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Cooling Tower Application, according Treybal [1]

Index
1

Data

Tower height

NTU and HTU

Tower area

Compensation water

Operating diagram

Cooling tower schematic

Example 7.1

Comment

10

Trapezoidal rule
Ref. 1
Ref. 2
Ref
Collaborations

, according Treybal [1]


Rev. cjc. 08.11.2014

Index
Data for cooling tower application
Main equations and results
Cooling Tower height, NTU and HTU
Free-cross sectional surface of tower
Compensation, elimination, evaporation and entrainment fow rates
Equilibrium curve and operation lines
Schema
Treybal example of cooling tower
Data of thermal power, not used in example 7.1
Numerical integration with the trapezoidal rule
Pages 274 to 282. Cooling of water with air
Packing height and free-cross sectional surface of a tower
References
Comments and contributions from

Cooling Tower Application Data


This application will be realized with following numerical data (Note 1).
Data for numerial example
Water flow rate entering the tower

L2 =
tL2 =

15

kg /s

45

Dry bulb temperature of air entering the tower

tdbG1 =

30

Wet bulb temperature of air entering the tower


Local height above sea level
Mximum cooling temperature will be defined with
a differential temperature t above air wet bulb temp.

twbG1 =
H=

24
0

C
m.a.s.l.

t =

r=

1.5

temperature

tcomp =

10

and a hardness
The in the system circulating water sould have a

da_c =

500

ppm

maximum hardness

da_M =

2000

ppm

Mass transfer coefficient in the air


Tower effective heat or mass transfer surface

ky_kmol =

6.2E-05
500

Temperature of water entering the tower at the top (2)

Air to water flow rate ratio shall be "r" times its


minimum possible value
The compensation water entering the system wil have a

Liquid unit mass flow rate

a=
Lu =

Air unit mass flow rate

Air molecular mass

kg/(s*m2)

Gu =

2.0

kg/(s*m2)

Mair =

28.96

1.- This data has been taken from [1], example 7.1, pages 278-281.
2.- The data "Q" is not used, since it would be in contradiction with other input data (See sheet 9)
270

m/m

2.7

Notes

Q=

kmol / ( m2*s)

kg/kmol

Help Variables
Cooling Tower Schema
State L1
Water leaving the tower
tL1 =
twbG1 + t
tbhG1

24

t =
tL1 =

29

State G1
Ambient air entering the tower
tbsG1 =
30
C
tbhG1
H=

24
0.0

L2 =
tL2 =

Compensation water
tacomp =
10
dac =

500

C
ppm

C
m

h = Sicro_Enthalpy_tdb_twb_H
h=

#VALUE!

kJ/kg

x = Sicro_AbsoluteHumidity_tdb_twb_H

x=

#VALUE!

kg/lg

Mass transfer coefficient


Mass transfer coefficient in the air
ky_kmol =
6.2E-05
kmol / ( m2*s)
Air molecular mass
Mair =
28.96

tL1 =
kg/kmol

Blowdown wa

Mas transfer per kilogram


ky =
ky_kmol * Mair
ky_kmol =

6.2E-05

Mair =

28.96

ky =

0.0018

daM =
kmol / ( m2*s)
kg/kmol
kg / ( m2*s)

Product Ky*a
Ky*a =

Ky*a

ky =

0.0018
500

a=
Ky*a =

0.90

kg / ( m2*s)

m/m
kg / ( m3*s)

Rev. cjc. 08.11.2014

ooling Tower Schema

15

kg / s

45

Air

Water

L2

G2

Cooling
tower

L1

G1
G1

Water
29 C

30

twbG1

24

Air

Blowdown water: B
2000

tdbG1 =

ppm

Cooling Tower height


Tower packing height [2]

Height of Transfer Unit "HTU"

The packing height (Z) of a tower can be calculated as

Z HTU NTU

HTU

Gd
MB ky a A

[1], eq. (7.53), page 276


HTU =

with

and

Gd
HTU
M B ky a A

h2'

NTU N tOG

h1'

HTU =
[1], page 276

Number of Transfer Units


The number of transfer units (NTU

is calculated by numerical integta

ky aZ
dh '
Z

H tOG
h '* h '
Gd'

HTU H tOG
Z
HTU
Z HTU NTU
NTU

( Eq.7.54)

Sheet "3.- NTU" presents a calcula


example of the NTU.

Result of NTU example (sheet 3. N


NTU =
NTU =
Tower packing height
Z=
HTU =
NTU =
Z=

Rev. cjc. 08.11.2014

eight of Transfer Unit "HTU"

Gd
HTU
MB ky a A
Gd / (MB * ky * a * A)
#VALUE!

umber of Transfer Units


he number of transfer units (NTU)
calculated by numerical integtation.

heet "3.- NTU" presents a calculation


xample of the NTU.

