'

yaSaEaI @laasaosa (ENGLISH GRAMMAR COURSE)

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flash
box
fox

flashes
boxes
foxes

`m nouns `m eodQ>r s, ss, ch, sh, x AgVmo `mMo plural -es


OmoSy>Z hmoVo.
CXm.
bus
glass
branch
beach
tax

Singular
buses
glasses
branches
beaches
taxes

Plural

~hVmer `m nouns `m eodQ>r 'y' AgVmo, `mMo plural


H$aVmZm 'y' Mo 'i' H$Z -es OmoS>VmV.
CXm.
baby
family
story

Singular
babies
families
stories

Plural

naVw 'y' `m AJmoXa Vowel Agob, Va (a,e,i,o,u) plural H$aVmZm \


$V 's' OmoS>VmV.
CXm.
key
monkey

Singular
keys
monkeys

Plural

~hVmer ZmdmMm eodQ> Oa 'f', 'fe' Zo hmoV Agob Va `mMo


AZoH$ dMZ 'f' H$mTy>Z 'Ves' OmoSy>Z H$aVmV.
CXm.
Singular
Plural
shelf
shelves
half
halves
leaf
leaves
thief
thieves
wolf
wolves
life
lives
wife
wives
knife
knives
H$mhr Zmdm`m
Singular
mouse
man
tooth
child
foot

Spelling _`oM ~Xb hmoVmo Plural


mice
men
teeth
children
feet

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yaSaEaI @laasaosa (ENGLISH GRAMMAR COURSE)

SUNIL

WAGH
woman

women

H$mhr Zmdo Singular d Plural _`o gmaIrM AgVmV.


Singular
Plural
fish
fish (not fishes)
sheep
sheep (not sheeps)
deer
deer (not deers)
H$mhr Zmdo _wiVmM Plural AgVmV.
trousers
pants
glasses
jeans
shorts
scissors

Masculine & Feminine Nouns - (nwfdmMH$ d rdmMH$


Zm_o)
nwf, _wbo Am{U m`mgmR>r (nwf) Masculine noun dmnaVmV.
{`m, _wbr Am{U m`mgmR>r (r) Feminine dmnaVmV.
CXm.
Masculine Feminine
boy (_wbJm)
girl (_wbJr)
man (nwf)
woman (r)
father (d{S>b) mother (AmB)
son (_wbJm)
daughter (_wbJr)
husband (nVr) wife (nZr)
brother (^mD$) sister (~{hU)
uncle (H$mH$m, _m_m)
aunt (_mder)
nephew (nwV`m, ^mMm) niece (nwVUr, ^mMr)
king (amOm)
queen (amUr)
prince (amOHw$_ma) princess (amOHw$_mar)
actor (Zm`H$)
actress (Zm{`H$m)
waiter
waitress
wizard
witch
emperor
empress
grand father (AmOmo~m)
grandmother (AmOr)
CXm. Teacher
baby
doctor
scientist

pupil ({dmWu) child


parent (nmbH$) cousin
astronaut
dancer
president
manager

m`mMr Masculine Am{U Feminine noun


Animal
Masculine Feminine
rabbit (ggm)
buck doe
horse
stallion
mare
sheep
ram
ewe

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yaSaEaI @laasaosa (ENGLISH GRAMMAR COURSE)

SUNIL

WAGH
cattle
fox
lion
chicken
pig

bull
fox
lion
rooster
boar

cow
vixen
lioness
hen
sow

2. Pronoun (gdZm_)
H$moU`mhr ^mfo_`o `Vr/dVw {df`r ~mobVmZm `m
`Vr/dVwMo Zmd EH$XmM dmnabo OmVo d `mZVa _m `m
ZmdmEodOr doJim eX dmnabm OmVmo, `m eXmbmM gdZm_
(Pronoun) hUVmV.
CXm.
1) am_ _mPm {_ Amho. Vmo \$ma hema Amho.
2) {g_m hema {dmWuZr Amho, Vr Zm{gH$bm ahmVo.
d[ab dm`mV Vmo, Vr ho gdZm_ (Pronoun) AZwH$_o am_,
{g_m `m ZmdmgmR>r dmnabobo Amho.
Pronoun _wio ZmdmMm nwZMma Q>mibm OmVmo.
`mM_mUo BJOrVrb Pronouns I (_r) dV:gmR>r
She (Vr, VrZo) r dmMH$
Zm_m EodOr
We (AmnU/Amhr)
It
({ZOud
You
(Vw/Vwhr)
dVw/m`mEodOr)
EoH$Um`mgmR>r
they
(Vo,
`mZr)
He
(Vmo,
`mZo)
AZoH$mEodOr (nwf, r,
nwfdmMH$ Zm_m EodOr
dVw, mUr)

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yaSaEaI @laasaosa (ENGLISH GRAMMAR COURSE)

SUNIL

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EH$dMZr PronounsAZoH$dMZr Pronouns
I
We
He
You
She
They
It
You
d[ab gd Pronouns 3 dnmV {b{hbr OmVmV. H$maU dm`mV
Zmdo gwXm VrZ dnmV `oVmV. hUwZ Noun Mm AJmoXa A`mg
H$aUo JaOoMo Amho.
Pronoun Mo dJuH$aU 1) First Person Pronoun a) I (_r), me (_bm), my (_mPm, _mPr, _mPo)
dV:{df`r ~mobVmZm I ho Pronoun dmnaVmV.
CXm.
I am a teacher.
b) We (Amhr), us (Amhmbm), our (Am_Mm, Am_Mr, Am_Mo) - dV:
{df`r g_whmbm YZ ~mobVmZm dmnaVmV.
CXm. We are Indian.
2) Second Person Pronoun
You (Vw), You (Vwbm), Your (VwPm, VwPr, VwPo) EoH$Um`mgmR>r
(Listener), you ho Pronoun dmnaVmV. you ho Pronoun EH$dMZr
VgoM AZoH$dMZr hUwZ XoIrb dmnaVmV. You (Vwhr), You
(Vwhmbm), Your (Vw_Mm, Vw_Mr, Vw_Mo)
CXm. You are a student. (Vw)
You are students. (Vwhr)
I, we, you ho r, nwf XmohtgmR>r dmnaVmV.
3) Third Person Pronoun
He, him, his - nwf dmMH$ ZmdmEodOr
She, her, her - r dmMH$ ZmdmEodOr
It, it, its - {ZOud/m`mEodOr
They, them, their - AZoH$dMZr r, nwf, {ZOud, mUr
Personal Pronouns dm`mV {d{dY forms _`o
dmnaVmV.
1) Pronoun Mm Subject hUwZ dmna (Subject Pronoun)
2) Pronoun Mm Object hUwZ dmna (Object Pronoun)
3) Pronoun Mm _mbH$s hH$ XmI{d`mgmR>r Passessive Pronoun
(PP)

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A) dm`mV S hUwZ Oo Pronouns dmnaVmV
Subject Pronoun hUVmV (SP)
CXm. I, We, You, He, She, It, They.
CXm. 1) My name is Sham. I am a Student.
2) My father is a teacher, he likes to teach.
3) My mother is houswife, she cooks well.
4) Our dog is very active. It runs fast.
5) Boys, you all are stupid.
6) Sachin & I are playing cricket. We like sports.
7) Seeta & Sweety are my sisters, they like Chatting.

`mZm

B) dm`mV 'O' hUwZ Oo Pronouns dmnaVmV, `mZm


Object Pronoun (OP) hUVmV.
CXm. me, us, you, him, her, it, them.
CXm.
1) I like to study. Father helps me.
2) Rahul is a student. I gave him a book.
3) Boys I'll call you later.
4) My mother is a teacher. I love her.
5) I have a computer. I like it.
6) There are some poor children. We should help them.
C) _mbH$s hH$ XmI{d`mgmR>r Possessive Pronoun (PP)
hUVmV.
CXm. my, him, your, her, their, its, our.
1) This is my book.
2) Give best wishes to your brother.
3) This is his bedroom.
4) Seeta called her brother.
5) Ram has his own computer.
6) This is their house.
Possessive pronoun XmoZ H$mao {b{hVmV.
CXm.
This is my book.
This
book is mine
This is her book.
This book is hers.
my
mine
her
hers
our
ours
your
yours
their
theirs
L This is your bag.
yours.

This bag is

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L This is their room.L
theirs.

This room is

B) Reflexive Pronoun (Emphatic Pronouns)

Ei

nh`

Eix

E EiS V EiS {h
i i i Reflexive Pronoun hii.
Self- i:,

Self S +xESx Selves

Personal Reflexive Pronoun-

I myself drew the picture.

i: Sj Ef.)

Pronoun

Reflexive pronoun

Myself

We

Ourselves

You

Yourself

He

Himself

she

herself

it

itself

they

themselves

(C)

Demonstrative

S +xESx +.

This, that, these, those S


Demonstrative

Pronoun

nix

That

nS

This
+{h

nJ

+xESx +.

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nix

ii. Those That S

hii.
hVS

nJ

Ei. These This

Pronouns-

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Here

There

nJ
Ci One Pen

Demonstrative +i.

xBV

This is my book.

=n.

{ +.

These are my hobbies.

In difficulty, one should not lose hope.

That is the picture of Tajmahal.

b) Some - E, lb

Those pens are yours.

There are some books to read.

(D) Indefinite Pronouns

E Pronouns Ci/i

Ehi Ci.

BV { Vii.

Somebody has stolen my ring.

{i

Somebody is in the darkness.

Ci

/i`

Someone,

Somebody

Somewhere- E`i

{ Vi x,

I do not know, He may go somewhere.

Pronouns

Indefinite

One,

none,

Ev-

Sometimes-

Ev/E

Pronouns hii.
=n.

few,

some,

somebody, someone, any, anybody,


anywhere, anytime, every, everybody,
everywhere <in.

Sometimes you get loss, try again.

Something-

Ei

i
I felt that something is in my pocket.
(c)

Ehi,

Any-

Ehi
a) One BE Ci E
BE

Solve any three examples out of.

+lx

Indefinite Pronoun {ii.

Anyone Eh Ci

=n. One should behave gently.

(Anybody)

l one S +l |iEx

Anyone can achieve success, if he tries

+ i.

hard.

I have two pens, I like the red

one.

Anytime you can call me, I will be there.

(ZEb
+i,

Anytime- E

nx

i{E

{x

Anywhere E`
You

+bi.)

meet

anywhere.

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Sunil

me

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WAGH

Anyhow- E Ex

One of them (iS{E

I will reach there at 4 pm anyhow.

BE) - Ci

One of them was tall & fat.

Anything-

(i) Ehi
I can do anything for you.
Every- |iE

(d)

Many

of

them-

(iS{E +xE)
Many of them were workers.

Everyday you should exercise.

Everyone, Everybody- (|iE

Vh)

Others - (<i)

I tried for success, others for money.

Everybody wants peace of mind.

No

Eh (Ci) x.

Everywhere-

j/

None

Nobody

No one ready to help the injured man.

`Eh

God is everywhere.

one

Nothing- E x
(i)

Everything- |iE i

Work hard, everything will be yours.

I want nothing.

Every time- |iE

Never- Ev x.

I have never visited Mumbai.

Every time I got failed.


(e) Few- lb (E |h
nJh`)
Sachin made few runs

(E) Distributive Pronouns-

I have few rupees in my packet.

Few animals can utter cries.

(f)

Many-

J{

(Ji),

BE BES i
E BES Ci +
+l +h-

{E

Pronouns

I go there many times

hii.

Many students do not study hard.

=n.

Neither

One of us (+S {E

BE)
One of us was selected as captain.

Each

Each,

Distributive
Either,

of

(iS{E

them
|iE

Vh)

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yaSaEaI @laasaosa (ENGLISH GRAMMAR COURSE)

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WAGH

Each of soldiers fought bravely.

Either- E i (BE

Each of us (+S{E |

iE Vh)

BE)

nx{E

Each of us rushed for the opportunity.

You can go there by either bus or train.

Each other (BEE)

They met each other.

Neither- ( x E
i x.)
I want neither rest nor leave.

(F) Relative PronounsWho, which, where, that x Relative Pronoun hii.


Ram is a boy who is my Friend.

Ram is a boy. He is my Friend.

Computer is easy. It helps us.

Computer is easy which helps us.

Nashik is the city. Here grapes are famous.

Nashik is the city where grapes are famous.

Cv Ram, Computer, Nashik antecedents +.

Who Ram BV Pronoun hx C Vbix


conjuction hx E Ei.

Which

Computer

BV

Pronoun

hx

Vbix conjuction hx +.

Where nJ Nashik BV Pronoun C Vbix


conjuction hx E Ei.

hVS V Pronoun, conjunction S E Eii ix


Relative Pronoun hii.

Who (E V)- CiS xBV {ii.

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yaSaEaI @laasaosa (ENGLISH GRAMMAR COURSE)

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WAGH
The man, who works hard, will get success.

+xE Ci` nJ who {ii.

He is blessed who has found his work.

Who S E CES { whose +.

Who-

whom-

(E Vo) -

whose
(E V)-

(E VS, VS,

VS)

He is the man whose wife was killed.

Sachin is the player whom all praise.

Which (E V) - xV iS xBV Pronoun


hx which {ii.

I saw a car, which is white.

A moment, which you spent, never returns.

I saw a pendant, which was beautiful.

3. Adjective ({deofU)
Zmm{dfr A{YH$ m{hVr XoUmm eXmcm Adjective ({deofU)
Ago hUVmV.
CXm.

1) Ram is tall boy. (am CM wcJm Amho.)(CMr)


2) This is a big room. ({h Imocr moR>r Amho.)

(AmH$mamZ)
3) Shivaji was a brave King. ({edmOr hm ewa amOm
hmoVm.) (JwU)
4) This is a red ball. (hm cmc M|Sy> Amho.) (aJ)
5) This mango is sweet. (hm Am~m JmoS> Amho.) (Md)
6) She touched with her magic fingers. ({VZo Amnm
OmX ~moQ>mZr ne Ho$cm.)

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darc dmmo tall,big,brave,red,sweet,magic, ho adjective
AmhoV.H$maU Vo AZwH$o Ram,room,Shivaji,ball,mango,fingers
m Zmm{dfr A{YH$ m{hVr XoVmV.
darc CXmhaUmd$Z ho XoIrc gOVo H$s,hr A{YH$ m{hVr
CMr,AmH$mamZ,JwU,aJ,Md,gm B,~m~V AgVo.

