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# Cooling Tower Application, according Treybal [1]

Index
1

Data

Tower height

## NTU and HTU

Tower area

Compensation water

Operating diagram

Example 7.1

Comment

10

Trapezoidal rule
Ref. 1
Ref. 2
Ref
Collaborations

## , according Treybal [1]

Rev. cjc. 08.11.2014

Index
Data for cooling tower application
Main equations and results
Cooling Tower height, NTU and HTU
Free-cross sectional surface of tower
Compensation, elimination, evaporation and entrainment fow rates
Equilibrium curve and operation lines
Schema
Treybal example of cooling tower
Data of thermal power, not used in example 7.1
Numerical integration with the trapezoidal rule
Pages 274 to 282. Cooling of water with air
Packing height and free-cross sectional surface of a tower
References

## Cooling Tower Application Data

This application will be realized with following numerical data (Note 1).
Data for numerial example
Water flow rate entering the tower

L2 =
tL2 =

15

kg /s

45

tdbG1 =

30

## Wet bulb temperature of air entering the tower

Local height above sea level
Mximum cooling temperature will be defined with
a differential temperature t above air wet bulb temp.

twbG1 =
H=

24
0

C
m.a.s.l.

t =

r=

1.5

temperature

tcomp =

10

and a hardness
The in the system circulating water sould have a

da_c =

500

ppm

maximum hardness

da_M =

2000

ppm

## Mass transfer coefficient in the air

Tower effective heat or mass transfer surface

ky_kmol =

6.2E-05
500

## Air to water flow rate ratio shall be "r" times its

minimum possible value
The compensation water entering the system wil have a

a=
Lu =

## Air molecular mass

kg/(s*m2)

Gu =

2.0

kg/(s*m2)

Mair =

28.96

1.- This data has been taken from [1], example 7.1, pages 278-281.
2.- The data "Q" is not used, since it would be in contradiction with other input data (See sheet 9)
270

m/m

2.7

Notes

Q=

kmol / ( m2*s)

kg/kmol

Help Variables
Cooling Tower Schema
State L1
Water leaving the tower
tL1 =
twbG1 + t
tbhG1

24

t =
tL1 =

29

State G1
Ambient air entering the tower
tbsG1 =
30
C
tbhG1
H=

24
0.0

L2 =
tL2 =

Compensation water
tacomp =
10
dac =

500

C
ppm

C
m

h = Sicro_Enthalpy_tdb_twb_H
h=

#VALUE!

kJ/kg

x = Sicro_AbsoluteHumidity_tdb_twb_H

x=

#VALUE!

kg/lg

## Mass transfer coefficient

Mass transfer coefficient in the air
ky_kmol =
6.2E-05
kmol / ( m2*s)
Air molecular mass
Mair =
28.96

tL1 =
kg/kmol

Blowdown wa

ky =
ky_kmol * Mair
ky_kmol =

6.2E-05

Mair =

28.96

ky =

0.0018

daM =
kmol / ( m2*s)
kg/kmol
kg / ( m2*s)

Product Ky*a
Ky*a =

Ky*a

ky =

0.0018
500

a=
Ky*a =

0.90

kg / ( m2*s)

m/m
kg / ( m3*s)

## ooling Tower Schema

15

kg / s

45

Air

Water

L2

G2

Cooling
tower

L1

G1
G1

Water
29 C

30

twbG1

24

Air

Blowdown water: B
2000

tdbG1 =

ppm

## Cooling Tower height

Tower packing height [2]

Z HTU NTU

HTU

Gd
MB ky a A

HTU =

with

and

Gd
HTU
M B ky a A

h2'

NTU N tOG

h1'

HTU =
[1], page 276

## Number of Transfer Units

The number of transfer units (NTU

ky aZ
dh '
Z

H tOG
h '* h '
Gd'

HTU H tOG
Z
HTU
Z HTU NTU
NTU

( Eq.7.54)

## Sheet "3.- NTU" presents a calcula

example of the NTU.

## Result of NTU example (sheet 3. N

NTU =
NTU =
Tower packing height
Z=
HTU =
NTU =
Z=

## eight of Transfer Unit "HTU"

Gd
HTU
MB ky a A
Gd / (MB * ky * a * A)
#VALUE!

## umber of Transfer Units

he number of transfer units (NTU)
calculated by numerical integtation.

## heet "3.- NTU" presents a calculation

xample of the NTU.