Z:
Gd :

Tower packing height

[m]

flow rate of dry air (is a constant)

[kg/s]

MB :

molar mass of air

[kg/kmol]

ky :

mass transfer coefficient in the air

[kmol/(ms)]

a:

effective heat or mass transfer surface

[m/m]

A:
h' :

free cross-sectional surface of the tower

[m]

h'*:
HTU :

NTU :
Subscripts
B:
esult of NTU example (sheet 3. NTU & H
d:
(hL_a - hL_b) / N * f(x)
2:
#VALUE! 1:

ower packing height


HTU * NTU
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

m
m

enthalpy in the air phase = enthalpy of


humid air (in the bulk phase)
[J/kg]
enthalpy in the air phase (i: at ther boundary, [J/kg]
that is, in saturated condition)
Height of Transfer Unit (also, HtG)
[m]
Number of Transfer Units (also, NtG)
[-]
substance dry air
dry air
top of the tower
bottom of the tower

Height of Transfer Units HTU


G: molar mass flow rate per unit area [kmol (m*s)]
G': mass flow rate per unit area [kg (m*s)]
G' = G [kmol / (m)*s) ) * MB[kg / kmol]
G' = G * MB [kg / (m*s)]
MB : molar mass of air

[kg/kmol]

kY: mass transfer coefficient in the air

[kmol / (m*s)]

a: effective heat or mass transfer surface [m / m]


A: free cross-sectional surface of the tower [m]

HTU

Gd

M B ky a A

kg

2
kg kmol m
2

m
kmol m 2 s m 3

Gd
HTU
m
M B ky a A

Introducin g the Air unit mass flow rate

G'

kg
s m2

G'
HTU
m
M B ky a

G'

Gd
A

HTU
HTU =
G' =
MB =
ky =
a=
HTU =

G'
m
M B ky a
G' / ( MB * ky * a )
2
28.96
6.2E-05
500
2.2

kg dry air /( s*m)


kg/kmol
kmol/(m*s)
m/m
m

NTU and HTU calculations


Column 1

Column 2
Equilibrium curve for saturated air.

Water temperature at inlet of tower (top)


tL2 =
45
C

The curve is drawn using the function


hair,sat =
Sicro_Enthalpy_tdb_f_H

Water temperature at tower outlet (bottom) using a relative humidity


tL1 =
29
C
f=
100
tL2 -> tL1
Range:
and the local heigt
H=

%
m.a.s.l.

Number of sections
A temperature range is selected to
The range will be divided in a number "N" cover a range A-B, with
tA =
of sections
25
C
N=

tB =

47

Column 3
Column 1 starts with temperature "tL2"

Operation line for the minimum possible

and ends with temperature "tL1".

air flow rate G's.min. (i.e., r = 1)

Between both temperatures, "N-1"

For this type of operation, the operation

temperatures are inserted to define

line will have the minimum slope that

the N sections. All section are defined

would allow it to touch the equilibrium

with the same temperature differential.

curve (will be tangent to this curve).


Air enters at the bottom of the tower at

Temperature differential
tL =
tL2 - tL1

contition G1:
tbsG1 =

30

tL2 =

45

tbhG1

24

tL1 =

29

m.a.s.l.

tL =

16

H=
hG1

#VALUE!

kJ/kg

fG1 =

#VALUE!

Section temperature increment


tL_Sect =
tL / N

Air leaves at the top (case r = 1)


Sheet 8, shows the calculation of the

tL =

16

N=
tL_Sect =

2.67

enthalpy obtained when accomplishing


with this condition.

Th calculated value is
hGo' =
#VALUE!

Temperature at point "i+1"


ti+1 =
ti + tL_sect

at a temperature
tGo' =

45

kJ/kg
C

Table 1. Tower packin


1
Liquid
temperature

2
Equilibrium
curve for
saturated air.

tL

hair,sat
kJ/kg

3
Operation
line for
r=1

hoper_r=1
kJ/kg

3a

h =
hair,sat -hop_r=1

kJ/kg

4
Operation
line for
r = 1.5

hoper_r=1.5
kJ/kg

h =
hair,sat -hop_r=1.5

kJ/kg

Top.(2)

Bottom (1)

47
45
42.33

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!

39.67

#VALUE!

#VALUE!

#VALUE!

#VALUE!

#VALUE!

37.00
34.33
31.67
29
25.5

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

25

#VALUE!

Note1.
The equilibrium data used by Treybal is
taken from a graphic (Fig. 7.5a)
The equilibrium data resulting from the
use of the functions, is similar to the
data from Ashrae Fundamentals
Example
Ashrae
Functions
t C
ts kJ/kg
ts kJ/kg
45
214.16
212.96
29
94.88
94.41

3
Enthalpy potential
Columns 3a and 5
Ref. 4 (28.4)

Treybal
ts kJ/kg
216
100

Note 2
Integration according the the trapezoidal rule
See sheet 10.

Height of tower packing

Number of Transfer Units "NTU"


From Treibal, Equation (7-51)

H 2'

GS'
dH '
'
ky a H ' Hi H '

NTU

H 2'

dH '
NTU '
Hi H '
H'
1

I y ,a

(7.51a)

I y ,b

1
dI y
I y ,i I y

(7.51b)
The numerial integration of NTU is
performed by means of the trapezoidal

where H'2 and H'1 are the enthalpies of

integration method.

the air-water mixture for the actual case,


that is, in this case for r = 1.5.

According this method, the integration


is realized as it is shown in the columns
6, 7 and 8.

'

G
HTU = S [ m ]
k ya

The final evaluation is done according

G 'S
HTU =
[ m]
k ya

(7.51c)

(7.51d)

Z =HTUNTU [ m ]

following equation

NTU
NTU =
where
hL_in_r=1.5 =

Also

HTU =

GS

hL _ a hL _ b
2 N

Numerical results shown are from next


calculation sheets.

f ( x)

(hL_a - hL_b) /(2* N) *

hL_out=r=1.5=

M Bk yaA

#VALUE!