H$mhr Adjective AmH$mamZm {dfr m{hVr XoVmV a long bridge (cm~ nwc)

a small room (N>moQ>r

tiny feet (N>moQ>onm)

Imocr)

a huge ship (^ OhmO)

a high mountain (CM ndV)

a slim boy (~marH$ wcJm)

a tall building (CM BmaV)

H$mhr Adjective dVwm aJm{dfr m{hVr XoVmV


a red carpet (cmc Jm{cMm)

an orange balloon

green grass ({hado JdV)

(ZmaJrw$Jm)
a red pen (cmc noZ)
a blue shirt ({Zim eQ>)

white sari (go$X gmS>r)

H$mhr Adjective dVwm/pVm JwUm{dfr m{hVr


XoVmV a brave man (ewa Zw)

a hot drink (Ja no)

an old man (d Zw)

a kind lady (Xmiw r)

an honest boy (mm{UH$

a cold water (WS> no)

wcJm)
H$mhr $ Adjective dVw H$emnmgwZ ~Zcom AmhoV m
{dfr m{hVr XoVmV a plastic ball,a golden ring, a metal box
Adjective Zmdm ~amo~a dmnaco OmVmV mZm
attributively Ago hUVmV
e.g. This is an

interesting story.
Adjective

noun

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Adjective {H$mnXm~amo~a AgVmV mZm
predicatively Ago hUVmV
e.g. This story

is

interesting.

Noun verb

adjective

Kinds of Adjectives
A) Adjective of Quality (JwUdmm)
Oohm Adjective dVw /$sm JwUdmo{dfr m{hVr
XoVo,Vohm mcm adjective of quality hUVmV.
CXm. Shivaji was brave.
m dmmV brave ho adjective, Shivaji m JwUm{dfr
m{hVr XoVo.
B) Adjective of Quantity -(mU )
Oo eX mU Xe{dVmV,mZm adjectives of quantity
hUVmV.
How much ? m ZmMo Cma adjectives of quantity AgVo.
CXm. I ate some rice.
darc dmmV some ho adjective rice Mo mU Xe{dVo.
C) Adjective of Number -(gm)
gm XeH$ eXmZm Adjective of number hUVmV.
How many ? Mo Cma adjectives of number AgVo.
CXm. I have two pens.
all(gd),no(Zmhr), many (^anwa), one, two,first (n{hcm)
,second,some (H$mhr), any (H$moUVohr), several (nwH$i),each
(oH$), ho gd adjective of number AmhoV.
CXm. My all friends came.
D) Demonstrative Adjective - (WcXeH$)
{R>H$mU(Wc) Xe{dUmao eX this.that,these,those,
Demonstrative Adjective AgVmV.
These chocolates are sweet.
adj
noun
E) Interrogative Adjective - (ZmWH$)
what,which,whose mZm ZmWH$ dmmV Interrogative
Adjective hUVmV.

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CXm. Whose book is this ? (ho H$moUmMo nwVH$ Amho ?)
This is his book.
m dmmV whose Mo Cma his Amho.Book H$moUmMo
Amho. m {dfr A{YH$ m{hVr his XoVmo hUwZ his (whose) cm
adjective hUVm oBc.
What Mm Exclametory dmmV XoIrc adjective hUwZ
CnmoJ hmoVmo.
CXm. What a player Sachin is !
m dmmV What , vary (Iwn) mAWmZo dmnacocm
Amho.d Vmo Sachin m Zmdm{dfr m{hVr XoVmo. hUwZ mcm
(What), adjective hUVm oBc.

Exercise
Imcrc dmmVrc adjective d mMm H$ma AmoiIm?
1) Ramesh stood first in the class.
2) Every man should aware evils of pollution.
3) This is the book I wanted.
4) Give me some chocolates.
5) What a picture!
6) He solved all examples.
7) I have 100 rupees.
8) You can take any of these things.
9) It is sweet.
10) What is the colour of the board?

Adjective Endings
Adjectives Mm eodQ>r {d{dY dmnaVmV.H$m{h
Adjectives ful Zo ~ZVmV.
CXm.
a beautiful face (gwwXa
Moham)
a helpful man (XV H$aUmam
Zw)
colourful clothes (aJV H$nS>o)

a caerful student(H$miOr
KoUmam {dmWu )
meaningful sentence (AW
AgUmao dm)
skillful student (H$me
AgUmam {dmWu)

H$mhr Adjectives - ous mZo ~ZVmV.


CXm.

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a famous writer ({g coIH$)
a poisonous snake ({dfmar
gmn)
(YmoH$mXmH$ H$m)
a humorous drama
({dZmoXrZmQ>H$)an
marvelous shot (jUr
adventurous task (gmhgr
$Q>H$m)
H$m)
H$mhr Adjectives - y mZo ~ZVmV.
a dangerous job

CXm.
a cloudy sky (T>Jmi

an easy task (gmono

AmH$me)

H$m)
dirty hands (KmUoaS>o
hmW)

juicy fruit (agmi $i)


a sleepy town (Amier

stormy rain (dmXir

Jmd)

nmD$g)

m H$maMo Adjectives EImm {$/dVw H$S>o H$mhr Var


Amho /Zmhr mMo dUZ H$aVmV.
al AgUmao Adjectives
musical instruments (gJrV
a global problem (OmJ{VH$
dm )
gm)
coastal areas ({H$Zman>rMo
traditional
Xoe)
festival(nmanmarH$ gU)
a national flag (am>r dO)
magical powers (MH$marH$
eVr)

ing AgUmao Adjectives


CXm.
an interesting story

disappointiing news

(ZmoaOH$ H$Wm)

({ZamOZH$ ~mVr)

blinking eyes ({MH$Umao


S>moio)

a smiling face (hgam Moham)

H$moUVohr adjective AmnU 3 forms o XmIdw eH$Vmo.ho


{Vhr XmoZ dVw/ {Vo VwcZm H$amgmR>r
dmnaco OmVmV.

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CXm.Good, better, best
Clever, Cleverer, Cleverest mZmM AmnU degree Mr no
hUVmo.
darc adjective m m 3 forms cm AZwH$o
Positive,Comparative,Superlative hUVmV.
mdZ cjmV oBc H$s Comparative nmcm ZohrM than
OmoS>mdm Comparative
nmMm AW m nojm ....Agm hmoVmo.
hUOoM Comparative adjective Mm dmna Hw$Um EH$mMr
VwcZm Xgmer qH$dm m{XV cmoH$/dVwer
H$aVmZm hmoVmo.
CXm.

Cricket is better than Hockey. (hmH$s nojm

{H$Ho$Q> MmJco Amho.)


Mango is sweeter than orange. (gr nojm Am~m JmoS>
Amho.)
Zaheer is faster than Prasad. (gmX nojm Ohra doJdmZ
Amho.)
darc mUo AmnU H$moUmhr adjective m form Mm
AW gOw eH$Vmo.
Superlative m form Mm dmna EH$m dVw/{$Mr VwcZm BVa
gdmer ({d{e> jomVrc) H$amgmR>r hmoVmo.
Superlative form m AJmoXa The ho article dmnaVmV.
CXm. English is the easiest language. ( BJOr gdmV gmonr
^mfm Amho.)

4. Adverb ({H$m{deofU)

Adjective d verb {dfr A{YH$ m{hVr XoUmm eXmg


Adverb hUVmV.

dmmVrc {H$m H$er,Ho$hm,{H$Vr doir KS>Vo mMo


Cma Amnmcm Adverb wio {iVo.
CXm. 1) He asked politely. (mZo ZnUo {dMmaco.)

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Politely (ZnUo) m eXmwio {dMmamMr {H$m H$er Pmcr
ho H$iVo, hUwZ politely cm AmnU Adverb hUw eH$Vmo.
2) I met her yesterday. (r Vrcm H$mc ^oQ>cmo)
darc dmmV yesterday (H$mc) m eXmwio ^oQ>mMr
{H$m H|$hm Pmcr ho H$iVo hUwZ yesterday cm AmnU
adverb hUw eH$Vmo.
3) I always go to Mumbai. ( r ZohrM w~Bcm
OmVmo.)
darc dmmV OmmMr {H$m {H$Vr doim hmoVo. ho always
wio H$iVo hUwZ always cm adverb hUVm oBc.
{H$mnXm~amo~aM Adjective {dfr gwm XomMo H$m
adverb H$aVmo.
This is very sweet mango .
Adv Adj noun
darc dmmV sweet m Adjective {dfr very A{YH$ m{hVr
XoVmo.hUwZ very hm adverb Amho.
{H$m H$er Pmcr ho gmJUmao adverb - ly mZo
~Zcoco AgVo.
CXm. proud (Jd)- proudly (JdmZo)
silent (emV) - silently (emVnUo)
kind (Xmiw) - kindly (XmiwnUo)
Oa adjective m eodQ>r y Agoc Va
happy (AmZXr), happily (AmZXmZo)
Oa m adjective eodQ>r le Agoc Va
Single - Singly
Double (XnQ)> - Doubly
(XnQ>rZo)
Adverb -Mo H$ma
AWmZwgma adverb Mo AmnU Imcrc mUo d{JH$aU H$
eH$Vmo a) Adverbs of Time - Ho$hm
Oo eX {H$m Ho$hm Pmcr/hmoBc ho gmJVmV.mZm
Adverbs of Time hUVmV.
We reached there after his death (Amhr VoWo mm
ZVa nmohMcmo.)
I will call you later.(r Vwcm ZVa ~mocmdoZ.)
I read the news paper daily. (r XaamoO dVmZ n dmMVmo.)

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I got the news today. (AmO cm ~mVr H$imcr.)
darc dmmo after,later,daily,Today ho gd adverbs of
Time AmhoV. H$maU Vo {H$m Ho$hm KS>cr /KSoc> m
{dfr m{hVr XoVmV.
b) Adverbs of frequency - ({H$Vr doim)
Oo eX dmmVrc {H$m {H$Vr doim KS>cr/KSoc m {dfr
m{hVr XoVmV.mZm Adverbs of frequency hUVmV.
CXm. 1) I once met him. (r mcm EH$XmM ^oQ>cmo.)
2) Think twice beforre you speak (~mocm AJmoXa {dMma
H$am.)
3) He often goes to temple. (Vmo dmadma {XamV
OmVmo.)
darc dmmo once,twice,often ho gd adverbs of frequency
AmhoV.H$maU Vo {H$om dmadmaVo {dfr gmJVmV.
c) Adverbs of place -( H$moRo)
Oo {H$m H$mR>o Pmcr/hmoBc m {dfr m{hVr XoVmV
mZm Adverbs of place hUVmV.
CXm. 1) He goes there. (Vmo VoWo OmVmo.)
2) He is reading inside the room.( Vmo m AmV dmMV
Amho.)
darc dmmo there, inside ho Adverbs of place Amho.
d) Adverbs of Manner -( H$go,H$em [aVrZo)
{H$m H$em [aVrZo m {dfr A{YH$ m{hVr XoUmm eXmg
Adverbs of manner hUVmV.
Adverbs -ly ho OmoSy>Z ~ZVmV.
CXm. 1) He came in silently. (Vmo emVnUo AmV Amcm.)
2) She sang sweetly {VZo JmoS>nUo (N>mZnUo) Jmrco.)
darc dmmV silently,sweetly ho adverbs of Manner AmhoV.
e) Adverbs of quantity (degree)
Oo eX adjectives Mr VrdVm /mU XmI{dVmV mZm Adverbs
of quantity (degree) hUVmV.
CXm. Mango is very sweet.

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darc dmmV sweet ho adjective Amho d very mm {dfr
A{YH$ m{hVr XoVmo hUwZ very ho adverb Amho. (Vo sweet Mo
{VdVm (degree) XmI{dVo.)
Very, too, so enough, fully m gmaIo eXmZm adverbs of quantity
hUVmV.
f) Adverbs of reason
EImXr {H$m H$m Pmcr ho gmJUmm eXmcm Adverbs of
reason hUVmV.
CXm. He left the school because he was poor. (mZo emim
gmoS>cr,H$maU Vmo Jar~ hmoVm.)
So, as, since, because m gmam eXmZm Adverbs of reason
hUVmV.

g) Interrogative adverbs
AmnU AJmoXaM ~{KVco How (H$go) when (Ho$hm) where
(H$moR>o) why (H$m) How much ({H$Vr mUmV) How many
({H$Vr doim) m gdmMo Cma hUOoM dmmVrc adverbs
AgVmV. hUwZ ZmWH$ dmmV m gd eXmZm AmnU
adverb hUy eH$Vmo.
CXm. Why are you late ?
When shall we visit them ?
How did he live ?
h) Relative adverb Why, when m gmam adverb Mm dmna conjunction hUwZ
XoIrc hmoVm, Vohm mZm
Relative adverb hUVmV.
CXm. I called police when I saw it.
gmame Adverbs {d{dY H$mao Amnmcm verb {dfr m{hVr
XoVmo.
H$go,H$emH$mao {H$Vr mUmV,{H$Vr
doim,Ho$hm,H$moR>o,m gdmMo Cma hUOoM adverb hmo.
Adverbs {H$mnX VgoM adjective {dfr XoIrc m{hVr
XoVmV.

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Adverbs Mm dmna dm OmoS>mgmR>r XoIrc
hmoVmo.