Z:
Gd :

[m]

[kg/s]

MB :

[kg/kmol]

ky :

[kmol/(ms)]

a:

[m/m]

A:
h' :

## free cross-sectional surface of the tower

[m]

h'*:
HTU :

NTU :
Subscripts
B:
esult of NTU example (sheet 3. NTU & H
d:
(hL_a - hL_b) / N * f(x)
2:
#VALUE! 1:

HTU * NTU
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

m
m

## enthalpy in the air phase = enthalpy of

humid air (in the bulk phase)
[J/kg]
enthalpy in the air phase (i: at ther boundary, [J/kg]
that is, in saturated condition)
Height of Transfer Unit (also, HtG)
[m]
Number of Transfer Units (also, NtG)
[-]
substance dry air
dry air
top of the tower
bottom of the tower

## Height of Transfer Units HTU

G: molar mass flow rate per unit area [kmol (m*s)]
G': mass flow rate per unit area [kg (m*s)]
G' = G [kmol / (m)*s) ) * MB[kg / kmol]
G' = G * MB [kg / (m*s)]
MB : molar mass of air

[kg/kmol]

[kmol / (m*s)]

## a: effective heat or mass transfer surface [m / m]

A: free cross-sectional surface of the tower [m]

HTU

Gd

M B ky a A

kg

2
kg kmol m
2

m
kmol m 2 s m 3

Gd
HTU
m
M B ky a A

## Introducin g the Air unit mass flow rate

G'

kg
s m2

G'
HTU
m
M B ky a

G'

Gd
A

HTU
HTU =
G' =
MB =
ky =
a=
HTU =

G'
m
M B ky a
G' / ( MB * ky * a )
2
28.96
6.2E-05
500
2.2

kg/kmol
kmol/(m*s)
m/m
m

## NTU and HTU calculations

Column 1

Column 2
Equilibrium curve for saturated air.

tL2 =
45
C

## The curve is drawn using the function

hair,sat =
Sicro_Enthalpy_tdb_f_H

## Water temperature at tower outlet (bottom) using a relative humidity

tL1 =
29
C
f=
100
tL2 -> tL1
Range:
and the local heigt
H=

%
m.a.s.l.

Number of sections
A temperature range is selected to
The range will be divided in a number "N" cover a range A-B, with
tA =
of sections
25
C
N=

tB =

47

Column 3
Column 1 starts with temperature "tL2"

## curve (will be tangent to this curve).

Air enters at the bottom of the tower at

Temperature differential
tL =
tL2 - tL1

contition G1:
tbsG1 =

30

tL2 =

45

tbhG1

24

tL1 =

29

m.a.s.l.

tL =

16

H=
hG1

#VALUE!

kJ/kg

fG1 =

#VALUE!

tL_Sect =
tL / N

## Air leaves at the top (case r = 1)

Sheet 8, shows the calculation of the

tL =

16

N=
tL_Sect =

2.67

## enthalpy obtained when accomplishing

with this condition.

Th calculated value is
hGo' =
#VALUE!

ti+1 =
ti + tL_sect

at a temperature
tGo' =

45

kJ/kg
C

## Table 1. Tower packin

1
Liquid
temperature

2
Equilibrium
curve for
saturated air.

tL

hair,sat
kJ/kg

3
Operation
line for
r=1

hoper_r=1
kJ/kg

3a

h =
hair,sat -hop_r=1

kJ/kg

4
Operation
line for
r = 1.5

hoper_r=1.5
kJ/kg

h =
hair,sat -hop_r=1.5

kJ/kg

Top.(2)

Bottom (1)

47
45
42.33

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!

39.67

#VALUE!

#VALUE!

#VALUE!

#VALUE!

#VALUE!

37.00
34.33
31.67
29
25.5

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

25

#VALUE!

Note1.
The equilibrium data used by Treybal is
taken from a graphic (Fig. 7.5a)
The equilibrium data resulting from the
use of the functions, is similar to the
data from Ashrae Fundamentals
Example
Ashrae
Functions
t C
ts kJ/kg
ts kJ/kg
45
214.16
212.96
29
94.88
94.41

3
Enthalpy potential
Columns 3a and 5
Ref. 4 (28.4)

Treybal
ts kJ/kg
216
100

Note 2
Integration according the the trapezoidal rule
See sheet 10.

## Number of Transfer Units "NTU"

From Treibal, Equation (7-51)

H 2'

GS'
dH '
'
ky a H ' Hi H '

NTU

H 2'

dH '
NTU '
Hi H '
H'
1

I y ,a

(7.51a)

I y ,b

1
dI y
I y ,i I y

(7.51b)
The numerial integration of NTU is
performed by means of the trapezoidal

## where H'2 and H'1 are the enthalpies of

integration method.

## the air-water mixture for the actual case,

that is, in this case for r = 1.5.

## According this method, the integration

is realized as it is shown in the columns
6, 7 and 8.

'

G
HTU = S [ m ]
k ya

## The final evaluation is done according

G 'S
HTU =
[ m]
k ya

(7.51c)

(7.51d)

Z =HTUNTU [ m ]

following equation

NTU
NTU =
where
hL_in_r=1.5 =

Also

HTU =

GS

hL _ a hL _ b
2 N

## Numerical results shown are from next

calculation sheets.

f ( x)

hL_out=r=1.5=

M Bk yaA

#VALUE!

