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ELECTROSTATICS
Electrostatics is a branch of physics that deals with the phenomena and properties
of stationary or slow-moving electric charges.

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Since classical physics, it has been known that some materials such
as amber attract lightweight particles after rubbing. The Greek word for
amber, , or electron, was the source of the word 'electricity'. Electrostatic
phenomena arise from the forces that electric charges exert on each other. Such
forces are described by Coulomb's law. Even though electro statically induced
forces seem to be rather weak, the electrostatic force between e.g. an electron and
a proton, that together make up a hydrogen atom, is about 36 orders of
magnitude stronger than the gravitational force acting between them.

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There are many examples of electrostatic phenomena, from those as simple as the
attraction of the plastic wrap to your hand after you remove it from a package, and
the attraction of paper to a charged scale, to the apparently spontaneous explosion
of grain silos, the damage of electronic components during manufacturing,
and photocopier & laser printer operation. Electrostatics involves the buildup of
charge on the surface of objects due to contact with other surfaces. Although
charge exchange happens whenever any two surfaces contact and separate, the
effects of charge exchange are usually only noticed when at least one of the
surfaces has a high resistance to electrical flow. This is because the charges that
transfer are trapped there for a time long enough for their effects to be observed.
These charges then remain on the object until they either bleed off to ground or are
quickly neutralized by a discharge: e.g., the familiar phenomenon of a static 'shock'
is caused by the neutralization of charge built up in the body from contact with
insulated surfaces.

STATIC ELECTRICITY
Static electricity is an imbalance of electric charges within or on the surface of a
material. The charge remains until it is able to move away by means of an electric
current or electrical discharge. Static electricity is named in contrast with current
electricity, which flows through wires or other conductors and transmits energy.[1]

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A static electric charge can be created whenever two surfaces contact and separate,
and at least one of the surfaces has a high resistance to electric current (and is
therefore an electrical insulator). The effects of static electricity are familiar to
most people because people can feel, hear, and even see the spark as the excess
charge is neutralized when brought close to a large electrical conductor (for
example, a path to ground), or a region with an excess charge of the opposite
polarity (positive or negative). The familiar phenomenon of a static shockmore
specifically, an electrostatic dischargeis caused by the neutralization of charge.

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DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY

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Dynamic electricity is the flow of electric charges through a conductor; in other


words, an electric current.

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COULOMBS LAW

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UNITS

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COULOMBS CONSTANT

CONDITIONS FOR VALIDITY

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ELECTRIC FIELD

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Let us consider a point charge Q placed in vacuum, at the origin O. If we place


another point charge q at a point P, where OP = r, then the charge Q will exert a
force on q as per Coulombs law. We may ask the question: If charge q is removed,
then what is left in the surrounding? Is there nothing? If there is nothing at the
point P, then how does a force act when we place the charge q at P. In order to
answer such questions, the early scientists introduced the concept of field.
According to this, we say that the charge Q produces an electric field everywhere
in the surrounding. When another charge q is brought at some point P, the field
there acts on it and produces a force. The electric field produced by the charge Q at
a point r is given as

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where r = r/r, is a unit vector from the origin to the point r. Thus, Eq specifies the
value of the electric field for each value of the position vector r. The word field
signifies how some distributed quantity (which could be a scalar or a vector) varies
with position. The effect of the charge has been incorporated in the existence of the
electric field. We obtain the force F exerted by a charge Q on a charge q, as

Note that the charge q also exerts an equal and opposite force on the charge Q. The
electrostatic force between the charges Q and q can be looked upon as an
interaction between charge q and the electric field of Q and vice versa. If we
denote the position of charge q by the vector r, it experiences a force F equal to the
charge q multiplied by the electric field E at the location of q. Thus,
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F(r) = q E(r)

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Equation defines the SI unit of electric field as N/C*.


Some important remarks may be made here:
(i) From Eq. , we can infer that if q is unity, the electric field due to a charge Q is
numerically equal to the force exerted by it. Thus, the electric field due to a charge
Q at a point in space may be defined as the force that a unit positive charge would
experience if placed at that point. The charge Q, which is producing the electric
field, is called a source charge and the charge q, which tests the effect of a source
charge, is called a test charge. Note that the source charge Q must remain at its
original location. However, if a charge q is brought at any point around Q, Q itself
is bound to experience an electrical force due to q and will tend to move. A way
out of this difficulty is to make q negligibly small. The force F is then negligibly
small but the ratio F/q is finite and defines the electric field:

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A practical way to get around the problem (of keeping Q undisturbed in the
presence of q) is to hold Q to its location by unspecified forces! This may look
strange but actually this is what happens in practice. When we are considering the
electric force on a test charge q due to a charged planar sheet, the charges on the
sheet are held to their locations by the forces due to the unspecified charged
constituents inside the sheet.
(ii) Note that the electric field E due to Q, though defined operationally in terms of
some test charge q, is independent of q. This is because F is proportional to q, so
the ratio F/q does not depend on q. The force F on the charge q due to the charge Q
depends on the particular location of charge q which may take any value in the
space around the charge Q. Thus, the electric field E due to Q is also dependent on
the space coordinate r. For different positions of the charge q all over the space, we
get different values of electric field E. The field exists at every point in threedimensional space.
(iii) For a positive charge, the electric field will be directed radially outwards from
the charge. On the other hand, if the source charge is negative, the electric field
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vector, at each point, points radially inwards.


