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SUBHASH C. GOEL

tension, Ft = 0.6Fy, and that in shear, iv = 0.4/^, where Fy

denotes the yield strength of the material. Checking the

stresses in tension and shear separately against the corresponding allowable values in the base metal is generally

considered adequate enough. This practice can be defended rationally in situations where maximum normal and

shear stresses do not occur at the same point, such as in the

design of bending members (except for plate girder webs

where tension field action is utilized).

Quite frequently, however, situations are encountered

where maximum normal and shear stresses occur simultaneously, such as in members subjected to combined

bending and torsion or in connection design. Checking the

section at the base of gusset plate for an inclined bracing

member (Fig. 1) is a common example. Such situations are

not covered in the current AISC Specification. Keeping the

normal and shear stresses within their individual allowable

limits in these cases may lead to grossly unconservative

results. A rational design criterion for these situations

should be based on combining the two stresses in some

reasonable manner.

This paper examines the problem briefly from a theoretical viewpoint. A simple empirical equation is proposed for

use in practical design. The proposed equation gives results

which are in close agreement with those obtained by using

Von Mises' yield criterion.

and shear stresses, respectively, at a point under consideration (Fig. 2). Equating the maximum principal stress to Ft

gives.

Fig. 1. Example

The use of maximum principal stress theory can be justified

in design situations where the failure mode is governed by

brittle fracture, such as in fatigue loading. If this theory is

used in design when yielding governs the failure mode and

the maximum principal stress is kept at Ft (as is sometimes

suggested), it could lead to unconservative results. In order

*-f*

of Micfiigan, Ann Arbor, Micfiigan.

124

L

2

1

2

or

smaller values of tension stress. For fi = 0, the equation

would allow/, = 0.866F^, which may be considered a bit

conservative.

w(fr-^'-.

'i^nhm

=1

(1)

from Fig. 3 that increasingly unconservative results are

obtained as the tension stress becomes smaller. In the Hmit

when ft = 0, one gets flF^ = 1.5. This would not be

acceptable.

VON MISES' YIELD CRITERION

Von Mises' yield criterion is quite commonly used in design

when yielding governs the strength, such as under normal

load conditions. Application of this criterion to the combined stress condition under consideration herein (Fig. 2)

leads to the following equation:

k\f? + 2>f^) = F,^

(2)

2 can be transformed into the following:

F,}

3\Fj

(3)

1.5 r.

EMPIRICAL EQUATIONS

Equation 3, which is based on Von Mises' yield criterion, is

simple enough for use in practical design. However, as

noted above it gives somewhat conservative results in the

region of small values of tension stress. It would be desirable to use an equation which incorporates factors of safety

consistent with those in the current Specification over the

entire range of application. As afirstattempt linear interaction equation of the following form may be considered:

(4)

A plot of this equation, shown by dashed line in Fig. 3,

indicates that it may be overly conservative for the most

part when compared with Eq. 3 which was derived from

Von Mises' yield criterion.

Now consider the following empirical equation:

F,

\F,

=1

(5)

results are quite close to those from Eq. 3 and the curve

leads t o / / F ^ = 1.0 and/ZF^ = 1.0 at the two ends. In

addition, Eq. 5 is simple enough for practical design appHcation.

CONCLUSION

An empirical equation of the form

AJiNi

Ft

shear stresses. This equation has desired simpHcity, and

gives results which are close to those obtained by using the

Von Mises' yield criterion and factors of safety consistent

with the ones used in current AISC Specification.

It would be desirable to vahdate the above equation with

some experimental results.

(^)

0.5

THIRD QUARTER/1986

125

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