N=
f(x) =

#VALUE!
6
#VALUE!

NTU =

#VALUE!

Treybal [2] result is


NTU =
3.25
The difference comes from the values of
the Sicrometric properties.
Also, the numerical integration method
is not indicated.

Comparison between the example calculation table and the table from Treibal

2
Curva de
equilibrio para
aire saturado

hair,sat

Calculation table, using Sicrometric functions.


3
4
5
6
Lnea de
Lnea de
operacin
operacin
h =
1/h
para r = 1 para r = 1.5

hoper_r=1

hoper_r=1.5

hair,sat -hop_r=1.5

kJ/kg
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

kJ/kg

kJ/kg

kJ/kg

1/(kJ/kg)

25
25.5
29
31.67

#VALUE!
#VALUE!

72
96

72
87.7

#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!

34.33

#VALUE!

119

103.4

#VALUE!

#VALUE!

37.00
39.67
42.33
45.00

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

143
166
190
213

119.1
134.9
150.6
166.27

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

2
Curva de
equilibrio para
aire saturado

t
25
25.5

hair,sat
kJ/kg
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

Table from Treybal [1], page 280


3
4
5
Lnea de
Lnea de
operacin
operacin
h =
para r = 1 para r = 1.5

hoper_r=1

hoper_r=1.5

kJ/kg

kJ/kg

1/h

hair,sat -hop_r=1.5

kJ/kg

1/(kJ/kg)

29
31.67

100.0
114.0

72
96

72
92.0

28.0
22.0

0.0357
0.0455

34.33
37.00
39.67
42.33
45.00

129.8
147.0
166.8
191.0
216.0

119
143
166
190
213

106.5
121.0
135.5
149.5
163.50

23.3
26.0
31.3
41.5
52.5

0.0429
0.0385
0.0319
0.0241
0.0190

Sicro_Enthalpy_tdb_f_H(tdb, f, H)
Operation line
Water leaves the tower at
tL1 =
29
The air propertiy at
tbsG1 =
29
tbhG1
24
H=

is
hG1 =
#VALUE!
The point N in diagram is:
tN =
29

Sicro_Enthalpy_tdb_f_H(tdb, f, H)

Column 3a
Column 5
Driving enthalpy difference at a point "i" Driving enthalpy difference at a point "
hair,sat_i -hop_r=1_i
hi =
hi =

Column 4

Column 6

Operation line for r = 1.5

Reciproc of driving enthalpy difference

The line starts from the same point N

Column 7

m.a.s.l.

with the properties at the inlet defined as Coefficients for numerical integration
Ci =
the state G1.

kJ/kg

Gs =
r=
Gr=1 =

hN =

#VALUE!
kJ/kg
The operation linefor r = 1, is the
straight line con: r = G / Gmin
Slope of operation line witrh r = 1
Sr=1 =
(hG2' - hG1) / (tL2 - tL1)

r * Gr=1
1.5

Column 8

#VALUE!

kg as/s

Gs =
#VALUE!
Slope of line with r = 1.5

kg as/s

S=m=

L * Cpw / Gs

L=

15

Cpw =

4.1868

Numerical integration elements


f(xi) =

(7.54)
kg/s

Air flow rate

kJ/(kg*K)

From heat balance

hG2' =

#VALUE!

kJ/kg

Gs =

#VALUE!

kg as/s

H air H Liquid

hG1 =

#VALUE!

kJ/kg

S=

#VALUE!

(kJ/kg)/K

2 : top

tL2 =

45

tN =

29

Sr=1 =

#VALUE!
1/m * L * cpw

GS = Gr=1 =

Exit enthalpy

C
(kJ/kg)/K

#VALUE!

m=

#VALUE!

L=

15

Cpw =
Gr=1 =

4.1868
#VALUE!

hG1 =

#VALUE!

J/kg

S=
tbsG2 =

#VALUE!

(kJ/kg)/K

45

kg agua/s

tbsG1 =

29

kJ/(kg*K)

hG2 =

#VALUE!

(kJ/kg)/K

kg as/s

Column 3 represents a straight line

45

hO =

#VALUE!

#VALUE!

tO' =

45

hO' =

#VALUE!

GS L c pw

J/kg

t L 2 t L1
hG 2 hG1

hG 2 hG1

t L 2 t L1

GS

Column 4 represents a straight line

hN =

1 : bottom
GS hG 2 hG1 L c pw t L 2 t L1

L c pw
m

[1], Eq, (7.54), page 277


GS : gas flow rate [kg as/ s]
hG2 : exit air enthalpy (top) [kJ/kg]

between the points N and O'


tN =
29
C

between the points N and O


tN =
29
C
hN =
#VALUE!
kJ/kg
tO =

hG1 + S * (tbsG2 - tbsG1)

(7.54)

Sr=1

m=
Sr=1 =

S=
hG2 =

(hG2 - hG1) / (tbsG2 - tbsG1)

hG1 : inlet air enthalpya (bottom) [kJ/kg

kJ/kg
C

L: liquid flow rate [kg/ s]. (assumed co


cpw : liquid specific heat [kJ/(kg*K)]

kJ/kg

tL2 : inlet water temperature (top) [C]

tL1 : exir water temperature (bottom) [C

kJ/kg

Table 1. Tower packing height calculation


6

1/h
1/(kJ/kg)

7
Numerical
integration
coefficient (2)

Ci

f(x)

Air conditions in the tower,for r = 1


Conditions at the bottom of the tower (point "1" in diagram)
Point "1"
tbs1 =

29.0

hG1 =

#VALUE!

