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ACOUSTICS
DONKIN
Honbon
HENRY FROWDE
OXFORD UNIVEBSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE
AMEN CORNER
ACOUSTICS
THEORETICAL
PABT
W.
F.
DONKIN,
M.A.,
F.R.S.,
F.R.A.S.
LATE SAVILIAN PROFESSOR OF ASTRONOMY, OXFORD
SECOND EDITION,
AT, THE CLARENDON PRESS
MDCCCLXXXIV
^// rights reserved
'\
ADVERTISEMENT.
As
this
is
the only portion of a treatise
on Acoustics,
in
tended to comprise the practical as well as the theoretical parts
of the subject, which
will
proceed from the pen of
its
Author,
a few words are required to explain the circumstances under
which
The
it
now
appears.
Author, the late Professor Donkin, has passed away
prematurely from the work.
was a work he was
It
peculiarly
qualified to undertake, being a mathematician of great attain
ments and rare
investigation
and taking an
taste,
especial interest in the
and application of the higher theorems of
which are necessary
for
He
these subjects.
analysis
was, moreover,
an accomplished musician, and had a profound theoretical
knowledge of the Science of Music.
He
began
work
this
early in the year
continually interrupted
by severe
by the
in
and
difficulty,
illness,
many
1867;
but he was
and was much hindered
instances the impossibility, of
obtaining accurate experimental results at the places wherein
his delicate health
compelled him to spend the winter months
He
of that and the following years.
an
interest in the subject, that
took, however, so great
he continued working
at
it
to
within two or three days of his death.
The
part
now
tions of Strings
published contains an inquiry into the Vibra
and Rods, together with an explanation of the
more elementary theorems of the
of
its
Author, complete in
itself;
subject,
his
and
is,
in the opinion
wish was that
it
should be
published as soon as possible ; and he was pleased at knowing
that
the last pages of
it
were passing through the Press im
mediately before the time of his death.
of the theoretical part.
It is
the
first
portion
;;
ADVERTISEMENT.
VI
It
was intended
that the second portion should contain the
investigation into the Vibrations of Stretched
Plates
and
Motion of the Molecules of an
into the
live
Body
Elastic
Mathematical Theory of Sound. Professor Donkin
into the
did not
Membranes and
long enough to complete any part of this section of
the work.
The
third portion
was intended
to contain the practical part
of the subject; and the theory and practice of Music would
have been most
fully considered.
It is
exceedingly to be re
gretted that the Professor did not live to complete this portion
for the
met
combination of the
even a sketch or an outline
had formed the plan
with pleasure.
written
qualities necessary for
and he possessed them
with,
it
is
seldom
remarkable degree.
found amongst his papers.
is
in his
in a
own mind and
Not
He
often talked of
it
can now never be written as he would have
It
it.
BARTHOLOMEW
II, St, Giles',
Feb.
1 6,
PRICE.
Oxford,
1870.
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
Little alteration
edition.
corrected
has been
made
few slight errors
and
have added an
article
on Compound Harmonic Curves.
work remains
exactly as
it
in
(chiefly
left its
In
preparing
misprints)
(68
all
a),
Rugby,
6,
1884.
second
have
been
with diagrams,
other respects
Author's hands.
A. E.
July
the
DONKIN.
the
CONTENTS.
PAGE
CHAP.
I.
II.
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
III.
COMPOSITION OF VIBRATIONS
IV.
THE HARMONIC CURVE
V.
VI.
VII.
IX.
.13
.
29
47
VIBRATIONS OF AN ELASTIC STRING
72
VIBRATIONS OF A STRING
90
ON THE TRANSVERSE VIBRATIONS
OF AN ELASTIC STRING (DYNA.
.Ill
ON THE LONGITUDINAL VIBRATIONS
OF AN ELASTIC ROD
I49
ON THE LATERAL VIBRATIONS OF
A THIN ELASTIC ROD
165
...
MICAL theory)
VIII.
MISCELLANEOUS DEFINITIONS AND
PROPOSITIONS
CHAPTER
I.
GENERAL INTRODUCTION.
1.
The
sensation of sounds like that of light,
may
be pro
and extraordinary ways. But the first step
the usual process consists in the communication of a vibra
duced
in
in exceptional
tory motion to the tympanic
and rapid changes
slight
membrane of
the
in the pressure of the air
through
ear,
on
its
outer
surface.
The
ear
parts, of
may
external world,
2.
be considered as consisting essentially of two
which one
the
is
organ of communication with the
and the other of communication with the
The former
part
brain.
a tube of irregular form, divided into
is
two portions of nearly equal length by the tympanic membrane,
which
stretched across
is
The
it
somewhat obliquely
as a transverse
and wider part of the tube is outside
the tympanic membrane, and ends at the orifice of the external
diaphragm.
ear.
This part
The
brane
is
shorter
called the Meatus.
part of the tube immediately within the tympanic
is
called the
Tympanum, and the remainder
mem
the Eustachian
Tube.
The
Eustachian tube leads into the pharynx, that
cavity behind the tonsils
But the
open.
orifice
of being opened,
is
and uvula,
which the
of swallowing, and
a muscular
eff"ort
It is
opened involuntarily
not easily described but easily
is
the meatus
on
the
can be opened voluntarily by
accompanied by a slight sensation
a temporary change in the pressure of the air
TKus
is,
nostrils also
of the Eustachian tube, though capable
usually closed.
in the act
opening
into
the
made
and the
in the ear,
one hand, and the
due to
tympanum.
tympanum and
in the
Structure of the Ear.
Eustachian tube on the other, always contain
different
The
conditions.
directly affected
air
the meatus
by every change, however
the pressure of the external
communication
in
air,
air,
and
slight
with which
it
is
but under
be
to
liable
is
rapid, in
always in free
but that within the tympanic membrane, being
only occasionally put into communication with the external
air
by the opening of the Eustachian
be
part in
not liable
The
second,
slight
or
interior,
within a cavity which
places.
looking into
part
of the
ear
is
to
takes
it
contained
called the bony labyrinth, because
is
of a complicated form, and
two
is
and rapid changes, though
the slower fluctuations shewn by the barometer.
directly affected
3.
by
tube,
is
it
is
surrounded by bone except in
These two places may be compared to windows,
the tympanum, but completely closed by mem
branes, so that neither air nor fluid can pass through them.
One of these is called the oval and the other
The interior of this bony labyrinth is
the round window.
with
filled
fluid,
in
which are suspended membranous bags, following nearly the
same form, and themselves containing fluid.
The
terminal fibres of the auditory nerve are distributed over
the surfaces (or parts
bags,
and there are
of the
surfaces) of these
special arrangements
appears to be the communication to these
any
4.
membranous
of which the object
nervous fibres of
agitation affecting the fluid.
The tympanic membrane
connected with that which
is
window' by a linkwork of small bones con^
tained i^ the open space of the tympanum, in such a manner
that when the former membrane. is bulged inwards or outwards
by an increase or diminution of the pressure on its external
surface, a similar movement is impressed on the latter; and
closes the 'oval
although the fluid within
(of
which
it
window' allows
of the oval
Thus
is
probably as incompressible as water
chiefly consists), the
it
window
to yield
is
labyrinth,
is
and from
of the
'
round
that
forced inwards, and vice versd.
the motion impressed
the external air
membrane
by expanding outwards when
on the tympanic membrane by
communicated
to the fluid contained in the
that to the fibres of the auditory nerve,
by
Ctirve of Pressttre.
means of
the apparatus
mentioned above, which need not be
further described at present^.
It is
probable also that motion
is
tympanic membrane through the
membrane
5. The
pressure
mean, as
to
tympanum
of the round window, and so to the
'
'
by
to the
fluid.
of the air at any point must be understood
usual, the pressure
unit of surface
from the
partly propagated
air in the
which would be exerted on a
of the same density and temperature as
air
at the point in question.
When
variation
the pressure at
may
any point
of pressure,' in which the abscissa
portional
to
the
time, the
'
OM of any point P
the time elapsed since a given
MP to the
ordinate
varies with
be graphically represented by means of a
instant,
is
curve
pro
and the
excess of pressure above a standard value,
which may be taken
arbitrarily.
negative ordinate (as at jP')
represents of course a defect of pressure below the standard
value.
As we
shall chiefly
the average (or
have occasion to consider cases in which
mean) pressure remains
unaltered,
it
will
be
convenient to assume that average as the standard value represented by the axis of abscissae
OX.
Changes of density may evidently be represented in the same
way by a curve of density,' in which positive ordinates repre'
sent condensation,
and negative ordinates
of pressure and of density
*
A full description,
known
with
dilatation.
will differ slightly in
The
curves
form, because
illustrations, of the structure of the ear, so far
be found in Helmholtz, p. 198, &c., and in
Huxley's Lessons in Elementary Physiology,' p. 204, &c., and other recent
works on Anatomy and Physiology. But the reader is recommended to
study the subject, if possible, with the help of anatomical preparations or
models. For the purposes of this treatise, however, nothing is absolutely
necessary to be known beyond what is stated here or hereafter in the text.
as
it is
at present, will
'
B 2
and
Noises
4
pressure
is
not in general
strictly
reasons and consequences of this
Notes.
proportional to density
fact,
the
however, do not concern
us at present.
Although
it
is
convenient to use the word 'curve,'
it
must
be understood that the lines representing changes of pressure
or density are not necessarily curved in the ordinary sense, but
may
consist either wholly or in part of straight portions.
Those
6.
slight
and rapid changes
in contact with the tympanic
the sensation of sound, do not
pressure
in the pressure of the air
membrane, which cause
in
general
alter
(Art. 1)
the average
so that they would be represented by a wavy curve
the whole equal areas above and below the
upon
including
axis of abscissae.
A wavy
curve
may
or
may
not be periodic.
consists of repetitions of a single portion, thus
Fig.
The
2.
period or wavelengih of such a curve
AB
tance
words,
which
is
it
is
at its extremities
the projection,
on
the smallest dis
always equal
into
two
classes
namely, unnotes.
regards sensation, the distinction between these two classes
of sounds
not
in other
repeated.
musical sounds, orjwises ; and. musical sounds, or
As
the axis, of the smallest portion
Sounds are usually divided
7.
is
which, measured from any arbitrary point along the
has the ordinates
axis,
A periodic curve
:
said to be that notes have pilch
is
and, as regards the
curve of pressure (Art. 6)
mode
is
and noises have
of their production, that the
periodic in the case of a musical
sound, and nonperiodic in the case of a noise.
But these
statements require more explanation and correction than might
at first sight
In the
few,
if
be expected.
first
place,
it
is
obvious to
common
observation that
any, noises are perfectly unmusical, that
without pitch.
Two
noises of the
is,
absolutely
same general character
often
Generation of Musical Notes,
differ from one another in a way which we describe by calling
one of them more acute or sharp, and the other more grave or
flat
for
On
that
example, the reports of a pistol and of a cannon.
the other hand, few,
is,
absolutely
Hence
if
any, sounds are perfectly musical,
unmixed with
noise.
the question presents itself whether there
after all
is
a real distinction in kind between noises and notes, and
in
what
8.
Before attempting to answer this question,
is,
two
it
facts of
The
and
first
if
there
consists.
we must
notice
fundamental importance.
any sound whatever,
that
is,
sufficiently short
intervals
repeated at equal
if
of time, generates
note,
of
which the pitch depends upon the frequency of repetition of
the original or elementary sound.
This
For instance,
simple experiments.
if
easily verified
is
by
the point of a quill pen,
or the edge of a card, be held against the teeth of a wheel
which
is
turned slowly, the passage of each tooth produces a
sharp noise or
'
But
click.'
if
the velocity of rotation of the
wheel be gradually increased, the clicks gradually cease to be
heard separately, and are replaced by a sound which gradually
acquires a continuous character, and a pitch which rises as the
The
velocity increases.
connection between the frequency of
repetition of the elementary sound,
and the pitch of the
resultant
note, will be considered afterwards.
The second
once.
at
fact
This
considerations will
that
is,
more than one sound can be heard
familiar to every one.
is
shew
that
it is
But the following
very remarkable.
9. In the case above supposed, each passage of a tooth of
the wheel across the quill or card produces a disturbance in the
air,
which
is
propagated in
all
directions (unless
some
obstacle
intervene) in the form of a wave.
The
after.
nature of soundwaves in air will be considered here
At present
it
is
essentially different in
sufficient to say that
water, they have one important property in
that different sets of
either in the
waves can be propagated
same or
though they are
most respects from ordinary waves
in
common, namely,
at the
same
time,
in different directions, without destroying
Composition
and
Resolution
one another. And it results from the mechanical theory that
the waves are very small, the different sets are simply
when
is, the disturbance produced at any point, and
any given time, by the combined action of waves belonging
superposed; that
at
sum
to different sets, is the
of the disturbances which would
have been produced by the waves of each
In
this proposition the
word sum
is
set separately.
be understood, accord
to
ing to circumstances, either in the ordinary algebraical sense,
or in the extended sense in which the diagonal of a parallelo
gram
called (in symbolical geometry) the
is
sum of two con
tiguous sides.
Thus,
soundwaves in
in the case of
any point may be considered
ticles,
And
the
either of pressure or density, is the algebraical
of the changes which would have been produced by waves
of each set separately
is
the disturbance at
or as an alteration ot pressure and density.
whole change,
sum
air,
either as a displacement of par
the
sum of
the
while the displacement of any particle
separate displacements
in
the
sense just
explained.
Thus, suppose
is
the undisturbed position of a particle
which, at a given instant, would be
displaced in
by the action of a
w^ave belonging to one set,
another
set.
placement
be to R,
Fig.
3
and
to
by that of a wave belonging to
at
AR
Then
the
the actual dis
same
instant will
being the diagonal of
the parallelogram constructed
upon
AP,AQ.
This law of the composition of displacements, which is idenform wqth that of the composition of forces in Mechanics,
tical in
may be
Each
causes ;
The
stated in another
manner thus
separate cause
of displacement acts independently of other
a proposition which is to be understood as follows
:
AR\?^
same as if the particle
were first displaced by one cause along A P, and then by the
other along a line PR, equal and parallel to the displacement
actual displacement
the
of Disturbances.
Qy which the latter cause would have produced
if
acting
alone.
It is
important to recollect that this law of the
of displacements
'
is
superposition
not a universal law in the same sense as
that of the composition of forces.
It
depends, in
upon
fact,
the condition that the force which tends to restore a displaced
particle to its undisturbed position is directly proportional to
the displacement;
it
subsists at
all,
and
most cases
this condition, in
subsists rigorously only for
in
which
infinitely
small
displacements.
The law, however, is sensibly true, so far as most of the
phaenomena of sound are concerned, in the case of the greatest
disturbances produced by ordinary causes.
10. This being premised,
let
us consider a continuous noise,
lasting say for a small fraction of a second, in
can recognise no
definite
And
pitch.
which the ear
suppose the curve of
Fig. 4.
pressure (that
is,
the curve representing in the
way above ex
plained (Art. 5) the changes of pressure close to the tympanic
membrane) to be the black line A B C D, Fig. 4.
Suppose a different noise, of the same duration, to have for its
Then, if
curve of pressure the dotted line in the same figure.
Fig
5
the causes producing such noises both act
variation of pressure
will
at once, the resultant
be represented, as
in Fig. 5,
by a
Power of Resokition
which the ordinates are the algebraical sums of the
curve, of
corresponding ordinates in Fig.
Now
in
coalesce
only
It is
similar, that
but are heard
one,
into
taneously.
4.
such a case the two noises do not in general
is,
when
when
the
though
distinctly,
two curves of
simul
Fig. 4 are nearly
the two noises are very like one another,
that the ear does not easily resolve the resultant
sound
into
its
two components.
On
the other hand, there
which can suggest
which
of
its
it
was generated.
components
ig
nothing
in the
curve of Fig. 5
to the eye the process of composition
It
and although
it
might be
arbitrarily
solved into two in an infinite variety of ways, there
in
by
looks quite as simple as either
is
re
nothing
appearance to indicate one way as more natural than
its
any other ^
It is evident
then that the ear has a power of resolution
which the eye has not ; or
ing to
some law
not resolve at
rather, that the ear resolves accord
all,
peculiar to
itself,
whereas the eye either does
or resolves arbitrarily.
11. This phaenomenon is still more remarkable when the
component curves are periodic. Let A B C
G, Fig. 6,
D EF
Fig. 6.
represent two periods of a periodic change of pressure;
curve consisting of repetitions of the portion
larly let
abcdefg
A B C D.
the
Simi
represent three periods of another periodic
change, occupying the same time as two periods of the former.
The
curves in the above figures are represented as made up of straight
merely for convenience of drawing. Whether their forms be or be
not such as could really occur, is quite immaterial to the argument. The
point essential to be understood is this
that whatever be the forms of
the component curves, the eye cannot in general distinguish them in the
*
lines,
resultant curve.
peculiar to the Ear,
The
P Q,
curve consists of repetitions of the portion
resultant
Fig. 7,
and
is
therefore also periodic.
Fig
be
If the periods
7
sufficiently short,
each of the curves in
and the curve
Fig. 6 will correspond to a musical note;
in
7 represents the variation of pressure which takes place
Fig.
when
Now,
two notes are heard simultaneously.
the
it
is
a wellknown fact that in such a case the ear in general distinguishes both notes
Fig. 7 into the
that
is, it
resolves the resultant curve of
two components of Fig.