N=
f(x) =

#VALUE!
6
#VALUE!

NTU =

#VALUE!

## Treybal [2] result is

NTU =
3.25
The difference comes from the values of
the Sicrometric properties.
Also, the numerical integration method
is not indicated.

Comparison between the example calculation table and the table from Treibal

2
Curva de
equilibrio para

hair,sat

## Calculation table, using Sicrometric functions.

3
4
5
6
Lnea de
Lnea de
operacin
operacin
h =
1/h
para r = 1 para r = 1.5

hoper_r=1

hoper_r=1.5

hair,sat -hop_r=1.5

kJ/kg
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

kJ/kg

kJ/kg

kJ/kg

1/(kJ/kg)

25
25.5
29
31.67

#VALUE!
#VALUE!

72
96

72
87.7

#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!

34.33

#VALUE!

119

103.4

#VALUE!

#VALUE!

37.00
39.67
42.33
45.00

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

143
166
190
213

119.1
134.9
150.6
166.27

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

2
Curva de
equilibrio para

t
25
25.5

hair,sat
kJ/kg
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

## Table from Treybal [1], page 280

3
4
5
Lnea de
Lnea de
operacin
operacin
h =
para r = 1 para r = 1.5

hoper_r=1

hoper_r=1.5

kJ/kg

kJ/kg

1/h

hair,sat -hop_r=1.5

kJ/kg

1/(kJ/kg)

29
31.67

100.0
114.0

72
96

72
92.0

28.0
22.0

0.0357
0.0455

34.33
37.00
39.67
42.33
45.00

129.8
147.0
166.8
191.0
216.0

119
143
166
190
213

106.5
121.0
135.5
149.5
163.50

23.3
26.0
31.3
41.5
52.5

0.0429
0.0385
0.0319
0.0241
0.0190

Sicro_Enthalpy_tdb_f_H(tdb, f, H)
Operation line
Water leaves the tower at
tL1 =
29
The air propertiy at
tbsG1 =
29
tbhG1
24
H=

is
hG1 =
#VALUE!
The point N in diagram is:
tN =
29

Sicro_Enthalpy_tdb_f_H(tdb, f, H)

Column 3a
Column 5
Driving enthalpy difference at a point "i" Driving enthalpy difference at a point "
hair,sat_i -hop_r=1_i
hi =
hi =

Column 4

Column 6

## The line starts from the same point N

Column 7

m.a.s.l.

with the properties at the inlet defined as Coefficients for numerical integration
Ci =
the state G1.

kJ/kg

Gs =
r=
Gr=1 =

hN =

#VALUE!
kJ/kg
The operation linefor r = 1, is the
straight line con: r = G / Gmin
Slope of operation line witrh r = 1
Sr=1 =
(hG2' - hG1) / (tL2 - tL1)

r * Gr=1
1.5

Column 8

#VALUE!

kg as/s

Gs =
#VALUE!
Slope of line with r = 1.5

kg as/s

S=m=

L * Cpw / Gs

L=

15

Cpw =

4.1868

f(xi) =

(7.54)
kg/s

kJ/(kg*K)

hG2' =

#VALUE!

kJ/kg

Gs =

#VALUE!

kg as/s

H air H Liquid

hG1 =

#VALUE!

kJ/kg

S=

#VALUE!

(kJ/kg)/K

2 : top

tL2 =

45

tN =

29

Sr=1 =

#VALUE!
1/m * L * cpw

GS = Gr=1 =

Exit enthalpy

C
(kJ/kg)/K

#VALUE!

m=

#VALUE!

L=

15

Cpw =
Gr=1 =

4.1868
#VALUE!

hG1 =

#VALUE!

J/kg

S=
tbsG2 =

#VALUE!

(kJ/kg)/K

45

kg agua/s

tbsG1 =

29

kJ/(kg*K)

hG2 =

#VALUE!

(kJ/kg)/K

kg as/s

45

hO =

#VALUE!

#VALUE!

tO' =

45

hO' =

#VALUE!

GS L c pw

J/kg

t L 2 t L1
hG 2 hG1

hG 2 hG1

t L 2 t L1

GS

## Column 4 represents a straight line

hN =

1 : bottom
GS hG 2 hG1 L c pw t L 2 t L1

L c pw
m

## [1], Eq, (7.54), page 277

GS : gas flow rate [kg as/ s]
hG2 : exit air enthalpy (top) [kJ/kg]

tN =
29
C

tN =
29
C
hN =
#VALUE!
kJ/kg
tO =

(7.54)

Sr=1

m=
Sr=1 =

S=
hG2 =

kJ/kg
C

## L: liquid flow rate [kg/ s]. (assumed co

cpw : liquid specific heat [kJ/(kg*K)]

kJ/kg

kJ/kg

6

1/h
1/(kJ/kg)

7
Numerical
integration
coefficient (2)

Ci

f(x)

## Air conditions in the tower,for r = 1

Conditions at the bottom of the tower (point "1" in diagram)
Point "1"
tbs1 =

29.0

hG1 =

#VALUE!