C
kJ/kg

Conditions at the top of the tower (point 2' in diagram)


Point 2'

#VALUE!
#VALUE!

1
2

#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!

#VALUE!

tbs2' =

45

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

h2' =

#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

2
2
2
1
f(x) =

C
kJ/kg

Height above sea level, from sheet "1.- Data"


H=
0
m.a.s.l.
Enthalpy hO', from sheet 6.
h0' =

2
To be reviewed
Explanation

I y ,a

and

NTU

Height of Transfer Unit "HTU"

quation (7-51)

1
dI y
I y ,i I y

kJ/kg

1
dI y

I
y,i
y

Height of Transfer Unit "HTU"

'

GS
HTU =
k ya

HTU =
HTU =
with
Gs =
MB =

tegration of NTU is

eans of the trapezoidal

HTU =
G'S :

G'S /( ky * a)
2.0

kg/(m*s)

method, the integration


is shown in the columns

ky*a :

0.9
2.2

kg / ( m *s)
m

ation is done according

I y ,b

Straight line, due Le = 1


Ref. 4 (27.3.1)

sfer Units "NTU"

#VALUE!

HTU =

Treybal [2] result is


HTU =
2.2

ky_kmol =
3

a=
A=
HTU =

QS :

GS

M Bk yaA

MB :

Height of packing tower

a hL _ b

2 N

L_a

f ( x)

ky :
a:

Z = HTUNTU
Z=

- hL_b) /(2* N) * f(x)


kJ/kg

A:

HTU * NTU

HTU =
NTU =

2.2
#VALUE!

Z=

#VALUE!

kJ/kg
Treybal [2] result is
Z=
7.22

comes from the values of


properties.
ical integration method

Trapezoidal numerical integration rule

nctions.

7
Numerical
integration
coefficient

Ci

f(x)

f ( x) dx

ba N
gi f k
2 N k 1

g i 1 para i 1 y N
g i 2 para i 2 ... ( N 1)
NTU=(hL2 - hL1)/2*N* (f(x1) + 2*f(x2) + 2*f(x3) + .+ 2*f(xN-1) + f(xN) )

1
2

#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!

2
2
2
1
f(x) =

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

7
Numerical
integration
coefficient

Ci

f(x)

NTU =
where
hL_in_r=1.5 =

(hL_a - hL_b) /(2* N) * f(x)


166.3

kJ/kg

hL_out=r=1.5=
N=
f(x) =

72.0
6
#VALUE!

kJ/kg

NTU =

#VALUE!

Treybal table differs from the calculation


table in the values of the psichrometric
properties.
Additionaly, Treibal uses a different

1
1

0.03575
0.04545

1
1
1
1
1
f(x) =

0.04292
0.03846
0.03195
0.02410
0.01905
0.23767

numerical integration method, where


the numerical integration coefficienst are
not required (or Ci = 1)
The numerical integration used is not
indicated and Treybal gives as a
final result a NTU value
NTU =

3.25

Rev. cjc. 08.11.2014

Page 1 of 4

riving enthalpy difference at a point "i"


hair,sat_i -hop_r=1.5_i

eciproc of driving enthalpy difference

oefficients for numerical integration


1 at both ends

2 in the other elements

hG1 =
To be reviewed

umerical integration elements


Ci * (1/hi)

Explanation

rom heat balance

H air H Liquid

2 : top

1 : bottom
GS hG 2 hG1 L c pw t L 2 t L1

GS L c pw

t L 2 t L1
hG 2 hG1

hG 2 hG1

t L 2 t L1

GS

L c pw
m

1], Eq, (7.54), page 277


: gas flow rate [kg as/ s]
S

G2

: exit air enthalpy (top) [kJ/kg]

G1

: inlet air enthalpya (bottom) [kJ/kg]

liquid flow rate [kg/ s]. (assumed const.)


: liquid specific heat [kJ/(kg*K)]
w

: inlet water temperature (top) [C]

: exir water temperature (bottom) [C]

Page 2 of 4

e tower (point "1" in diagram)


(Column 1)
(Column 3)

wer (point 2' in diagram)

(Column 1)
(Column 3)

sheet "1.- Data"

[1], eq. (7.54), page 277

Page 3 of 4

eight of Transfer Unit "HTU"

HTU =

GS
M Bk yaA

GS / (MB * ky * a * A)
#VALUE!

kg as/s

28.96

kg/kmol

6.2E-05

kmol / ( m2*s)

500

m/m

#VALUE!
#VALUE!

m
m

flow rate of dry air (is a constat)

[kg/s]

molar mass of air

[kg/kmol]

mass transfer coefficient in the air

[kmol/(ms)]

effective heat or mass transfer surface

[m/m]

free cross-sectional surface of the tower

[m]

Page 4 of 4

Free-cross sectional surface of tower

Area of cross sectional surface


L=

Lu * A

L: liquid flow rate [kg/s]


Lu : unit flow rate (for unit of cross

Seleted area
From borh results, the smallest value
should be selected, to ensure that the
value of the product "ky*a" has at least
the indicated value of

sectional surface): [kg/ ( m*s)]


A: area of cross section

ky*a =

0.90

A=

#VALUE!