5. Verb (V) {H$`mXeH$ eX hUOoM Verb hmo`.


Verb Mr H$m`} - a) {H$`m Xe{dUo b) H$mi Xe{dUo.
H$moU`mhr ^mfo_`o H$mi (Tense) XmI{d`mgmR>r verb MmM
dmna hmoVmo. ~mobVmZm, {b{hVmZm `mo` H$mimMm
(Tense) ~moY hmoUo A`V JaOoMo Amho.
Amn`m JVH$mimVrb Jmo>r, AmR>dUr gmJ`mgmR>r AmnU Past
tense dmnaVmo.
Amn`m gpWVr ~b ~mobVmZm Present tense dmnaVmo.
Amnbr dZ, ^{d`mVrb `moOZm gmJVmZm Future tense
dmnaVmo.
{H$`mnXmMr no hUOo H$m`?
H$moU`mhr ^mfoV, H$mimV ~Xb hmoVmZm Verb _`o
~Xb hmoVmo.
CXm._r n {b{hVmo (Present)
_r n {b{hbo (Past)
_r n {b{hZ
(Future)
`mdZ n> hmoVo H$s, {b{hUo `m _wi nmnmgwZ {d{dY
H$mimV dm` {bh eH$Vmo, naVw Vgo H$aVmZm AmnU `mMo
n ~Xb{dVmo{b{hUo

{b{hVmo
{b{hbo
{b{hZ

hUOoM, Tense ~XbVmZm Verb Mo {XgUo XoIrb ~XbVo `mbmM


AmnU Verb Forms ({H$`mnXmMr no) Ago hUVmo. EH$M {H$`m
{d{dY H$mimV Am{U {d{dY AdWoV XmI{dVm `mdr `mgmR>r hr
Verb Mr no AgVmV.
`m_mUo, _amR>rV Amn`mbm EH$M {H$`m {d{dY nmV
gmJVm `oVo, BJOr _`o XoIrb Vo _m{hV AgUo JaOoMo AgVo .
[Mga`jaImaQyao ekca ik`yaa 5 pQdtInao vaaprta yaoto.
To V1
mauL
$p

V1
pihlao $p

V2
dusar
o $p

V3
itsaro
$p

Ving
-ing
yau@t

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$p
To
reques
t
-Nao

request/re
quests

reque
sted

reque
sted

reque
sting

-tao
-tat

AqasaaMg
aNyaas
aazI

drraojacaI
ik`yaa

-t
laolaa
-laola
o
-laolaI
-laola
ao
ik`yaa ik`yaa ik`yaa
JaalaI pUNa- ApUN
a-

-to -laa
-laI
-lao
-laao

ik`yaapdacyaa pihlyaa $papasaUna dusaro va itsaro $p


banavatanaa ed ho p`%yaya vaaprtat.mhNajaoca jar dusaro $p
ed nao banalaolao Asaola tr itsaro $p sauQda ed naoca
banato.saaQaarNapNao 6 va 6 AxaraMpoxaa maaozo spoilaMga
Asaola tr ASaa verb caI $po
ed nao banatat.
]da.
start /starts
started
started
wash/washes
washed
washed
finish/finishes
finished
finished
respect/respects
respected
respected
ik`yaapdacyaa pihlyaa $pacyaa SaovaTI e Asalyaasa dusaro va
itsaro $p krtanaa f@t d jaaoDtat.]da.
declare/ declares
declared
declared
argue /argues
argued
argued
struggle /struggles
struggled
struggled
ik`yaapdacyaa SaovaTI y Asaola tr %yaacao dusaro va itsaro $p
krtanaa y cyaa eovajaI i vaap$na ed jaaoDtat. ]da.
fry/fries
fried
fried
try/tries
tried
tried
ply/plies
plied
plied

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SaovaTI y AsaUnahI jar %yaa y Agaaodr vowel Asaola tr
ASaavaoLosa f@t ed jaaoDtat. ]da.
Play/plays
played
played
Stay /stays
stayed
stayed
Pray/prays
prayed
prayed
~hVmer _moR>o Spelling AgUmao Verbs -ed ZoM no
~Z{dVmV.
Oa eodQ>r consonant, vowel bm OmoSw>Z Agob Va
CXm. trap - trapped - trapped
kahI ik`yaapdaMcaI itnhI $po saarKIca Asatat.
Read
read
read
put
put
put
AapNa baiGatlaolaoca Asaola kI V1 daona pQdtInao ilaihlao jaato. s/es nao jaaoDUna
]da.

write writes

\$maM WmoS>m verb Mr no ed Zo ~ZV Zmhr.


Verb bm -ing OmoS>VmZm, Oa eodQ>r e Agob Va Vmo
H$mTy>Z Q>mH$mdm.
CXm.
Write Writing
Give Giving
_wi n
ing n

n{hbo n

Xwgao n

(Infinitive
Form)
(to V1)

(V1)

(V2)

(V3)

(Ving)

to see
to give
to speak
to scold
to arrive
to look
to take
to catch
to read

see/sees
give/gives
speak/speaks
scold/scolds
arrive/arrives
look/looks
take/takes
catch/catches
read/reads

saw
gave
spoke
scolded
arrived
looked
took
caught
read

seen
given
spoken
scolded
arrived
looked
taken
caught
read

seeing
giving
speaking
scolding
arriving
looking
taking
catching
reading

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{Vgao n -

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_wi n

n{hbo n

Xwgao n

{Vgao
n
looked

to
look look/looks
looked
baGaNao
to help
madt krNao
help/helps
helped
helped
to ask
ivacaarNao
to borrow
]sanao
GaoNao
to threaten
QamakI
doNao
to punish
iSaxaa
krNao
to
call
baaolaavaNao
to check
tpasaNao
to cook
svayaMpak
krNao
to fail
ApyaSaI
haoNao
to complet
pUNakrNao
to select
inavaDNao
to reject
naakarNao
to allow
prvaanagaI
doNao
to wash
QauNao
to wait
vaaT phaNao
to open
]GaDNao
to cover
AacCadna
krNao
to swallow
igaLNao
to
polish
camakivaNao
to kill
zar krNao
to laugh
hsaNao
to answer ]<ar doNao
Exercise KalaIla ik`yaapdaMcao dusaro va itsaro $p krtanaa ed
laavaa.

Exercise
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KalaIla ik`yaapdaMcao dusaro va itsaro $po ilaihtanaa d
jaaoDUna ilaha
_wi n
n{hbo n
Xwgao n
{Vgao n
to chase
pazlaaga krNao
to announce
jaaihr krNao
to
advice
sallaa
doNao
to create inamaa-Na
krNao
to
measure
maaojaNao
to change badlaNao
to close baMd krNao
to remove
kaZUna TakNao
to translate
BaaYaaMtr krNao
to tie baaMQaNao
to
confuse
gaaoMQaLNao
to struggle
saMGaYa- krNao
to challenege
Aavhana krNao
to
face
taoMD
doNao
to raise vartI krNao
to force
baLjabair krNao
to
receive
p`aPt
krNao
to
blame
daoYa
doNao
to bounce ]saLNao
to message
saMdoSa doNao
to erase pusaNao

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KalaIla ik`yaapdaMcao dusaro va itsaro $p ilaihtaMnaa y eovajaI i ilahUna ed jaaoDa.
_wi n

n{hbo n

Xwgao n

{Vgao n

to try
p`ya%na
krNao
to apply
Aja- krNao
to cry rDNao
to fry tLNao
to worry
kaLjaI krNao

Verb caa Aqa- ksaa samajaUna Gyaavaa?


AapNa verb caI $po kSaI ilahavaI ho samajalaao Aahaot. Aata
AapNa yaa $paMcao BaaYaaMtr ksao kravao ho iSakU yaa.
mauL $pacao _amR>r ^mfmVa "-Uo' `m `o`mZo hmoVo.
CXm. to write - {b{hUo
to run - YmdUo
to show - XmI{dUo.
V1 _amR>r ^mfmVa - Vmo, -Vo, -VmV `m ``mZo AgVo.
to write write (V1)
({b{hUo) - ({b{hVmo, {b{hVo, {b{hVmV)
to Search - Search (V1)
(emoYUo) - emoYVmo, emoYVo, emoYVmV.
to like like (V1)
(AmdS>Uo) - AmdS>Vmo, AmdS>Vo, AmdS>VmV.
V2 _amR>r ^mfmVa H$aVmZm, _wi AWmbm -bm/-br/-bo ``
dmnaVmV.
CXm.

V1

V2

to see
~KUo

see

saw

~KVmo/
~KVo/
~KVmV

to cheat cheat
\$g{dUo \$g{dVmo

~{KVbm/
~{KVbr/
~{KVbo
cheated
\$g{dbm/

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Sunil

yaSaEaI @laasaosa (ENGLISH GRAMMAR COURSE)

SUNIL

WAGH
\$g{dVo
-br/-bo
Ving
V
V1
V3
ing
V2
\$g{dVmV
-ing
pihlao $p dusaro
itsaro $p -ing
yau@t $p
yau@t
$p
V3 Mo _amR>r ^mfmVa H$aVmZm, _wi AWmbm$p
-bobm,-bobr,to ask
ask/asks
asked
asked
asking
bobo,-bobmo Ago `` OmoS>mdo.
ivacaarNa ivacaartao ivacaarlaa ivacaarlao ivacaart
to write
write
wrote
written
writing
o
ivacaarto
,
laa,
ilaihNao ivacaartat
ilaihtaoivacaarlaI,
ilaihlao ivacaarlao
ilaihlaolaailaiht
ivacaarlao lao,
ilaihto
ilaihlaa
ilaihlaolaI
ivacaarlao
ilaihtat
ilaihlaI laI ilaihlaolao
To V1
mauL $p
Ving
Mo _amR>r
^mfmVa sent
"V' `m ``mZo
to send
send/sends
sent hmoVo.sending
CXm.to
write - writing
pazvaNao
pazvatao
pazvalaa, pazvalaola pazvat
({b{hUo) pazvato
- ({b{hV) pazvalaI,
a,
to go - going pazvatat
pazvalao
pazvalaola
(OmUo) - (OmV)
o,
Ving
To V1
V1
V2 pazvalaola
V3
Ving
I V3
V1
V2
-ing
mauL $p
pihlao $p
dusaro itsaro
-ing
To V1
pihlao $p dusaro $p itsaro $p yau@t
$p
$p
yau@t $p
$p
mauL $p
To request teach/teaches
request/requests
requested requesting
to teach
taughtrequested taught
teaching
-Nao
-tao -to -tatiSakvalaa,
-laa -laIiSakvalaola
-laolaa
-tiSakvat
iSakvaNao
iSakvatao,
-lao
iSakvato
iSakvalaI,
a, -laolao
-laao
-laolaI
iSakvatat
iSakvalao
iSakvalaola
o, -laolaao
AqadrraojacaI
ik`yaa iSakvalaola
ik`yaa
ik`yaa
saaMgaNy ik`yaa
JaalaI I pUNaApUNaaasaazI
To V1
mauL $p

To V1
V1 $p
mauL
To
mauL $p
to give
doNao
to help
madt
krNao

V1
pihlao
V1 $p
pihlao $p
give/gives
dotao,
help/helps
doto,
madt dotat
krtao,
madt krto
madt krtat

V2
dusaro
V2
$p
dusaro
gave
$p
idlaa,
helped
idlaI, idlao
madt
kolaI,

V3
itsaro
V3 $p
itsaro $p
given
idlaolaa,
helped
idlaolao,
madt
idlaolaI
kolaolaI

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Page 29

Ving
-ing
Ving
yau@t
$p
-ing
yau@t
giving $p
dot
helping
madt krt

Sunil

yaSaEaI @laasaosa (ENGLISH GRAMMAR COURSE)

SUNIL

WAGH

Exercise
KalaIla idlaolyaa mauL $paMcyaa Aqaa-va$na ]rlaolyaa $paMcao
marazI BaaYaaMtr ilaha.
To V1
mauL $p

V1
pihlao $p

V2
dusaro $p

V3
itsaro $p

to dig

dig/digs

dug

dug

Ving
-ing
yau@t $p
digging

KaodNao

To V1
mauL $p

V1
pihlao $p

V2
dusaro $p

V3
itsaro $p

to fight

fight/fights

fought

fought

Ving
-ing
yau@t $p
fighting

laZNao

To V1
mauL $p

V1
pihlao $p

V2
dusaro $p

V3
itsaro $p

V1
Totry
to
mauL $p

V1
try/tries
pihlao $p

V2
tried
dusaro $p

V3
tried
itsaro $p

p`ya%na
to eat
krNao

eat/eats

ate

eaten

Ving
-ing
yau@t $p
Ving
trying
-ing
yau@t $p
eating

KaNao

To V1
mauL $p

V1
pihlao $p

to chase

chase/chas
es

V2
dusaro
$p
chased

V3
itsaro $p

Ving
-ing
yau@t $p

chased

chasing

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Wagh
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Page 30

Sunil

yaSaEaI @laasaosa (ENGLISH GRAMMAR COURSE)

SUNIL

WAGH
`m nmMm AmnU g{dVa A`mg H$ `m 1) Infinitive Form (_wi n)
Verb `m n{h`m nmg_moa to {b{h`mZo infinitive n V`ma
hmoVo
CXm. n{hbo n Infinitive
go
to go
sleep
to sleep
Verb Mr _wi AdWm XmI{d`mgmR>r Infinitive dmnaVmV.
H$moU`mhr Verb Mm AW d{hV {b{hVmZm Vmo Zoh_rM
infinitive _`o {bhmdm.
CXm. Speaking Mm AW {b{hVmZm Vmo to speak H$Z {bhmdm.
Infinitive ho Oar Verb Form Agbo Var dm`m_`o _m `mMm dmna
~hYm Noun hUwZM hmoVmo.
Infinitive dm`m_`o Zoh_rM Subject qH$dm Object hUwZ `oVo.
CXm.
1) To solve the problem is easy
S
2) I like to read novels.
S V
O
hUOoM SVO `m dm`aMZoV infinitive S qH$dm O `m {R>H$mUr
`oVo. {H$`mnX (V) hUwZ `oV Zmhr, hUwZ `mMm g_mdoe noun
_`o hmoVmo.
2) Verb Mo n{hbo n (V1)
V1, Simple Present H$mi Xe{dVmo.