But the eye sees
6.
nothing more in Fig. 7 than a curve having a period represented by the abscissa
P Q,
different periods of the
we
and entirely fails to distinguish the
component curves. Here again, then,
find that the ear resolves according to a law of
12.
PQ
But a new question now presents
is
its
resolved by the ear into two components,
each component similarly resolved ?
own.
If a curve like
itself.
why
represents two simultaneous but distinguishable notes,
not the repetition oi
A B CD
is
If the repetition of
why may
same
represent two notes in the
way; and why may not each component oi
not
PQ
A B CD
be
itself
again resolved, and so on ad infinitum ?
The answer
and
is,
that
all
this
does in general really happen
that a perfectly simple musical tone, that
the ear cannot resolve,
by means
Thus
forte
is
is,
rarely heard except
a tone such as
when produced
specially contrived for the purpose.
the
sound produced by a vibrating
or violin
for
instance,
is
in
string, of
general
a piano
compounded of
simple tones, theoretically unlimited in number.
Only a few
of them, however, are loud enough to be actually heard.
few constitute a combination which
same
string
is
These
always heard from the
under the same circumstances
hence
we
acquire
What
lo
a Noise?
is
a habit of associating them together and perceiving them as
a single note of a special character ; and
of attention, which
unassisted
to
ear,
analyse the
case of a string this difficulty
it
requires an effort
when first attempted by
compound sensation. In
difficult
is
the
the
increased by the circumstance
is
component tones form in general an agreeable
When, however, two strings, not in unison,
once, we distinguish their notes perfectly; partly
that the audible
consonance.
vibrate at
because there
is
in this case
no habit of
association,
and
partly
because the component tones of one dp not in general form
a consonant combination with those of the other.
of a large bell is compounded of many simple
some of which combine agreeably and some produce
The sound
tones,
In this case every one perceives easily the
complex character. of the sound. Still the habit of association
prevents us from mistaking the sound of one bell for the sound
of two and on the other hand, when two bells are struck at
harsh dissonances.
we
once,
distinguish the
two compound sounds more or
less
notwithstanding the very confused combination of
perfectly;
simple tones.
13.
//
\
We
can now give
What
tion.
a partial answer to the ques
at least
a noise ?l
is
It
general
in
is
number of musical tones too near
be distinguished by the unassisted
to
The
effect
produced by ringing
once, or striking
forte
at
tends to
the
how
once, shews
become
ear. ^
a noise.
in pitch
the bells of a peal at
all
an octave on a piano
the twelve keys of
all
a combination of
one another
to
confused combination of tones
And
may
it
be easily conceived that
change would be much more complete
twelve notes intermediate between
C and
if,
Cjf
for
example,
were heard
at
once.
It
appears, then, that a noise
cases of sound.
The former
powers of the ear
fail
to
of resolution by reason of
14. It
is
evident
is
and a simple tone are extreme
so complex that the ordinary
resolve
its
it.
The
latter is
incapable
absolute simplicity
therefore that the
absolutely simple tone ? or rather,
What
question,
is
What
is
an
the character of the
Notes and Tones,
ii
soundwaves which produce such tones, and of the corresponding curves of pressure
It
is
evident also that
is
of fundamental importance.
some correction
required to the
is
statement referred to above (Art. 7), that musical notes have
speaking, only an absolutely simple tone has
Strictly
__piich.
a single determinate pitch.
When we
speak of the pitch of the
note produced by a string or an organpipe,
we mean
in fact
This
the pitch of the gravest simple tone in the combination.
component is in general louder than any of the
The others
others, and is that on which attention is fixed.
become associated with it by habit, and seem only to modify
particular
character, without destroying the unity of
its
As
15.
be necessary to
often
will
it
its
and compound musical sounds, we
simple
(as in the preceding articles) the
words
pitch.
between
distinguish
tone
always use
shall
and
note for this
purposfe.
may
Objections
the
word
tone
is
easily
be made to both these terms.
complexity which
it
here intended to exclude
is
say that the tone of a violin
is
different
mark which
properly signifies the written
is
But
tinsio7t,
it
indicates
be played or sung, and not the sound
to
may
and the
be answered that tone (Gr.
effect
of tension
Hence
is
string.
sound with reference only to
fore, in particular, to
and has
what musical
itself.
roi/os)
word may
sound of a
the
clarinet,
Again, note
really
means
to determine the pitch of the
to denote a
^ pitch,
fact
when we
as
from that of a
or that any instrument has a good or bad tone.
sound
In
often used with express reference to that very
its
naturally be used
pitch
and there
denote a simple sound which has a single
(as will
be seen hereafter) no other distinctive
quality except loudness or softness.
I
And
ition
with respect to
note,
it
from the written mark
habitually
may be answered
to the
that the trans
thing signified
is
in fact
made, as when we say that a person sings wrong
.
notes.
Again, the written note
is
a direction to sing or play, not
a simple sound, but that particular complex sound which
produced by the voice or by the instrument intended
to
is
be
Notes and Tones.
12
and the
used;
or characteristic
we speak of
16.
particular
sound produced
mark of the kind of
in
is
instrument.
fact
In
this
note
sense
the note of the blackbird or of the nightingale.
For these reasons we
musical sound by the word
shall henceforth
io7ie,
denote a simple
and the elementary sound
of any instrument, such as that of a violin string, an organpipe,
human voice, by the word note.
Thus a note will be in general a complex sound, though
or the
may
it
accidentally,
through the peculiarity of a particular
instrument, be simple, or nearly so*.
'
Helmholtz uses the words Klang and Ton to signify compound and
simple musical sounds. We have followed him in adopting the latter
term. But such a sound as that of the human voice could hardly be called
in English a clang, without doing too much violence to established usage.
CHAPTER
II.
MISCELLANEOUS DEFINITIONS AND PROPOSITIONS.
The
Chapter
of this
contents
and statements of
finitions
fact,
chiefly of de
consist
will
which may conveniently be
introduced here, though partly belonging to a later stage of
the subject.
The word
17.
vihration
may
be used to denote any periodic
change of condition ; especially when, relatively to appropriate
standards of comparison, the change is small, and the period
short.
When
a change
that a period
is
an
is
called periodic,
it
in general implied
is
and
interval of time of constant length,
whatever condition exists at any instant,
is
that
restored after the
lapse of a period.
Thus
the series of changes which
instants separated
by a
happen between any
period, constitute a cycle which
tw(?
con
is
tinually repeated.
The
particular stage of
change which has been reached
any
instant is called the phase of the vibration.
tion
is
said to
The
go through
period
is
all its
And
phases in one period.
also called the time of
vibration.
and frequently does happen, that the changes
periods
grow successively
less,
It
to
a string
itself,
the
the
same
all.
On
is
though remaining similar in
Thus
put into a state of vibration and the^
sound gradually
pitch
may,
in successive
character, while the period continues sensibly unaltered.
when
at
the vibra
left
dies away, but retains sensibly both
and the same character as long as
the other hand, the period
may
it is
change, as
heard at
when
the
Pitch Dependent on Period.
14
of a
tension
string
diminished while
is
increased
is
said to the contrary,
or
it
is
vibrating.
But when nothing
be understood that the period
When
18.
way, the
ear
is
that
ear
is
always to
heard in the ordinary
But
membrane
of the
has been already seen
it
general resolves a series of vibrations into
in
component
several
which
is
contact with the tympanic
in a state of vibration.
the
The
a musical note (Art. 16)
air in
it
supposed to be constant.
is
produces
having different periods, each of
series
a simple
with
tone
determinate
pitch.
tone produced by the component vibrations of longest
lowest in pitch, and also
period, being the
fundamental
loudest, is called the
tone^
and
its
in
general the
pitch
is
usually
spoken of as the pitch of the note.
We
however, suppose at present that the vibrations are
shall,
of that kind which the ear does not resolve, so that only one
tone
is
heard; and proceed to
state
certain facts relative to
the connection between the pitch of the tone and the period
of the vibrations.
To
we may
avoid circumlocution,
which
call the vibrations
produce any particular tone the vibrations of the tone ; and the
period of the vibrations may be called the period of the tone.
19. If the period of the vibrations be too long,
is
no tone
perceived, but only a succession of distinct impulses which
a peculiar sensation different both from
the ear with
affect
noise and tone.
no sensation
short,
on
If,
at
the other
all
is
hand, the period be too
produced; the sound
is
simply
inaudible.
Different observers have
made
various statements as to the
But
period of the slowest vibrations which produce a tone.
it
is
certain that to
begins
when
the
all
ordinary ears the perception of pitch
number of
vibrations in
where between eight and thirtytwo.
point there
the
is
is
somethis
an uncertainty arising from the doubt whether
tone heard
is
really
fundamental,
component tones having a
compound
a second
In experiments on
vibration.
For
it
or only
shorter period
is
one of
the'
than that of the
certainly difficult
and perhaps
Comparison of Intervals.
15
impossible so to arrange the experiment as to be quite sure that
the vibration is of that kind which the ear does not resolve^
The extreme Hmit
in
the contrary direction
In general
different to different ears^
be
no tone
is
known
probable
is
it
to
that^
heard when the number of vibrations in a second
is
exceeds 40,000.
20. Difference of period causes a difference of pitch which
we
by calling
describe
more
tones of shorter period higher, or
and those of longer period lower, or more grave.
The change of pitch which takes place when the period
gradually altered, strikes us as having an analogy to the
acute,
is
Hence we say
gradual change of position of a moving point.
that there
is
an interval between tones of
Suppose P, Q,
are three tones, taken in order of pitch.
Then we
say that the interval from
intervals
from
different pitch.
to
P to i?
to R
and from
the
is
sum
of the
or briefly, that
FR = PQ+QR.
So
we might go
far as this
many
in
the interval between two pains of the
and
ferent intensities,
But
in the
call
one
interval
same kind, but of difthe sum of two others.
we can make
comparison of tones
which we cannot make
other cases of con
For instance, we might speak of
tinuously varying sensation.
a further step
For we
in the comparison of pains.
can compare with precision the magnitudes of two intervals.
The
decides whether any interval
ear
equal
any other
or less than
to,
of comparing
faculty
intervals
P^
interval
is
21.
But however
made
is
interval
and
P^
is
is
it
which
this
will
may
be,
greater than,
How
far
this
an absolutely simple and
ultimate property of the sense of hearing,
to decide^ for reasons
is
RS.
it
is
not very easy
appear hereafter,
it is
certain that the
judgment
a fact ascertained by experiment that any
judged to be equal to another interval
whenever the periods
(Art. 18) of the
R S,
two tones, F, Q, are to
See his
first observed by WoUaston.
inaudible by certain Ears,' Pkit. Trans, for 1820,
On the audibility of high tones, see Savart in Ann. de Chim. et
p. 306.
de Phys., t. 44, p. 337 ; on low tones, Helmholtz, p. 263.
^
This appears to have been
memoir 'On sounds
16
Measure of
one another
The same
same
in the
ratio as the periods
may
proposition
Intervals,
of the tones
i?,
S*.
of course be expressed by saying
that the intervals are equal
when
vibrations in a given time
are equal; for the periods are in
numbers of
the ratios of the
to the numbers of vibrations.
Thus, if
be produced by 200 and 300 vibrations in a second, and
by 600 and 900, then the intervals
are equal,
Q,
versely proportional
Q
S
P,
i?,
300
600
22. In general,
900.
a tone
if
be produced hy
a second, and another tone
by ^
from the proposition of Art. 21 that no
PQ
the
unless
same
the
numbers of
Suppose
higher than
we
PR
higher than P, and
is
is
the
sum
any number taken as a measure
Now
a
the ratios
P Q, Q R, PR,
he
third tone
2.
Then
the
rule as the
measures of
which determine the three
do not
this
fulfil
condition,
for
IS
cannot be
shew.
P Q, QR ; and thereo? P R ought to be the
numbers taken by the same
PQy QR.
let
it
now
shall
of the intervals
of the
follows
tones have
Q^ having r vibrations in a second.
sum
r
?
it
can be equal
its
this ratio determines the interval,
fore
<7
for
interval
of
ratio 
the
ratio.
But although
intervals
vibrations in
P Q]
vibrations
taken as a measure of the interval, as
interval
vibrations,
determines the magnitude of the interval
to
RS
200
for
to 
not equal
^
But
if
we
take for the measure of an interval, not the ratio
of the numbers of vibrations, but the logarithm of that ratio,
r
the required condition
fore
is satisfied
the logarithm of 
is
the
for 
= Q
sum
r
>c
"^
and there
of the logarithms
of 
,r
and
23. If then
/>,
q be the numbers of vibrations, in a given
time, of two tones
P, Q, the logarithm of
taken as a numerical measure of the interval
may
properly be
P Q.
And
in
Names of
Symbolical
Intervals.
17
order to compare the magnitudes of different intervals
compare, not the corresponding
The
those ratios.
base of the system
interval
shall
be
since the logarithm of the base
Thus,
if
we took
(or
is
be
in every system.
we should have log
for the base,
would be the measure of the
for the
f)
may
numerically by
represented
unity,
has
of logarithms
In fact the choice of the base merely de
any whatever.
termines what
and therefore
we must
but the logarithms of
ratios,
of the vibrations of
ratio
= 1;
which
interval
In
tones.
its
other words, the octave (see Art. 33) would then be the unit
There would be some advantage
interval.
tically
the base
 cannot be used
the ratio
often convenient to use
is
When
thus,
'
is
it
so used
The
interval
we
it
interval
the
interval
P Q.
interval
not
is
remind
but
>
between two tones P, Q, may, like the
line, be reckoned in two
henceforth
will
P to
Q, or from
to
P; and
this
be indicated by calling the same
P Q or QP accordingly.
if
we
introduce the signs
modern elementary Geometry,
the addition and subtraction of
direction)
may
and
it
is
in the
same way
evident that the rules
straight lines (in the
same
be applied at once to the addition and sub
traction of intervals.
if
it
the fraction in brackets
measure of the interval
as in
And
name of the
as the
shall inclose
opposite ways, namely, from
for
as a measure,
between two points in a
difference
And
but prac
the interval ();' the brackets being intended to
the reader that
25.
in this;
logarithms, of which
10.
is
Though
24.
common
convenient to use the
it is
PyQ,P
Thus,
QP
PQ,otPQ\QP
o.
he any three tones whatever, then
PQ+QR= QPQP;
PQ+QP + PP = &c.
PjR =
o,
26. In designating any interval by the corresponding ratio
as a
name, we
shall put that
number
in the
denominator which
Addition and Subtraction.
is
proportional to the
from which
Thus, 'the
(^)'
interval
fV
P Q^
mean
will
 being taken
also log
P
will
vibrations producing the tone
reckoned.
is
while 'the interval
mean QP,
will
Then
number of
the interval
measure of
P Qy log p ^
QP
be the measure oi
as the
with
its
proper sign
for log
 =
'
logf.
P
The equations
PR ^ PQ+QR, PR
and
 =
T
Q
=xj
P
'^
q
QRQP,
compared
shew
addition
that
subtraction of intervals correspond to multiplication
division of ratios
the
with
and
words addition and subtraction being no
longer restricted to their arithmetical sense, but used in the
same way
geometry of a straight
as in the
In fact
only another
this is
of the ratio
way
line.
of saying that the logarithm
a proper measure (both as to magnitude and
is
sign) of the interval.
from the conventions above made, that those
follows,
It
intervals are to
be considered positive which are reckoned from
a lower to a higher tone
than unity
is
be
27. It will
the expression
The
tones
is
incident
A
some
for
interval the
in itself
theoretically
is
call
the
ratio of the interval,'
ratio
though
unmeaning.
capable of unlimited subdivision by the
of intermediate
to the
'
between the lowest and highest audible
power of the ear
as there
is
interval
interposition
to the
since the logarithm of a ratio greater
convenient abridgment to
which determines an
28.
positive.
tones,
though
there
is
a limit
to distinguish nearly coincident tones,
power of the eye
to distinguish nearly co
tints.
series
of tones at
finite
definite law, is usually
intervals,
selected
and appropriately
according to
called a scale
the selected tones are the steps of a ladder
by which we
ascend from a lower to a higher pitch.
scale
formed by taking an unlimited succession of tones,
Harmonic
Scale.
19
produced by vibrations of which the numbers
are proportional to
We
Harmonics.
i, 2, 3, 4, &c., is called
shall
henceforward
a given time)
(in
the scale of
refer to
it
Natural
simply as 'the
harmonic scale/
The
different notes
which can be produced from a simple
tube, used as a trumpet, belong to a scale of this kind.
each note of the trumpet, of the
human
And
voice, of a vibrating
string, in short
every musical note produced in any of the most
usual ways,
compounded of simple tones
is
a harmonic
chanical
state
The
scale.
be given afterwards;
principles will
them
facts
at
on me
present
we
as a reason for giving here a general view of this
primary and fundamental
29.
also belonging to
explanation of these
The
scale.
absolute pitch of the lowest or fundamental tone
may be any
as the lowest
of a
we choose
If
whatever.
a second for the period of
this tone,
modern
it
the thirtythird part of
will
have the same pitch
pianoforte, according to a standard
now very commonly adopted^. (If we chose a different period
we should of course merely transpose the scale without altering
the intervals.)
The
series of tones
wiU then begin as follows
128456
2s:
^
=:
89
J?^
^
^^
er
Pb
c'
^
d'
C,
g
i
32
11
10
13
^Tj^
The numbers
14
16
15
^^=^
.&c.
tf
g'
written
above the notes
a'
c"
b'
l7b'
are
the
numbers of
vibrations in the thirtythird part of a second.
This
is
the
German
pitch.