So
A=
L=
Lu =
A=

L / Lu
15

kg/s

2.7
5.56

kg/(m*s)
m

Using the gas flow rate


GS / GSu
A=
G: gas rate [kg/s]
Gu : unit flow rate (for unit of cross
sectional surface): [kg/ ( m*s)]
A: area of cross section
Gs =
#VALUE! kg as/s
GSu =
2
kg/(m*s)
A=
#VALUE! m

Rev. cjc. 08.11.2014

lts, the smallest value

ted, to ensure that the


duct "ky*a" has at least

kg / ( m3*s)
m

Compensation water
Cosidering a compensation and a

Entrainment loss rate "W", water that is

continuous elimination, the mass

being transported with the exit air,

balance is

leaving from de top of the tower as a

M B E W

(a)

Evaporation rate "E", water that is


evapotated in the air flow producing
the cooling of the water flow
(b)

and therefore

From equation (d)

B E W B

B W daC
daM

(.c)

Eliminating M from (a) and (.c)

B W daC
B E W
daM

(d)

M : compensation rate [kg/h]


B : elimination rate
[kg/h]
E : evaporation rate

loss of water.

[kg/h]

B B

da
B 1 C
da
M

da
B 1 C
daM

daC
da
W C
daM
daM

daC
da
W C E W
daM
daM

daC
da
E W C
daM
daM

daC
da
W C E
daM
daM

da
B 1 C
daM

da
B 1 C
daM

daC

1 E

daM

da
W 1 C E
daM

B W

W : entrainment loss rate [kg/h]


daC : hardness weight fraction of
circulating water [kg/kg] or [ppm]
daM : hardness weight fraction of

B W

compensation water [kg/kg] or [ppm]

B W

Elimination rate "B", required to replace


water with a maximum allowable salts
content with fresh water with the in this
water existing salt content. This is
called the compensation rate.

daM
W
daC daM

Application

A water hardness balance is

M daM B W daC

B E

B E

E
da
1 C
daM

E
daM daC
daM
E
daC daM
daM

daM
W
daC daM

Evaporation rate "E"

1.- Absolute humidity of exit air


Assuming that the leaving air is b
saturated at Point "O"
O
The enthalpy at this point, from th
calculation Table 1, is
hO =

Assuming initially a temperature v


tO =

the corresponding enthalpy for th


assumed temperature is with
tO =
O

H=
h=
Now, using Solver, find a value of
temperature t

With calculated exit air temperatu

the corresponding absolute humid


can be be calculated
t=
O
H=
xa2 =
2.- Absolute humidity of inlet air
From sheet 2
xa1 =

B E

daM
W
daC daM

3.- Humidity change


x2-1 =
xa2 - xa1
(e)

Entrainment water
kg/kg

xa2 =

#VALUE!

kg/kg

xa1 =

#VALUE!

kg/kg

x2-1 =

#VALUE!
GS * x2-1

kg/kg

E=
Dry air flow rate (sheet 2)
Gs =
#VALUE!
x2-1 =
- Absolute humidity of exit air
#VALUE!
ssuming that the leaving air is basically
E=
#VALUE!
aturated at Point "O"
Entrainment loss "W"

vaporation rate "E"

kg as/s
kg/kg
kg/s

100
%
he enthalpy at this point, from the
alculation Table 1, is

To estimate the entrainment losses,


one assumes that these losses are
a percentage &W of the water flow rate

#VALUE! kJ/kg
ssuming initially a temperature value

&L =
0.2
The water flow rate is

30
C
e corresponding enthalpy for this
ssumed temperature is with
40.0

100
%
0
m.a.s.l.
#VALUE! kJ/kg
ow, using Solver, find a value of the
mperature tO to obtain that h = hO

With calculated exit air temperature

e corresponding absolute humidity


an be be calculated
40.0

100
0

%
m.a.s.l.

#VALUE!

kg/kg

- Absolute humidity of inlet air


rom sheet 2
#VALUE!

kg/kg

Water

Compensation
water
M, daM

L=
W=
L=

15
L * &L
15

kg/s

&L =

0.002

kg/s

W=
0.030
kg/s
Elimination rate "B"
E * ( daM / (daC - daM) ) - W
B=
E=
#VALUE! kg/s
W=
da_M =

0.030

kg/s

500

ppm

da_c =
B=

2000
#VALUE!

ppm
kg/s

Compensation rate "M"


(B + W) * daC / daM
M=
B=
#VALUE! kg/s
W
da_c =

0.030

kg/s

2000

ppm

da_M =

500
#VALUE!

ppm
kg/s

M=

Treybal results
E=
W=

0.3465
0.03

B=

0.0855

M=

0.462

Rev. cjc. 08.11.2014

Entrainment water

W, daC

G2
Cooling
tower

L1

G1

Air

B, daC
Elimination water

kg/s
kg/s
kg/s
kg/s

Operation Diagram
1

tL
25.0
25.5
29.0
31.7
34.3
37.0
39.7
42.3
45.0
47.0

2
Curva de
equilibrio para
aire saturado

hair,sat
kJ/kg
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

3
Lnea de
operacin
para r = 1

hoper_r=1

3a

h =
hair,sat -hop_r=1

4
Lnea de
operacin
para r = 1.5

hoper_r=1.5

h =

1/h

hair,sat -hop_r=1.5

kJ/kg

kJ/kg

kJ/kg

kJ/kg

1/(kJ/kg)

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

tL

hT

tT

kJ/kg

kJ/kg

From sheet 1
t N=

25.0

#VALUE!