Or Jmo> Amn`m XZ{XZ {H$`oMm ^mJ AgVo, Vr V1 mao


XmI{dVmV.
hUOoM dV_mZ H$mimVrb gd` (Habitual action in present) `m nmZo
Xe{dVmV.
CXm. We like cricket (Simple Present)
(Amhmbm {H$Ho$Q> AmdS>Vo)
I go to college. (Simple Present)
(_r H$mboObm OmVmo/OmVo)
{Z[ajU H$am I speak (V1)
Ram (He) speaks (V1)
We speak (V1)
Seeta (She) speaks (V1)
You speak (V1)
Computer (It) speaks (V1)
They speak (V1)

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Page 31

Sunil

yaSaEaI @laasaosa (ENGLISH GRAMMAR COURSE)

SUNIL

WAGH
d[ab dm`mV Speak Am{U Speaks ho Verb AmhoV, ho Xmohr V1
AmhoV.
`mdZ n> hmoVo H$s V1 XmoZ dnmV {b{hVmV
CXm.
write / writes do / does
tell / tells
ask / asks
go / goes
say / says
hUOoM V1 bm H$Yr H$Yr -s/-es hm `` OmoS>bm OmVo naVw Ho$hm?
Oohm dm`mMm Subject, He (nwf), She (r), It ({ZOud dVw / mUr)
Agob, Vohm V1 bm -s/-es' `` OmoS>VmV.
CXm.1) Seema wakes up at 6 AM.
2) Raju reads newspaper.
3) Computer helps us.
4) Boys play cricket.
5) We work hard.
Exercise `mo` n`m` {ZdS>m 1) The ball (go/goes) to the fence.
2) Sachin (play/plays) Cricket.
3) He (rush/rushes) to the class.
4) You (work/works) hard.
5) All the boys (try/tries) for it.
V1 Mo ZH$mamWu n d ZmWH$ aMZm do d does `m
_XVrZo hmoVo.
CXm.1) I go I do not go.
2) He goes He does not go.
3) He works hard for success.
He does not work hard for success.
5) He wants money.
Does he want money?
6) They practice hard.
Do they practice hard?
7) She wakes up at 6.
Does she wake up at 6?
8) We sleep at 10.
Do we sleep at 10?
hUOoM {H$`mnXmMo n{hbo n (V1) Ag`mg 'do' Mr _XV `mdr.
{H$`mnXm`m n{h`m nmbm '-s/-es' Ag`mg 'does' Mr _XV `mdr.
CXmhaUo 1) I wake up at 6 AM.
(_r gH$mir 6 dmOVm CR>Vmo.)
2) My father works in the bank.
(_mPo d{S>b ~Ho$V H$m_ H$aVmV.)
3) The journey from Nasik to Mumbai takes 4 hours.
(Zm[eH$ Vo _w~B dmgmbm 4 Vmg bmJVmV.)
4) Sachin likes to travel.

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Sunil

yaSaEaI @laasaosa (ENGLISH GRAMMAR COURSE)

SUNIL

WAGH
(g{MZbm dmg H$aUo AmdS>Vo.)
5) Mr. Patil teaches English.
(lr.nmQ>rb BJOr {eH$dVmV.)
6) We do not read stories.
(Amhr Jmo>r dmMV Zmhr.)
7) He does not like cricket.
(`mbm {H$Ho$Q> AmdS>V Zmhr.)
8) Sheela does not go to school.
(erbm emioV OmV Zmhr.)
9) Machine makes our life easy.
(` Amnbo OrdZ Amam_Xm`r ~ZdVo.)
10) He does not want help.
(`mbm _XV Zmhr nm{hOo.)
3) V2 ({H$`mnXmMo Xwgao n)

{H$`mnXmMo Xwgao n Simple Past Xe{dVo.


Pmbobr {H$`m Xe{d`mgmR>r V2 dmnaVmV.
V2 bm ZH$mamWu n d ZmWH$ aMZm H$aVmZm
did Mm dmna hmoVmo.
1) He worked hard 2) We went there 3) They saw it 4) He announced the news.
5) He taught us.

He did not work hard.


we did not go there.
They did not see it.
Did he announce the news?
Did he teach us?

4) V3 ({H$`mnXmMo {Vgao n) Infinitive


(to V1)

V1

V2

V3

Simple
Present

Simple
Past

Perfect
(nwU)

Ving
Continuous
(Progressive)
(Imperfect) (AnwU)

d[ab Q>o~b dZ H$iVo H$s, V1


Am{U V2 Amn`mbm H$mi
Xe{dVmV naVw V3 va Ving ho \$V {H$`m nyU Am{U AnyU
EdT>mM ~moY H$aVmV, _m H$mi gmJV Zmhr.

Oohm _w` {H$`mnX H$mi gmJV Zmhr Vohm `mbm _XV


H$aUm`m {H$`mnXmbm Auxilary Verb (A) / helping verb hUVmV.

V3 hUVmM AmnU g_Obo nm{hOo H$s, V3


nyU (Perfect)
{H$`oMm ~moY H$aVmo.

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Sunil

yaSaEaI @laasaosa (ENGLISH GRAMMAR COURSE)

SUNIL

WAGH

V3 dV: H$mi XmI{d`mg Ag_W Amho. hUwZ `mbm Auxilary Mr


Amd`H$Vm AgVo.
To have, Auxilary hUyZ V3 bm _XV H$aVmV.
have/has (Amho/AmhoV) Present
To have
had (hmoVm/hmoVo) Past
will have (Agob) Future.
(will have ho to have Mo n Zmhr, Amn`m gwb^VogmR>r AmnU Vo to
have V {b{hbo Amho.)
hUOoM V3 bm Present _`o XmI{d`mgmR>r have (AmhoV)
qH$dm has (Amho) Mm dmna hmoVmo.
H$Vm AZoH$dMZr Ag`mg have (AndmX-I)
H$Vm EH$dMZr Ag`mg has dmnaVmV.
hUOoM V3 bm Past _`o XmI{d`mgmR>r had (hmoVm/hmoVo)
Mm dmna hmoVmo.
CXm. to write - write - wrote - written.
V1
V2
V3
Ram
S

has
A
(Present)

written
V3
(Perfect)
V1

to suggest
suggest
(gwM{dUo)
gwM{dbobm/
-Vo/ -VmV

a letter.
O

V2
suggested
gwM{dVmo/
-bo/-bmo

V3
Suggested
gwM{dbm/
-bobo / bobr

have/has suggested - gwM{dboboo Amho


had suggested - gwM{dbobo hmoVo
will have suggested - gwM{dbobo Agob.

V3 bm Past _`o XmI{d`mgmR>r had dmnaVmV.

V3 bm Future _`o XmI{d`mgmR>r will have dmnaVmV.


`mdZ - have/has gone - Present Perfect.
had gone - Past Perfect.
will have gone - Future Perfect.
]da. Ram has suggested (Present Perfect)
(am_Zo gwM{dbobo Amho)
Ram had Suggested (Past Perfect)
(am_Zo gwM{dbobo
hmoVo.)

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Sunil

yaSaEaI @laasaosa (ENGLISH GRAMMAR COURSE)

SUNIL

WAGH
Ram will have suggested (Future Perfect) (am_Zo gwM{dbobo Agob)
Present Perfect ZwH$VrM nwU Pmbo`m {H$`ogmR>r dmnaVmV
Past Perfect ^wVH$mimV AJmoXaM nwU Pmbo`m {H$`ogmR>r
dmnaVmV.

Future Perfect ^{d`mV nyU hmoUm`m {H$`ogmR>r


dmnaVmV.
hUOoM to have ZVa Zoh_rM V3 `oVmo
(Present) have/has
(Past) had
(Futute) will have

V3 (Perfect)

Exercise Imbrb dm`mMm H$mi gmJm.


1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

6)

7)

People had informed the police.

We will have completed the syllabus in May.

We have taken decision.

Shivaji captured Raigar.

He meets people.

We met him.

They had met him.

Exercise - `mo` n`m` {ZdS>m.


1) I (have/has) invited all my Friends.
2) Indians have (saw/seen) a wonderful match.
3) Boys (have/has) played cricket.
4) Teacher (have/has) tought a lesson.
`mdZ Amn`mbm {H$`mnX
nm{hOo
CXm.
to buy - buy - bought - bought.

AWmg{hV

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Page 35

Mmb{dUo

O_bo

Sunil

yaSaEaI @laasaosa (ENGLISH GRAMMAR COURSE)

SUNIL

WAGH
(V1) I buy a car. (_r H$ma IaoXr H$aVmo)
(V2) I bought a car. (_r H$ma IaoXr Ho$br)
(V3) I have bought a car. (_r H$ma IaoXr Ho$bobr Amho)
(V3) I had bought a car. (_r H$ma IaoXr Ho$bobr hmoVr)
(V3) I will have bought a car (_r H$ma IaoXr Ho$bobr Agob)

to speak - speak - spoke - spoken.


(V1) I speak. (_r ~mobVmo)
(V2) I spoke. (_r ~mobbmo)
(V3) I have spoken. (_r ~mobbobmo Amho)
(V3) I had spoken. (_r ~mobbobmo hmoVmo)
(V3) I will have spoken. (_r ~mobbobmo Agob)
to tell - tell - told - told.
He tells. (Vmo gmJVmo)
He told. (`mZo gm{JVbo)
He has told. (`mZo gm{JVbobo Amho)
He had told. (`mZo gm{JVboboo hmoVo)
He will have told. (`mZo gm{JVbobo Agob)

Exercise
Imbrb {H$`mnXo dm`m_`o MmbdwZ XmIdm.
1) to announce - announce - announced - announced
2) to go - go - went - gone.
3) to ask - ask - asked - asked.
4) to study - study - studied - studied.
5) to achieve - achieve - achieved achieved
1.To announce
(jaaihr krNao)
I announce.
(maI jaaihr krtao.)
I announced.
(maI jaaihr kolao.)
I have announced.
(maI jaaihr kolaolao Aaho.)
I had announced.
(maI jaaihr kolaolao haoto.)
I will have announced. (maI jaaihr kolaolao Asaola.)

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Page 36

Sunil

yaSaEaI @laasaosa (ENGLISH GRAMMAR COURSE)

SUNIL

WAGH
2.To go

(jaaNao)

..

..

..

..

..
3.To ask
(ivacaarNao)

..

..

..

..

..
5) Ving ({H$`mnXmMo - ing `wV n)
Ving hUOo Continuous (AnwU {H$`m) EImXr {H$`m gw Pmbobr
Agob naVw gnbobr Zgob Va Vr Ving Zo XmI{dVmV. hUOoM
writing {b{h`mMr AnwU {H$`m (Continuous)
going - Om`mMr {H$`m AnyU
Speaking - ~mob`mMr {H$`m AnyU.

hUOoM Ving H$mi Z XmIdVm \$V AnwU (Conti.) {H$`oMm


~moY H$aVmo. Oohm _w` Verb H$mi XmIdV Zmhr, Vohm `mbm
Auxilary Mr JaO AgVmV.
Ving bm to be Mr no Auxilary hUwZ _XV H$aVmV.

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Page 37

Sunil

yaSaEaI @laasaosa (ENGLISH GRAMMAR COURSE)

SUNIL

WAGH
To be Mr no am (Amho), is (Amho), are (AmhoV) - Present.
was (hmoVm/hmoVr), were (hmoVo) - Past.
will be (Agob)
(will be ho to be Mo n Zmhr, Amn`m gwb^VogmR>r AmnU Vo to be V
{b{hbo Amho.)

(Present) am/is/are
(Past) was/were
(Future) will be

writing (continuous)

1) He is writing (Present Continuous) (Vmo {b{hV Amho)


2) He was writing (Past Continuous) (Vmo {b{hV hmoVm)
3) He will be writing (Future Continuous) (Vmo {b{hV Agob)
am/is/are {ZdS> (Present)
a) I H$Vm Ag`mg - am - I am Playing.
b) EH$ dMZr H$Vm Ag`mg - is - Ram is playing
c) AZoH$dMZr H$Vm Ag`mg - are - Boys are playing
was/were - {ZdS> (Past)
a) EH$dMZr H$Vm - was - Ram was reading
b) AZoH$dMZr H$Vm - were - Boys were reading
Exercise - 12 `mo` n`m` {ZdS>m
1) Ramesh (am/is/are) a student.
2) India (was/were) playing well.
3) Student (were/was) reading books.
4) Bank workers (am/is/are) shouting.
5) Women (am/is/are) dancing.
gmame XZ{XZ {H$`mgmR>r V1 dmnaVmV.
^wVH$mimgmR>r V2 dmnaVmV.

nwU (Perfect) {H$`ogmR>r V3 dmnaVmV d Auxilary hUwZ to


have dmnaVmV.
AnwU (Continuous) {H$`ogmR>r Ving dmnaVmV d Auxilary
hUyZ to be dmnaVmV.

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Page 38

Sunil

yaSaEaI @laasaosa (ENGLISH GRAMMAR COURSE)

SUNIL

WAGH

To do- S {- Do, does, did


Simple present va Simple past yaa kaLatIla nakaraqaI- va
p`Snaaqa-k vaa@ya tyaar krNyaasaazI to do vaaprtat.
V Ci to be, to have Auxilary xi i to
do S +Ei i.

He works hard.

He does not work hard.

Does he work hard?

Verbal vaa@ya banaivaNyaasaazI to do vaaprtat.

He goes to school.

Does he go to school?

He went to school.

Did he go to school?

I go to school.

Do I go to school?

x{h El Ci to do {i x.

Ev-Ev

El

Ci

nJ

To

do

{ii. i G V nh` {ii.

]da. Do come on time. I do want to use it. It does perform the function.
I did tell him. ( i MiS i).

+Yl Ci (VO) G V nh` do


{ii.
Do make hurry.
Dont waste your time.

Auxilary x C xEl Eh`


to do S ni Pii.
=n. I spoke to him I did not speak to him.

Ci to do S { G{nS (V) {x
`ii.

1.

G{nS { {-

2.

G{n s/es |i-

3.

G{nS n {-

do

does
did

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Page 39

Sunil

yaSaEaI @laasaosa (ENGLISH GRAMMAR COURSE)

SUNIL

WAGH

To do xi Ci G{nS {S {
{ii.
He does not go to school.
{ {
We did not steal it.
{ {.
hVS El CI did speak + x i I spoke
He does speak + x i He speaks.
They do speak + x i They speak + ii.

Simple

Singular

Plural

I do

we do

you do

you do

he/she/it does

they do

Present

+h

Simple

Past

vS

to

do

{iiDo, does
Did

Simple Present
Simple Past

J G{nS {x { ]h`
nJ To do {ii.
=n.

1) Do you know him?


Yes, I do.(know)

Ci do know G{n Repeat


E M x. l do S +l know i.
2)

Does she sing well?


Yes, she does. (Sings)

Sings S +lx does +.

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Sunil

yaSaEaI @laasaosa (ENGLISH GRAMMAR COURSE)

SUNIL

WAGH
3)

Did he take it?


Yes, he did. (took)
Took S +lx did +.

MODAL AUXILARY

G{n

V>x

Permission, Certainty +h necessity J +l Ci


Eh- Auxilaries Modal Auxilary hii.
=n. Can, Could, May, Might, Will, Would, Shall, Should, Must, Ought.

G{n

V>x Permissionn (prvaanagaI), Certainty


necessity

(AavaSyakta

),

ability

(pa~ta),

(inaiScatta),

capacity

(xamata)

J +l Ci Eh- Auxilaries
Modal Auxilary hii.
=n. Can, Could, May, Might, Will, Would, Shall, Should, Must, Ought to.
Speaking cyaa dRiYTnao modal auxiliaries A%yaMt mah<vaacyaa
Aahot. yaa p`krNaat AapNa

modal auxiliary caa Aqa- va

%yaaMcaa vaapr iSakU yaa.