C
kJ/kg

Point 2'

#VALUE!
#VALUE!

1
2

#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!

#VALUE!

tbs2' =

45

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

h2' =

#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

2
2
2
1
f(x) =

C
kJ/kg

## Height above sea level, from sheet "1.- Data"

H=
0
m.a.s.l.
Enthalpy hO', from sheet 6.
h0' =

2
To be reviewed
Explanation

I y ,a

and

NTU

quation (7-51)

1
dI y
I y ,i I y

kJ/kg

1
dI y

I
y,i
y

## Height of Transfer Unit "HTU"

'

GS
HTU =
k ya

HTU =
HTU =
with
Gs =
MB =

tegration of NTU is

HTU =
G'S :

G'S /( ky * a)
2.0

kg/(m*s)

## method, the integration

is shown in the columns

ky*a :

0.9
2.2

kg / ( m *s)
m

I y ,b

Ref. 4 (27.3.1)

#VALUE!

HTU =

HTU =
2.2

ky_kmol =
3

a=
A=
HTU =

QS :

GS

M Bk yaA

MB :

a hL _ b

2 N

L_a

f ( x)

ky :
a:

Z = HTUNTU
Z=

## - hL_b) /(2* N) * f(x)

kJ/kg

A:

HTU * NTU

HTU =
NTU =

2.2
#VALUE!

Z=

#VALUE!

kJ/kg
Treybal [2] result is
Z=
7.22

## comes from the values of

properties.
ical integration method

## Trapezoidal numerical integration rule

nctions.

7
Numerical
integration
coefficient

Ci

f(x)

f ( x) dx

ba N
gi f k
2 N k 1

g i 1 para i 1 y N
g i 2 para i 2 ... ( N 1)
NTU=(hL2 - hL1)/2*N* (f(x1) + 2*f(x2) + 2*f(x3) + .+ 2*f(xN-1) + f(xN) )

1
2

#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!

2
2
2
1
f(x) =

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

7
Numerical
integration
coefficient

Ci

f(x)

NTU =
where
hL_in_r=1.5 =

166.3

kJ/kg

hL_out=r=1.5=
N=
f(x) =

72.0
6
#VALUE!

kJ/kg

NTU =

#VALUE!

## Treybal table differs from the calculation

table in the values of the psichrometric
properties.

1
1

0.03575
0.04545

1
1
1
1
1
f(x) =

0.04292
0.03846
0.03195
0.02410
0.01905
0.23767

## numerical integration method, where

the numerical integration coefficienst are
not required (or Ci = 1)
The numerical integration used is not
indicated and Treybal gives as a
final result a NTU value
NTU =

3.25

Page 1 of 4

## riving enthalpy difference at a point "i"

hair,sat_i -hop_r=1.5_i

1 at both ends

hG1 =
To be reviewed

Ci * (1/hi)

Explanation

## rom heat balance

H air H Liquid

2 : top

1 : bottom
GS hG 2 hG1 L c pw t L 2 t L1

GS L c pw

t L 2 t L1
hG 2 hG1

hG 2 hG1

t L 2 t L1

GS

L c pw
m

## 1], Eq, (7.54), page 277

: gas flow rate [kg as/ s]
S

G2

G1

## liquid flow rate [kg/ s]. (assumed const.)

: liquid specific heat [kJ/(kg*K)]
w

Page 2 of 4

(Column 1)
(Column 3)

(Column 1)
(Column 3)

Page 3 of 4

## eight of Transfer Unit "HTU"

HTU =

GS
M Bk yaA

GS / (MB * ky * a * A)
#VALUE!

kg as/s

28.96

kg/kmol

6.2E-05

kmol / ( m2*s)

500

m/m

#VALUE!
#VALUE!

m
m

[kg/s]

[kg/kmol]

[kmol/(ms)]

[m/m]

[m]

Page 4 of 4

L=

Lu * A

## L: liquid flow rate [kg/s]

Lu : unit flow rate (for unit of cross

Seleted area
From borh results, the smallest value
should be selected, to ensure that the
value of the product "ky*a" has at least
the indicated value of

## sectional surface): [kg/ ( m*s)]

A: area of cross section

ky*a =

0.90

A=

#VALUE!