#VALUE!

h N=

25.5

#VALUE!

50

#VALUE!

tO =

29.0
31.7
34.3

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

100
150
200

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

tO' =

37.0

#VALUE!

39.7
42.3

#VALUE!
#VALUE!

45.0

#VALUE!

47.0

#VALUE!

Note
Column 3a shows that the resulting operation line is not exactly
tangent to the saturation curve. For tangency, the minimum

From calculation, further down


tT =
hT =

Point O' (hO', calculated further d


tO' =
hO'=
Point O (hO, from sheet 3)

difference should be 0.

tO =

A negative value indicates that the solution line is cutting the


saturation curve.

hO=

Saturation curve for air at a height above


sea level
H=
(f =

0
100

m.a.s.l.
%)

12.0
10.0
8.0
6.0

Saturatio

12.0

Saturatio

10.0

tL

hair,sat

C
25
26
29
32
34
37
40
42
45
47

kJ/kg
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

Polynom
77.8
79.6
94.5
108.5
125.0
143.7
164.9
188.4
214.2
235.2

8.0

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

Tangent point
Equation of the satutarion curve
h=0 .1659t 24 . 7921t +92 . 926
Value of the enthalpy in the saturation curve
at the point of tangency (t =tT )
2

h=0 .1659t T 4 .7921tT +92 . 926 (Eq . a)


Tangent at any point of the satutarion curve
dh
=0 . 3318t4 . 7921
dt
Tangent at the point of tangency (T )
dh
| =0. 3318tT 4 . 7921
dt t=t T
Slope of the operation curve, which is
tangent to the saturation curve
hT h N
=0 .3318t N 4 . 7921
t T t N
hT h N = ( 0. 3318t4 .7921 )( ttn )
h=( 0 . 3318t4 . 7921 )t T t N +hN ( Eq . b )
Equating (Eq . a ) with ( Eq . b )
2
0 . 1659t T 4 . 7921t T +92 . 926= ( 0 . 3318t T 4 . 7921 )( tT tn ) + hn
2

0 . 1659t T 4 . 7921t T +92 . 926 -hn=( 0 . 3318t T 4 . 7921 )tT - ( 0 . 3318t T 4 .7921 )tn
2

0 . 1659t T 4 . 7921t T +92 . 926 -hn=0 .3318t T 4 . 7921t T 0 . 3318tnt T + 4 .7921tn


0 . 3318t 2T 0 .1659t2T +4 . 7921t T 4 . 7921t T 0. 3318tnt T +4 . 7921tn 92. 926 +hn=0
2
0 . 1659t T 0 . 3318tnt T +4 .7921tn 92 . 926+hn=0
a =0 .1659
b=-0. 3318tn
c=4 . 7921tn 92. 926 +hn
2
atT +bt T +c=0

6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
20

f(x) =
25 R = 0

H'
(gas-vapor mixture)
kJ/kg as
H'*2

H'2

t L , H *

t ,H
i

'
i

T
R

H'*1

S
U

,H'

H'1
N
Liquid temperature tL C
tL1

tL2
Figure 2

Ci

f(x)

1
2
2
2
2
2
1
f(x) =

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

Enthalpy air-vapor [kJ/kg da]

7
Numerical
integration
coefficient

12.0

29
#VALUE!

Equilibrium curve A-B

O
O'(tO' ,hO' )

hT

Equilibrium curve,
for saturated air

45

O
O(to,ho)

Operating line with

r=

1
Operating line with r = 1.5

kJ/kg
C

8.0

45

OB

10.0

6.0

rom sheet 1

Figure 1.- Operation Diagram

4.0O
A

O
N (tN, hN)

rom calculation, further down


#VALUE!

#VALUE!

kJ/kg

2.0
tT

oint O' (hO', calculated further down)


45
#VALUE!

C
kJ/kg

0.0
25.0f(x) =
R = 0

30.0

tO = tO'

35.0
40.0
45.0
Liquid temperature [C]

50.0

oint O (hO, from sheet 3)


45
#VALUE!

12.0
10.0
8.0
6.0

C
kJ/kg

Saturation curve for air at H = 0 m.a.s.l.

hsat =
aa =
bb =

0.1659 * t^2 - 4.7921 * t + 92.


0.1659
4.7921

12.0

Saturation curve for air at H = 0 m.a.s.l.

10.0

cc =

93.93

8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
20

f(x) =
25 R = 0 30

35

40

b b 2 4 ac
tT
2a
a 0.3318
b - 4.7921 0.3318 t N
c 4.7921 t N h N

a tT2 b tT c 0
a 0.1659
b -0.3318 tn
c 4.7921 tn 92.93 hn

Enthalpy at the tangent point T


h=
0.1659 * t^2 - 4.7921 * t + 92.93
tT =
#VALUE! C
hT =

#VALUE!