In England there
standard.
C 2
is at
present no uniform
Names and
20
Those notes which
Ratios
marked with an
are
asterisk
do not
exactly represent the corresponding tones, but are the nearest
which the modern notation
representatives
The
30.
below the notes
letters
German
those used by
writers.
are,
In
supplies.
with a slight alteration,
this
system of notation, C,
D, E, F, G, A, B, represent the seven notes beginning with the
second
(reckoning upwards) of a modern pianoforte, or the
lowest note of a violoncello.
The
octaves above these notes are represented by the small
letters c, d, e,
f,
g, a, b.
Thus, c
is
the lowest note of a viola,
and the lowest c of a tenor voice; and g
the lowest note of
is
a violin.
Higher notes than b are represented by putting
the small letters
below the
and lower notes than
capitals.
tone by an octave
acc^^its
above
by putting accents
Each accent above a small letter raises the
and each accent below a capital lowers the
tone by an octave.
Thus, g"
is
the lowest
3 2 foot
fortes is
from
the highest
g of an ordinary soprano
of a modern pianoforte, and C,,
of an organ.
to
a'''',
The compass
is
of the newest piano
future,
b,
the reader
is
and b instead of
b.)
t?
31.
scale
voice, C,
the socalled
&c.
As we shall use this notation for the
recommended to become familiar with it.
(German writers use h instead of our
our
is
The
intervals
between the several tones of the harmonic
have in a few cases received names
derived from the
places of the tones in the diatonic scale (Art. 35).
The most
important of these intervals, with their
Octave
C,
Fifth
Fourth
Major
third
Minor
third
g
bb*
G
c
e
g
t?b*
c'
ratios, are
of Important Intervals.
Major second
c'
Minor second
d'
Diatonic semitone
The two
b'
The major and minor second
but
tones ;
is
it
tone in two senses.
c"
y
yf
often called major
are
by
restricted to a finite
desirable to avoid the use of the
Other intervals (such as the
and
word
sixth, &c.),
in the
above
list,
be omitted for the present.
32.
The second and
scale are
The second
harmonics* of the
tone
or funda
first
the first harmonic^ the third
is
and so on.
If we take any tone of the harmonic
is
harmonic
following tones of the
all
often called the
mental tone.
tone
e'
often used both
formed by addition and subtraction of those
may
d'
not formally recognized in
intervals (J), (f) are
modern music, though they are probably
singers and by players on instruments not
number of notes.
minor
%\
the second harmonic,
mental tone, the whole series of
scale as a
harmonics
its
will
new fundabe found
in
the original scale.
Thus
the series 3, 6, 9,
the third tone
and
, in,
gives the
harmonic
....
distinguishes the
affected
scale of the th tone.
we may here
first
When we compare
gives the harmonic scale of
^n, 4n,
33. Omitting for the present
of other intervals,
in general the series
any discussion of the character
notice a peculiar property which
interval in the
two tones which
harmonic
differ
by a certain sense of sameness, which we do not
supposed explanation of
cussed hereafter
but,
whether
it
are
feel in
it
be a multiple of an
this
property will be dis
the case of any other interval unless
octave.
scale, the octave.
by an octave, we
be explicable or not,
it
entitles
the octave to be regarded as a natural unit (see Art. 23) with
which other
intervals
may be compared.
gives a periodic character to the scale
At
the
same time
it
every tone which has
occurred once seems to occur again and again at equal intervals.
Bisection of Intervals,
22
34. If
we compare
the intervals into which any two succes
harmonic scale are divided, we see that
sive octaves of the
every interval between consecutive tones in one octave
into
two
The law
of this subdivision
is
divided
n\ 1
now
words (see
Art.
two mtervals
26) the
interval (
j,
and
2n
is
),
2+2
2n
it
in the next higher octave;
ratio
always of the form
is
2+I
2n
two
into these
2+2
The
worth observing.
of the interval between consecutive tones
fI
is
intervals in the next higher octave.
{
the
is
other
sum
of the
in tact divided
for in that octave
occur three consecutive tones corresponding to the numbers
2+i, 2+25
2,
Thus, the
octave,
first
c, is
of vibrations.
octave, C,
divided into a
In the third octave the
and a minor
C,
fifth,
f=f
third,
undivided.
is
fifth
The second
and a
fourth,
g, is
divided into a major
=fXf
>
divided into two intervals, (J), (f),
which have not received names. In the fourth octave the major
whilst the fourth,
third, c'
e', is
c',
is
divided into a major and a minor second.
Thus every interval is
the word half may be
T = F ^E ^ s
divided into a major and minor half
be called the law of natural
the major
bisection^
(if
may
so used), according to a law which
half being
always the lower.
35.
but
it
The
will
theory of
artificial scales
be useful to
state,
actual construction of the
modern
diatonic major scale.
take two tones at an interval of a
tone which bisects the
c,
e,
g^
we
triads
fifth,
common
chord.
one above another, so
the lowest of the second,
If
we
and the intermediate
naturally (Art. 34), for example,
fifth
obtain three tones which
produce a triad or
is
cannot be discussed here
without reference to theory, the
when sounded together
if we take three such
And
that the highest tone of the
first
and the highest of the second the
Diatonic Scale.
we
lowest of the third,
i%
obtain seven tones, rising one
above
another by alternate major and minor thirds, thus
e
6
T
Lastly,
we
if
5"
5^
r
6
"5
take the lowest tone (c) of the middle triad as
the socalled ionic or
first
tone of the scale, and bring
all
the
other tones within the compass of an octave by substituting
a,
d, for F,
scale, to
A,
we
d',
which an eighth
usually added, thus
(viz.
c, d, e,
f,
obtain the seven tones of the diatonic
the octave of the tonic)
c',
is
g, a, b, c'.
f,
Returning, however, to the above system of triads,
let
us find
the ratios of the intervals from the lowest tone, F, to each of
This
the other tones.
be done by successive multiplication
will
we
of the ratios f 4, &c. (Art. 26), and thus
lowing ratios for the intervals
,
Here
If
A,
T>
T>
2>
e,
c,
g,
9
1_5
b,
d'.
45
2_7
T' iF'
the ratio written under each tone
is
from
F,
obtain the
fol
that of the interval
to that tone.
we reduce
denominator,
all
viz.
these fractions to the least possible
i6, the
numbers proportional
numerators
to the
will
numbers of
common
be the smallest whole
vibrations of the cor
responding tones, thus
F,
A,
c,
e,
g,
b,
d'.
i6,
2o,
24,
30,
36,
45,
54.
Recollecting
that of F, &c.,
now that the number of vibrations of f is double
we obtain the following series for the diatonic
scale
The
36.
c,
d,
e,
f,
g,
a,
b,
c'.
24,
27,
30,
32,
36,
40
45,
48.
tones of the diatonic scale have
names, of which
or
first
it
is
sufficient to
tone of the scale, the dominant or
subdominant or fourth tone.
tonic,
all
mention
the dominant,
and
received technical
three, viz. the tonic
fifth
tone,
and the
Thus, in the above scale c
f the
subdominant.
is
the
of Diato7iic
Relatiofi
24
37.
The
tones of a diatonic scale, having for their actual
numbers of
vibrations those given at the
end of Art 35, belong
which the funda
evidently to the harmonic scale (Art. 28), of
This fundamental tone
mental tone has one vibration.
is
five
octaves below the subdominant, for ^^ = (f )^.
Hence, neglecting the difference between tones which differ
by a whole number of octaves, we may say
scale is selectedfrom the
This proposition
is
that the diatonic
harmonic scale of its subdominant.
to be understood merely as the statement
and not as involving any theory of the
of a mathematical fact,
actual derivation of the scale.
The
bers
diatonic scale can only be represented in whole
when
by 3 and
number of
the
no
tonic
is divisible
numboth
any harmonic scale contains the
that
of the
octaves)
their
(or
amongst
its
8.
Hence we may say
tones
vibrations of
diatonic
of
scales
tones which correspond to multiples of
its
all
those
and of
3,
others.
The
series of multiples of 3, viz. 3, 6, 9, 12,
harmonic scale which has
for
....
gives a
fundamental tone the third
its
tone of the original scale.
may
Thus, every harmonic scale
diatonic scales of
third
its
be said to contain the
and of
tone,
all
the harmonics of
that tone.
38. Returning
now
to
the series of whole
represent the diatonic scale (Art. 35),
we
numbers which
find for the intervals
between successive tones of the scale the following
c
d.
e
f ..
ga
b.
39. In
..d,
.
e.
..f,
g.
a.
..b,
c,
this
tetrachords,
scale
c, d, e, f;
II = 1
f? =
ratios
(major second),
(minor second),
M H
(diatonic semitone),
If = 1
(major second),
40
(minor second),
t* = 1
It =
(major second),
the octave
g,^a, b, c',
(diatonic semitone).
is
divided into two socalled
separated by the major second
Harmonic
to
f
These tetrachords are
g.
Scale.
25
nearly, but not exactly, alike
and upper tetrachords are
for the intervals in the lower
(lower) major second, minor second, semitone;
(upper) minor second, major second, semitone.
Hence, the upper tetrachord of the scale of c
in the latter scale
is
not exactly
is
identical with the lower tetrachord of the scale of
for the
a major second above g, and in the former
a minor second only.
The
a of the scale of c
therefore
is
than that of the scale of g by the difference between
flatter
a major
and a minor second.
comma ; and
comma
the ratio of a
9.10
"8
A comma
9"
nearly equal to the
is
tone ; for (f J)^
These
This difference
is
details
is
called
is
26)
(Art.
81
8"0
part of a diatonic semi
fifth
nearly equal to ^.
belong more properly to another chapter; but
they have been given here in order to shew at once, by a simple
example, the imperfection of the ordinary musical notatibn for
but practical purposes.
all
made
are
The
to serve for the scales
say nothing of other scales;
ordinarily used,
a and the note
letter
both of c and
whereas in
and the notes on the
fact
stave,
'(^^
..
g, to
the letters, as
are capable of
representing accurately one diatonic scale and no more.
The whole
on
structure, however, of
modern music
the possibility of educating the ear not merely
ignore,
but even in
deviations
relation
between
intervals
founded
to tolerate or
pleasure
in,
slight
and numerical
ratios
scale.
be illustrated by the curve called the logarithmic (or equi,
This curve (see Fig.
angular) spiral.
tions,
i) consists
of convolu
of which the number reckoned from any point, either
inwards or outwards,
is infinite.
continually nearer to a point
actually reaches.
limit.
take
to
from the perfection of the diatonic
40. The
may
some degree
is
Outwards,
Inwards, the curve approaches
(called the pole),
it
These two properties are
But the curve
in question
straight lines be
which
it
never
recedes from the pole without
common
to
many
spirals.
has this particular property, that
drawn from the pole
to
if
any two points on the
Graphic Representation
26
curve, the logarithm of the ratio of their lengths
to the angle
between them.
It follows
lengths of any two such lines, as
proportional
is
(Art. 23),
that
OA, OB, be taken
if
the
to repre
AOB
sent
numbers of
may
be taken as a measure of the interval between the tones
produced by those
vibrations in
a given time, the angle
vibrations.
\a
J''
Fig.
The
I.
curve can be so drawn, and
is
so
drawn
that a complete revolution doubles the distance
Thus,
Oa
is
point, starting
its
double of
from
distance from
OA, and
Od
in the figure,
from the
of Oa, &c.;
pole.
so that a
and following the curve outwards, doubles
whenever
it
crosses the line
OA
produced,
Scale.
of
that
is,
whenever
it
27
But,
completes a revolution.
when
the
number of vibrations is doubled, the tone is raised an octave.
Hence the angle described in a complete revolution, that is,
and any fracfour right angles or 360, represents an octave
tion or multiple of four right angles represents the same fraction
;
or multiple of an octave.
We
may,
consider
therefore,
point, following
curve
the
and
drawn
outwards, to represent a tone continually rising in pitch;
successive passages of the point through any given line
from the pole
will represent
Thus
cessive octaves.
passages of the tone through suc
the geometrical periodicity of the curve
presents to the eye a sort of picture of the periodicity perceived
by the ear
The
scale
in a continuously rising tone.
representing the intervals used in the diatonic
angles
cannot (with the exception of the octave) be exactly
expressed in degrees, minutes, and seconds
.second, they are as follows^:
but, to the nearest
360 o o
210 35 II
Octave
Fifth
Fourth
Major
third
Minor
third
149 24 49
115 53 38
94 41 33
61 10 22
Major second
Minor second
Diatonic semitone
54 43 16
33 31
(Comma)
6 27
' The equation to the curve
is r =
tores in the ratio oi m:n, we have
2 2
m
=2
hence,
if r,
r\ be two radii vec
27r
hence
$ =
211
^
,
log 2
which gives the angular measure of the corresponding interval.
the
fifth,
hence the angle
Thus, for
(in degrees) is
log
6^0 ^
3 log
log 2
angles being known for the fifth and the fourth, the rest of those which
occur in the diatonic scale can be found by addition and subtraction.
The
Division of Octave into Atoms.
28
41. In Fig.
the letters represent the tones of three octaves
of the diatonic
scale.
It
may
be observed that the same figure
might be used to represent a descending instead of an ascend
The
ing scale.
portional
to
would then be pro
distances from the pole
the periods^ of the tones,
or (as will be shewn
hereafter) to the lengths of the strings, of given kind
The
which produce them.
tension,
and given
angles would then have to
be taken in the reverse order.
42.
is
more usual mode of representing
by parts of a
straight line, of
represent an octave.
When
intervals graphically
which the whole
this
method
is
is
assumed
adopted
it
is
to
con
venient to divide the octave line into equal parts, of which the
number
is
approximately the product of some power of lo by
the logarithm of
being 10^
the
Thus,
if
measured by n
interval
..
2.
we
Conversely, the
of that interval.
divisions will
number of
Thus, a
comma
1000 X logf^ = 5
division
it
into
301 parts (301
be,
approximately,
divisions representing
any
be 1000, multiplied by the logarithm of the ratio
interval will
divide
log 2 nearly) the logarithm of the ratio defining
on
this
will
be represented by
divisions nearly.
scale corresponds to
something more than
a degree on the scale described in Art. 40.
Dr.
Young
divided
and Mr. De Morgan has proposed
An atom would be very
to call each of these parts an atom.'
(See De Morgan,
nearly equal to 43'' on the scale of Art. 40.
the octave into 30,103 parts,
'
On
the Beats of Imperfect Consonances,'
vol. X. p. 4.)
Camb. Phil. Trans.
CHAPTER
III,
COMPOSITION OF VIBRATIONS.
43.
The
simplest type of periodic motion
afforded by a
is
point describing a circle with a constant velocity.
For
this is
and the change
the only kind of motion in which the velocity
of direction are both uniform.
Such a motion may be considered as the simplest possible
vibration of a point (Art. 17).
We
shall call
it,
for the present,
a simple circular vibration.
44. The vibration of a point, in its most general form, may
be defined as motion in a curve which returns into itself, with
a velocity which
is
always the same at the same point of the
curve.
Suppose the curve
to
be plane, such,
for instance,
as in
Draw arbitrarily any
two axes, OX, OF. (It is imFig.
I.
material whether they
meet
From P,
the curve or not.)
the position of the
moving
point at any time, draw
PM,
OF, OX.
AsP moves round and round
PN,
parallel
to
the curve, the point
will
move backwards and forwards
in the line
OX
riodic rectilinear
is,
will
vibrations.
tions in
with a pe
motion; that
perform
In the same way
O V,
Fig.
I.
rectilinear
will
perform
rectilinear vibra
Composition and Resolution
30
The
curvilinear vibration of
rectilinear vibrations of
In
fact, if
we
placement
O N,
is
M and N.
said to be compounded of the
consider /* as a point displaced from 0, the disis
compounded of
M,
the two displacements
in the sense explained in Art. 9.
It is evident that
any
may in this manner be
component rectilinear vibrations, in an infinite
and the character of each component depends
given vibration of a point in a plane
resolved into two
ways
variety of
in general
When
upon
the directions of both the axes.
nothing
is
said to the contrary,
axes are rectangular.
OX
is
and the
In
vibration of
this
case
it
PM
is
assumed
is
that the
perpendicular to
(the orthogonal projection of
P)
then called absolutely ihe rectilinear component, in the direction
O X,
of the vibration of P.
Any
45.
may
be
rectilinear vibrations
by
vibration of a point, whether plane or not,
similarly resolved into three
component
OX, OF, O Z. The point AT, in
O X, is then determined by drawing P parallel to the plane
Y O Z. The projections of P on OY, O Z, are to be found in
taking three arbitrary axes,
same way, mutatis mutandis.
the
We
46.
will
now
when
return to the case of a simple circular
Such a
vibration (Art. 43).
vibration
is
completely determined
four things are given
(i)
(2)
(3)
The period, or time of describing the whole circle.
The radius of the circle.
The position of the moving point at some one
given
instant.
(4)
The
direction
of motion (whether righthanded
^ ^,
or
lefthanded ^t:^"^.
The
an
any
is defined by the angle between
and the radius of the moving point at
phase of the vibration
arbitrary fixed radius
time.
Hence, the
third of the
saying that the phase
is
above data
may be
given at a given instant.
datum will seldom have to be referred to.
Through the centre of the circle (Fig.
