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BASICS OF ELECTRICITY

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ELECTROSTATICS

Electrostatics is a branch of physics that deals with the phenomena and properties

of stationary or slow-moving electric charges.

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Since classical physics, it has been known that some materials such

as amber attract lightweight particles after rubbing. The Greek word for

amber, , or electron, was the source of the word 'electricity'. Electrostatic

phenomena arise from the forces that electric charges exert on each other. Such

forces are described by Coulomb's law. Even though electro statically induced

forces seem to be rather weak, the electrostatic force between e.g. an electron and

a proton, that together make up a hydrogen atom, is about 36 orders of

magnitude stronger than the gravitational force acting between them.

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There are many examples of electrostatic phenomena, from those as simple as the

attraction of the plastic wrap to your hand after you remove it from a package, and

the attraction of paper to a charged scale, to the apparently spontaneous explosion

of grain silos, the damage of electronic components during manufacturing,

and photocopier & laser printer operation. Electrostatics involves the buildup of

charge on the surface of objects due to contact with other surfaces. Although

charge exchange happens whenever any two surfaces contact and separate, the

effects of charge exchange are usually only noticed when at least one of the

surfaces has a high resistance to electrical flow. This is because the charges that

transfer are trapped there for a time long enough for their effects to be observed.

These charges then remain on the object until they either bleed off to ground or are

quickly neutralized by a discharge: e.g., the familiar phenomenon of a static 'shock'

is caused by the neutralization of charge built up in the body from contact with

insulated surfaces.

STATIC ELECTRICITY

Static electricity is an imbalance of electric charges within or on the surface of a

material. The charge remains until it is able to move away by means of an electric

current or electrical discharge. Static electricity is named in contrast with current

electricity, which flows through wires or other conductors and transmits energy.[1]

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A static electric charge can be created whenever two surfaces contact and separate,

and at least one of the surfaces has a high resistance to electric current (and is

therefore an electrical insulator). The effects of static electricity are familiar to

most people because people can feel, hear, and even see the spark as the excess

charge is neutralized when brought close to a large electrical conductor (for

example, a path to ground), or a region with an excess charge of the opposite

polarity (positive or negative). The familiar phenomenon of a static shockmore

specifically, an electrostatic dischargeis caused by the neutralization of charge.

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words, an electric current.

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COULOMBS LAW

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UNITS

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COULOMBS CONSTANT

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ELECTRIC FIELD

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another point charge q at a point P, where OP = r, then the charge Q will exert a

force on q as per Coulombs law. We may ask the question: If charge q is removed,

then what is left in the surrounding? Is there nothing? If there is nothing at the

point P, then how does a force act when we place the charge q at P. In order to

answer such questions, the early scientists introduced the concept of field.

According to this, we say that the charge Q produces an electric field everywhere

in the surrounding. When another charge q is brought at some point P, the field

there acts on it and produces a force. The electric field produced by the charge Q at

a point r is given as

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where r = r/r, is a unit vector from the origin to the point r. Thus, Eq specifies the

value of the electric field for each value of the position vector r. The word field

signifies how some distributed quantity (which could be a scalar or a vector) varies

with position. The effect of the charge has been incorporated in the existence of the

electric field. We obtain the force F exerted by a charge Q on a charge q, as

Note that the charge q also exerts an equal and opposite force on the charge Q. The

electrostatic force between the charges Q and q can be looked upon as an

interaction between charge q and the electric field of Q and vice versa. If we

denote the position of charge q by the vector r, it experiences a force F equal to the

charge q multiplied by the electric field E at the location of q. Thus,

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F(r) = q E(r)

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Some important remarks may be made here:

(i) From Eq. , we can infer that if q is unity, the electric field due to a charge Q is

numerically equal to the force exerted by it. Thus, the electric field due to a charge

Q at a point in space may be defined as the force that a unit positive charge would

experience if placed at that point. The charge Q, which is producing the electric

field, is called a source charge and the charge q, which tests the effect of a source

charge, is called a test charge. Note that the source charge Q must remain at its

original location. However, if a charge q is brought at any point around Q, Q itself

is bound to experience an electrical force due to q and will tend to move. A way

out of this difficulty is to make q negligibly small. The force F is then negligibly

small but the ratio F/q is finite and defines the electric field:

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A practical way to get around the problem (of keeping Q undisturbed in the

presence of q) is to hold Q to its location by unspecified forces! This may look

strange but actually this is what happens in practice. When we are considering the

electric force on a test charge q due to a charged planar sheet, the charges on the

sheet are held to their locations by the forces due to the unspecified charged

constituents inside the sheet.