29
#VALUE!

Operation line for r = 1


where "r" is the ratio between the actual
mass flow rate and the minimum flow
rate.
The line starts at a point defined by the
inlet air properties (point N in operating
diagram) also called state "G1"

H=
xG1 =

0.1659
-9.6222
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

kJ/kg

Point N

twbG1 =

tT = ( -b + (b^2 - 4*a*c)^0.5 ) / ( 2*a )


a=
b=
c=
tT =

50

State G1 (Point N)
tdbG1 =
30

From sheet 3
tn =
hn =

45

24
0

C
C
m

Sicro_AbsoluteHumidity_tdb_twb_H

xG1 =

#VALUE!

kg/kg

hG1 = hN =

#VALUE!

kJ/kg

Operating line for minimum air flow.

Enthalpy hO'

Enthalpy h O' at temperature tO'

h0' =

From Figure 1
h O' hN
h hN
T
t o' t N
tT tN
h O' hN

h T hN
t o' t N
tT tN

h O' hN

h T hN
t o' t N
tT tN

hN + (hT - hN) / (t

h N=

#VALUE!

h T=

#VALUE!

t N=

29

tT =

#VALUE!

to'=

45

h0' =

#VALUE!

Rev. cjc. 08.11.2014

tion Diagram of Cooling Tower


OB

O
O'(tO' ,hO' )

O
O(to,ho)
Equilibrium curve

th

Polynomial (Equilibrium
curve)

r=

Column E
Op. L. r = 1.5

1.5

h_tangent
t_tangent

tO = tO'
45.0

50.0

C]

1659 * t^2 - 4.7921 * t + 92.926

7921 * t + 92.93

+ (hT - hN) / (tT - tN) * (to' - tN)


kJ/kg
kJ/kg
C
C
C
kJ/kg

Cooling tower schematic [3]

Rev. cjc. 08.11.2014

Example 7.1, from [1], pages 278 to 281


Example 7.11. A plant requires that 15 kg / s (1984 lb / min) of cooling water will
flow through a condensation equipment for distillation; thus eliminating 270 W
(55270 Btu / min) from the condensers. The water leaves the condenser at 45 C.
To reuse water it is planned to cool it by contact with air in a cooling tower of
induced draft.
The design conditions are 30 C inlet air dry bulb temperature and 24C wet bulb
temperature. The water is to be cooled to 5 C below the wet bulb temperature of
the air (thus, to 29 C) ; a ratio of air/steam of 1.5 times the minimum value will
be used.
Water compensation will come from a dam at 10 C, with a hardness of 500 ppm
(parts / million) dissolved solids.
The circulating water cannot have a hardness greater than 2000 ppm. Regarding
the package that is to be used, it is expected that the value (Ky * a) will be
0.90 kg / (m * s) for a speed of the liquid of at least 2.7 kg / (m * s) and for a gas
speed of 2.0 kg / (m * s) (1991 and 1474 lbm / (hr * ft) respectively.
Calculate the dimensions of the packed section and water compensation required.

Figure 7.12 Flowchart of example 7.1

Basis: Cross section 1 m, Gs = 2.0 kg/(m*s). Th driving force H1* - H1 is obtained


at frequents intervals of tL in figure 7.13, as it is shown.

For compensation water. see Sheet 5

Example 7.12

Solution. Figure 7.12 represents the flowchart of the operation. The humidity and
the enthalpy of the incoming air is taken from the figure 7.5a (or using the
appropriate functions).
The opetaing chart, Figure 7.13, contains the air enthalpy curve at saturation. In
this graph, the point N represents the condition at the bottom of the tower
(TL1 = 29 C and H1 = 72000 J / kg dry air). The operating line will pass
through N and will end in TL1 = 45 C.
For the minimum value of Gs', the operating line will have the minimum slope that
will touch the equilibrium curve, and thus it will pass through the point O, where
H2 '= 209 500 J / kg dry air. Therefore, the slope of the line is O'N

where Gs'min = 7.31 kg dry air / s. For gas flow of 1.5 times the minimum,
Gs = 1.5 * 7.31 = 10.97 kg dry air / s . Therefore,

and H2 '= 163000 J / kg dry air, plotted at point O. Therefore, the operating line
is ON. For a liquid flow of at least 2.7 (kg / m * s), the cross section
should be 15 / 2.7 = 5.56 m. For a gas flow of at least 2.0 kg / (m * s), the
cross section is 10.97 / 2.0 = 5.5 m. Therefore, the last value (5.5) is used, then
in this case the minimum flow of liquid will exceed the minimum an so ensuring
that kv*a = 0.90 .