2)
expressed by
The
fourth
draw any two
of Circular Vibrations,
31
OX, OF, and from P, the position of the
moving point at any time, draw P M, P N, perpendicular to
(The origin is taken at the centre for convenience,
the axes.
rectangular axes,
but
it
where.)
might
be any
P de
Then, as
scribes the circle with a
uniform motion,
vi
A',
brates in the line
and iV in
evident
B B",
and
it is
two
these
that
rectilinear vibrations are
perfectly similar.
Vibrations of the kind
performed by
that
is,
N,
com
or
rectilinear
ponents of simple
cir
cular vibrations, are dis
tinguished by
many
re
markable properties, and
may
properly be considered as the
This
simplest kind of rectilinear vibrations.
clearly as
we
by
from which
OP, and
to
circle,
and a
for the angle
Suppose the time,
taken as a fixed direc
measure the angle 6 {pi
ON =
sage of
K,hQ
K O P) described
suppose the direction of the motion to be such
that d increases with the time.
of the
appear more
,
47. Let an arbitrary radius,
tion
will
proceed.
/,
is
through K, and
Then, putting a
for the radius
KO A, we have
^sin(^
a).
reckoned from the instant of a paslet
r be the period of the vibration,
Then the time
or time of describing the whole circumference.
a
t, and when the moving point
of describing the arc
KP
'\?>
is
at
the value of
must be
t
2
whole number;
whence we have Q
\nTj
n being some
71
27r/
znn.
Intro
Rectilinear Vibrations.
3
ducing
O JV
this value
^yj'we
ill
like
fact,
M=
we should
^,
= acQ)?>(
<z
sm
at
the
find
a);
f
27r/
(
{2)
77
ha):
^
and y take the same values
the value of
at time / is the
so that the first vibration
)
4
of a period behind the second.
H
(i)
seen that both (i) and (2) represent vibrations of the same
kind, but that
h a\
the latter equation be put in the form
if
In
asmy
manner, putting
it is
putting
/.
In
and,
N, and
the above value of
which determines the position of TV
as the equation
time
of Q
find
same as
may be
at different times.
that of j/ at time
said to be a quarter
48. Vibrations of the kind considered in the
last
article,
namely, rectilinear vibrations in which the displacement of the
moving point
at the time /
can be represented by an expression
of the form
2T;t
sm (^'
a),
(3)
may be conveniently called rectilinear harmonic vibrations.
The constant a is called the amplitude, because its value
is
that of the greatest displacement.
The
2 Tit
angle
j
is
called
the phase of the vibration.
The
constant a
is
therefore
known
if
the phase at any given
time be given.
49.
rectilinear
harmonic vibration can be resolved into
two others of the same kind
in
an
infinite
variety of ways.
Usually the directions of the two components are taken at right
angles to
one another.
In
this
case the component of (3)
Composition of Vibrations,
(Art. 48), in a direction
of
making
the angle
33
with the direction
(3), is evidently
/2'nt
a cos
a>
V oy
sin
^^
Composition of Vibrations,
50.
harmonic vibrations
Rectilinear
may
be compounded
according to the general law of the superposition of displace
ments explained in Art.
are those in which the
(i) in tne
same
The two
9.
cases of most importance
two vibrations
in
direction, (2)
be compounded are,
to
directions at right angles to
one another.
First,
then,
let
the vibrations be in the
case the resultant displacement
this
sum of the component
tions be represented
is
displacements.
If the
the resultant displacement will be represented
asm(^
This expression
component
t./Stt/
^smf 7 +
mensurable; for
direction
is
be increased by any
in
vibra
aj
periodic
^\
/3jj
by the sum
+ 3sm^y + &y
if
the periods r
and
t'
be com
value will then evidently be unaltered
its
by the expressions
\
(21:1 1aj,
CL^
same
simply the algebraical
common
multiple of t
and /.
But
if /
does
it
not in general admit of any useful reduction.
If,
however, the periods
equals the resultant
the
same
period.
r, r',
motion
For
of the
is itself
component
vibrations be
a harmonic vibration having
in this case the
may
above expression
be written in the form
(a cos a\h cos ^) sin
and
this is identical
provided
and
1
( sin a
f
3 sin ^) cos
with
B be so taken that
cos B = a cos a\h cos ^,
sin a H ^ sin
sin B =
A
A
fl
/3,
~
r
Composition of Vibrations
34
which equations are
= Va^
,
^^'^
a^ cos
(a
^),
+ 3 sin 3
J
+ ocosp
a sin a
= tan~^
a cos a
may suppose
where we
by
satisfied
be
square root to
the
taken posi
tively.
The
value of A^ the
amplitude of the resultant vibration,
depends both on the amplitudes
and
tions,
also
on the angle
of the component vibra
a, b,
which
a*^j3,
is
the difference
of their
phases.
If
= o, the component vibrations
same phase, and
is
the
If
= a
always in the
sum of the amplitudes of the components.
a^^^ = IT, one of the component vibrations
period behind the other, and
the resultant
In
are
^ / or the amplitude of the resultant
is
a =
then
b,
vibrations completely destroy
51. Next, let the
one another, and
T =
X
half a
the difference of amplitudes of the components.
this latter case, \^
nience
is
= a^b; or the amplitude of
component
',
o,
and the component
vibrations be at right a^igles to
be
their periods
let
A.
one another.
r, t';
putting for conve
we may represent them by
the equations
sin (/
+ a),
and these are the coordinates,
at
= b
sin
(7 j
the time
/,
^),
of the moving
point (see Art. 48).
The
equation to the locus of the point would be found by
eliminating / between
two equations.
these
The
elimination
can, theoretically, be performed so as to lead to an algebraical
equation between
surable,
and y, whenever r and r aye commen
though the process
impracticable except in simple
is
cases.
The
simplest case of
component
/
all
is
that in
which the periods of the
We
have, then, to eliminate
vibrations are equal.
between the two equations
^ a sin
{ni
j
a),
=
b sin {ni
0)
(4)
at Right Angles.
^^
from them we have
and
if
cos a
sm nt
+ sm a cos ni
cos
sin /
j3
j8
cos / =
^
;'^
the values of sin/, cosnt, be found from these equa
and the sum of
tions,
sin
= >
a
be equated to
squares
their
i,
the
result is
^ + y.'^i^^(<'3)^ri^ap) =
o.
(5)
52. This equation always represents an ellipse, which
however degenerate into a
(when the axes are
circle
a straight line (when the length of one axis
The dimensions and
the amplitudes {a, b)
component
the
is o).
position of the ellipse
and the
depend only on
difference of phases (a^^/S) of
component vibrations are
a ^ = o, the equation
If the
vibrations.
may
equal), or
always in the same phase, that
if
is,
becomes
'X
j/>2
(11)='
and
the ellipse degenerates into a straight line, or,
into
two coincident
Again,
straight lines.
if
more
a^^i3 =
strictly,
77,
that
one of the component vibrations be half a period behind
the other, the equation becomes
is,
if
/X
ia
and the locus
If a *
/3
is
y^
+V
again a straight
=  or
,
that
"'
.
line.
is, if
one component be a quarter
of a period behind the other, the equation becomes
I
b^
and the axes of the ellipse coincide with the
component vibrations.
63.
It is
directions of the
evident from equations (4) that the ellipse described
Case of Equal Periods,
3^
by the vibrating point is always inscribed in a rectangle, of
which the sides are 2 a, 2 b, since the extreme values of x and
_y are
a,
+3
from equation
(see Fig. 3).
(5)
for if in
may
This
be formally proved
that equation
we put
=
b,
the
result is
/X
(shewing that the
 cos (a 
s}
i3)
=0,
meets the line^  ^ in two coincident
ellipse
points (as at Q), of which the abscissa
larly,
by putting
j?
we
find
is
a cos (a ^).
^cos(a /3)
Simi
for the ordinate
of the point of contact R.
When
a = p,
and i? coincide
nerates into the diagonal
rates in like
An
mined
if
manner
into the diagonal
ellipse inscribed in
if
at C,
/3
ellipse
tt, it
dege
degene
DI/.
a given rectangle
one point of contact be given.
the angle a
and the
CC"; and when a^^fi =
is
completely deter
Hence,
varied continuously from o to
it
follows that
tt,
the ellipse
would pass continuously through every form capable of being
inscribed in the rectangle
D CU C
including the two dia
gonals as extreme cases.
54. Let us
cylinder, of
now suppose
which
DC,
B B"
C U are
(Fig. 3) to
be the axis of a
the circular ends seen edge
wise by an eye placed at a distance in a line through
per
General Case,
Suppose also the cylinder
pendicular to the plane of the paper.
and
to be transparent,
have marked on
to
made by
of a section
surface the trace
its
a plane touching the circular edge of
This section would be an
each end.
3X
ellipse,
which, as seen by
the eye, would be orthogonally projected into another ellipse
inscribed in the rectangle
D C If C
turned uniformly about
its
axis,
its
possible forms in such a
evidently
go through
that the distance
BQ
all
And
if
the cylinder were
inscribed
this
would be equal
would
ellipse
manner
a multiplied by the
to
cosine of a uniformly varying angle*
Comparing
that
when
a perfect representation
gives
change undergone by the
which
ellipse
harmonic vibrations
rectilinear
component
one another,
vibrations varies
the angular velocity of the rotating cylinder being
equal to the rate of variation of the difference of phase.
BQ
^ acos{a
55.
see
of the
the resultant of two
is
at right angles to
the difference of phase of the
uniformly;
we
these results with those of the last article,
construction
this
(For
&)).
similar construction
may
more general case of any two
be employed in the
much
vibrations of
which
rectilinear
the periods are commensurable, and of which one, at least,
harmonic
is
a case which could rarely be treated algebraically
'{Art. 50).
For the sake of
harmonic vibration
clearness, let us suppose the direction of the
to
be horizontal, or in the axis of x.
vibration will therefore be represented
tion of the
This
47) by an equa
form
= asin (
Lety denote any periodic
and such that/" (2) = f{z +
may
(Art.
f
function,
2
7r).
a)
(6)
which
Then
is
always
finite,
the vertical vibration
be represented by an equation of the form
yfQf^^\
Let us also suppose the ratio of the periods
nr = MTy
Now
let
and n being
(7)
r,
to be
such that
integers.
a curve be drawn in which the abscissa of any point
Representation by
^S
is
proportional
the time
to
and the ordinate
/,
sponding value of J/ given by equation
AB
= T,
curve.)
the corre
is
which
(Fig. 4, in
(7).
may be taken to represent two periods
And suppose the unitline to have been
of such a
chosen
so
Fig. 4.
that a line equal
AB
n x
to
shall
a rectangular
be equal to
circumference of a circle of which the radius
times the
a.
is
then,
If,
of paper were cut out, containing exactly
slip
n periods of the curve,
cylinder of radius a.
could be rolled
it
We
times round a
should thus obtain a complicated
Suppose the whole to
curve on the surface of the cylinder.
manner explained
53 then if a point P were to describe the curve in
such a manner that the projection of P on the base of the
become
transparent,
in Art.
and
to be viewed in the
cylinder should describe
the circumference of the circle uni
would
formly, the horizontal motion of
Py
as seen
by the
be a harmonic vibration, while
its
vertical
motion would be
by equation
identical with that defined
zontal vibrations
(7).
would be completed
in
eye,
Moreover,
the
hori
same time as n
vertical vibrations.
Hence
tical
the apparent coordinates of
with the values of
and
vided the cylinder were turned
such a position as to give
one instant
P would
be always iden
in equations (6)
and
necessary) about
(if
its
(7),
and j/ corresponding values
and thus we should
get, as before,
pro
axis into
at
any
a perfect repre
sentation of the resultant vibration.
56.
An
alteration in the value of either of the angles
a or ^
(equations (6), (7)) would alter the time at which the corresponding vibration passes through a given phase, and cause
different values of
x and^
to
become contemporaneous.
And
transparent Cylinder,
same
the
effect
cylinder about
would be produced
its
new
axis into a
39
to the eye
by turning the
position.
Thus,
if
a were changed into a
same as
if
the cylinder were turned backwards (that
e,
the effect
would be the
is,
with a
motion contrary to that of the projection of F) through an
angle
since in either case the passage of the horizontal vibra
6,
would be accelerated by a time
tion through a given phase
r,
277
would have the same
an equal acceleration of the horizontal vibration ; now,
retardation of the vertical vibration
effect as
if j3
were changed into
and
this
/3
e',
the retardation would be
1\
277
or
would be equal
to the former acceleration, if
cY = e t,
,e.
Hence, a change of ^ into
iS
e'
is
equivalent to a change
J
of a into a \
',
that
is,
to a turning of the cylinder
backwards
through an angle
',
or
e'.
57. Since the curve rolled on the cylinder
similar
portions,
the angular distance between
pomts on two consecutive portions
Hence,
if
pro
would go continuously through
possible forms during a rotation of the cylinder through
the angle
We
277
the cylinder were turned continuously, the
jected curve seen by the eye
all its
is
consists of
corresponding
see also that a uniform variation either of a, or of
would have the
same
effect
as
a uniform
rotation
/S,
of the
cylinder^.
58.
The
to the eye.
results obtained in Arts.
5255 may be
exhibited
But before explaining the mode of doing
so,
we
* This mode of representing stereoscopically the composition of vibrations
due to M. Lissajous. See his memoir * Sur I'Etude optique des Mouvements vibratoires,' Ann. de Ch. et de Phys., t. 51, p. 147.
is
Case in which the Periods
40
consider the case in which the ratio of the periods of the
will
two vibrations
by a given
nearly, but not exactly, expressed
is
numerical fraction.
Suppose then, as
And
terms).
befofe, that r, t' are given constant
quan
lowest
= /
such that m';
tities,
(the ratio
suppose that the
n being
in
vibration
is
vertical
its
same
the
as before (see equation (7), Art. 55), but that the horizontal
(harmonic) vibration
so that
its
is
period
is
now
asm
defined by the equation
277
+ ^)/ + a);
(i
no longer
r,
but
slightly
from
now we
If
r, if
put a
= a\ the above equation becomes
a, that
quantity.
still
/27r/
may,
describes the
disturbed
a u
between
equation and
this last
before, except that a
would be changed
into a uniformly varying instead of a constant
is,
We
.\
\
result of eliminating /
would be the same as
into
will differ
277/^
(7)
^ be a small quantity, positive or negative.
X = asm
and the
which
,i
by the
therefore, consider that the vibrating point
same curve
as before, but that the curve
we
variation of a', just as
describe an ellipse disturbed by the variation of one or
of
is
consider a planet to
more
elements.
its
69.
It
has been
of a would have the
seen (Art.
same
57) that a uniform variation
uniform rotation of the
effect as a
cylinder with an angular velocity equal to the rate of variation
of
case
a, that is, in the
now supposed,
2 Tik
to
and
also that
T
the curve, as seen by the eye, would
go through
all
its
forms
while the cylinder turned through an angle
curve would go through
a time equal to
2 IT
2 "TT
2 TT/v
\
all
its
yOx ~T
nk
'
Suppose
that
^^
Hence
forms
in
M. N.
are the actual
the
num
are not exactly Equal,
bers, in a unit of time, of the horizontal
then
M=
Now
and JV =
the
in the unit
,
number of
of time
is
and
41
vertical vibrations
mr
cotnplete cycles of change of the curve
>
and
equal to
this is
nM mN.
This expression
is
(8)
worthy of remark, especially in connection
with the theory of the socalled beats of imperfect consonances,
as will appear afterwards.
The
sign of
nM mN,
being the same as that of
positive or negative according as the ratio
less
is
than
\s>
^,
is
greater or
In the former case, the rotation of the cylinder
n.
backwards ;
M N
in the latter, forwards.
In the particular case in which the periods of the vibrations
are nearly equal, or
simply
of time
60.
M N.
is
Or
m
the
= n =
i,
the
number of
expression (8) becomes
cycles of change in a unit
the difference of the actual numbers of vibrations.
The two
vibrations are
Figures, 5, 6, illustrate the case in which both
harmonic and have the same amplitude, while
Fig. 5.
Fig. 6.
the periods are such that two horizontal vibrations
same time as three
vertical.
periods ; then the curve in Fig.
= a%\n
271/
J
3T
occupy the
Suppose 37, 2r, are the two
5 is defined by the equations
= sm
>
Particular Case discussed.
4^
while in Fig. 6 the
first
equation
is
changed
27r/
= sin
into
V
(The origin is in each case at the centre of the square.)
These two curves are particular cases of the appearance
presented to the eye by a transparent cylinder having a curve
traced upon its surface in the manner above described, that is,
in the present case, as follows.
periods of the curve j/ = a sin
Let three complete 'waves,' or
2
slip
of paper, so that the axis of
rectangle;
them
will
be drawn upon a rectangular
CL
is
a side of the
parallel to
the length of a rectangle which will just contain
be
477^7,
and such a rectangle can therefore be
twice round a cylinder of radius a.
and the whole
to
become
Suppose
transparent.
Then,
this to
if
rolled
be done,
the cylinder be
held vertically at a distance from the .eye, and turned about
axis, the
curve
will
appear to go through a
which two are represented
into Fig. 6
by a
Fig.
its
of forms of
is
changed
rotation through .30; a second rotation through
30 brings back Fig.
the cylinder
in the figures.
series
5,
with those parts of the curve in front of
which were
at the back,
and
vice versd ;
similar rotation produces Fig. 6 reversed right
fourth reproduces the original Fig. 5.
and
a third
left,
Thus a whole
and a
cycle of
2 TT
forms
is
completed in a rotation through 120, or
(see
A greater number of the forms belonging to this
57).
and other cases of composition of vibrations may be seen
Art.