(iv) Since the magnitude of the force F on charge q due to charge Q depends only
on the distance r of the charge q from charge Q, the magnitude of the electric field
E will also depend only on the distance r. Thus at equal distances from the charge
Q, the magnitude of its electric field E is same. The magnitude of electric field E
due to a point charge is thus same on a sphere with the point charge at its centre; in
other words, it has a spherical symmetry.

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ELECTRIC FIELD DUE TO POSITIVE CHARGE +Q & NEGATIVE CHARGE Q

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ELECTRIC FIELD LINES

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Figure shows the field lines around some simple charge configurations. As
mentioned earlier, the field lines are in 3-dimensional space, though the figure
shows them only in a plane. The field lines of a single positive charge are radially
outward while those of a single negative charge are radially inward. The field lines
around a system of two positive charges (q, q) give a vivid pictorial description of
their mutual repulsion, while those around the configuration of two equal and
opposite charges (q, q), a dipole, show clearly the mutual attraction between the
charges. The field lines follow some important general properties:
(i) Field lines start from positive charges and end at negative charges. If there is a
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single charge, they may start or end at infinity.


(ii) In a charge-free region, electric field lines can be taken to be continuous curves
without any breaks.
(iii) Two field lines can never cross each other. (If they did, the field at the point of
intersection will not have a unique direction, which is absurd.)
(iv) Electrostatic field lines do not form any closed loops. This follows from the
conservative nature of electric field.

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ELECTRIC FLUX

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Consider flow of a liquid with velocity v, through a small flat surface dS, in a
direction normal to the surface. The rate of flow of liquid is given by the volume
crossing the area per unit time v dS and represents the flux of liquid flowing across
the plane. If the normal to the surface is not parallel to the direction of flow of
liquid, i.e., tov, but makes an angle with it, the projected area in a plane
perpendicular to v is v dS cos . Therefore the flux going out of the surface dS is v.
n dS. For the case of the electric field, we define an analogous quantity and call it
electric flux. We should however note that there is no flow of a physically
observable quantity unlike the case of liquid flow. In the picture of electric field
lines described above, we saw that the number of field lines crossing a unit area,
placed normal to the field at a point is a measure of the strength of electric field at
that point. This means that ifwe place a small planar element of area S normal to
E at a point, the number of field lines crossing it is proportional to E S. Now
suppose we tilt the area element by angle . Clearly, the number of field lines
crossing the area element will be smaller. The projection of the area element
normal toE is S cos. Thus, the number of field lines crossing S is
proportional to E S cos. When = 90, field lines will be parallel to S and will

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not cross it at all

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The orientation of area element and not merely its magnitude is important in many
contexts. For example, in a stream, the amount of water flowing through a ring will
naturally depend on how you hold the ring. If you hold it normal to the flow,
maximum water will flow through it than if you hold it with some other
orientation. This shows that an area element should be treated as a vector. It has a
magnitude and also a direction. How to specify the direction of a planar area?
Clearly, the normal to the plane specifies the orientation of the plane. Thus the
direction of a planar area vector is along its normal. How to associate a vector to
the area of a curved surface? We imagine dividing the surface into a large number
of very small area elements. Each small area element may be treated as planar and
a vector associated with it, as explained before. Notice one ambiguity here. The
direction of an area element is along its normal. But a normal can point in two
directions. Which direction do we choose as the direction of the vector associated
with the area element? This problem is resolved by some convention appropriate to
the given context. For the case of a closed surface, this convention is very simple.
The vector associated with every area element of a closed surface is taken to be in
the direction of the outward normal. This is the convention used in Fig. Thus, the
area element vector S at a point on a closed surface equals S n where S is the
magnitude of the area element and n is a unit vector in the direction of outward
normal at that point. We now come to the definition of electric flux. Electric flux
through an area element S is defined by
= E. S = E S cos
which, as seen before, is proportional to the number of field lines cutting the area
element. The angle here is the angle between E and S. For a closed surface,
with the convention stated already, is the angle between E and the outward
normal to the area element. Notice we could look at the expression E S cos in
two ways: E ( S cos ) i.e., E times the projection of area normal to E, or E S,
i.e., component of E along the normal to the area element times the magnitude of
the area element. The unit of electric flux is
The basic definition of electric flux given by above Eq. can be used, in principle, to
calculate the total flux through any given surface. All we have to do is to divide the
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surface into small area elements, calculate the flux at each element and add them
up. Thus, the total flux through a surface S is ~ E. S .The approximation
sign is put because the electric field E is taken to be constant over the small area
element. This is mathematically exact only when you take the limit S 0 and the
sum in Eq. is written as an integral.