%yaasaazI kahI mah<vaacyaa gaaoYTI
kaoNa%yaahI Modal Auxilary naMtr naohmaI ik`yaapdacao
pihlaoca $p (mauL $p) vaaprtat.
]da. We can write. She could write. He may write. She should write.
yaa va$na Asao laxaat yao[-la kI sava- vaa@yaaMmaQyao jair
modal

auxiliary

vaogavaogaLyaa

Aahot

tirhI

ik`yaapdacao

pihlaoca $p vaaprlaolao Aaho.


jaovha vaa@yaat main verb nasaola va vaa@yaat modal
auxiliary Asaola tr main verb mhNaUna be vaaprlaa jaatao.
karNa modal auxiliary , verb iSavaaya yaot naahI.
For example - I will be there.

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Sunil

yaSaEaI @laasaosa (ENGLISH GRAMMAR COURSE)

SUNIL

WAGH
P`a%yaok modal auxiliary laa daona Aqa- Asatat.]da.jar eKadyaa
Moadal auxiliary caa Aqa- Asaa Asaola tr samajaavao kI
%yaa modal auxiliary caa dusara Aqa- ka? Asaa Asoala.
mhNajaoca p`%yaok modal auxiliary caa dusara Aqa- ka nao
jaaoDUna tyaar haotao.
jaovha Modal auxiliary vaa@yaacyaa sauR$vaatIsa Asaola tovha
itcaa Aqa- ka? Asaa Gyaavaa.
jaovha Modal auxiliary vaa@yaamaQyao

Asaola tovha itcaa Aqa-

Asaa Gyaavaa.
]da. Can caa Aqa- - k$ Saktao Asaa Aaho tr %yaacaa
dusara Aqak$ Saktao ka? Asaa Gyaavaa.
I can play. (maI KoLU Saktao.) (karNa can vaa@yaamaQyao
Aaho.)
Can I play? (maI KoLU Saktao ka? ) (karNa can vaa@yaacyaa
sau$vaatIsa Aaho.)
AapNa ho doKIla iSaklaolaao Aaho kI vaa@ya jaovha auxiliary nao
sau$ haoto tovha %yaa p`Snaaqa-k rcanaosa verbal Asao mhNatat
jyaacao ]<ar naohmaIca yes ikvaa no Asato.
Verbal rcanaocyaa sau$vaatIsa wh Sabd vaaprlyaasa tI rcanaa wh type banato. %yaa rcanaocaa Aqa- wh Sabdanausaar Gyaavaa. yaa
rcanaot auxiliary vaa@yaamaQyao yaot Asalyaanao %yaacaa Aqaka? jaaoDUna Gao} nayao.

Need +h dare J G{n nJ Modal

Auxilary hx { Vii.

x Defective Verb nJ hii Eh i ij

+i x.

can (k^na), cant (kanT), Could (kUD), couldnt (kUDnT)-

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WAGH
Can - k$ Saktao - k$ Saktao ka?
k%yaa-p`maaNao marazIt Aqa- badlatat.
( k$ Sakto / k$ Saktat k$ Sakto ka?/k$ Saktat ka? )
Can not / cant k$ Sakt naahI - k$ Sakt naahI ka?
Could - k$ Sakt haota - k$ Sakt haota ka? ( k$ Sakt haotI
k$ Sakt haotI ka?/k$ Sakt haoto k$ Sakt haoto ka?)
Could not/ couldnt k$ Sakt navhta / k$ Sakt navhta ka?
vairla Aqaa-va$na Aaplyaalaa samajaola kI Can, Could caa
vaapr ability (pa~ta) Capacity (xamata) daKivaNyaasaazI
haotao.
I can lift 50 kg weight.

maI 50 iklaao vajana ]calaU Saktao.

We can solve the problem.

AapNa

samasyaa

saaoDvaU

Saktao.
She can answer.

tI ]<ar do} Sakto.

Indians can do it.

BaartIya to k$ Saktat.

Sachin can run fast.

saicana vaogaanao QaavaU Saktao.

She cant answer.

tI ]<ar do} Sakt naahI.

Indians cant do it.

BaartIya to k$ Sakt naahI.

Sachin cant run fast.

saicana vaogaanao QaavaU Sakt

naahI.
I cant lift 100 kg weight.

maI 100 iklaao vajana ]calaU Sakt

naahI.
We cant solve the problem.

AapNa samasyaa saaoDvaU Sakt

naahI.
They could search him.

(to %yaalaa SaaoQaU Sakt haoto.)

Sachin could run fast.

saicana vaogaanao QaavaU Sakt

haota.

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SUNIL

WAGH

I could lift 50 kg weight.

maI 50 iklaao vajana ]calaU Sakt

haotao.
We could solve the problem.

AapNa samasyaa saaoDvaU Sakt

haotao.
She could answer.

tI ]<ar do} Sakt haotI.

They couldnt search him.

to %yaalaa SaaoQaU Sakt navhto.

Sachin couldnt run fast.

saicana vaogaanao QaavaU Sakt

navhta.
I couldnt lift 50 kg weight.

maI 50 iklaao vajana ]calaU Sakt

navhtao.
We couldnt solve the problem.

AapNa samasyaa saaoDvaU Sakt

navhtao.
She couldnt answer.

tI ]<ar do} Sakt navhtI.

AapNa baiGatlaolaoca Aaho kI can jar sauR$vaatIsa Asaola tr


%yaacaa Aqak$ Saktao ka? Asaa Asatao
]da. Can I use your telephone? (maI tumacaa Toilafaona vaap$
Saktao ka?)
mhNajaoca can sau$vaatIsa vaap$na AapNa %yaacaa vaapr
prvaanagaI imaLvaNyaasaazI k$ Saktao.
Can I ask you?

k^na Aaya Aask yaU? maI tumhalaa ivacaa$

Saktao ka?
Can I help you?

k^na Aaya holp yaU?

maI

tumhalaa

madt k$ Saktao ka?


Can I write?

k^na Aaya ra[-T?

maI ilahU Saktao ka?

Can I show you?

k^na Aaya Saao yaU? maI

tumhalaa

daKvaU

Saktao ka?

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SUNIL

WAGH
Can we stop?

k^na vaI sTa^p?

AapNa qaaMbaU Saktao

Can he meet you?

k^na hI maI T yaU?

tao

ka?
tumhalaa

BaoTU

Saktao ka?
Aata vairla sava- rcanaa p`Snaaqa-k tsaoca prvaanagaI saazI
Aaho. mhNajaoca yaa rcanaaMcaa p`itsaad doKIla AapNa
iSaklaa paihjao.
P`aitsaad
Can I ..? (maI k$ Saktao ka?)
Yes, you can

No, you cant

(haoya, tumhI k$ Sakta)

(naahI, tumhI k$ Sakt

naahI)
Ram:

Can I ask a question, sir?

Teacher:

Yes, you can.

Seeta:

Mother, can I cook today?

Mother:

No, you cant dear.

AapNa iSaklaolaao Aaho kI verbal rcanaocyaa sau$vaatIsa jar


Wh Sabd vaaprlaa tr tao Wh p`Sna banatao. ]da.
Where can I go?

(maI kaozo jaa} Saktao?)

Why cant I go?

(maI ka jaa} Sakt naahI?)

Should (SauD) - kolao paihjao / kolao paihjao ka ?

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WAGH
Should not (SauD naa^T) - naahI kolao paihjao / naahI kolao
paihjao ka?
sallaa dotaMnaa should caa vaapr haotao.
]da. You should read the books. (tU pustko vaacalaI paihjao.)
Students should exercise regularly. (ivadyaaqyaa-MnaI inayaimatpNao
vyaayaama kolaa paihjao.)
We should plant trees. (AapNa JaaDo laavalaI paihjao.)
You should not speak loudly. (tU maaozyaanao naahI baaolalao
paihjao.)
You should not come late. (tU ]SaIra naahI Aalao paihjao.)

Should cyaa p`Snaaqa-k rcanaa


Should I go?

(maI gaolaM paihjao ka?)

Should I call?

(maI baaolaavala paihjao ka ?)

P`aitsaad
Should I go? (maI gaolaM paihjao ka?)
Yes, you should

No, you shouldnt

(haoya, tU gaolaM paaihjao)

(naahI, tU naahI

gaolaM paaihjao)

Should caI Wh rcanaa


Where should I go?

(maI kaozo gaolaM paihjao?)

When should we meet?

(AapNa kaozo BaoTlao paihjao?)

Must (masT) - kolaoca paihjao / kolaoca paihjao ka


Must not (mast naa^T) - naahIca kolao paihjao / naahIca
kolao paihjao ka?

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SUNIL

WAGH
sai@t krtaMnaa, kDkpNao inayama saaMgatanaa must caa
vaapr haotao.
]da. You must read the books. (tU pustko vaacalaIca paihjao )
Students must exercise regularly. (ivadyaaqyaa-MnaI inayaimatpNao
vyaayaama kolaaca paihjao.)
We must plant trees. ( AapNa JaaDo laavalaIca paihjao.)
You must not speak loudly. (tU

maaozyaanao

naahIca

baaolalao paihjao.)
You must not come late. (tU ]SaIra naahIca Aalao paihjao.)

Must cyaa p`Snaaqa-k rcanaa


Must I go? (maI gaolaMca paihjao ka ?)
Must I call? (maI baaolaavalaca paihjao ka?)
P`aitsaad
Must I go? (maI gaolacaM paihjao ka?)
Yes, you must

No, you must not

(haoya, tU gaolaMca paaihjao)

(naahI,

tU

naahIca gaolaM paaihjao)

Must caI wh rcanaa


Where must I go? (maI kaozo gaolaMca paihjao?)
When must we meet? (AapNa kaozo BaoTlaoca paihjao?)
jar sai@t dusa-yaakDUna Asaola tr Must eovajaI have to ikMvaa
has to vaaprtat.
I must reach there before 4 oclock.
(4 vaajaopya-Mt paohcaNao hI svat:caI klpnaa Aaho.)
I have to reach there before 4 oclock.

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SUNIL

WAGH
(yaa vaa@yaatIla sai@t dusa-yaanao laadlaolaI Aaho
karNa yaa vaa@yaat have to { +.)

Ought to kolao paihjao ( kt-vya mhNaUna )


jair ought to caa Aqa- should saarKa vaaTt Asalaa tir
yaamaQyao sallaa, sai@t poxaa
kt-vyaacaI jaaNaIva krNao ha ]_oSa Asatao. ]da.
We ought to obey our parents. (AapNa palakaMcaI Aa&a paLlaI
paihjao.)
We must love our country. (AapNa Aaplyaa doSaavar p`oma kolaoca
paihjao.)

ho vaa@ya vairla p`maaNao na mhNata -

We ought to love our country. Asao mhTlao paihjao karNa


doSaavar p`oma krNyaasaazI sai@tpoxaa kt-vyaacaI jaaNaIva
k$na doNao garjaocao Aaho.
Ought to caa vaapr p`Snaaqa-k rcanaot sahsaa vaaprt naahI.

Used to (yaujD TU) Asao krayacaao/Asao krayacao


tuTlaolaI

savaya

mhNajaoca

BaUtkaLatIla

savaya

daKivaNyaasaazI used to vaaprtat.


]da. I used to play cricket. maI ik`koT KoLayacaao.(mhNajaoca
Aata KoLt naahI.)
Mother used to make tea for us.

Aa[-

AamacyaasaazI

caha

banavaayacaI.
I used to work in the shop. maI eka dukanaat kama krayacaao.
Used to caa vaapr nakaraqaI- tsaoca p`Snaaqa-k rcanaot haot
naahI.

Would (vaUD)

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SUNIL

WAGH
kaLanausaar BaaYaot badla haotat. Agaaodr used to cyaa Aqaa-nao
would

vaaprlaa

jaat

Asao.

prMtU

Aata

tuTlaolaI

savaya

daKivaNyaasaazI would na vaaprta used to caa vaapr haotao.


mhNaUna would caa vaapr Aata ksaa haotao ho AapNa baGaU
yaa.
Would like to caI rcanaa
malaa Asao krayalaa AavaDola ASaa Aqaa-nao I would like to hI
rcanaa vaaprtat.
I would like to play cricket.

malaa

ik`koT

KoLayalaa

AavaDola.
malaa

I would to drink tea.

caha

ipNyaasa

AavaDola.
malaa

I would like to meet you.

tumhalaa

BaoTayalaa

AavaDola.
Would nao jar vaa@yaacaI sau$vaat Asaola tr %yaa rcanaocaa
vaapr nama`tapUva-k ivanaMtI krNyaasaazI haotao.
]da.

Would you V1 ? (tumhI Asao krala ka?)

Would you like to V1? (tumhalaa Asao krayalaa AavaDola ka?)


]da. Would you read?
vaacaala ka?

vaUD yaU irD?

tumhI

Would you like to read? vaUD yaU laa[k TU irD? tumhalaa vaacaayalaa
AavaDola ka?
Would you like to help me?
vaUD yaU laa[k TU holp maI?
AavaDola ka?
prvaanagaI

tumhalaa

maagaNyaasaazI

malaa
would

madt

krayalaa

caa

vaapr

KalaIlap`maaNao haotao.
Would you mind if I V1?

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SUNIL

WAGH
vaUD yaU maa[-MD [f Aaya
hrkt Asaola ka?

maI Asao kolao tr tumacaI kahI

Would you mind if I join you?


maI tumacyaat saamaIla Jaalaao tr tumacaI kahI hrkt Asaola ka?
Would you mind if I use your phone?
maI tumacaa faona vaaprlaa tr tumacaI kahI hrkt Asaola ka?
Wh p`Snaacyaa rcanaot would caa vaapr
nama`tapUva-k ivacaarNaa krtaMnaa
Where would you like to go? tumhalaa kaozo jaayalaa AavaDola?
What would you like to drink? tumhalaa kaya ipNyaasa AavaDola?
kalpinak gaaoYTIMivaYayaI p`Sna ivacaartaMnaa would caa
vaapr kolaa jaatao.
What would you do if you win lottery? tumhI laa^TrI ijaMklaI tr kaya krala?
What would you do if you see an injured?
tumhI jaKmaI vyai@tsa baiGatlao tr kaya krala?