So
A=
L=
Lu =
A=

L / Lu
15

kg/s

2.7
5.56

kg/(m*s)
m

## Using the gas flow rate

GS / GSu
A=
G: gas rate [kg/s]
Gu : unit flow rate (for unit of cross
sectional surface): [kg/ ( m*s)]
A: area of cross section
Gs =
#VALUE! kg as/s
GSu =
2
kg/(m*s)
A=
#VALUE! m

## ted, to ensure that the

duct "ky*a" has at least

kg / ( m3*s)
m

Compensation water
Cosidering a compensation and a

balance is

M B E W

(a)

## Evaporation rate "E", water that is

evapotated in the air flow producing
the cooling of the water flow
(b)

and therefore

B E W B

B W daC
daM

(.c)

B W daC
B E W
daM

(d)

## M : compensation rate [kg/h]

B : elimination rate
[kg/h]
E : evaporation rate

loss of water.

[kg/h]

B B

da
B 1 C
da
M

da
B 1 C
daM

daC
da
W C
daM
daM

daC
da
W C E W
daM
daM

daC
da
E W C
daM
daM

daC
da
W C E
daM
daM

da
B 1 C
daM

da
B 1 C
daM

daC

1 E

daM

da
W 1 C E
daM

B W

## W : entrainment loss rate [kg/h]

daC : hardness weight fraction of
circulating water [kg/kg] or [ppm]
daM : hardness weight fraction of

B W

B W

## Elimination rate "B", required to replace

water with a maximum allowable salts
content with fresh water with the in this
water existing salt content. This is
called the compensation rate.

daM
W
daC daM

Application

M daM B W daC

B E

B E

E
da
1 C
daM

E
daM daC
daM
E
daC daM
daM

daM
W
daC daM

## 1.- Absolute humidity of exit air

Assuming that the leaving air is b
saturated at Point "O"
O
The enthalpy at this point, from th
calculation Table 1, is
hO =

tO =

## the corresponding enthalpy for th

assumed temperature is with
tO =
O

H=
h=
Now, using Solver, find a value of
temperature t

## the corresponding absolute humid

can be be calculated
t=
O
H=
xa2 =
2.- Absolute humidity of inlet air
From sheet 2
xa1 =

B E

daM
W
daC daM

## 3.- Humidity change

x2-1 =
xa2 - xa1
(e)

Entrainment water
kg/kg

xa2 =

#VALUE!

kg/kg

xa1 =

#VALUE!

kg/kg

x2-1 =

#VALUE!
GS * x2-1

kg/kg

E=
Dry air flow rate (sheet 2)
Gs =
#VALUE!
x2-1 =
- Absolute humidity of exit air
#VALUE!
ssuming that the leaving air is basically
E=
#VALUE!
aturated at Point "O"
Entrainment loss "W"

## vaporation rate "E"

kg as/s
kg/kg
kg/s

100
%
he enthalpy at this point, from the
alculation Table 1, is

## To estimate the entrainment losses,

one assumes that these losses are
a percentage &W of the water flow rate

#VALUE! kJ/kg
ssuming initially a temperature value

&L =
0.2
The water flow rate is

30
C
e corresponding enthalpy for this
ssumed temperature is with
40.0

100
%
0
m.a.s.l.
#VALUE! kJ/kg
ow, using Solver, find a value of the
mperature tO to obtain that h = hO

## e corresponding absolute humidity

an be be calculated
40.0

100
0

%
m.a.s.l.

#VALUE!

kg/kg

## - Absolute humidity of inlet air

rom sheet 2
#VALUE!

kg/kg

Water

Compensation
water
M, daM

L=
W=
L=

15
L * &L
15

kg/s

&L =

0.002

kg/s

W=
0.030
kg/s
Elimination rate "B"
E * ( daM / (daC - daM) ) - W
B=
E=
#VALUE! kg/s
W=
da_M =

0.030

kg/s

500

ppm

da_c =
B=

2000
#VALUE!

ppm
kg/s

## Compensation rate "M"

(B + W) * daC / daM
M=
B=
#VALUE! kg/s
W
da_c =

0.030

kg/s

2000

ppm

da_M =

500
#VALUE!

ppm
kg/s

M=

Treybal results
E=
W=

0.3465
0.03

B=

0.0855

M=

0.462

## Rev. cjc. 08.11.2014

Entrainment water

W, daC

G2
Cooling
tower

L1

G1

Air

B, daC
Elimination water

kg/s
kg/s
kg/s
kg/s

Operation Diagram
1

tL
25.0
25.5
29.0
31.7
34.3
37.0
39.7
42.3
45.0
47.0

2
Curva de
equilibrio para

hair,sat
kJ/kg
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

3
Lnea de
operacin
para r = 1

hoper_r=1

3a

h =
hair,sat -hop_r=1

4
Lnea de
operacin
para r = 1.5

hoper_r=1.5

h =

1/h

hair,sat -hop_r=1.5

kJ/kg

kJ/kg

kJ/kg

kJ/kg

1/(kJ/kg)

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

tL

hT

tT

kJ/kg

kJ/kg

From sheet 1
t N=

25.0

#VALUE!