They were
p. 319.
memoir of Lissajous above cited.
periods of the component vibrations were nearly,
figured in Tyndall's
Lectures on Sound,'
originally given in the
61. If the
but not exactly, in the ratio of 3 to
2,
then (as in Art. 58) the
locus of the vibrating point might be represented by the equations
where
a'
the time.
= a
is
an angle which
sm
Ha)'
y = a sm
varies slowly
and uniformly with
Wheatstones Kalddophone,
In
43
case the path of the point never actually coincides
this
with any curve corresponding to a constant value of
the path of a disturbed planet
if
a',
just as
never actually an ellipse; but
is
the variation of a' be sufficiently slow, the path during one or
more repetitions of the period 3 r will be sensibly the same
if a
were constant, and during a longer time will appear
undergo a continuous change through
all
sponding to constant values of
through
that
a',
is,
as
to
forms corre
the
all
the forms
presented by the curve on the rotating cylinder.
may
62. These phaenomena
of which
trivances,
be exhibited by various con
simplest
the
holtz, consists
and improved by Helm
of two thin and narrow rectangular slips of
same
central axes are in the
their longitudinal
elastic
one
vibrate in
rod
and the other part
The whole
right angles to the former.
position
Thus
formed, of which one part can easily
is
direction,
that
straight line,
while their planes are at right angles to one another.
compound
steel,
manner
or other elastic material, joined together in such a
This
kaleidophone.
the
is
instrument, invented by Wheatstone
by clamping one of the
is
slips in
bright object (such as a silvered bead)
in a direction at
fixed in
an upright
a stand, and a small
attached to the top
is
of the other.
If
now
the rod be disturbed in
parts are bent,
end
will'
tion
is
and then
left
its
the motion of the free
be compounded of vibrations which (when the deflec
at right angles to
certain limits
period of one component
component may be
by clamping the lower part
altered within
at different points.
two periods are commensurable, suppose them to be
If the
2T, fiT,
The
one another.
depending on the length of the upper part of the rod;
but the period of the other
where the
(the least
ratio
common
resultant vibration,
smaU,
any manner, so that both
itself,
not too great) are sensibly rectilinear and harmonic, and
is fixed,
curve,
to
multiple of
is
and the path of the
described in this period.
e.g.
impression
Then mnr
in lowest terms.
wt and
nr)
is
free
If then
the period of the
end
mnr
is
be
a reentrant
sufficiently
not greater than about onetenth of a second, the
on the
retina
made by
the
bright
bead in any
Vibration Microscope.
44
away before the bead comes into
same position again, and the eye sees a continuous bright
curve, more or less complicated according as the numbers m
position has not time to fade
the
and n are greater or
smaller.
If the periods of the
surable, or
component
then the real path of the bead
very complicated
ratio
only by high numbers,
a nonreentrant curve, or a
is
reentrant one.
But, in
case, if the
either
approximately expressible by low numbers, the actual
is
appearance to the eye
through
mate
incommen
vibrations are
their ratio is expressible
if
all
ratio
will
be that of a curve gradually going
the forms which
would be possible
if
the approxi
were exact, in the manner already explained
(Arts.
5659).
63. Another method, due to
M.
upon a screen a beam of
ceiving
sively reflected
Lissajous, consists in re
light
which has been succes
by two small mirrors fixed
to the ends of
two
tuningforks vibrating in planes at right angles to one another.
must be observed that the effect in this case depends, not
the motion of translation of the mirrors, but upon their
It
on
angular motion, which, though small, impresses on the reflected
beam a
sufficient deviation to
ment of
the spot of light
64.
The methods
for illustration;
produce a considerable displace
distant screen.
described in the last two articles are useful
but, for the
following, also devised
The
on a
purpose of exact observation, the
by M. Lissajous,
objectglass of a microscope
is
a tuningfork, so as to vibrate with
counterpoised
is
much
it,
the other prong being
the axis of the objectglass
the plane of the
vibrations.
The
better adapted.
attached to one prong of
is at
eyepiece
is
right angles to
fixed.
When
the fork vibrates, the image of any stationary luminous point,
formed by the
objectglass, performs also vibrations
very approximately linear and harmonic;
is
image
viewed through the fixed eyepiece, and (the vibrations being
sufficiently rapid)
if
which are
this vibrating
appears as a continuous straight
the luminous point
itself,
line.
rectilinear vibrations at right angles to those of the fork,
the
same
plane, the
image
But,
instead of being stationary, performs
will
and
in
appear as a curve, either inva
Imaginary Unrolling.
45
form, or changing according to the conditions ex
liable in
Let us suppose, for clearness, that
plained in Arts. 55, &c.
the vibrations of the objectglass are horizontal, and those of
Then
the luminous point vertical.
vibration of the
depend upon the character of the
the form of the curve will
vertical
the
component, and upon the
horizontal component
hence,
known, the character of the
vibrations
component
the horizontal
image being harmonic, and of given period,
ratio
if
of
its
period to that of
the ratio of the periods be
vertical vibrations
(i.
e.
the actual
of the luminous point) can be inferred from the
observed form of the curve.
In
has been seen that in order that the curve
fact, it
distinctly observable, the periods of th^
must be
tions
some simple
one another
to
ratio.
The
curve
either exactly, or very nearly, in
may
then be supposed to have
been formed by rolling on a transparent
vertical
plane curve in which the (horizontal) abscissa
to the time,
and the
may be
two component vibra
(vertical)
ordinate
is
is
cylinder a
proportional
equal to the actual
displacement of the vibrating point, at the given time, from
We
its
mean
position.
curve,
which completely defines the actual vibration of the point,
It has been re
have, therefore, to reproduce this plane
by imagining the cylinder to be unrolled.
marked by Helmholtz that it is easier to see what the result of
would be, when the ratio of the periods is not
because then the cylinder appears
quite exact, than when it is
this unrolling
to turn about
to see
it,
its
axis (Art. 57) so that the observer
so to speak,
on
all sides,
and
is
to disentangle
enabled
from one
another those parts of the curve which are on the front from
those which are at the back^ through the contrary duections of
their motion.
65. In reference to this subject, the student will find the
following a useful exercise.
Draw on
slip
of paper two
com
(Art. 66),
choosing the wave
length so that the double wave can just be
wound once round
plete
waves of a harmonic curve
a glass cylinder
(e. g.
common
lampchimney).
along the curve, so as to obtain a
slip
Cut the paper
of which one edge has
the form of the curve; and then, having rolled this
on
the glass
Experiment
4^
cylinder,
glazier's
mark the glass along the edge of the paper with a
diamond pencil. This is very easily done, and the
curve on the glass
back.
If
now
is
distinctly visible
will
both in fiont and at the
the cylinder be held vertically at a moderate
distance from the eye,
forms
described,
and turned about
its
be seen which would be produced
axis, the series of
if,
tion of the kind described in the last article, the
in
an observa
luminous point
performed simple harmonic vibrations with a period nearly
equal to half that of the vibrations of the microscope.
Then
vary the experiment by substituting for the harmonic
curve on the paper either one or more waves of any other kind,
and
lines,
particularly of a
zigzag formed
by portions of
straight
thus
Fig.
The same
thing
may
7
be done with a wavelength so chosen
go two, three, or more times round the
cylinder.
The curve on the glass then becomes more and
more complicated, and the marking with the diamond pencil is
that the paper will
not so easy, on account of the overlapping of the paper.
The
object
of the exercise
imaginary unrolling, which
is
is
to
practise the
form of the plane curve on the paper from
as seen
on the
cylinder.
eye in the
necessary in order to infer the
that of the curve
(See Helmholtz, p. 139.)
CHAPTER
IV.
THE HARMONIC CURVE.
compounded of
66. If the motion of a point be
harmonic
and of uniform motion
vibrations,
direction of those vibrations, the point
at right angles to the
will describe
a plane curve which
Let the straight
is
called the harmonic curve.
be taken for axis of x^ and
line
of the motion along
velocity
it;
then
nate^
/ shall
will
let
v be the
we may suppose
origin to be so taken that the abscissa of the
any time
rectilinear
in a straight line
be given by the equation
the
moving point at
= vt. The ordi
be given (Art. 47) by the equation
=^
a sm
/2'n/
J,
where a and r are the amplitude and period of the harmonic
vibrations.
Eliminating
VT =
A,
we
between these two equations, and then putting
obtain
= a%\Xi\~
for the equation of the
monly
called the
harmonic curve.
curve of
(i)
J
(It
was formerly com
sines.')
If a wheel were to turn uniformly about a horizontal axis,
and
at the
same time
to slide uniformly along
it,
the projection
of any point in the wheel upon a horizontal plane would describe such a curve.
Or
end by an oblique plane
and then
if
a wooden cylinder, terminated at one
section,
were smeared with
printer's ink,
rolled over a sheet of white paper, the line
bounding
Harmonic Curve,
48
the blackened part of the paper would be a harmonic curve.
(The proof of
which has
this proposition,
may be left to the
(i) we put x + i\
implied (Art. 53),
If in equation
integer),
of
the value
consists of
an
is
in fact
been already
reader.)
instead of
The
unaltered.
(z
being any
curve, therefore,
of similar waves, thus,
infinite series
Fig.
I.
which are divided symmetrically into upper and under portions
by the axis of x. The distance between corresponding points
of two consecutive waves
is
A,
and the constant
is
the greatest value of the ordinate,
is
which
a,
which
is
called the wavelength ;
called, as before, the amplitude.
The
value of a has
determines
its
no
effect
on
position ; so that a
the form of the curve, but
change
in
a would
shift
the
whole curve along the axis of x.
67.
harmonic curve
is
most
easily
drawn
in practice
by
determining a number of points and drawing the curve through
them by hand.
The
points
may
at (arbitrary) equal distances,
ordinates of points
the
The
on a
circumference into
radius of the
distance
between
circle
an arbitrary number of equal
circle
two
be found by erecting ordinates
and making them equal to the
of arbitrary radius, which divide
parts.
determines the amplitude, and the
consecutive
ordinates
of
the
curve.
Harmonic
Composition of
multiplied
by the number of parts
divided,
the wavelength.
is
into
Curves,
49
which the
circle
is
Compositio7i of Har^nonic Curves.
68. The formation of a resultant curve, in which the ordinate of any point
ordinates of the
The
(Art. 10, &c.).
harmonic
Two
is
sum
the algebraical
component
of the corresponding
curves, has been already explained
case in which the
component curves
are
specially important.
is
harmonic curves which have equal wavelengths can
always be compounded into another harmonic curve with the
same wavelength.
For
let
the
component curves be
+ay
= a^m{^2i:~
the value of
= ^ sinr2 7r
in the resultant curve
is
the
sum
^)}
of the values
given by these two equations, and this can be put in the form
y
if
sm(
and y be determined
77
f
(see Art.
yj>
50) so as
to
satisfy the
equations
c cos
f
The
r sin
#
value of
c,
the amplitude of the resultant curve,
^d^
which
a
jS,
y = a cos a\b cos j3,
y = sin a I <5 sin /3.
may
+ ^' H
vary from a
ab cos (a
\ b to
which determines the
/3),
a^^b, according
relative
is
to the value
position of the
compo
nents.
In the particular case in which the amplitudes of the components are equal, and one of them
the other, so that cos(a
/3)
is
i,
half a wavelength before
the value of ^
is
o; or
the resultant curve degenerates into a straight line coinciding
Composition of Harmonic Curves.
50
with the axis of x^ the components completely neutralizing one
another.
68 ^. By means
draw any
of a mechanical contrivance
resultant curve of this kind,
is
it
possible to
formed, as above
i.e.
by compounding two simple harmonic curves. The
components may be chosen in various ways as regards amplitude and wavelength, and the number of compound curves
that can be drawn will be limited only by the mechanical
described,
conditions of the apparatus \
Thus,
the
if
component curves be
y^a^miii:
we can vary
at
f
y = hm{2'n
a)j
pleasure
the
amplitudes a and
p\^
h,
and the
which the phases of the two curves,
relatively to one another, depend.
We can also give different
values to the ratio m n, and it is on this ratio that the form of
quantities
a and
^ on
:
the resultant chiefly depends, though
an
alteration in the values of
a and
it
should be observed that
or a and
fi,
d,
modifies
it
in
one way or another.
In the accompanying diagrams some of these resultant curves
are shewn.
ticular
No.
gives the simple harmonic curve of a par
wavelength and amplitude, and No.
of half the
we choose
look upon No.
to
one of the same
Now
wavelength.
amplitude but
(Art.
79),
if
as the 'curve of pressure'
(Art. 5) corresponding to a simple
tone of any given pitch,
then No. 2 will be the curve of pressure for a simple tone
This
an octave above.
will
be so whatever the amplitude
be, for this affects the intensity of the
may
sound only, and not the
pitch.
If
we now compound
these two simple harmonic curves
we
obtain the curve of pressure for the consonance of two simple
tones an octave apart, as shewn in No.
of the resultant
is,
as
we have
The
3.
already said, the
general form
same whatever
be the amplitudes and phases of the components, but (Art. 70)
^ For a description of the instrument the reader
No. 150, 1874.
is
referred to Proc. R. S.
Composition of
Harmonic
Curves.
51
ili^li
illl
10
11
12
M^^^^
IJDM
13A'^fj
l0tMK
E
52
Composition of
\\
21'
\
V w
Harmonic
Cui'^ves,
Harmonic Curves,
Composition of
is
This
modified by alterations in the values of either.
is
shewn
any one of which may be
in the four forms given, Nos. 36,
when
taken as representing the effect on the ear
is
55
this interval
sounded.
In Nos. 710 are shewn the curves of pressure for some of
whose
the intervals
we have
the
fifth
ratios are given in Art. 31.
(3
the minor third (6
No. 8 the fourth
2), in
5), in
(4
Thus, in No. 7
3), in No. 9
:
No. 10 the minor second (10
9).
In these four curves we notice that the nearer the ratio approximates to unity, and therefore the corresponding interval to a
more the curve tends
unison, the
diminish.
No.
This
is
still
81
II the ratio is
better
to periodically enlarge
76 or almost exactly 16
exact the narrowest parts of the curve would
in
No. 12
it
is
the ratio of a
Now
it
nearly in
is
is
55
54, and
in
No. 13
it
is
81
be
all
similar),
80, or (Art.
in
were
(if it
15,
and
Thus
seen in Nos. 1113.
39)
comma.
a wellknown
fact that
when two
simple tones
unison are sounded together, a peculiar throbbing
heard, and the two notes are said to produce
'
These
beats.'
by these enlargements, each beat corwide, and each interval of comparative silence
beats are represented
responding to the
the
to
This
narrow, part of the curve.
is
seen to greatest
advantage perhaps in No. 13, where a single 'beat'
is
repre
sented.
We
saw above
Nos. 36 were
in
that the wavelengths of the
2:1;
the ratio
but
components
if this ratio
in
be slightly
we have a curve of pressure for the octave when thrown
somewhat out of time. Thus, changing the ratio to 19 9,
we get in No. 14 such a curve, and it is noticeable that it
altered
passes approximately through
and, of course, through
all
all
the forms given in Nos. 36,
the intermediate ones besides.
Nos. 15, 16, similar curves are shewn, but the
20 and 81
nearer that of the octave, viz. 39
:
ively,
the
periods
are correspondingly longer.
ratios
In
being
40 respectNo. 17 gives
:
same curve again, but with one component of very small
amplitude.
No. 18 shews the curve corresponding to the
interval of a twelfth thrown a little out of tune, and No.
the
Composition of Harmonic Curves.
54
19 the same, but with one component of half the amplitude
Nos. 20, 21 give the curves corresponding to
of the other.
the intervals 81
55 and 80
61, or nearly 3
and 4
respectively.
We may
marked
remark
in
that
these
all
cases (Nos.
1421) a
difference exists between the curve of pressure for
interval (such as the octave)
somewhat out of
an imperfect unison such as
is
tune,
and
given in Nos. 12, 13.
an
that for
In the
would appear from the nature of the curve
(cf. No. 16) that no 'beats' would be noticed, i.e. crescendos
and diminuendos such as occur when two notes nearly in tune
former case
it
are sounded together, for the width of the curve remains practically constant, nevertheless
it
is
known
well
such are heard when any simple interval
or
fifth) is
The
thrown a
these curves are
as
little
explanation
is
that in
general
(e.g. twelfth, octave,
out of tune.
probably to be found in the
compounded of
fact that all
simple harmonic curves such
correspond (Art. 14) to simple tones.
Now,
it
is
almost
impossible to obtain such tones, for the sounds produced by
all
instruments are (Art. 12) more or less
when a
fifth is
played on a
violin, besides the
there are also heard the harmonics of each.
either
it
fundamental
is
are also changed,
and the beats
other with which
it
'
When,
therefore,
that ensue are caused
beating
'
thus,
two fundamentals
harmonics belonging to
slightly altered the
harmonic of the one string
compound;
by an
with an harmonic of the
had previously been
in unison.
If
we could
hear two absolutely simple tones nearly an octave apart played
together, there would,
no doubt, be heard a kind of undulation,
but probably of a different nature to the beats they would
produce
if
nearly in unison
^.
69.
68 that any number of
harmonic curves having equal wavelengths may be compounded
It
evidently follows from Art.
into a single
harmonic curve with the same wavelength, and of
which the greatest possible amplitude
is
the
sum
of the ampli
tudes of the component curves.