(ii) Note that the electric field E due to Q, though defined operationally in terms of

some test charge q, is independent of q. This is because F is proportional to q, so

the ratio F/q does not depend on q. The force F on the charge q due to the charge Q

depends on the particular location of charge q which may take any value in the

space around the charge Q. Thus, the electric field E due to Q is also dependent on

the space coordinate r. For different positions of the charge q all over the space, we

get different values of electric field E. The field exists at every point in threedimensional space.

(iii) For a positive charge, the electric field will be directed radially outwards from

the charge. On the other hand, if the source charge is negative, the electric field

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(iv) Since the magnitude of the force F on charge q due to charge Q depends only

on the distance r of the charge q from charge Q, the magnitude of the electric field

E will also depend only on the distance r. Thus at equal distances from the charge

Q, the magnitude of its electric field E is same. The magnitude of electric field E

due to a point charge is thus same on a sphere with the point charge at its centre; in

other words, it has a spherical symmetry.

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Figure shows the field lines around some simple charge configurations. As

mentioned earlier, the field lines are in 3-dimensional space, though the figure

shows them only in a plane. The field lines of a single positive charge are radially

outward while those of a single negative charge are radially inward. The field lines

around a system of two positive charges (q, q) give a vivid pictorial description of

their mutual repulsion, while those around the configuration of two equal and

opposite charges (q, q), a dipole, show clearly the mutual attraction between the

charges. The field lines follow some important general properties:

(i) Field lines start from positive charges and end at negative charges. If there is a

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(ii) In a charge-free region, electric field lines can be taken to be continuous curves

without any breaks.

(iii) Two field lines can never cross each other. (If they did, the field at the point of

intersection will not have a unique direction, which is absurd.)

(iv) Electrostatic field lines do not form any closed loops. This follows from the

conservative nature of electric field.

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Consider flow of a liquid with velocity v, through a small flat surface dS, in a

direction normal to the surface. The rate of flow of liquid is given by the volume

crossing the area per unit time v dS and represents the flux of liquid flowing across

the plane. If the normal to the surface is not parallel to the direction of flow of

liquid, i.e., tov, but makes an angle with it, the projected area in a plane

perpendicular to v is v dS cos . Therefore the flux going out of the surface dS is v.

n dS. For the case of the electric field, we define an analogous quantity and call it

electric flux. We should however note that there is no flow of a physically

observable quantity unlike the case of liquid flow. In the picture of electric field

lines described above, we saw that the number of field lines crossing a unit area,

placed normal to the field at a point is a measure of the strength of electric field at

that point. This means that ifwe place a small planar element of area S normal to

E at a point, the number of field lines crossing it is proportional to E S. Now

suppose we tilt the area element by angle . Clearly, the number of field lines

crossing the area element will be smaller. The projection of the area element

normal toE is S cos. Thus, the number of field lines crossing S is

proportional to E S cos. When = 90, field lines will be parallel to S and will

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The orientation of area element and not merely its magnitude is important in many

contexts. For example, in a stream, the amount of water flowing through a ring will

naturally depend on how you hold the ring. If you hold it normal to the flow,

maximum water will flow through it than if you hold it with some other

orientation. This shows that an area element should be treated as a vector. It has a

magnitude and also a direction. How to specify the direction of a planar area?

Clearly, the normal to the plane specifies the orientation of the plane. Thus the

direction of a planar area vector is along its normal. How to associate a vector to

the area of a curved surface? We imagine dividing the surface into a large number

of very small area elements. Each small area element may be treated as planar and

a vector associated with it, as explained before. Notice one ambiguity here. The

direction of an area element is along its normal. But a normal can point in two

directions. Which direction do we choose as the direction of the vector associated

with the area element? This problem is resolved by some convention appropriate to

the given context. For the case of a closed surface, this convention is very simple.

The vector associated with every area element of a closed surface is taken to be in

the direction of the outward normal. This is the convention used in Fig. Thus, the

area element vector S at a point on a closed surface equals S n where S is the

magnitude of the area element and n is a unit vector in the direction of outward

normal at that point. We now come to the definition of electric flux. Electric flux

through an area element S is defined by

= E. S = E S cos

which, as seen before, is proportional to the number of field lines cutting the area

element. The angle here is the angle between E and S. For a closed surface,

with the convention stated already, is the angle between E and the outward

normal to the area element. Notice we could look at the expression E S cos in

two ways: E ( S cos ) i.e., E times the projection of area normal to E, or E S,

i.e., component of E along the normal to the area element times the magnitude of

the area element. The unit of electric flux is

The basic definition of electric flux given by above Eq. can be used, in principle, to

calculate the total flux through any given surface. All we have to do is to divide the

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surface into small area elements, calculate the flux at each element and add them

up. Thus, the total flux through a surface S is ~ E. S .The approximation

sign is put because the electric field E is taken to be constant over the small area

element. This is mathematically exact only when you take the limit S 0 and the

sum in Eq. is written as an integral.