May - kdaicat Asao hao[-la


May not - kdaicat Asao haoNaar naahI.
Might - kdaicat Asao hao[-la

May x n] Ci (strong certainty) Might x E


Ci (Less certainty) nJ Vi.

BaivaYyaatIla AMdaja vya@t krNyaasaazI may caa vaapr haotao.


mhNajaoca BaivaYyaat eKadI ik`yaa hao[-la ikvaa haoNaar naahI
yaabaabat Ka~I nasaola tr kdaicat yaa Aqaa-nao may vaaprtat.
]da. Sachin may play. saicana kdaicat KoLona.

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SUNIL

WAGH
I may go to Nashik. maI kdaicat naaiSaklaa jaa[-la.
Minister may visit our school. maM~I kdaicat Aaplyaa SaaLosa BaoT
dotIla.
Radha may not come today. raQaa kdaicat Aaja yaoNaar naahI.
jar vaa@yaacaI sau$vaat may nao haot Asaola tr mhNajaoca,
verbal

rcanaot

may caa

vaapr

prvaanagaI

GaoNyaasaazI

haotao. ]da.
May I go?

maI jaa} Saktao ka?

May I come in?

maI Aat yao} Saktao ka?

May I read?

maI vaacaU Saktao ka?

May I speak to Mr. Patil? maI EaI.paiTla yaaMcyaaSaI baaolaU Saktao ka?
May I help you?

SauBaocCa

maI tumhalaa madt k$ Saktao ka?

vya@t

krNyaasaazI

doKIla

may

caa

vaapr

haotao.
May god bless you.
May smile remain on your face.

tumhalaa dovaacaI kRpa imaLU do.


tumacyaa caoh-yaavar naohmaI

hsaU Asau do.


May you live happily.

tumhI AanaMidt rhavao.

Will, Shall Asaola,, Asaola ka? krola,,krSaIla ka?


BaivaYyaatIla GaDNaarI ATL GaTnaa saaMgaNyaasaazI will
/shall caa vaapr krtat.

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SUNIL

WAGH
Shall caa vaapr I, we yaa k%yaa-baraobar BaivaYyaatIla
GaTnaa saaMgaNyaasaazI haotao.
I shall visit you tomorrow. (maI tumhalaa ]dyaa BaoT do[-la.)
We shall reach there on Monday. (AamhI toQao saaomavaair
paohcaU.)
]rlaolyaa

sava-

k%yaa-MsaazI

BaivaYyaatIla

ik`yaa

saaMgatanaa will vaaprtat.


Shall nao jar p`SnaacaI sau$vaat Asaola tr %yaacaa vaapr
I/we caI [cCa jaaNaUna GaoNyaasaazI haotao.
]da. Shall I help him?

(maI %yaalaa madt kravaI ka?)

Where shall we go? (AapNa kaozo jaavaM?)


Will S

Ei

nJ > Ei.
I will play cricket after exam. ({Ixi

GE] Jx.)
Will you? caa vaapr nam`atapUva-k ivanaMtI krNyaasaazI
haotao.
Will you like to play with me? tumhalaa maaJyaabaraobar
KoLayalaa AavaDola ka ?
tumhI malaa madt krala ka?

Will you help me?

P`a%yaok modal auxiliary caa AByaasa KalaIla pQdtInao kra.


Ought to

may

may write (kdaicat ilaihla)

Must

ought to

write (ilaihlao

paihjao)
Should

write must write (ilaihlaoca paihjao)


can write (ilahU Saktao)

Can
Could
Will

could write (ilahU Sakt haotao)


will write (ilaihla)

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SUNIL

WAGH

TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERB

jyaa verb laa pUNa- Aqa- p`aPt krNyaasaazI object caI AavaSyakta Asato
%yaalaa transitive mhNatat.

]da. He played cricket.

yaa vaa@yaat played yaa verb laa object caI AavaSyakta Aaho
mhNaUna to transitive Aaho.

jyaa verb laa pUNa- Aqa- p`aPt krNyaasaazI object caI AavaSyakta nasato
%yaalaa intransitive mhNatat.
]da. Baby sleeps.
yaa vaa@yaat sleeps yaa verb laa object caI AavaSyakta naahI mhNaUna
to intransitive Aaho.
bahutok verbs,

transitively tsaoca intransitively mhNaUna do#aIla

vaaprlao jaatat.
AapNa baiGatlao kI intransitive verb laa object nasatao.prMtU ASaa verb
laa Aqa- pUNa- krNyaasaazI jyaa word caI AavaSyakta Asato %yaalaa
complement of the verb mhNatat.
PARTICIPLE
jaovha -ing yau@t $p verb %yaacap`maaNao adjective cao kama krto
tovha %yaalaa participle mhNatat.
]da. Removing the traces, the criminal left the building.
yaa vaa@yaat removing Aaplyaalaa criminal yaa noun ivaYayaI AiQak
maaihtI doto. to remove yaa verb pasaUna banalaolao Aaho. Removing the
traces laa partciple phrase mhNata yao[-la.
To have cyaa $papasaUna do#aIla AapNa participle banavaU Saktao.
Agaaodrca pUNa- JaalaolaI ik`yaa simple vaa@yaat da#aivataMnaa
having vaaprtat. %yaalaa perfect participle mhNatat.
]da. Having completed his work, he went away.

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SUNIL

WAGH

kahI vaoLosa participle vaa@yaat f@t noun Agaaodr adjective mhNaUna


vaaprtat. %yaalaa participle adjectives mhNatat.
1. Dashing boys entered in.
2. We saw some shades of sparkling coloures.
3. He scored a blasting century.
V -ing Ci { G{nS `Eh x i
Subject E Object S `Eh i i i
Gerund form + hii.
=n.

1) I am reading newspaper.
2) Reading is my hobby.
3) I like reading.

C G.1 v Reading G{n +.

C G.2 v Reading Gerund +. Eh i Subject

hx +.

C G.3 v nJ Reading Gerund + Eh

i object hx +.

INFINITIVE FORM OF THE VERB


V G{nS { { to ii
(=n. To play) i i Infinitive + hii.

=n. I like to read novels.

mhNajaoca read ho mauL $p Asato, jyaacyaa Agaaodr AapNa to

ilaihtao.
1. To err is human.
2. He likes to sing.
3. To respect elders is our duty.
4. He accepted to do it.
5. Many men desire to make money quickly.
pihlyaa vaa@yaat to err ho ininitive Aaho to vaa@yaat noun mhNaUna
tsaoca is yaa verb caa subject mhNaUna kama krtao.

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SUNIL

WAGH
dusayaa vaa@yaat to sing ho infinitive Aaho to vaa@yaat noun
mhNaUna tsaoca likesyaa verbcaa object mhNaUna kama krtao.
itsayaa vaa@yaat to respect ho infinitive Aaho to vaa@yaat noun
mhNaUna tsaoca is yaa verb caa subject mhNaUna kama krtao.prMtu yaa
vaa@yaat infinitive, verb p`maaNao do#aIla kama krto.
mhNajaoca infinitive, verb %yaacap`maaNao noun cao kama krtao.
mhNaUna %yaalaa verb-noun mhNatat.
karNa saaMgaNyaasaazI infinitive vaaprtat.
]da. I went there to buy groceries.
hotU saaMgaNyaasaazI infinitive vaaprtat.
]da.We eat to live.
Gerund va infinitive daonhI verb-noun Asalyaanao saar#aoca
vaaprlao jaatat.

Bid,
let,
make,
need,
dare,
see,
hear

J
G{nxi Infinitive to Vbi x.
Let him speak.
You need behave humbly.
I made him go.
Will, would, shall, should xi nJ infinitive to
{i x.
=n.
I will help him.
You should go away.
hVS Infinitive +h Gerund S { Verb S
`Eh i x. i Ci Subject E object
hx {ii.
Verb Complement hx, i Mix
Infinitive {ii.
=n.
We should work to get success.
(
h`
+{h
E
E
{V.)
Adjective +vE i nix vn Infinitive
{ii.
=n.
Songs are sweet to listen.

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WAGH
Ev Ev C +vE i nix
nJ Infinitive {ii.
To know the truth, we called him.
(i Vhh`, + i .)
Infinitive +h Gerund S { Compound, Complex C
Simple Eix i.

6. Conjunction

nx n E nx Cx Vbh-

nx conjuction + hii.
+i +{h Conjuctions S i + Ex And

iCi

|iE

VbhS

Conjuction

C
+l

i.
+{h |iE Conjuction S { E i
{.
a) And- And S { Ci nx Clauses E nx n
Vbh` i.
=n.

I completed my homework and went out

b) But- nx Clause v v nJh`


but {ii.
i.

I worked hard but I failed

ii.

I reached on time but I missed the train.

iii.

He is poor but he is honest.


c) Or- (E)- nx {v xb nJ
h` or {ii.

d)

Study hard or you will fail.

He may be in the house or in the garden.

Either-or

nx

M]

El Ci either-or {ii.

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SUNIL

WAGH

Either he is mad or he pretends so. (i BEi b


+ E i fM Ei +.)

e) Neither-nor- nx { C x, xEiE
+lx Neither-nor {ii.

He is neither a player nor a singer. (i Jb


x +h ME x.)

f) For- for S { cojuction hx ZS iS +l


because (Eh E) + i.

I worked hard, for I want money.

g) Only- S (except) + +lx Only Conjuction


{ii.

I would like to help you, only I am busy.

h) Comma and semicolon - Compound- Ci Ev-Ev


and, or, but BV +v (,) Semicolon {ii.
They collected their parcels; went a way.
The king was might ; he was busy with war.

{E Ehi conjuction Ci + i
i C

Compound + Eh

Conjuction Co-

ordination +i.

Sub-ordinating ConjuctionsJ |Ei M V> Eii

Time- before, till, since, after, when x Time conjuction


hi <.

i) Before-(S +Mn)
The work will be completed before you come.
You should arrest them before they harm.
ii) Till- i{i
I will wait for you till the shop is open.
iii) Since- (] Ev {x)

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I am happy since I joined you.
iv) After- (xi)
I returned home after he had gone.
v) When- (V)
He ran away when he saw police.

Cause or Reason- (Eh Mh`)

i) Because- (Eh E)
I couldnt attend the class because I was ill.
David couldnt read X-rays because he was blind.
ii) As (hx)
As David was blind, he couldnt read X-rays.

because S Ci Eh xi Mi Vi As
S Ci +MnS As Vbx Eh +i.

iii) Since (V, + +)


Since he was ill, he could not attend school
Result - ({h nJh`)
i) So-that- BJn M]S Vi |h +h iS
h {h so-that x nJii.
He is so weak that he cant lift the bag.
Conditional- (+])
+]

nJh`

If

+h

Unless

Eii.

If- V-i, Unless- V{i + i x.


If you give up bad habits, you will be successful.
Unless the roads are developed, traffic cant be regulated.

So

that-

(Purpose)

nJh`

Eii.
So that- (V, VhEx)
We should eat healthy food so that we can live.

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Contrast- (v) nJh` Though, although


(+ +x vn, V) {ii.
Though I studied hard, I failed.
Though the pace seems slow, dont give up

Comparison- (ix)- Comparitive degree v than ix


Eh` {ii. Than (S{I +vE)
Ram is stronger than Sham.
While S { nx G BES i
+i i {ii. While (S nx)
They were chatting while watching movie.

hVS

nx

{{

clauses

+lx

iS

vx

+{h

Conjuction S xb E. =n. V clauses x +]


ni

Vbix

If

{V.

Conjuctions V Ci +i i C Complex

+.

Interjection-

7.

2.3)
2.4) +S, i, n:J, +xn + { lii
xEi{h ibx {bh- nx
Interjection hii.

Oh

(+S),

Alas

(n:J),

Hurrah

(+xn)

Ci

Eh` {ii.
i.

Alas! He was dead.

ii.

Hurrah! We won the match.

iii.

Oh! It is nice.

2.5)
2.6)
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8. Preposition2.7)

What is a Preposition?

2.8) A preposition links


sentence.

nouns, pronouns,

and

phrases

to other words in a

2.9) The book is on the table.


2.10)
The book is beneath the table.
2.11)
The book is leaning against the table.
2.12)
The book is beside the table.
2.13)
She held the book over the table.
2.14)
She read the book during class.
2.15)
2.16)
2.17)
G{nS x E v +
MhS E V n Ei i Preposition
hii. Tsaoca vaakyaatIla naamao,, sava-naamao, daona vya>I
ikMvaa

daona

vastUMmaQaIla

saMbaQa

daKivaNaayaa

Sabdasa

Preposition mhNatat.

2.18)
2.19)

a) The book is on the table.

2.20)

Ci

nx

xS

(book,

table)

{{ + v on x Vi.

2.21)
2.22)

b) I am going to Nashik.
Ci to x Nashik +h I S v nJ

+. Ci on +h to, prepositions
+i.

2.23)

Preposition

h-

Noun/Pronoun

object hii. a) Ci the table, object +.

At, by, for, from, in, of, off, on, out, to, till, up, with, over, under, across,
among, between, about, above, along, amidst, around, before, inside,
outside, fond of, in order to, according to, near, in front of
Prepositions +i.

I worked hard for money. (S`)


He is standing near the gate. (SV)

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She was with her father. (S)


The sky is over the head. (S)
Sachin is popular among people. (+xEv)
You should select between Marathi and English.

Vhv)
I am going to Nashik. (SEb)

1.

On

(nx

cyaavar spSa- k$na ASaa Aqaa-nao vaa@yaat on vaaprtat.


2.24) ]da.The cat is on the table.

2.25) eka ivaiSaYT tarKolaa,,,,,,,, idvasaalaa,, vaoLolaa, Asao


saaMgaNyaasaazI On vaaprtat.

2.26) ]da. I shall come on Monday.


2. Upon - caa Aqa- cyaavar Asaaca haotao, prMtu upon ho gaitSaIla
Aqaa-nao vaaprtat.
2.27) ]da. The cat jumped upon the table.
3.

Over

- cyaavar spSa- na krta ASaa over Aqaa-nao vaa@yaat

vaaprtat.

2.28) ]da. The roof is over our head.


2.29) saMKyaopUvaI- over Asalyaasa %yaacaa Aqa- cyaapoxaa
jaast Asaa haotao.
2.30) ]da. Her age must be over 30.
4. Above - caa Aqa- cyaa KUp vartI Asaa haotao. ]da.An aeroplane is
above my head.
5. Between - caa Aqa- cyaa maQyao daona jaNaaMmaQyao Asaa
haotao.