#VALUE!

h N=

25.5

#VALUE!

50

#VALUE!

tO =

29.0
31.7
34.3

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

100
150
200

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

tO' =

37.0

#VALUE!

39.7
42.3

#VALUE!
#VALUE!

45.0

#VALUE!

47.0

#VALUE!

Note
Column 3a shows that the resulting operation line is not exactly
tangent to the saturation curve. For tangency, the minimum

tT =
hT =

## Point O' (hO', calculated further d

tO' =
hO'=
Point O (hO, from sheet 3)

difference should be 0.

tO =

## A negative value indicates that the solution line is cutting the

saturation curve.

hO=

## Saturation curve for air at a height above

sea level
H=
(f =

0
100

m.a.s.l.
%)

12.0
10.0
8.0
6.0

Saturatio

12.0

Saturatio

10.0

tL

hair,sat

C
25
26
29
32
34
37
40
42
45
47

kJ/kg
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

Polynom
77.8
79.6
94.5
108.5
125.0
143.7
164.9
188.4
214.2
235.2

8.0

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

Tangent point
Equation of the satutarion curve
h=0 .1659t 24 . 7921t +92 . 926
Value of the enthalpy in the saturation curve
at the point of tangency (t =tT )
2

## h=0 .1659t T 4 .7921tT +92 . 926 (Eq . a)

Tangent at any point of the satutarion curve
dh
=0 . 3318t4 . 7921
dt
Tangent at the point of tangency (T )
dh
| =0. 3318tT 4 . 7921
dt t=t T
Slope of the operation curve, which is
tangent to the saturation curve
hT h N
=0 .3318t N 4 . 7921
t T t N
hT h N = ( 0. 3318t4 .7921 )( ttn )
h=( 0 . 3318t4 . 7921 )t T t N +hN ( Eq . b )
Equating (Eq . a ) with ( Eq . b )
2
0 . 1659t T 4 . 7921t T +92 . 926= ( 0 . 3318t T 4 . 7921 )( tT tn ) + hn
2

0 . 1659t T 4 . 7921t T +92 . 926 -hn=( 0 . 3318t T 4 . 7921 )tT - ( 0 . 3318t T 4 .7921 )tn
2

## 0 . 1659t T 4 . 7921t T +92 . 926 -hn=0 .3318t T 4 . 7921t T 0 . 3318tnt T + 4 .7921tn

0 . 3318t 2T 0 .1659t2T +4 . 7921t T 4 . 7921t T 0. 3318tnt T +4 . 7921tn 92. 926 +hn=0
2
0 . 1659t T 0 . 3318tnt T +4 .7921tn 92 . 926+hn=0
a =0 .1659
b=-0. 3318tn
c=4 . 7921tn 92. 926 +hn
2
atT +bt T +c=0

6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
20

f(x) =
25 R = 0

H'
(gas-vapor mixture)
kJ/kg as
H'*2

H'2

t L , H *

t ,H
i

'
i

T
R

H'*1

S
U

,H'

H'1
N
Liquid temperature tL C
tL1

tL2
Figure 2

Ci

f(x)

1
2
2
2
2
2
1
f(x) =

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

7
Numerical
integration
coefficient

12.0

29
#VALUE!

## Equilibrium curve A-B

O
O'(tO' ,hO' )

hT

Equilibrium curve,
for saturated air

45

O
O(to,ho)

## Operating line with

r=

1
Operating line with r = 1.5

kJ/kg
C

8.0

45

OB

10.0

6.0

rom sheet 1

4.0O
A

O
N (tN, hN)

#VALUE!

#VALUE!

kJ/kg

2.0
tT

## oint O' (hO', calculated further down)

45
#VALUE!

C
kJ/kg

0.0
25.0f(x) =
R = 0

30.0

tO = tO'

35.0
40.0
45.0
Liquid temperature [C]

50.0

45
#VALUE!

12.0
10.0
8.0
6.0

C
kJ/kg

hsat =
aa =
bb =

0.1659
4.7921

12.0

## Saturation curve for air at H = 0 m.a.s.l.

10.0

cc =

93.93

8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
20

f(x) =
25 R = 0 30

35

40

b b 2 4 ac
tT
2a
a 0.3318
b - 4.7921 0.3318 t N
c 4.7921 t N h N

a tT2 b tT c 0
a 0.1659
b -0.3318 tn
c 4.7921 tn 92.93 hn

## Enthalpy at the tangent point T

h=
0.1659 * t^2 - 4.7921 * t + 92.93
tT =
#VALUE! C
hT =

#VALUE!

29
#VALUE!