^ For a further discussion of this question the reader is
by Bosanquet. Phil, Mag., fifth series, xi, pp. 420, 492.
referred to a paper
Composition of Harmonic Curves.
r^^
70. If the component curves have different wavelengths,
they can no longer be compounded into a single harmonic
curve; though,
sultant curve
Suppose
common
be the least
to
A.
the wavelengths be commensurable, the re
if
periodic.
is
lengths, so that their actual values are
are integers.
The
multiple of the wave
>
equation to the resultant curve
asml2 it
\
where
&C.5
+ osml2 7rr~ +
is
(^
/,,...
then
which does not admit of reduction; but we see that the value
of J/
unaltered by putting
is
.a;
mon
for x, so that the period or
A.
wavelength of the resultant curve
is
A, that
is,
the least
com
multiple of the wavelengths of the components.
If the
have no
component wavelengths
common
finite
resultant curve
is infinite
multiple,
:
are incommensurable, they
period of the
so that the
in other words, the resultant
is
non
periodic.
The /brms of the component harmonic curves depend only
on their amplitudes and wavelengths but their positions depend
upon the constants a, /S, &c. A variation in any one of these
;
shifts
the corresponding curve along the axis;
shifting will evidently alter the
the positions of
altering
its
its
and any such
form of the resultant curve, and
points of intersection with the axis, without
wavelength.
71. If the wavelength only of the resultant be given, the
may
wavelengths of the components
of
it,
including
the
and the number of the
be
all
possible aliquot parts
one case of an aliquot part;
whole as
possible
components
is
therefore
un
limited.
Thus every curve which could be
constructed in this manner,
so as to have a given wavelength A, would be found amongst
those produced by placing along the
number of harmonic curves
same
axis
an unlimited
as components, with wavelengths
A, iA, lA, &c.
It is evident that
components, and
by varying
shifting
arbitrarily the
them
arbitrarily
amplitudes of the
along the
axis,
an
Enunciation of
^6
number of
same wavelength
infinite
resultants could be produced, having
A.
But
the
all
could not be assumed without
it
proof that every possible variety of periodic curve c6uld be so
produced.
This, however (with a limitation to be mentioned below),
true,
and
theorem of Fourier.
constitutes the celebrated
giving a formal enunciation of
we
it,
will
is
Before
define precisely the
meaning of the word axis as used above. Corresponding
points of a periodic curve lie upon a straight fine parallel
a fixed
to
rection
direction.
may
Any
straight line
curve
the
axis
j;
on
= asin(.r
opposite
its
of a
but
that di
to
it
is
conve
which cuts off equal areas from
nient to call the axis that line
the
parallel
be called an axis of the curve;
Thus, the axis of
sides.
is
harmonic curve, as defined by the equation
a).
This
being
premised,
we proceed
to
enunciate
Fourier's Theorem.
72. If any arbitrary periodic curve be drawn, having a given
may
wavelength A, the same curve
always be produced by
compounding harmonic curves (in general infinite in number)
having the same axis, and having A, J A, J A, .... for their
wavelengths.
The
only
curve are,
limitations
first,
the
to
secondly, that the projection,
so as to describe the curve,
irregularity
of the
must be always
arbitrary
and
on the axis, of a point moving
must move always in the same
that the ordinate
finite;
direction.
These conditions being
satisfied,
a wave of the curve
may
have any form whatever, including any number of straight
portions.
may
Analytically the theorem
It
Op
possible
is
ttg,
to
&c., so that a
be expressed as follows
determine the constants C,
Q, Q,
&c.,
wave of the periodic curve defined by the
equation
C + CjSin(^^ +
i)
+ C2sin(2^^
fa^)^...
Fourier s Theorem.
or
j^
shall
C+
57
^ +
2;.^, C, sin (
a,)
have any proposed form, subject to the conditions men
tioned above.
By
a change of notation,
JJ'
^0+
we may
write the above equation
more convenient form,
in the following
viz.
+ 2 2.^^ ^,sm^.
2^^ ^iCOSy
(2)
(For a demonstration of the theorem, see the Appendix to
this chapter.)
The
73.
includes
demonstration
of
determination
of
But we may observe here
theorem,
once, by
theorem just enunciated
the
assuming
that,
constants.
the
of
values
the
the
truth
of the
we can obtain the expressions
means of the following simple propositions.
for these values
at
If ij, be integers, all the integrals
/2iT:X
cos cos
2117
X
.
I sm
dx^
sm
2it:x
sm 2Jt:x
ax,
.
2Z'7TX
2J7TX
cos
ax,
,
taken between the limits o and A, vanish unless j =
the third integral
common
vanishes, while the
still
=^
value , or the several values
A.
first
and
o,
t.
IfJ = i
two have the
according as
equal
/ is different from, or
Hence,
if
2ii:X
dx,
A
.
cos
we
to, o.
multiply both
.
or by
between the above
sm
of the
sides
equation (2) by
2tTTX J
^
^
dx, ana mtegrate
,
limits,
we
obtain,
cos
21'nx
dx,
A
for
cluding o,
^
J/
2Z1TX
y sm A
dx.
all
m
.
each case
values of
i,
in
Enunciation of Fourier s Theorem.
58
may
74. Thus, whatever the function fix)
be (the pro er
limitations being always supposed), the expression
I
C^jri
2 ^^=Qo
'
2,111
5'"
X 2,=i
C^
.,
2 ITl
X" J/ W sn ;^
^^
(3)
represents a periodic function of which the value coincides with
that oi /{x) for
all
values of
between o and
other values, unless the function /{x) be
have A for
its
A,
but not for
itself periodic,
and
/{x + A) = /{x) in which last
(3) may be taken without limitation
period, so that
case alone the expression
as equivalent iof{x).
75.
When
the actual values of the coefficients A^, Bi, are
required, they have to be found
by evaluating the
73) by which they are expressed.
Suppose, as in Art. 74, that y = /{x) from
definite in
tegrals (Art.
This equation
may
subsist in
two
= o io
different senses,
which
X.
it
is
important to distinguish.
{I)
y may
be a given function of
braical sense;
that
is,
it
may
in the ordinary alge
be possible to assign a rule by
which the value of j^ can be calculated for any assumed value
Or
of X.
may
using the word function in the same sense),
(still
be a given function from
function
from
values between o
= a to
and
ji;
= o
to
.;*:
&c., a,
b,
b,
another given
^,
&c.,
being given
A.
In these cases the ordinary methods of the integral calculus
are applicable to the evaluation of the definite integrals.
(2) J/
may
be a given function of
But
only in the more general
sense (including the former as a particular case) in which the
word function should always be understood
physics;
viz.
that for every value of
value oi y, though
calculating
it,
in
it
may
there
in
is
mathematical
a determinate
be impossible to assign any rule for
which case
it
is
only to be ascertained by
actual observation or measurement.
Thus,
if
we draw by hand upon paper an
many
between two points, we can measure as
arbitrary curve
ordinates as
we
Illustrations of Fourier s Theorem.
we can
please, but
for
no
give
59
rule for calculating the value oi
an assumed value of x.
In such a case the values of the definite integrals can only
be found approximately, by measuring a sufficient number of
We
and applying the method of quadratures.
values of ^,
thus obtain, by
means of equation
calculating the value of
any value of
for
The
exactly
known;
must be
in possession of such a rule to begin with.
would be exact
if
the coefficients A^, B^, were
order to calculate them exactly,
in
but,
for
between given
limits.
rule
can
an approximate rule
(2),
Since, however, the coefficients actually exist, though
we
we may
not be able to ascertain their values rigorously, the abstract
theorem
truth of the
is
in
value consists partly in
pression (within
it
no way
this, that
interfered with
it
an
furnishes
and
great
its
analytical ex
any function whatever, whether
finite limits) for
be a function in the ordinary algebraical sense, or only in
the physical sense explained above.
When
the coefficients A^^ B^, are considered as having arbi
trary values, the expression (2) (Art. 72) evidently represents
a completely arbitrary periodic function of x.
The
76.
following
is
a simple and useful example of the
application of the theorem.
>
Fig.
2.
Let OA, AB,\yQ two straight
the origin
It is
and
at a point
lines, cutting the
B, such
that
OB
axis of
at
A.
required to determine the coefficients so that the ex
pression (3), Art. 74, shall give the value of the ordinate at any
point of the
Suppose
from
=
'
curve
, h,
\.o
'
OAB^
from
jtr
= o
to
are the coordinates of A.
a,
and
is
A^ he
A.
Theny(.;t7)
A)
from
\'s>
= a
x
to
6q
Illustrations
= A.
jtr
(Art.
Hence, putting
of
the present
for
we have
n,
73)
KAi =
X cos nxdx +
n^Xa
The
value of
I
expression 
^^
r^
ix
X)smnxdx.
find, after
X) cos
nxdx
easy reductions,
a{i cosnX) X{i cosna)
X a
Xsmna asmnX
X a
n^Xa
(x
aXja^
Performing the integrations, we
~
XB, =  /C'^ xsmnxdx +
ajo
is
most simply obtained
directly
from the
r^
/"{x) dx, which gives at once
XJo
Aq =  X (2iTe2iOAB) = .
But
it
may also
be found by evaluating in the usual way the above
expression for A^,
when /(and
be observed, that for
this
an integer before putting
course,
we
B^ =
If
o.
find, for values of
^ These
equation
from
A^ =
^
^i^i:^
result
is
The same
o.
to oo
tt;
to
to
be
r (
A2
41^17^
a(X^a)
r )
Sm
A^ =)
2 tTT
I )
are to be introduced in the
72, which then becomes the equation to a
wave
is
OAB.
easily reducible to the following
bX'^
is
process gives, of
a)^ COS 2 271 YX
periodic curve, of which one
The
it
introduce the value of ( =
a{X
expressions (with
(2), Art.
now we
t
Only
therefore n) = o.
purpose we must not assume
^z=Qo
= ^^Tx
\^'n^a{Xd)^i=^
2
1
zira
^smsm
i^
form
2'
(4)'
Fourier s Theorem.
may
It
be observed that
of (4) vanish for
= 
on the
the periodic terms
all
and
6i
a \\
also for
right
from which
follows that every one of the harmonic curves represented
it
by the several terms passes through the two points C, D, which
bisect the lines
22
and
are  >
>
B, since the
abscissae of these points
both = 
their ordinates are
It
also
is
evident that the
by
A,
'
axis
(4) (consisting
'
whole locus represented
(Art. 71) of the
of repetitions
A B)
of
the
is
CD
line
indefinitely produced.
77.
is
The
following simpler example
also
is
instructive.
It
required to find a periodic function, of which the value shall
coincide with that of
mix
from
'
= o to
.r
A.
In
other words, to find the equation to a periodic curve consisting
Fig.
of repetitions of the straight
and tan
In
case
this
^i =
is
easily
mX
2nT
3), in
which
= \^
we have
"^
7?
it
A B (Fig.
BMC = m.
A
and
line
.3.
{x
f\
.
Hence equation
A dx
;
2ZTTX
^\
found that A^
__
COS
==
dx.
for
all
values
(2), Art.
72, gives,
of
i,
while
6a
Illustrations of
mk ,^i=aa
 sin
Zt'lTX
)
or
y
^
mX{l
2'JTX
< sm^ + sin
which
is
A.2
(l
77
277^*
277^1:
2 + I sins
 +
^
k
...
that, if the
consisting of the detached lines
locus be considered
B, B' E,
undergoes a sudden alteration from
m~
to
the equation (5) gives_>^ = o, that
of the two values just mentioned (see
values of
On
chapter).
continuous,
as
&c., the value oi
when
passes through o or any multiple of A, while for these
is
(5)
the required equation.
Here we may observe
mean
>
)
y
x
critical
the arithmetic
is,
Appendix
to this
the other hand, since every term in the series (5)
is
it
impossible that the
sum
of the series can
undergo an absolutely sudden change of value, without passing
This subject cannot be
through the intermediate values.
discussed here;
varies
from a value
infinitely
near to a
to a value infinitely near, but greater,
through
all
fully
but 'the true view seems to be that while
values from
m
to
~ m
critical value,
but
less,
passes instantaneously
Or, geometrically, the
locus of the equation (5) ought to be considered as including
the portions
A^ A, BB^,
&c.,
which are inclined
at
an
infinitely
small angle to the true perpendiculars drawn through 0, C, &c.,
and cut them in those points.
Assuming that we may differentiate equation
AAA
2'7TX
2''7TX
'='"'{ cos 
Now,
h cos 2
(5)
2 IT
h COS 3
we
obtain
X
h
considering the series
I
(COS0
+ C0S2^ +
C0S3^
...)
(6)
as the limit of
2
(ccosO {c^cos 20
1
that
is,
of the fraction
becomes =
i,
we
see that
+
,
it
..),
c^
when
c (increasing)
must be taken as representing o
Fourier s Theorem,
6^^
for all values of Q except the critical values o, 2 tt, &c.,
give cos ^ =
I,
in
which case
it
becomes
before, the difficulty of attributing a
series of
that
all
to o, while
00
being
And we
which
avoid, as
sudden change of value to
by considering
and back again
the terms are continuous,
all
passes through
it
from
which
00
values from o to 00
varies
infinitely little greater
infinitely little less to
from being
than a
And
critical value.
it
fol
lows that the series within brackets in the above expression
for J has in general
dx
while
J for
its
value, so that j
dx
but,
passes through the critical values o. A, &c., the value
of the series passes instantaneously through
to 00
= m\
and back again
Hence A\ A, B,
all
values from
^.
B", &c. in Fig.
3,
are to be considered as
which the tangent changes its direction, not with
So
absolute suddenness, but by turning round those points.
points
at
that if
we suppose a moveable
locus
A B B\
approaches
&c., the
infinitely
point
to
be describing the
tangent coincides with
P
AB
near to B, and, while
is
AB
until
passing through
B\ with
and
B^ turns through all directions between
which last it coincides as soon as P has passed through B.
In other words, the two lines AB, B B", are to be considered
not as making an angle at B, but as being connected by an
infinitely short
curved arc, of which the radius of curvature
all discussion of the legitimacy of differenlogical validity of reasoning founded upon the
properties of the series (6). What is certain is, that it is impossible to have
clear notions of the true nature of Fourier's series, especially in its application to the representation of discontinuous functions, without some such
For a view of the various methods which
illustrations as those in the text.
have been proposed in order to treat the subject with perfect rigour, and
of the theoretical questions connected with it, the reader is referred to
^
"We purposely avoid here
tiating
(5),
and of the
Stokes, On the Critical Values of the Sums of Periodic Series. {Camb.
Phil. Traits., vol. viii.)
De Morgan, Diff. and Int. Cal., p. 605, &c.
Price, Infinitesimal Calculus, vol. ii, 197.
Thomson and Tait, Nat. Phil., vol. i, 75.
Boole, On the Analysis of Discontinuous Functions. ( Trans, of P. LA..,
vol. xxi, pt. I.)
But Fourier's original work, Thiorie analytique de la Chaleur, which unfortunately is now rare, should be consulted by all students who can obtain
access to
it.
Illustrations of Fourier s Theorem.
64
at the extremities
is 00
remark
is
and
infinitely small at the middle.
This
of course equally applicable to the angular points in
the locus, Fig.
rem evades
In general, we
2.
may
say that Fourier's theo
the difficulty of expressing analytically the abrupt
changes of value which may, and do, occur in nature, by sub
them continuous, but
stituting for
78.
city,
Any
physical condition (such as density, pressure, velo
&c.) which
which
changes.
infinitely rapid,
varies
measurable in magnitude or intensity, and
is
periodically with
function of the time by
the
means of
time,
is
expressible
For
Fourier's series.
case of actual physical changes, the conditions which
theorem applicable are necessarily
fulfilled.
as
in the
make
the
In other words,
every actual vibration can be resolved mathematically into har
monic vibrations. \i y represent the magnitude in question,
and T the period of its vibration, then y is expressible by an
equation of the form
where y^
is
the mean^ value of _>/,
is
by
represents
itself
and each of the
an aliquot part of the whole period
79.
ticular
Thus every
variable terms
a harmonic vibration, of which the period
r.
periodic disturbance of the
and
air,
in par
such vibrations as excite the sensation of sound, can be
so resolved.
Now we know
as a fact that a vibration of the
air excites in general the sensation
of a musical note, which
is
not a simple tone (Art. 12, &c.), but a combination of tones cor
responding in general to vibrations of which the periods are
aliquot parts of the period of the original vibration.
(The ex
ceptions to this statement are apparent rather than real.
socalled vibration of a tuningfork, for example,
'
vibration
'
in the strict sense of the term, but
is
is
The
not a single
compounded
Hence
of vibrations of which the periods are incommensurable.
The value
oiy^, viz. 
has, at instants separated
the pariod t.
ydt,
by
is
the average of all the values which
infinitely
small equidistant intervals, during
Demonstration of Fourier
the whole
is not really periodic.
In this and other
component tones are heard which do not belong
harmonic scale of the fundamental tone.)
The
the
6^
motion
similar cases,
to the
Theorem.
a note into simple tones after
ear, therefore, resolves
same manner
tion into
in
which Fourier's theorem resolves a vibra
harmonic vibrations ; and the question naturally
whether each simple tone perceived by the ear
exclusively
complex
We
really
is
arises
caused
by the corresponding harmonic component of the
vibration.
shall
soon be able to assign a conclusive reason for
believing that this
we
so; and
is
an answer
shall thus obtain
to the question suggested in Art. 14.
APPENDIX TO CHAPTER
IV.
FOURIERS THEOREM.
The
equation
ic'
^
2C COS (x
a) ^
(0
c^
which may be also written
(ir2)sec2^^^^
(i^y +
a and
I.