2.31) ]da. Shweta sat between Monika and Radha.


6. Among - caa Aqa- cyaamaQyao Anaok jaNaaMmaQyao Asaa
haotao.

2.32) ]da. Butterfly is flying among flowers.


7. Around cyaa BaaovatI yaa Aqaa-nao around vaaprtat.
2.33) ]da. Girls are playing around fire.
8. Behind - cyaa pazImaagao yaa Aqaa-nao behind vaaprtat.
2.34) ]da. Police ran behind the thieves.
9. Before - caa Aqa- cyaa Agaaodr Asaa haotao. ]da. Monday comes
before Tuesday.

2.35)

You should think before speaking.

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Below - cyaaKalaI icaTkUna ASaa Aqaa-nao below vaaprtat.


2.36)
]da. The fan is below the roof.
11. Under - cyaaKalaI AMtr zovaUna ASaa Aqaa-nao under vaaprtat.
2.37) ]da. He slept under a tree.
12. Beside - cyaabaajaUlaa ASaa Aqaa-nao beside vaaprtat. ]da. He
10.

stood beside a tree.


13. Near - caa Aqa- cyaajavaL Aasapasa Asaa haotao. ]da. I live near
shiva temple
14. Of cyaapasaUna dUr ASaa Aqaa-nao off vaaprtat. ]da. He is
falling off the tree.
15. In cyaaAat (isqar ASaa Aqaa-nao) in vaaprtat. ]da. We are in the
class.
16. Into baahoruna Aat gaitSaIla ASaa Aqaa-nao into vaaprtat.
2.38) ]da. He is coming into the class.
17.
Through - BaodUna Aarpar ASaa Aqaa-nao through vaaprtat.
2.39) ]da. She saw through her spectacles.
18. Out cyaa baahor ASaa Aqaa-nao out vaaprtat. ]da. He came out
of the room.
19. To- cyaakDo ASaa Aqaa-nao to vaaprtat. ]da. I am going to Nasik.
20. Towards- cyaaidSaonao ASaa Aqaa-nao towards vaaprtat.
2.40) ]da. Teacher is coming towards us.

2.41)
21. Across cyaa pilakDo AaolaaMDUna ASaa Aqaa-nao across
vaaprtat.
2.42) ]da. Mahesh swam across the river.
22. Up varcyaa idSaonao ASaa Aqaa-nao up vaaprtat.
2.43) ]da. He is coming up.
23. Down Kalacyaa idSaonao ASaa Aqaa-na down vaaprtat.

2.44)
2.45) ]da. The bird has fallen down.
24. In front of - cyaa samaaor ASaa Aqaa-nao in front of vaaprtat.
2.46) ]da. He stopped in front of mirror.
25. Of -caa -caI -cao ASaa Aqaa-nao of vaaprtat. ]da. She is fond of

music.
26. At- -cyaapaSaI AgadI javaL cyaakDo ASaa Aqaa-nao at vaaprtat. ]
da. He looked at me.
vaoL saaMgatanaa at caa Aqa- vaajata Asaa haotao. ]da. I shall visit
at 4 oclock.
27. For -cyaasaazI -cyaakirta ASaa Aqaa-nao for vaaprtat.
2.47) ]da. I can do anything for you.

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From -cyaapasaUna ASaa Aqaa-nao from vaaprtat.


2.48) ]da. I took money from ram.
29. With -cyaasah cyaabaraobar ASaa Aqaa-nao with vaaprtat.
2.49) ]da. I am with my friend.
30. Without -cyaaiSavaaya ASaa Aqaa-nao without vaaprtat.
2.50) ]da. He lost all without her.
31. Beyond- -cyaapilakDo ASaa Aqaa-nao beyond vaaprtat.
2.51) ]da. My village is beyond the hill.
2.52)
28.

9. ARTICLES
A AaiNa An, Indefinite articles Aahot.to saamaanya ekvacanaI
naamaasaazI vaaprlao jaatat.mhNajaoca e#aadI ivaiSaYT vastU ikvaa
vyai> saazI vaaprlao jaat naahI.
2.53) ]da. I have a flower.

I have a dog.

2.54)vairla vaa@yaaMt flower va dog saazI a vaaprlaa Aaho yaat ek


ivaiSaYT flower va dog Asaa baaoQa haot naahI.flower va dog cyaa ]
ccaaracaI sau$vaat consonant nao haoto mhNaUna %yaapUvaI- a
vaaprlaa Aaho.
jyaa Sabdacaa ]ccaar consonant nao sau$ haotao ASaa ekvacanaI
naamaapUvaI- a vaaprtat. jyaa Sabdacaa ]ccaar vowel nao sau$ haotao
ASaa ekvacanaI naamaapUvaI- an vaaprtat.
2.55) I have an apple.

I have an orange.

jyaa Sabdacyaa ]ccaaracaI sau$vaat vowel nao haoto %yaacyaapUvaIan vaaprtat.AnaokvacanaasaazI a an vaaprlao jaat naahI.
2.56) A pen, pens; an aeroplane, aeroplanes

2.57)

The ho

2.59) Definite articles Aaho.to ivaiSaYT naamaapUvaI- vaaprlao jaato.to


ekvacanaI tsaoca AnaokvacanaI naamaasaazI vaaprtat. The tall men are
old.
2.60) The tall man is happy.
big.

The pink house is

2.61) In this sentence, there is only one house being referred to the big, pink
house, and not any other house.

2.62)
2.63)
2.64)
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2.65)
2.66)
2.67)
2.68)

10.

Kinds of Sentences

2.69)
eXm`m (words) _XVrZo AmnU dm` (Sentence)
V`ma H$aVmo. dm`mMm dmna AmnU Amnbo {dMma,
^mdZm `V H$a`mgmR>r H$aVmo. naVw dm` AmnU {d{dY
aMZmV dmnaVmo. `mZwgma dm`m`m OmVr
2.70)
1) Assertive ({dYmZmWu Statement)
2.71)
2) Imperative (AmkmWu)
2.72)
3) Interrogative (ZmWH$)
2.73)
4) Exclametory (CXJmamWu)
2.74)
AmnU `mAJmoXa S, A, V, O Mm A`mg Ho$bobm Amho.
`m Mma KQ>H$m`m aMZoZwgma AmnU d[ab dm` aMZm
{eHw$.
2.75)
EH$ Am`VmH$Vr H$mS> nona `m.
2.76)
`mMo Mma g_mZ VwH$S>o H$Z `mda _moR>m
AjamV S, A, V, O {bhm. ZVa ho Mma VwH$S>o H$mnwZ `m.
2.77)
2.7)
2.4) A 2.5) V 2.6) O Ho$di
2.78)
`m
Mma
VwH$S>m`m
2.3) S
aMZoZwgma
AmnU
{d{dY
dm`aMZm
{eHw$
eH$Vmo 2.79)
1) Assertive / Statement ({dYmZmWu) (aMZm S A
V O)
hUOoM `m dm`mMr gwdmV Subject (s) Zo hmoVo `mbm
assertive hUVmV.
Assertive bm eodQ>r nwU{dam_ (.) dmnaVmV.
Assertive dm`mV 'A' Zgob Va aMZm SVO Aer AgVo.

_m{hVr Xo`mgmR>r, dUZ H$a`mgmR>r hr aMZm


dmnaVmV.
2.80)
CXm. India is my Country.
2.81)
hUOoM BJOrV dm` aMZm H$aVmZm Omo {H$`m
H$aUmam AgVmo/`mMo dUZ H$am`Mo AgVo `mbm (S) W_
{bhmdo. `m ZVa `mo` Vmo A qH$dm V dmnamdm.
2.82)

2) Imperative (AmkmWu) (VO)

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aMZodZ g_OVo H$s Assertive `m aMZoVwZ S A H$mT>bo


H$s Imperative dm` V`ma hmoVo.
2.83)
`m dm`mMr gwdmV V Zo hmoVo, `mbm
Imperative hUVmV.
`m dm`aMZoV Verb Zoh_r n{h`m nmVM (V1) dmnaVmV.
hUwZ V1O.

`m aMZo`m eodQ>r nwU{dam_ (.) dmnaVmV.


Imperative
Mm
dmna
Amkm
H$a`mgmR>r
gwM{d`mgmR>r, {dZVr H$a`mgmR>r hmoVmo.

hUOoM BJVrVwZ Xwg`mg Amkm H$aUo A{Ve` gmono


Amho. Or {H$`m H$amd`mMr Amho `mZoM dm`mMr
gwdmV H$amdr.

2.84)
2.85)
2.86)
2.87)

CXm.

Oa Hw$Umbm n {b{h`mg gmJm`Mo Agob Va


Write a letter.
V
O

2.88)
2.89)
{d{dY Imperative aMZm VO. (Amkm)
Don't VO. (ZH$mamWr Amkm)

2.90)

2.91)
CXm. Speak. (~mob), Don't Speak (~mobw
ZH$mo)
Read the book. (nwVH$ dmM)
Don't read the book. (nwVH$ dmMw ZH$mog)
2.92)
VO(Amkm)
Please, VO ({dZVr)
2.93)
Bring a glass of water
Please,
bring a glass of water

2.94)

2.95)
Let's VO (gwMZm)
2.96)
Let's go (AmnU OmD$ `m)

VO

(Amkm)
GO

(Om)

2.97)

Amkm, {dZVr, gwMZm hr Zoh_rM Xwg`mg (you) Ho$bobr


AgVo hUwZ H$moU`mhr Imperative aMZoMm subject hm
Zoh_rM you M AgVmo. hUwZ AmnU you Xadoiog {b{hV
Zmhr.
2.98)
CXm. Read the book hUOoM You read
the book.

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Let's (Let us) `m aMZoV {H$`oV Speaker gwXm gh^mJr
hmoUma AgVmo.
2.99)
CXm. Go (Vw Om)
Let's
go (AmnU OmD$ `m).
2.100)
Play (Vw Ioi)
Let's Play
(AmnU Ioiw `m)
Be Mr aMZm 2.101)
Xwg`mg gbm XoVmZm be Mr aMZm
dmnaVmV.
2.102)
Be Positive.
Be Careful (H$miOr Ko)
2.103)
Be Calm. (emV ahm)
Be brave. (ewamgmaIm
dmJ)
2.104)
Be Sure. (Imr R>od)
Be alert. (gmdY ahm)
2.105)
Don't be Coward. ({^`mgmaIm dmJw ZH$mog)
2.106)
2.107)
aMZm AmhoV.

3) Interrogative (ZmWH$)
BJOr_`o XmoZ H$ma`m ZmWH$

2.108)
A) Verbal / Yes-No Type
\$V Yes-No (hmo`/Zmhr) Cma OmUwZ `m`Mo Agob Va
Verbal Z aMZm dmnaVmV.
Auxilary Zo gw hmoUm`m Zmbm Verbal hUVmV.
Verbal Mr aMZm - ASVO ?
Verbal d Assertive _Yrb \$aH$
2.109)
S
A
V

2.110)
2.111)

O
S

Assertive

O? -

Verbal

2.112)
2.113)
CXm.
We should call Police (AmnU
nmo{bgmZm ~mobmdbo nm{hOo)
2.114)
S
A
2.115)
Should we call Police? (AmnU
nmo{bgmZm ~mobdbo nm{hOo H$m?)
2.116)
A
S
2.117)
`mdZ
bjmV
`oBb
H$s
Assertive
dm`m`m AWmbm "H$m?' OmoS>`mg Verbal Mm AW
g_OVmo.

2.118)

2.119)
2.120)
Amho H$m?)
2.121)

He is clever.
(Vmo hema Amho.)

Is he clever?
(Vmo hema

He will come.

Will he come?

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2.122)
(Vmo `oBb.)
(Vmo `oBb
H$m?)
2.123)
I Can Sing.
Can I Sing?
2.124)
(_r JmD$ eH$Vmo.)
(_r JmD$
eH$Vmo H$m?)
2.125)
He did not come.
Did he not
come?
2.126)
(Vmo Ambm ZhVm.)
(Vmo Ambm
ZhVm H$m?)
2.127)
They are ready.
Are they ready.
2.128)
(Vo V`ma AmhoV.)
(Vo V`ma
AmhoV H$m?)
2.129)
He had done work.
Had he done work?
2.130)
(`mZo H$m_ Ho$bobo hmoVo)
(`mZo H$m_ Ho$bobo hmoVo H$m?)

May, Can, Could, Will `m gma`m Modal Auxilaries Mm Verbal


dm`mV {dZVr, nadmZJr _mJ`mgmR>r dmna hmoVmo.
2.131)
CXm.
May I come in? (_r AmV `oD$
eH$Vmo H$m?)
2.132)
hUOoM Oa May Zo dm`mMr gwdmV
Agob Va `mMm dmna nadmZJrgmR>r hmoVmo.
2.133)
May I?
(_r ho H$
eH$Vmo H$m?)
2.134)
Exercise No.
2.135)
Imbrb dm`mMo _amR>rV ^mfmVa
H$am.
2.136)
1)
May
I
go
there?

2.137)

2.138)
2)
May
I
speak?

2.139)

2.140)
3)
May
I
Sit?

2.141)

2.142)
4)
May
I
join
you?

2.143)

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2.144)
5) May I use your pen?

2.145)
2.146)
2.147)
2.148)
Verbal dm`mV
Can Am{U Could Mm XoIrb dmna {dZVr, nadmZJrgmR>r
hmoVmo.
2.149)
CXm. Can I use your pen? (_r Vw_Mm
noZ dmn eH$Vmo H$m?)
Verbal dm`mV Can EodOr could Mm dmna Ho$`mg `mVwZ
"OmV Z_nUm' {XgVmo.
Verbal dm`mV Will Mm dmna "{dZVr' H$a`mgmR>r
hmoVmo.
2.150)
CXm . Will you help me? (Vw _bm _XV
H$aerb H$m?)
Assertive (SAVO) dm`mVrb A d S `m OmJm nana
~Xb{d`mg Verbal (ASVO?) Mr aMZm ~ZVo.