## Operation line for r = 1

where "r" is the ratio between the actual
mass flow rate and the minimum flow
rate.
The line starts at a point defined by the
inlet air properties (point N in operating
diagram) also called state "G1"

H=
xG1 =

0.1659
-9.6222
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

kJ/kg

Point N

twbG1 =

## tT = ( -b + (b^2 - 4*a*c)^0.5 ) / ( 2*a )

a=
b=
c=
tT =

50

State G1 (Point N)
tdbG1 =
30

From sheet 3
tn =
hn =

45

24
0

C
C
m

Sicro_AbsoluteHumidity_tdb_twb_H

xG1 =

#VALUE!

kg/kg

hG1 = hN =

#VALUE!

kJ/kg

Enthalpy hO'

## Enthalpy h O' at temperature tO'

h0' =

From Figure 1
h O' hN
h hN
T
t o' t N
tT tN
h O' hN

h T hN
t o' t N
tT tN

h O' hN

h T hN
t o' t N
tT tN

hN + (hT - hN) / (t

h N=

#VALUE!

h T=

#VALUE!

t N=

29

tT =

#VALUE!

to'=

45

h0' =

#VALUE!

## tion Diagram of Cooling Tower

OB

O
O'(tO' ,hO' )

O
O(to,ho)
Equilibrium curve

th

Polynomial (Equilibrium
curve)

r=

Column E
Op. L. r = 1.5

1.5

h_tangent
t_tangent

tO = tO'
45.0

50.0

C]

7921 * t + 92.93

kJ/kg
kJ/kg
C
C
C
kJ/kg

## Example 7.1, from [1], pages 278 to 281

Example 7.11. A plant requires that 15 kg / s (1984 lb / min) of cooling water will
flow through a condensation equipment for distillation; thus eliminating 270 W
(55270 Btu / min) from the condensers. The water leaves the condenser at 45 C.
To reuse water it is planned to cool it by contact with air in a cooling tower of
induced draft.
The design conditions are 30 C inlet air dry bulb temperature and 24C wet bulb
temperature. The water is to be cooled to 5 C below the wet bulb temperature of
the air (thus, to 29 C) ; a ratio of air/steam of 1.5 times the minimum value will
be used.
Water compensation will come from a dam at 10 C, with a hardness of 500 ppm
(parts / million) dissolved solids.
The circulating water cannot have a hardness greater than 2000 ppm. Regarding
the package that is to be used, it is expected that the value (Ky * a) will be
0.90 kg / (m * s) for a speed of the liquid of at least 2.7 kg / (m * s) and for a gas
speed of 2.0 kg / (m * s) (1991 and 1474 lbm / (hr * ft) respectively.
Calculate the dimensions of the packed section and water compensation required.

## Basis: Cross section 1 m, Gs = 2.0 kg/(m*s). Th driving force H1* - H1 is obtained

at frequents intervals of tL in figure 7.13, as it is shown.

## For compensation water. see Sheet 5

Example 7.12

Solution. Figure 7.12 represents the flowchart of the operation. The humidity and
the enthalpy of the incoming air is taken from the figure 7.5a (or using the
appropriate functions).
The opetaing chart, Figure 7.13, contains the air enthalpy curve at saturation. In
this graph, the point N represents the condition at the bottom of the tower
(TL1 = 29 C and H1 = 72000 J / kg dry air). The operating line will pass
through N and will end in TL1 = 45 C.
For the minimum value of Gs', the operating line will have the minimum slope that
will touch the equilibrium curve, and thus it will pass through the point O, where
H2 '= 209 500 J / kg dry air. Therefore, the slope of the line is O'N

where Gs'min = 7.31 kg dry air / s. For gas flow of 1.5 times the minimum,
Gs = 1.5 * 7.31 = 10.97 kg dry air / s . Therefore,

and H2 '= 163000 J / kg dry air, plotted at point O. Therefore, the operating line
is ON. For a liquid flow of at least 2.7 (kg / m * s), the cross section
should be 15 / 2.7 = 5.56 m. For a gas flow of at least 2.0 kg / (m * s), the
cross section is 10.97 / 2.0 = 5.5 m. Therefore, the last value (5.5) is used, then
in this case the minimum flow of liquid will exceed the minimum an so ensuring
that kv*a = 0.90 .