ELECTRIC DIPOLE

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An electric dipole is a pair of equal and opposite point charges q and q, separated

by a distance 2a. The line connecting the two charges defines a direction in space.

By convention, the direction from q to q is said to be the direction of the dipole.

The mid-point of locations of q and q is called the centre of the dipole. The total

charge of the electric dipole is obviously zero. This does not mean that the field of

the electric dipole is zero. Since the charge q and q are separated by some

distance, the electric fields due to them, when added, do not exactly cancel out.

However, at distances much larger than the separation of the two charges forming

a dipole (r >> 2a), the fields due to q and q nearly cancel out. The electric field

due to a dipole therefore falls off, at large distance, faster than like 1/r2 (the

dependence on r of the field due to a single charge q).

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GUASSS LAW

As a simple application of the notion of electric flux, let us consider the total flux

through a sphere of radius r, which encloses a point charge q at its centre. Divide

the sphere into small area elements, as shown in Fig.

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where we have used Coulombs law for the electric field due to a single charge q.

The unit vector r is along the radius vector from the centre to the area element.

Now, since the normal to a sphere at every point is along the radius vector at that

point, the area element S and r have the same direction. Therefore,

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since the magnitude of a unit vector is 1.The total flux through the sphere is

obtained by adding up flux through all the different area elements:

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law. We state Gausss law without proof: Electric flux through a closed surface S

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The law implies that the total electric flux through a closed surface is zero if no

charge is enclosed by the surface. We can see that explicitly in the simple situation

of Fig.

where S is the area of circular cross-section. Thus, the total flux is zero, as

expected by Gausss law. Thus, whenever you find that the net electric flux

through a closed surface is zero, we conclude that the total charge contained in the

closed surface is zero.

The great significance of Gausss law Eq. , is that it is true in general, and not only

for the simple cases we have considered above. Let us note some important points

regarding this law:

(i) Gausss law is true for any closed surface, no matter what its shape or size.

(ii) The term q on the right side of Gausss law, Eq. , includes the sum of all

charges enclosed by the surface. The charges may be located anywhere inside the

surface.

(iii) In the situation when the surface is so chosen that there are some charges

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inside and some outside, the electric field [whose flux appears on the left side of

Eq. is due to all the charges, both inside and outside S. The term q on the right side

of Gausss law, however, represents only the total charge inside S.

(iv) The surface that we choose for the application of Gausss law is called the

Gaussian surface. You may choose any Gaussian surface and apply Gausss law.

However, take care not to let the Gaussian surface pass through any discrete

charge. This is because electric field due to a system of discrete charges is not well

defined at the location of any charge. (As you go close to the charge, the field

grows without any bound.) However, the Gaussian surface can pass through a

continuous charge distribution.

(v) Gausss law is often useful towards a much easier calculation of the

electrostatic field when the system has some symmetry. This is facilitated by the

choice of a suitable Gaussian surface.

(vi) Finally, Gausss law is based on the inverse square dependence on distance

contained in the Coulombs law. Any violation of Gausss law will indicate

departure from the inverse square law.

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denoted V or U, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context

of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's laws) is the difference in electric potential energy between

two points per unit electric charge. The voltage between two points is equal to

the work done per unit of charge against a static electric field to move the test

charge between two points and is measured in units of volts (a joule per coulomb).

Voltage can be caused by static electric fields, by electric current through

a magnetic field, by time-varying magnetic fields, or some combination of these

three. A voltmeter can be used to measure the voltage (or potential difference)

between two points in a system; often a common reference potential such as

the ground of the system is used as one of the points. A voltage may represent

either a source of energy (electromotive force), or lost, used, or stored energy

(potential drop).

The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential

difference (voltage), and electromotive force. The volt is named in honour of the

Italian physicist Alessandro Volta (17451827), who invented the voltaic pile,

possibly the first chemical battery.

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CAPACITORS

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MAGNETISM

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A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

142

BE

A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

143

BE

A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

144

BE

A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

145

BE

A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

146

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