2.151)
2.152)

2.153)
Oa dm`mV A {XgV Zgob Va to do `m
_XVrZo Verbal dm` ~Z{dVm `oVo.
2.154)
CXm.
They like Cricket.
Do
they like Cricket.
2.155)
He likes Cricket
Does he like
Cricket?
2.156)
He Went
Did he go?
2.157)
B) Wh-type (Wh+ASVO?)
hmo` qH$dm Zmhr `mnojm g{dVa _m{hVr {_i{d`mgmR>r
wh-type Mm dmna H$aVmV.
`m AJmoXa AmnU verbal aMZm {eH$bmoM Amho. AmVm
AmnU Verbal d wh-type `m aMZoVrb \$aH$ nmh `m2.158)
ASVO? (Verbal)
2.159)
Wh A S V O ? (whtype).
`mdZ bjmV `oVo H$s Verbal dm`m`m gwdmVrbm wh-eX
OmoS>`mg wh-type Mr aMZm ~ZVo.
`mdZ ho gwXm bjmV `oVo H$s H$moU`mhr ZmWH$
aMZoV Auxilary (A), Subject (S) `m AJmoXa AgVmo.
Wh-word hUOo H$m`?

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2.160)
`m eXm`m gmh`mZo AmnU H$m`?
Ho$hm? H$moR>o? `mgmaIo Z {dMm eH$Vmo, Aem
eXmZm Wh-word hUVmV.
2.161)
CXm. When, Why, Where, Which, Who B.

2.162)
Verbal Am{U Wh-type aMZm 2.163)
Should we meet? (Verbal)
2.164) When should we meet? (Wh-type).
Wh-words
2.165)
What - H$m`
2.166)
Who - H$moU
2.167)
Why - H$m
2.168)
Which - H$moUVm,
Vr, Vo
2.169)
Where - H$moR>o
2.170)
When - Ho$hm
2.171)
Whom
H$moUmbm
2.172)
How - H$go, H$em
nXVrZo
2.173)
How many - {H$Vr
(g`oV)

2.174)
How much - {H$Vr
(_mUmV)
2.175)
How long - {H$Vr
doi
2.176)
How far - {H$Vr
Xwa / AVa
2.177)
With
whom
H$moUm ~amo~a
2.178)
By
whom
H$moUm H$Sy>Z
2.179)
Whose
H$moUmMm, Mr, M

2.180)
4) Exclametory (CXJmadmMH$)
AmM`, {^Vr, Xw:I, AmZX `mgmaIm ^mdZm `V
H$a`mgmR>r Exclametory dm`mMm Cn`moJ H$aVmV.
2.181)
CXm. What a man he is!
2.182) ({H$Vr MmJbm _Zw` Amho Vmo!)
2.183) How lucky I am!
2.184) ({H$Vr gwXdr Amho _r.)
ZmWH$ dm`mV What Mm AW "H$m`' Agm AgVmo.
naVw exclametory dm`mV what Mm AW {H$Vr (OmV
_mUmV Agm hmoVmo.)
ZmWH$ dm`mV How Mm AW H$go/H$em nXVrZo Agm
hmoVmo.
naVw exclametory dm`mV How Mm AW {H$Vr (OmV
_mUmV) Agm hmoVmo.
hUOoM exclametory dm`mV What d How ho OmV _mU
XmI{d`mgmR>r dmnaVmV.
What Ho$hm d How Ho$hm dmnamdo?
2.185)
Oa dm`mV a/an Agob
dmnamdo.

Va

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What

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WAGH
2.186)
Oa dm`mV a/an Zgob Va How
dmnamdo.
Very (Iwn), extremely (Iwn,OmV _mUmV), terribely
(_moR>m _mUmV), `m gmaImM AW What/how Mm
exclametory dm`mV hmoVmo.

EImm
`VrMr/dVwMr
egm,
AmM`
`V
H$aVmZm
2.187)
What a player ! ({H$Vr MmJbm
IoimSw> Amho Vmo !)
2.188)
What a computer ! ({H$Vr CH$>
gJUH$ Amho !)
2.189)
What a garden ! ({H$Vr gwXa ~JrMm
Amho !)
2.190)
What an important point ! ({H$Vr
_hdmMm _wm Amho !)
\$V ^mdZm, JwU `m`m {df`r ~mobVmZm How
dmnaVmV.
2.191)
2.192)
How Sweet!
How
stupid
you are!
2.193)
How Poor! How clever you are!

2.194)
2.195)
Alas, Wow, Hurrah `mgma`m Interjections Mm XoIrb
exclametory dm`mV Cn`moJ hmoVmo.
Alas - (Aaoao !) - Xw:I, Wow - (AmM`)
2.196)
Hurrah ! - AmZX
2.197)
CXm. Alas ! he died.
2.198)
Exclametory dm`mMr aMZm
2.199)

What / How + O / + SAV!

2.200)
hUOoM
Assertive
dm`mVwZ
(SAVO),
object
H$mTw>Z Vmo gwdmVrg `mdm.
2.201)
SAVO
O / C + SAV
What / How + O / C + SAV
2.202)
2.203)
CXm. He is Very lucky. (Assertive)
2.204)
S A Complement (C)

2.205)
Very lucky he is.
2.206)

2.207)
How lucky he is! (Exclametory)
2.208)

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WAGH
2.209)
AmnU AJmoXaM {eH$bmo Very, extremely, terribly Mm
AW What / how gmaImM AgVmo, hUyZ d[ab dm`mV How
dmnaVmZm Very H$mTy>Z Q>mH$bm.
Assertive Mo Exclametory H$aUo 2.210)
dm`mVrb Complement gwdmVrg `mdo. Very,
extremely, terribly `mgmaIo eX H$mTy>Z Q>mH$mdoV.
2.211)
{Xbo`m assertive dm`mV a/an Agob Va What A`Wm
How gwdmVrg OmoS>mdm.
2.212)
CXm.
It is a very beautiful picture.
2.213)
S A
C
a very beautiful picture it is.
What a picture it is!
Exclametory Mo Assertive H$aUo.
2.214)
How unlucky he is!
2.215)
S A
2.216)
Amn`mbm _m{hV Amho Assertive dm` 'S' Zo gw
hmoVo hUwZ
He is how unlucky.
2.217)
What / how, exclametory dm`mV Omo AW
Xe{dVmV VmoM AW assertive gmaIo eX very, extremely
_`o XmI{dVmV. hUyZ
He is very unlucky.

2.218)

2.219) 11. Tense (E)


2.220)

{i-

2.221)

G{nS { {-

2.222)

n {-

2.223)

i {-

2.224)

-ing Ci {-

2.225)

Am/is/are -

2.226)

Was/were-

Past

2.227)

Will/shall-

future

2.228)

1) Simple Present-

Simple Past
Perfect Present / Past
Contineous (+{h)
Present

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Simple Present

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WAGH

G{nS { {, s/es |i.

am / is / are caa vaapr Present maQyao vaNa-na krNyaasaazI

haotao.

2.229)

India is a democratic country.

2.230)

Marathi is our mother tongue.

2.231)

There are different castes and religions in India.

Present

Ei

xS

nJ

h` Simple Present {ii.

2.232)

(Habitual action in the present)

He drives a car.
She works as a cashier in

Sachin plays for India.


I work in a factory.
Sun rises in east.

the bank.
Ci

Ei

(S)

He,

She,

It

{ { -s/es |i {ii.
E Ei` { { {ii.
=n. I speak i
We speak+ i
You speak- i/i i
They speaki ii.
He speaks- i i
She speaks- i i
It speaksi
i

hVS speak +h speaks nx simple present

nJii.

G{nS { { + Ci Auxilary

{i x.
=n. Body performs many functions

He studies hard.
I read newspaper.

The simple present tense is also used to state facts.

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WAGH
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The sun rises every morning.


Penguins live in the Antarctica.
Dogs love playing in water.
The earth goes around the sun.
Australia is an island.

2) Present Continuous

ix Ei +{h G nJh`

Present continuous {ii.

I am driving a car (maI kar caalaivat Aaho)

They are playing cricket(to ik`koT KoLt Aaho)

We are going to trip.

He is studying English.

Players are trying hard.

3) Perfect Present
baaolaNyaacyaa vaoLosa jar ik`yaa pUNa- JaalaolaI Asaola tr
vaaprtat.

Ei

+xESx

Have

{ii.

(+{n, I have written a letter.)

Ei BESx (He, She, It) + i Has {ii.

He has finished his job.

She has arrived there.

It has

completed its rotation.


Perfect action Asalyaanao ik`yaapdacao itsaro $p vaaprtat.

Exercise
Complete the sentence with the present perfect tense of the
verbs in brackets.
1. The children (make) .the house very
messy.
2. I (see) ..that actor in several
movies.
3. The boys (drink) all the soda in the
refrigerator.
4. Our dog (hurt) its leg.

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WAGH
5. One of the workmen (fall) off his ladder.
6. Shes sad because her friends (go) to the park
without her.
7. Dad (have) .a shower already.
8. Ive been shouting so much that I (lose)
.my voice.
9. My sisters boyfriend (buy) ..her a
diamond ring.
10. Alan (do).. this puzzle so many times that he
could do .
4) Present Perfect Continuous

{E{x

SS

Sh
Present

perfect

+Vx

continuous

+i.

Have/has {ii. ixi be S i { been

{ii.

+{hS

+x

G{n-

ing

{ii.

+{ i + E Perfect Ei i

{ii.

{i

Perfect

Continuous

G{n -ing Vb Mi. hx have xi


been (be S i {) {ii.
=n. I have been studying English from 4 years.

(4 {x <OV Ei +.)

He has been learning driving from 2 months.

(2

x{x

Mb

Sh

Ei +.)

**************************************************************

1) Simple Past

G{nS n { +i.

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WAGH

G{nS n { + Auxilary {i

x.

iEi

nJh`

Simple

Past

{ii.

Was, were caa vaapr Past maQyao vaNa-na krNyaasaazI haotao.

posted

letter.

He sung a song.

Sachin batted well.

It was a nice tour.

I was 10 years at that

time.

Exercise
Complete the sentences with the simple past tense of the
verbs in brackets.
1. The boys (whisper) secrets to each other.
2. Uncle Ben (hurry).. to catch his bus.
3. We (return) our books to the library.
4. She (kiss) the frog and it (change) into a
prince.
5. Someone (tap). me on the shoulder.
6. The baby (cry) when we took her toy away.
7. John (pin) the badge onto his jacket.
8. Two doctors (rush). into the room.
9. This is the house that we (live).. in when I was
younger.
10. Grandad (lower) himself into the chair
2) Past Continuous.

iEi Evi S + G nJ

h` Past Continuous {ii.

iES

Auxilary

(was,

were)

G{n

{ii.

He was doing his job.

(i iS E Ei i.)

The light went off while I was reading.

( Si +ix, V M.)

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-ing

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WAGH

In 2005, I was studying in Mumbai.

(2005 v <v Ei i.)

Exercise no.
Complete the sentences with the past progressive tense of
the verbs in brackets.
1. At the block party lots of people (dance). in the
street.
2. I (sit).. in my bedroom reading a book.
3. Someone (make). a very loud noise in the
street.
4. Why you all (laugh) when I came in?
5. Mike and John (wash) their paintbrushes.
6. Sally (practice). the piano.
7. I ran so fast that my heart (beat).
really hard.
8. Our neighbors (have) a barbecue
3) Perfect Past

iEi {h

(Perfect) Z G nJ

h` Perfect Past {ii.

Perfect Past ` had {ii.

G{nS i { {ii.

I had seen him in the last month.

(M xi i { i.)

He had finished studies in 2006

(2006 v ix

+G (Ih) {h E.)

4) Past Perfect Continuous

iEi Z hS

{h + G nJh` Past Perfect


Continuous {ii.

had xi been G{n - ing {ii.


=n. He had been writing from 2 months.

(i 2 x{x i i.)

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WAGH

Police had been searching him.

({ iS

v Pi i.)

1) Simple Future

i x ]i h- G` Simple

future {ii.

I, we Ei + i Shall {ii, <i`

Will {ii.

=n.

He will visit the place.

(i i VM ] n<x.)

I shall reach there at 4 Oclock.

( S Vi il {Sx.)

2) Future Continuous

BJn

+{h

Gi

S + i Future Continuous {ii.

Tomorrow I shall be talking with you.

(=n iZ i +x)
Will/shall, Modal Auxilary +x -ing Vbix be

{inJ Future continuous {ii.

He will be staying for 2 days.

(i nx n{i h
+.)

3) Future Perfect

BJn CiEbx i {h h-

G` Future Perfect {ii.

Perfect ` have future ` Shall / will {ii.

He will have completed 4 years in next month.

({f xi ix 4 {h E
+i.)

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WAGH
4) Future perfect continuous

{{x S +h- i {h

h-

E`

Future

Perfect

Continuous

{ii.

=n.

I shall have been completing 4 years as a teacher in

June.

(Vx v Z IE hx 4

{h i.)

India will have been celebrating 60 years of Independence

in 2007.
Present
Simple
Contineou

Past
Simple
Contineou

Future
Simple
Contineou

s
Perfect
Perfect

s
Perfect
Perfect

s
Perfect
Perfect

Contineou
s
Remember this-

Contineou

Contineou

hV |iE ES Simple, Continuous, Perfect


+h Perfect Continuous + 4 |Ei MEh
Ei i.
+{h G hV Continuous Tense .
G{n -ing Ci { hV Continuous .
Perfect Present have / has
Perfect Past had
Perfect Present / Past- G{nS 3 {.

hVS Ci have, has, had n i E Perfect

({h) + V {V.

G{n -ing + i E Continuous +i.

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WAGH

Will/shall x E (Future) nii.

i Continuous nix Will / shall xi be

{ii.

+{ i + E Perfect Ei i {

{ii. {i Perfect Continuous v G{n

-ing Vb Mi. hx have xi been (be

S i {) ni` {ii.
Present

I work

I am working

I have worked

I have been working

Past

I worked

I was working

I had worked

I had been working

Future

I shall work

I shall be working

I shall have worked

I shall have been working

EXERCISE NO.
Change the tense of following sentences
1. The body performs metabolic, chemical, mental functions. (Present
Perfect)

2. He is studying in this college. (Perfect present continuous tense)

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WAGH
3. He drives a car. (Future continuous)

4. It has been finished. (Simple present tense)

5. I had visited the place. (Perfect future continuous)

6. She suggested him. (Continuous past)

7. He had done a great job. (Perfect past continuous)

8. We are watching a match. (Past continuous)

9. They had committed a mistake. (Perfect present)

10.

11.

He brings dishes. (Perfect present)

The players in the team are playing good cricket. (Simple present)

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