ELECTRIC DIPOLE

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An electric dipole is a pair of equal and opposite point charges q and q, separated
by a distance 2a. The line connecting the two charges defines a direction in space.
By convention, the direction from q to q is said to be the direction of the dipole.
The mid-point of locations of q and q is called the centre of the dipole. The total
charge of the electric dipole is obviously zero. This does not mean that the field of
the electric dipole is zero. Since the charge q and q are separated by some
distance, the electric fields due to them, when added, do not exactly cancel out.
However, at distances much larger than the separation of the two charges forming
a dipole (r >> 2a), the fields due to q and q nearly cancel out. The electric field
due to a dipole therefore falls off, at large distance, faster than like 1/r2 (the
dependence on r of the field due to a single charge q).

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GUASSS LAW

As a simple application of the notion of electric flux, let us consider the total flux
through a sphere of radius r, which encloses a point charge q at its centre. Divide
the sphere into small area elements, as shown in Fig.

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The flux through an area element S is

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where we have used Coulombs law for the electric field due to a single charge q.
The unit vector r is along the radius vector from the centre to the area element.
Now, since the normal to a sphere at every point is along the radius vector at that
point, the area element S and r have the same direction. Therefore,

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since the magnitude of a unit vector is 1.The total flux through the sphere is
obtained by adding up flux through all the different area elements:

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Equation is a simple illustration of a general result of electrostatics called Gausss


law. We state Gausss law without proof: Electric flux through a closed surface S

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The law implies that the total electric flux through a closed surface is zero if no
charge is enclosed by the surface. We can see that explicitly in the simple situation
of Fig.

where S is the area of circular cross-section. Thus, the total flux is zero, as
expected by Gausss law. Thus, whenever you find that the net electric flux
through a closed surface is zero, we conclude that the total charge contained in the
closed surface is zero.
The great significance of Gausss law Eq. , is that it is true in general, and not only
for the simple cases we have considered above. Let us note some important points
regarding this law:
(i) Gausss law is true for any closed surface, no matter what its shape or size.
(ii) The term q on the right side of Gausss law, Eq. , includes the sum of all
charges enclosed by the surface. The charges may be located anywhere inside the
surface.
(iii) In the situation when the surface is so chosen that there are some charges
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inside and some outside, the electric field [whose flux appears on the left side of
Eq. is due to all the charges, both inside and outside S. The term q on the right side
of Gausss law, however, represents only the total charge inside S.
(iv) The surface that we choose for the application of Gausss law is called the
Gaussian surface. You may choose any Gaussian surface and apply Gausss law.
However, take care not to let the Gaussian surface pass through any discrete
charge. This is because electric field due to a system of discrete charges is not well
defined at the location of any charge. (As you go close to the charge, the field
grows without any bound.) However, the Gaussian surface can pass through a
continuous charge distribution.
(v) Gausss law is often useful towards a much easier calculation of the
electrostatic field when the system has some symmetry. This is facilitated by the
choice of a suitable Gaussian surface.
(vi) Finally, Gausss law is based on the inverse square dependence on distance
contained in the Coulombs law. Any violation of Gausss law will indicate
departure from the inverse square law.

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VOLTAGE OR POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE

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Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally


denoted V or U, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context
of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's laws) is the difference in electric potential energy between
two points per unit electric charge. The voltage between two points is equal to
the work done per unit of charge against a static electric field to move the test
charge between two points and is measured in units of volts (a joule per coulomb).
Voltage can be caused by static electric fields, by electric current through
a magnetic field, by time-varying magnetic fields, or some combination of these
three. A voltmeter can be used to measure the voltage (or potential difference)
between two points in a system; often a common reference potential such as
the ground of the system is used as one of the points. A voltage may represent
either a source of energy (electromotive force), or lost, used, or stored energy
(potential drop).
The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential
difference (voltage), and electromotive force. The volt is named in honour of the
Italian physicist Alessandro Volta (17451827), who invented the voltaic pile,
possibly the first chemical battery.
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CAPACITORS

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MAGNETISM

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BASIC ELECTRICITY

88

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

89

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

90

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

91

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

92

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

93

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

94

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

95

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

96

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

97

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

98

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

99

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

100

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

101

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

102

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

103

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

104

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

105

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

106

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

107

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

108

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

109

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

110

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

111

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

112

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

113

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

114

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

115

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

BE
A

&

GA

IN

THEVENINS THEOREM & NORTONS THEOREM

116

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

117

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

118

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

119

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

120

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

121

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

122

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

123

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

124

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

125

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

126

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

127

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

128

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

129

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

130

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

131

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

132

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

133

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

134

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

135

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

136

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

137

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

138

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

139

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

140

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

141

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

142

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

143

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

144

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

145

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL

BEAM & GAIN

BE
A

&

GA

IN

BASIC ELECTRICITY

146

BSNL JE STUDY MATERIAL