+r)nan22
being any constants, represents
which the ordinate
than
(i
is
always positive
In what follows
also that c
if
a periodic
c
this condition will
of
curve
be numerically
less
be supposed, and
is positive.
Then ^y will have
values, corresponding to
for
<r
j*;
+
= a
F
maximum and minimum
r
4: 2 ?V,
jt:
= a
{2 /
i)
tt,
Demonstration of
65
i
and the distance between the ordinates
on successive waves of the curve
being any integer;
corresponding points
of
is 277.
M A AT
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4 represents a portion of the curve in the case in which
H, are two of the maximum ordinates, and
^.
Q,
Pq M^ a minimum
ordinate.
It is evident that if the value of
be increased, tending towards i as a limit, the maximum
and minimum ordinates will tend towards 00 and o as limits.
At the same time if a fixed point M, or M' be taken, however
ox M' P' will tend to o as a
near to A^ the ordinate
c
MP
limit.
Hence, if the curve be considered as described by a point P,
motion of
tends, as the value of c approaches i, to
except when
become that of a point which moves along
infinitely near to one of the points A,B, &c., but passes those
points by going up the left side of the ordinate to an infinite
distance, and down again on the right side.
the
The
values (a
OX
sz'tt)
of
at
A^ B,
&c.,
will
be
called
critical values.
The area included between the curve, the axis of x, and two
consecutive corresponding ordinates (as
M, P" M'\ or AQ,
This is easily found by integrating directly the
is 2 77.
expression J/ ^jf/ but it is most simply obtained by first developing j/ in a series : thus,
BR)
J/
^ X
2 (^
cos
(.;;
a) +
f^^ ^^^
'^u^
VUt.*7)}i
iT^
cos 2
(;i:
^chr
a) +
(if
. .
.),
Fourier s Theorem.
6y
from which, observing that
co^iix
a)dx
o,
JX
of
for ail values
except
we
o,
once
find at
ydx =2
77.
JX
The
Q A M^ P^,
obvious inferences
next following minimum
The following are
of course = n.
maximum and
area between a
ordinate, (as
is
MP, MP'
be any two fixed ordinates, including one
between them, the area
tends to 2 tt as a Hmit when the value of c approaches to i.
This is true however near either or both ordinates may be to
A Q, so long as neither of them coincides with A Q absolutely.
M' tends to become = n.
Each of the areas
And if M'F, M'' F' be any two fixed ordinates, both included between two consecutive maximum ordinates, the area
And this is true
tends at the same time to o.
M' P' P"
P" may be to the maximum ordinates
P",
however near
AQ, BR, so long as there is not absolute coincidence with
If
maximum
MPQM'h^
^'
AQ
ordinate
MPQA^AQF
M"
M'
M"
either.
And, however small the
may
be,
it
fixed quantities
A M, A M, M" B
possible to take c so nearly equal to
is
that the
MPQA, A QFM\ M'' P''RB, shall each differ from
and the area M' P" P'' M' from o, by quantities less than any
areas
TT,
assigned quantity.
These conclusions may be expressed analytically as follows.
If Xq, x^, be two values of x, including between them only one
critical value (say a), with which neither of them absolutely
coincides, and if e, e^ be any positive constants such that a + e,
e^ are also both included between Xq and x^, then the
and a
four integrals
y^ael
Ta +
pa.
ydx,
ydx,
J a e^
Xq
Px^
ydx,
ydx,
Ja+e
/
have for their limiting values 0,77, rrr, o, when c approaches to i,
however small e and e^ may be. The sum of the four integrals
ydx,
J Xq
is /
sible value (271), this is
for
its
x^
to
equal to 2
7r;
and, supposing
limit
when
c
/
middle integrals
is /
x^^
approaches to
a + e
ydx, and
F
this
have the greatest admis
and
i.
in
any case has
The sum
has 2 7r for
2 it
of the two
its limit.
Demonstration of
68
now suppose
Let us
x^Xq
is
not
is
for
finite
(y having
all
that x^, x^ have any values such that
>27r; and lety*(^) be any function which
values of x from x^ to x^ inclusive.
Then
the value (i) as before) the integral
/{x)ydx,
(2)
f:
since J/
I
always positive,
is
ydx, by some
is
equal to the product of the integral
quantity intermediate between the (algebrai
J Xq
cally) least and greatest values which/" (jp) takes while x varies
from Xq to Xy
There are three cases to be considered.
(1) There may be no critical value (a+ 2z'7r) from x  x^
to
= x^
In
inclusively.
this case the limiting value
of
ly dx,
J Xo
and therefore of the
integral (2),
There may be a
(2)
and x^, but not coinciding with
In
o when c approaches to i.
say x = a, between x^
is
critical value,
either of those limits.
may be
this case the integral (2)
considered as the
sum
of the three integrals
y'*a el
f{x)ydx,
ra +
/
J a
xq
of which the
first
and
Z^xi
f(x)ydx,
e^
/{x)ydx,
a
third have o for their limiting values (by
ra + e
the
second
case), while the
first
by some
quantity
is
equal to
ydx
multiplied
J ae^
intermediate between the least and greatest
x varies from a e^ to a + e.
But e and e^ may be as small as we please they may therefore
(a).
shall differ infinitely little from
be taken so small that
ra + e
Also, the limiting value of/ ydx is 277, as was shewn above.
values which
/{x)
takes while
J a el
Hence we infer that in
when c approaches to i,
this case the limit
of the integral (2),
is
2 7r/{a).
or both of the limits, Xq, x^, may coincide with a
Suppose, for instance, x^ = a, x^ = a
2 ir.
by considering the integral (2) as the sum of
pxiel
rxQ + e
rxi
One
(3)
Then
J
it
will
value.
critical
/{x)ydx,
be
xq
seen without
'^/(^o) + V(^i)
that
/{x)ydx,
XQ + e
difiiculty
is, 77
(/(a)
that
the
+/(a +
/(x)ydx,
xie^
limiting
tt) ).
value
is
Fourier's Theorem,
69
If only one of the limits x^, x^^ coincided with a critical
value a, the result would evidently be 'nf{a).
The above conclusions require modification in the case in
which the function /"(^) is such as to undergo a sudden finite
change of value when x passes through the critical value. If
a sudden change take place for any value of x not absolutely
coinciding with the critical value, however near to it, the rea
soning
is
not affected, because
that the value
But suppose
nitely little less
question
in
we may
shall
not
take 6 and
lie
e^
between a
so small
and
= f{a) when x is infiand =f{h) when x is infinitely little greater
(in case (2)) \ki2Xf(x) is
than
a,
/{x)ydXj
a
sum of / /(x)ydx and / /{x)ydx, we
Ja
J a e^
these will have for
its
limit '7r/'{a),
the
as
el
see that the
and the second
first
Ti/il^)
of
so
that the limiting value of (2) will be
^(/(^)+/W),
that
half the
is,
sum
of the values given by the general rule for
the two values of/{x).
We may
enunciate these results in the form of the following
Theorem,
x^KaK
be two values of x such that
x^^ and
be not > 277, and i^ /{x) be any function which is
for all values of x from x = Xq to x = x^ inclusively, then
If x^y x^
x^Xq
finite
the value of the integral
^1
/ /{^)
^
when
c^
a)r^c^ ^^f
5
2c cos {x
[
approximates indefinitely to i, has in general
But if y"(^) undergoes a sudden change
of value from a to d when the value of x passes through a, then
the limit is tt {/{a) \/{d)).
If either Xq = a, or x^ = a, while Xj^
Xq<2 7t, then the
for
c (increasing)
its
limit 2 17/(0).
limit is Ti/ip).
Xq =
But
\i
On
these last suppositions
a, x^
a\ 27:,
then
it is
'n[/{a)
we may provide
+/{a +
2Tr)J,
for the case
of
sudden changes of value of the function by understanding
(if
necessary) _/(a) to mean /{a
to mean
e), and /{a + 2 tt)
y"(a H 2 TT
e), where e is an infinitely small positive quantity.
Demonstration of
70
Since the value of a must not transgress the limits .r^, x^, and
Xq must not be > 2 tt, we shall give the greatest possible
extent to the theorem by supposing x^
x^ = 2 tt.
The notation used above was convenient in the course of
demonstration ; but in actual applications it is better to change
it by writing a for x and x for a, so that a becomes the variable
in the integration.
The principal result may be then stated as
x^
follows
The
limit
of the integral
1
at
c^
a)
/:aofla)
J
da,
.
2CQ0S{X
^ c
a^
= 2 7r, and x has any value between a^ and a^, is
2'n/{x), when c approximates indefinitely to i.
The special cases are of course to be stated as before, mutatis
mutandis.
where
a^
general
in
If
now
in the
development,
u^^TtC^.
7?
we
above integral we substitute
for the fraction its
viz.
a) + f'cos2(.r a)
2(rcos(.r
+....),
(3)
obtain the series
f{a)da
+22
and we may therefore
the limit of this series
<^
/{^) cos i{x
affirm, that
is
a) da,
when
c approximates to i,
t:/{x) for any value of x
for a value of x correspond
in general 2
between a^ and a^, but is it {a + b)
ing to a sudden change from d: to ^ in the value oi/{x\ and
'^(/K) +/(i)) for X = a^or X = a^.
Assuming, then, that when c=i the value of the series
becomes equal to its limit ^, we may write the result as follows
(excluding of course the exceptional cases)
:
2i:f{x) =
for values of
It
now we
^/2'7rx\
between
write
Qq = o, ! = 2
77,
a^,
A
r
/{a) cos i{x a) da,
and
a^.
for x,
and
A for
r
a,
assummg
becomes
r^./2 7ra\
2iTT(x' a^)
also
the above equation
/=
This assumption appears to be the only point in the demonstration
is open to objection.
But we cannot here discuss the proposition,
is true up to the limit is true in the limit.'
On the convergence of
the series (3), see the demonstrations of Tait and Thomson and of Stokes,
referred to above (Art. 77).
^
which
what
Fourier s Theorem,
71
omitting accents, and writingy*(:t:) instead
or,
/W = i%=_^J^/{(^)cos
of/"(7 )
'da,
^^
x
which is
A.
This equation may, by an obvious transformation, be written
now
thus
y/
between o and
true for values of
r^^/ \^
'
2Z'JTX r^
'2^i=a,
2Z7ra
+ X 5,=i sm ^J/{a) sin
^^
</,
(4)
most convenient.
A further transformation, which gives an expression for/'(j:i;)
by means of a double definite integration, and which is also
often referred to as Fourier's Theorem,' is not required for the
in
which form
it is
usually
'
purposes of this treatise.
tt, Oj =
If we had taken above a^, =
+7r, we should have
found in the same way a series only differing from (4) in having
i
pose
is
for limits in the integrations, instead of o, A.
Sup
made, and then suppose further thaty"(jt:)
that is, thsit/'( x) = /{x).
In this
this alteration
an odd
function,
'
/{^)
<^os
da
vanishes for all values of t] including z = o, since it may be
divided into pairs of equal elements, but with opposite signs.
But
y/ \
r^ /(a)
sm
.
2ZTTa
 da=
J_A
since the integral
on the
Jo
left
r^/{a)
w \ sm 2ZTTa.
da
.
may be
divided into pairs of equal
elements with the same sign.
Hence,
if
we
put
 =
/,
we
obtain instead of (4)
(5)
A^) =72,=! smjJ^/(a)sm jda,
=
=
function/"
any
/
is true from x
IXox + for
(;i:)
which
which is odd between those limits. And it will evidently be
true from x = o to ^ = / for any function.
Ify(^) besides being odd, is periodic, with period (or wavelength) 2 /, then (5) will be true without limitation.
The case in which/" (x) is an even function (/"(^r) =/"( jr))
may
be
left
to the reader.
CHAPTER
V.
VIBRATIONS OF AN ELASTIC STRING.
Of
80.
the various
modes
in
which musical sounds may be
produced, one of the most usual in practice, and simple in
theory, consists in the vibration of elastic strings.
The term
'elastic string'
is
be understood as implying
to
which do not belong absolutely to any actual
ideal qualities,
namely, nonresistance to flexure, and extensibility
string;
according to the law that extension
According to
(or
length
its
when
length
this law, if /
when not
it is
is
proportional to tension.
be the natural length of the string
subjected to any tension), and
by a force
stretched
7",
I'
the
then
where
i^
a constant, of which the value depends on the
nature of the string.
Since the homogeneity of the above equation requires that
T should be an
kind as T, that
gives
abstract number,
is,
a force.
JE= T,vfe see
would be required
that
to
And
jE" is
a quantity of the same
since the supposition
may be
stretch the
t =2
defined as the force which
string to twice
its
natural
length.
No
sible,
actual string
is
perfectly flexible, nor indefinitely exten
according to the above law.
length are small,
it
is
sibly proportional to the
tension
is
But when the changes of
proved by experiment that they are sen
changes of tension.
And when
the
considerable, and the thickness of the string very small
Vibrations of a String,
in
comparison with
73
length, the resistance to flexure
its
is
very
small in comparison with the resistance to extension.
Under
phaenomena with which we are
these conditions the
concerned are so nearly the same as they would be in the case
may be
of the ideal string, that for most purposes they
The
sidered identical.
be taken into account
at points
will
be considered apart.
two ends of an
81. Supposing the
elastic string to
of which the distance from one another
than the natural length of the string,
of equilibrium will be a straight
same
line,
librium,
if it
any point
at
is
be fixed
greater
form in the condition
its
and
tension will be the
its
which the string would
at all points^; namely, that with
have to be pulled
con
case in which imperfect flexibility must
in order to maintain the equi
were cut there.
Suppose now the
string to
be
by any forces
slightly disturbed
whatever, which, at a certain instant, cease to act.
The
sub
sequent motion of the string will depend upon the positions
and
velocities of
its
theory shews that
it
particles at that instant
will vibrate^ that
is,
will
of periodic changes, which, theoretically,
and the mechanical
go through a
would never
series
cease.
The
vibration actually does cease because the string gradually
gives
up
its
motion to the surrounding
sustain the tension of
own molecules.
The condition
the
is
called
its initial
displacements of
initial
string are lateral^ that
and when the
air,
to the bodies
is,
which
ends, and, in a difl"erent form, to
of the string at the instant
ing forces cease to act
When
its
when
its
the disturb
condition.
all
the particles of the
at right angles to its original direction,
initial velocities
the vibrations
are lateral also,
are sensibly lateral.
When
the
initial
displacements
and
of the string remains a straight
them
separately.
* The effect of gravity
kind here considered.
is
longitu
and the form
line.
Vibrations of both kinds can coexist, but
sider
are
velocities
dinal, the vibrations are necessarily longitudinal,
it
is
best to con
Longitudinal vibrations of a string are
neglected, being insensible in all cases of the
Vibrations of a String.
74
of the same kind as those of a straight rod, which
At
practically unimportant.
examine the
will
be
In the case of a string they are
treated of in another chapter.
we
present, therefore,
only
shall
lateral vibrations.
82. Lateral
displacements and velocities,
initial
not in one plane,
may be
arbitrary planes, at right angles to
components gives
rise to
they are
if
resolved into components in two
one another ; and each
vibrations in
its
own
and of which the actual vibration
coexist independently,
set of
plane, which
is
the.
resultant.
suppose that the
It is sufl5cient, therefore, to
ments and
velocities,
initial
and therefore the subsequent
displace
vibrations,
are in one plane.
83.
The
true nature of the vibrations of a finite string
may
be best understood by considering them under that aspect
which
in
is
suggested by the dynamical theory (see Chap. VII)
which the string
is
regarded as
and out of
infinitely long,
the various possible forms of motion of an infinitely long string,
those are selected which are characterised by the existence of
nodes^ that
Any two
of motionless points.
is,
points of the string might evidently
turbing the motion;
and then
all
such motionless
become fixed without
dis
the string not included be
tween them might be removed, so as to leave a
finite
string,
with fixed ends, which would continue to have the same motion
as
it
would have had under the
We
original conditions.
shall
therefore begin with the case of an infinite string.
84.
It
must be always understood
though the following
that
propositions, in so far as they are merely geometrical, are true
without limitation,
it
is
only
when th& displacements
nitely small that they are rigorously true mechanically
are sensibly true within limits wide
enough
for the
are infi
but they
most im
portant practical applications.
85.
The
simplest form of motion of an infinitely long elastic
string consists in the transmission
of a single wave.
Let
AB
represent part of the string in
dition,
and
let
trary portion
C Z?
be a
line parallel to
its
undisturbed con
B, of which any
QRh bent into an arbitrary curve.
Imagine
arbi
CD
Transmission of Waves along a String.
velocity, in the direction of its
moving with a constant
to be
length, either towards the right or towards the
part of the string
AB
which
75
at
any time
is
and that
left,
opposite to
Q R,
to
D
Fig.
I.
be always bent into the same form by a
its
AB
will
lateral
being always straight.
particles, the rest
be fransmitiing
(f
wave.
When
displacement of
Then
transmitted, any particular particle of the string
during the passage of the wave, and
is
the string
a single wave
thus
is
disturbed
is
at rest at all times before
and afterwards.
86.
It is
necessary, however, to explain
how such
a wave
could originate.