Data from the last two columns are plotted with H as abscissa.
The area below the curve is 3.25. From equation (7.54)

In this case,
NtOG =
3.25
HtOG =

Gs' / ( Ky*a)

HtOG =

2.0 / 0.9 =

Z = 7.22 m

2.22

NtOG =
Z / HtOG
Z=
HtOG =

7.22

2.22

NtOG =

3.25

xample 7.12

## Data of thermal power, not used in example 7.1

In Treybal example 7.1, there is following data:
the water should elimnate " 270 W ( 55270 Btu/min)
from the condensers"
But Treybal does not use this information.
Leaving water temperature, for a thermal power of
Q=
270
W
This input data does not agree with the other
input data:
Water inlet temperature
Wate outlet temperature
Water mass flow rate

If this data
Q=
270
W
is a requirement, then, the temperature
of the leving water is a calculated value
and cannot be an input data.
Enthalpy of inlet water

H=

p=
H=
p=

0
m.a.s.l.
1.013
bar

## Temperature of water entering the tower at the top (2)

tL2 =
45
C
Enthalpy of entering water
tL2 =
45
C
P=
hL2 =

1.013
#VALUE!

bar
kJ/kg

Q=
Q/L2 =
hL1 =
hL2 =
Q=
L2 =
hL1 =
Specific volume
p=
hL1 =
v=

p=
1.013
bar

L2 * (hL2 - hL1)

v=

#VALUE!

m/kg

hL2 - hL1

t=

#VALUE!

hL2 - Q/L2
#VALUE!
270
15

kJ/kg
W
kg/s

#VALUE!

kJ/kg

pecific volume
1.013

bar

#VALUE!

kJ/kg

#VALUE!

m/kg

## Numerical integration with the trapezoidal rule

Numerical implementation

Illustration of trapezoidal rule used on a sequence of samples (in this case, a non-uniform grid).

Uniform grid
For a domain discretized into N equally spaced panels, or N+1 grid points a = x1 < x2 < ... < xN+1 =

Non-uniform grid
When the grid spacing is non-uniform, one can use the formula

< ... < xN+1 = b, where the grid spacing is h=(b-a)/N, the approximation to the integral becomes

[1]

## Operaciones de transferencia de masa 2/e

Robert E. Treybal
McGraw Hill,2003

## Packing height and free-cross sectional surface of a tower [2]

1.- Packing height
The packing height of a tower can be calculated
according [2], equation (65)

Z=

QS
M Bk yaA

I y ,a

I y ,b

1
dI y
( I y, iI y )

Unit (HTU) "

HTU

V
MB ky a A

Z=I:
QS =V :

NTU

ky :

## mass transfer coefficient in the air

effective heat or mass transfer su
free cross-sectional surface of the

a:
A:
Iy :
Iy,i :

I y ,b

HTU :
NTU :

1
dI y
I y ,i I y

Z = HTUNTU

MB :

Units (NTU)

I y ,a

## enthalpy in the air phase = enthal

(in the bulk phase)

## enthalpy in the air phase (i: at the

that is, in saturated condition)
Height of Transfer Unit
Number of Transfer Units

Subscripts
B:
y:
a:
b:
i:

dry air
air phase = humid air
top of the tower
bottom of the tower
corresponds to the boundary (i.e.

[m]

[kg/s]

[kg/kmol]

## ass transfer coefficient in the air

fective heat or mass transfer surface
ee cross-sectional surface of the tower

[kmol/(ms)]
[m/m]
[m]

## nthalpy in the air phase = enthalpy of humid air

n the bulk phase)

[J/kg]

## nthalpy in the air phase (i: at ther boundary,

at is, in saturated condition)

## eight of Transfer Unit

umber of Transfer Units

## r phase = humid air

p of the tower
ottom of the tower
orresponds to the boundary (i.e., saturated state)

## Indian institute of technology

http://www.iitkgp.ac.in/

http://nptel.ac.in/courses/Webcourse-contents/IIT%20Kharagpur/Ref%20and%20Air%20Cond/New
Leson 27. Psychrometry Straightline law (27.3.1)
Leson 28. Enthalpy potential

http://nptel.ac.in/courses/Webcourse-contents/IIT%20Kharagpur/Ref%20and%20Air%20Cond/pdf/R

http://nptel.ac.in/courses/Webcourse-contents/IIT%20Kharagpur/Ref%20and%20Air%20Cond/pdf/R

20and%20Air%20Cond/New_index1.html

20and%20Air%20Cond/pdf/R&AC%20Lecture%2027.pdf

20and%20Air%20Cond/pdf/R&AC%20Lecture%2028.pdf

[1]

## Operaciones de transferencia de masa 2/e

Robert E. Treybal
McGraw Hill, 2003

[2]

[3]
http://library.kfupm.edu.sa/ISI/2006/5-2006.pdf

[4]

http://nptel.ac.in/courses/Webcourse-contents/IIT%20Kharagpur/Ref%20and%20Air%20Cond/New

http://nptel.ac.in/courses/112105129/pdf/R&AC%20Lecture%2027.pdf

http://nptel.ac.in/courses/Webcourse-contents/IIT%20Kharagpur/Ref%20and%20Air%20Cond/pdf

%20and%20Air%20Cond/New_index1.html

%20and%20Air%20Cond/pdf/R&AC%20Lecture%2028.pdf

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