Data from the last two columns are plotted with H as abscissa.
The area below the curve is 3.25. From equation (7.54)

The packed height Z is:


In this case,
NtOG =
3.25
HtOG =

Gs' / ( Ky*a)

HtOG =

2.0 / 0.9 =

Z = 7.22 m

2.22

Also, from equation (7.54)


NtOG =
Z / HtOG
Z=
HtOG =

7.22

2.22

NtOG =

3.25

xample 7.12

Rev. cjc. 08.11.2014

Data of thermal power, not used in example 7.1


In Treybal example 7.1, there is following data:
the water should elimnate " 270 W ( 55270 Btu/min)
from the condensers"
But Treybal does not use this information.
Leaving water temperature, for a thermal power of
Q=
270
W
This input data does not agree with the other
input data:
Water inlet temperature
Wate outlet temperature
Water mass flow rate

If this data
Q=
270
W
is a requirement, then, the temperature
of the leving water is a calculated value
and cannot be an input data.
Enthalpy of inlet water

Enthalpy of leaving water

Local height above sea level


H=

Local ambient presure


p=
H=
p=

101,325* (1 -2,25577E-5 * H)^5,25588


0
m.a.s.l.
1.013
bar

Temperature of water entering the tower at the top (2)


tL2 =
45
C
Enthalpy of entering water
tL2 =
45
C
P=
hL2 =

1.013
#VALUE!

bar
kJ/kg

Q=
Q/L2 =
hL1 =
hL2 =
Q=
L2 =
hL1 =
Specific volume
p=
hL1 =
v=

nthalpy of leaving water

Temperature of leaving water


p=
1.013
bar

L2 * (hL2 - hL1)

v=

#VALUE!

m/kg

hL2 - hL1

t=

#VALUE!

hL2 - Q/L2
#VALUE!
270
15

kJ/kg
W
kg/s

#VALUE!

kJ/kg

pecific volume
1.013

bar

#VALUE!

kJ/kg

#VALUE!

m/kg

Rev. cjc. 08.11.2014

Numerical integration with the trapezoidal rule

Numerical implementation

Illustration of trapezoidal rule used on a sequence of samples (in this case, a non-uniform grid).

Uniform grid
For a domain discretized into N equally spaced panels, or N+1 grid points a = x1 < x2 < ... < xN+1 =

Non-uniform grid
When the grid spacing is non-uniform, one can use the formula

< ... < xN+1 = b, where the grid spacing is h=(b-a)/N, the approximation to the integral becomes

Rev. cjc. 08.11.2014

Rev. cjc. 08.11.2014

[1]

Operaciones de transferencia de masa 2/e


Robert E. Treybal
McGraw Hill,2003

Pages 274 to 282. Cooling of water with air

Packing height and free-cross sectional surface of a tower [2]


1.- Packing height
The packing height of a tower can be calculated
according [2], equation (65)

Z=

QS
M Bk yaA

I y ,a

I y ,b

1
dI y
( I y, iI y )

Naming the first term as "Height of Transfer


Unit (HTU) "

HTU

V
MB ky a A

Z=I:
QS =V :

NTU

molar mass of air

ky :

mass transfer coefficient in the air


effective heat or mass transfer su
free cross-sectional surface of the

a:
A:
Iy :
Iy,i :

I y ,b

HTU :
NTU :

1
dI y
I y ,i I y

the packing height becomes

Z = HTUNTU

flow rate of dry air (is a constat)

MB :

and the second term as the Numbert of Transfer


Units (NTU)

I y ,a

Tower packing height

enthalpy in the air phase = enthal


(in the bulk phase)

enthalpy in the air phase (i: at the


that is, in saturated condition)
Height of Transfer Unit
Number of Transfer Units

Subscripts
B:
y:
a:
b:
i:

dry air
air phase = humid air
top of the tower
bottom of the tower
corresponds to the boundary (i.e.

ower packing height

[m]

ow rate of dry air (is a constat)

[kg/s]

olar mass of air

[kg/kmol]

ass transfer coefficient in the air


fective heat or mass transfer surface
ee cross-sectional surface of the tower

[kmol/(ms)]
[m/m]
[m]

nthalpy in the air phase = enthalpy of humid air


n the bulk phase)

[J/kg]

nthalpy in the air phase (i: at ther boundary,


at is, in saturated condition)

eight of Transfer Unit


umber of Transfer Units

r phase = humid air


p of the tower
ottom of the tower
orresponds to the boundary (i.e., saturated state)

Indian institute of technology


http://www.iitkgp.ac.in/

http://nptel.ac.in/courses/Webcourse-contents/IIT%20Kharagpur/Ref%20and%20Air%20Cond/New
Leson 27. Psychrometry Straightline law (27.3.1)
Leson 28. Enthalpy potential

http://nptel.ac.in/courses/Webcourse-contents/IIT%20Kharagpur/Ref%20and%20Air%20Cond/pdf/R

http://nptel.ac.in/courses/Webcourse-contents/IIT%20Kharagpur/Ref%20and%20Air%20Cond/pdf/R

20and%20Air%20Cond/New_index1.html

20and%20Air%20Cond/pdf/R&AC%20Lecture%2027.pdf

20and%20Air%20Cond/pdf/R&AC%20Lecture%2028.pdf

[1]

Operaciones de transferencia de masa 2/e


Robert E. Treybal
McGraw Hill, 2003

[2]

[3]
http://library.kfupm.edu.sa/ISI/2006/5-2006.pdf

[4]

http://nptel.ac.in/courses/Webcourse-contents/IIT%20Kharagpur/Ref%20and%20Air%20Cond/New

http://nptel.ac.in/courses/112105129/pdf/R&AC%20Lecture%2027.pdf

http://nptel.ac.in/courses/Webcourse-contents/IIT%20Kharagpur/Ref%20and%20Air%20Cond/pdf

%20and%20Air%20Cond/New_index1.html

%20and%20Air%20Cond/pdf/R&AC%20Lecture%2028.pdf

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