Suppose a portion of the
string,
which we may
be bent into any arbitrary form, and a determinate
city to
to
call
P Q^
P Q, according
be then communicated to each particle of
any arbitrary law consistent with the continuity of the
The subsequent motion
will
on
of
these
Now
initial velocities
the form of
assign the
the form
way
P ^ being
initial velocities
P Q shall be
so that a similar
But
PQ
if
the
would
in
wave
given arbitrarily,
Any number
it is
one way so that a
shall
possible to
single
be transmitted to the
were assigned
travel to the right,
been such as to give
and
particles.
in general be resolved into
present, however,
string.
P Q^
wave of
transmitted to the right, and in another
initial velocities
which one would
At
depend on the form of
its
to
lateral velo
we assume
rise to
left.
arbitrarily, the
wave
two components, of
and the other
to the
left.
that the initial velocities
have
a single wave.
of similar or dissimilar waves
may be
trans
mitted at the same time, either in the same or in contrary
Transmission of Waves along a String.
76
directions.
It
convenient to
is
distinguish
them
of waves, by calling
transmission
according as they are transmitted from
right to
direction
left
of
or negative
to right, or
from
left,
The
87.
the
positive
velocity of transmission
and tension of the
string,
depends only on the nature
and not on the form or length of the
wave.
now suppose two waves
88. Let us
of equal length, but
of arbitrary forms, to be transmitted in
otherwise
directions so as to meet.
proceed in
contrary
After passing one another they will
But during the passage a part
their original forms.
of the string will be disturbed by both waves at once, and the
displacements of
its
particles at
any
instant will be the
the displacements due to the separate waves.
string will evidently have for
and
for
waves
Let
its
first
meet.
PQ, P'Qf
us
let
length the length of a wave,
middle point the point at which the ends of the
(Fig. 2) represent the positive
and
before meeting,
And
its
sums of
This part of the
now
and negative waves
the point at which they will
further suppose that
each wave
is
Y\g\ixQ) ^;jjversed cQpy .0/ tke QlJier, so that the figure
be altered by turning the paper upside down.
first
meet.
(as in the
would not
(We may
express
same condition by saying that every straight line through A
which cuts one wave, cuts the other also at a point equidistant
the
from A).
Two
such waves
Now
pm,
p'rrL
at the
The
opposite to
at that instant will
is
may be
called contrary waves.
be any two ordinates equidistant from A.
corresponding points p, p' of the two waves will arrive
let
zero,
since
same
instant,
and the displacement of A
sum oi pm and p'm\ that
be the algebraical
pm, p'm'
are equal in length, but
opposite
in
Nodes.
11
Hence, since the same thing
direction.
of corresponding points, the point
true for every pair
is
not
will
be displaced at all; in other words, the string
have a node at A.
will
Thus, when an
strin^transniits_Jtwo
infinite
contrary waves in oj)posite directions^_there js
""
a node at the pQint_at which they first meet.
^^\d^'^
89. Let us now inquire what conditions are
may
necessary in order that there
Let
be the place of the
and suppose
the second;
PA, and
first
be two nodes.
node and
of
wave
that a positive
AQ, are just
The wave PA, pass
a contrary negative wave
beginning to meet at A.
ing on to the right, will after a certain time arrive
at the position
B unless
turb
P' B, and
then begin to dis
will
meets at that instant a contrary
it
wave BQ' moving towards the left. But this
when it arrives at the
new negative wave
BQ
position
AQ,
will
begin to disturb
meets a new positive wave.
same reasoning, we
the
an
infinite
series
infinite series
There
it
is
will
unless
must be
waves meeting an
see that there
of positive
then be nodes at
and
at
evident that there will be also an
string
infinite
at equal intervals.
B;
but
infinite
Hence
cannot have more than one
node without having an
The
it
of negative contrary waves.
number of other nodes
an
And, continuing
infinite
number.
distance between corresponding points of
consecutive positive (or negative) waves
dently twice
AB.
For when the
is
positive
evi
wave
at any instant is at PA shall have arrived
P'B, the next following one will not be at
which
at
PA,
but so far behind that position as to meet
the negative
wave
2XAQ.
90. Let
BQ
when
the latter arrives
us,
however,
fix
our attention upon
,4
'.
*Y'
''
Reflection of Waves,
78
two consecutive nodes
the portion of string included between
A, B, supposing the
sider
of
rest
it
condition at the instant
its
waves have
then be
visible string will
when
one another
just passed
from view, and con
to be hidden
and negative
the positive
at
A.
The form
of the
this,
Fig. 4.
and the
will
It
which the lefthand end
positive wave, of
be transmitted unaltered
until
is
now
at
A,
righthand end reaches B.
its
then begins to meet the negative wave coming from the
and
invisible part of the string,
this
to be
compounded with
composition the disturbed part of the
goes a change of form,
pletely out of sight,
until the positive
and
is
visible string
by
it;
under
wate has passed comby the negative wave,
replaced
thus,
Fig. 5
which
is
transmitted to A, where
and a converse
finitely.
series of
Thus, a wave
forwards between
Each
it
meets a new positive wave,
changes takes place ; and so on indewill
appear to pass backwards and
and B^ and
to be reflected at those points.
reflection consists in a shortening of the
length,
followed by
an equal lengthening;
shortening and lengthening
its
form
is
wave
to half
and during
changed
its
this
into that
of
the contrary wave.
91. During motion of this kind, both the whole string
the portion
AB
are in a state of vibration, that
is,
and
undergoing
a periodic change of condition; and the period of a vibration,
Nodes and Waves.
79
or the interval of time between the recurrence of similar conditions, is
evidently the time required for the transmission of
a wave through twice the distance
(AB) between
consecutive
nodes.
92. Hitherto we have considered a wave as consisting only
of the bent or curved portion of the string.
call the
But we
will
now
whole portion included between two consecutive similar
we have always done
points a wave^ as
periodic curves, so that a wavelength
In the preceding
between consecutive nodes.
have^Tupposed only a small portion of
in order to
make
before in treating of
now^twice
is
this
we
illustrations
wave
to be curved,
the process of reflection clearly intelligible;
but since the length attributed to the curved portion was arbitrary,
we may suppose
it
to occupy, as
it
generally does in
fact,
the whole wavelength.
Let
a
^C
series
be a wavelength, the figure representing part of
of positive waves, and also of the contrary negative
The
waves, in the position which they have at a given instant.
e\
r
Fig. 6.
actual
form of the
string at that instant (which
is
not drawn)
Thus
would be found by compounding the two curves.
middle point of any ordinate
Pp
the
would be a point on the
string.
The
at
this
as
instant,
equidistant from
of these
bisected at
A;
at
Now
through them.
points
A, B, C, D, &c. on the
nodes are the points
all
bisect
others,
suppose Pp,
any node
ordinates
A;
lie
it
P'f
is
upon a
the
are
axis,
ordinates
which
drawn
any two ordinates
evident that the middle
straight line
in other words, every straight line
which
a node at any instant and terminated both ways by the stringy
bisected by the node.
is
drawn through
is
Finite String.
8o
93. Hence, considering a whole wavelength of the resultant
curve, occupying
on one
Thus
intervals,
is
we
see that the half
wave
always contrary in form
to the other half.
88)
(Art.
two nodal
of the middle node
side
the whole infinite string will always have the form of
a series of similar waves divided into contrary halves by alternate nodes
after
and the two halves
will
have exchanged their forms
every half period.
The
string will therefore appear to oscillate, but there will be
in general
either
no
visible
direction,
the
appearance of transmission'^ of waves in
and negative
positive
series
completely
disguising each other except in the case in which a consider
able portion of each
curved portions
tions; or,
if
will
wave
is
straight
in this case only, the
appear to be transmitted in contrary direc
only a portion of string between two consecutive
nodes be looked
at,
to be reflected backwards
and forwards
from node to node in the manner explained in Art. 90.
94.
It
has been already explained
that, in
order to pass from
we must suppose two nodes to
become fixed. But these may, of course, include any number
of nodes between them. Hence the most general formjof the
an
infinite
to a finite string,
vibration of a finite string, fixed at both ends, consists in
"^^Z
\)
aliquot
a
y;
V\
V*'
with
oscillatory motion,
The form
parts.
an
nodes dividing the string into equal
of the part included between any
two consecutive nodes will always be contrary to that of the
adjacent intervals ; and any two adjacent intervals exchange
forms
The
after half a period.
wavelength
twice the dis
is
tance between consecutive nodes; and the period of a vibration
"
is
by
Hence
the time occupied
double distance.
length of the string, the
wave over
the transmission of a
the period
is
known
if
number of nodes, and
we know
this
the
the velocity of
transmission.
When
there are
wavelength
is
no nodes between the extreme
the time of transmission over this double length.
\^
simply
'
the time of vibration
*
points, the
twice the length of the string, and the period
'
Hence such waves
This
of the string.
are often called stationajy.
is
is
called
'
Time of
Vibration,
8i
If / be the length of the (stretched) string,
the tension by which
same
unit as
gravity (that
is
W), and
end of a unit of
lateral
is
V^
fore 2
95.
is
wave
It
the socalled
accelerating
the velocity acquired by a falling
is,
force of
body
at the
time), then the velocity of transmission of a
vf IgT
W
%.,.
and the time of a
vibration
(see below, Art. 123).
^^^
may be
weight,
its
stretched (expressed in terms of the
it
here
said,
once
for
that the
all,
is
^^
there
^,,^
'
always to be understood as implying a complete cycle of changes.
many of the most usual cases (as in that
may be divided into two parts, equal
In
vibration
converse in character;
(especially of
and
French) writers to
call
term vibration without
to use the
sense
to
it is
one
vibration to
direction, has
In
this
and
each half a single vibration^
or,
what
is
much worse,
distinctly explaining in
common pendulum
what
is
which
become
the habit of giving the
only half a cycle, namely, a swing in
inveterate.
work, however, the term
De Morgan
Prof.
in duration
be understood.
In the case of a
name
of a string) the
has been the practice of some
it
and the two together a douUe vibration ;
has proposed to
will
call
always
mean what
a swingswang.
^^^
Thus, the time of vibration of a socalled seconds' pendulum
is
two
It
seconds.
must be remembered also that a vibration
not necessarily divisible into a
'
swing
'
and a
'
in general
is
swang of equal
'
duration and opposite character.
96.
We
will
now proceed
results obtained in the
li /{x) be
to the analytical expression of the
preceding
articles.
any function which has one
for every value of x, the equation
the form of a string which
is
real
and
finite
y =/{x vt) will
value
represent
always bent so as to follow that
of a curve J/ =/(x), supposing the latter to be moving in the
positive direction of the .raxis with a constant velocity v.
(For
if
term vibration
in the former equation
we remove
to a distance vt, the equation
the origin along the axis
becomes^ =/{.^))*
G
Analytical Expressions.
82
Similarly^ = F{x\vt) represents the transmission of the
form J/ =
F {x\
Hence
city.
an equal
in the negative direction, with
velo
the equation
y =^/{^
""i)
F(^x
vt)
represents the form of a string in which the displacement of
particle at the time /
any
to both these causes.
the
is
And
\i
sum
of the displacements due
f{x), F{x) are both periodic
functions, the last equation will represent the transmission of
two
sets of
waves in opposite
directibns.
Supposing, then, these periodic functions to be expressed
by means of Fourier's
wavelength
/,
and
series (Art. 72),
'+^)+2,^, C,sm(^^
y=^i=i ^ism(^^^
'+a\y
(The constant term is omitted, because it could be got
necessary, by removing the origin along the axis of^.)
97.
We
rid of, if
have not yet introduced the condition of the exist
Let us
ence of nodes.
origin; that
^ = o,
same
to have the
the equation will take the form
is,
that
now suppose
when
that there
x = o,y=^o
is
a node at the
fox all values of
When
/.
may be
the terms of the order / in the above series
written
invt
^
sm J (
.
Q cos
a^
^,
+C
,.
cos a )
+ cos J (Q sin a^ + C^i sin a\),
and
it
is
evident that the coefficient of each must vanish sepa
rately; that
is,
These equations
and
if
we
Ci cos a^
C\ cos a\
C^ sin
a^
are satisfied
C'^ sin
a^ =
by assuming
C^, a'^
of^
a^;
at the
Q sin a^ = B.,
2/
end
z;r,
obtain
y
in
C\=
introduce these conditions in the value
of Art. 96, and put 2 C^ cos a^^A^, 2
we
o,
o.
which r
2,.=i
is
smy(^.cos^: +^,.sm
the period of vibration.
Since
j,
(i)
vanishes not
Initial Circumstances,
only
when
values of
is satisfied
jt;
/,
we
o,
when
but also
is
85
any multiple of
/,
for all
node
number
see that the condition of the existence of a
not only at the origin, but also at an
infinite
of points separated from one another by an interval / (or half
a wavelength).
Hence
equation represents in the most general manner
this
the oscillatory motion of an infinite string described in Art. 93.
And
it
if
we
confine our attention to values of
represents the vibration of a
between o and
of length
finite string
/,
/,
fixed at
two ends.
its
98. If the
cities
of
initial
form of the
its particles,
B^ are determined.
finite string,
and the
initial velo.
are given, the values of the constants A^,
Suppose, for instance, that when
to be a given function /(.;;)
= o,^
is
dv
from
= o to
/,
and ^ another
given function <^(x) within the same limits.
Putting, then,
/=o
in the equation (i),
respect to
from
/,
X=
in
.:*:
differential coefficient with
its
we must have
x=
to
equations by sin
we
and
ji;
I.
Hence, multiplying each side of these
dx, and integrating from x =
to
x=
I,
obtain
A = J/{^)sm~^dx,
(It
B, =
should be observed that_/(jr)
by means of a
adftn.)
series of sines
for the
form of the
is
j^
.^Wsm
<?^.
necessarily expressible
only (see Appendix to Chap. IV,
string
is
at
any time half a wave
of a series in which the alternate values are contrary (Art. 93),
so
that
the
/{ml) = o
function
the conditions
and these
f{x\
besides
for all integer values of
satisfying
m including
o,
the conditions
must
also satisfy
/(.r+ 2/^2/) =/{x) and/(2w/ jr) = /{x);
are satisfied
by every such term as
G
sin
but not
Particular Cases.
84
by cos^
The same remark
h priori, ought to
easily seen
case frequently useful
at rest,
and
form
its initial
y
In
this case
and
(f)
therefore
is
is
conditions.)
which the string
Qsmy.
is
B^ =
iiix
2 r^
=
j/sin
is
the series just given for
dx^C^;
and A^ =
o,
is initially
given by an equation
{x) = o, and /"{x)
2z=)
that in
{x), which, as is
(^
same
satisfy the
= ^i=i
the subsequent vibration
where r =
applies to
hence
given by the equation
Ci sm
iiTX
2i'ni
cos
r
as before.
99. Another useful case
the string
is
a bent line
coordinates of
is
reckoned from A.
Suppose, further, that the
This
pulled aside at one point
Here <^(^)
25
C^
7 1
I
Uo
2hr
and then
X = ato X ^l;
iirx
made
left
to
of
\
points are
all
to vibrate
x^a^ and
to
o,
and
iiTX
rf
,,
(.r /)sm r
dx \
'
by being
itself.
and therefore B^ =
I
 sm r ax
.
initial velocities
2xAf{x) \&x from x = o
is o,
(xi) from
^i* =
7.
the case of a string
is
AB
where
Fig.
zero.
which the initial form of
= i, and a, b are the
that in
AQB,
alja
i'na
sm yI
(The reader should observe
that the
problem here solved
Variations of Form,
from that
differs
76
in Art.
85
in this respect, that the bent line
here half a wave, whereas there
it
we
Introducing this value of A^ in equation (i),
sin
7 f>
= "TTr
r2
;2
,
100.
It is
this
obtain
^
sm
7cos
which gives the form of the vibrating string
a particular case of
is
was a whole wave.)
(2)
at the time
(On
/.
formula see below, Art. 118.)
easy to trace geometrically the variations of form
The
during a vibration.
equation
y=/{xv/) + F{x + vi),
and
its differential
when
give,
coefficient with respect to
/,
o,
y=/(x)^F{x)
 = .(/'(^)^(^)),
and these expressions must
Hence, supposing the
cities.
of
J
to he v\lf' (x),
from
coincide,
the given functions which define the
initial
initial
value
x=o
x=
to
ofy
to
be
with
i,
and velo
positions
(j)
(x),
and
we have
/(x) + F(x)^<t>(^),
r{x)r{x)^y\r'{x\
/{x) F{x)=
whence
These equations give
/(x)
is,
F{x)
\jr
are
(x).
C being
taken
F(x) ^\{^{x)
^l(<t>{x)^j, (x)),
so th2it/(x) and
(the arbitrary
known from
= o to
+ ^ (x)),
=
I.
That
one half of the positive and one half of the negative wave
are given in the position in which they produce
the
= o)
initial
form of the
the nodes at
its
string.
And
by composition
since, in order to
extremities, the half of the negative
right of the string
must be contrary
in
form
(Art.
maintain
wave
to the
88)
to the
given half of the positive wave, while the half of the positive
wave
to the left of the string
must be contrary
to the given half
Particular Case.
85
of the negative wave, a whole wave of each
we have only
negative
to the
form
is
And
determined.
to the right
and the
through equal distances, and compound
left,
those parts which
find the
wave
to shift the positive
fall
within the limits of the string, in order to
time corresponding to that amount of
at the
shifting.
99 affords an easy and inThe initial velocities being zero, we have
and we may therefore take \/r (jr) = o hence
The
101.
case treated in Art.
teresting example.
t/^'
{pc)
that
cide,
is,
o,
the given halves of the positive
and the ordinate
of the corresponding point of the
Hence, completing the waves as
following forms and
and negative wave
at any point of each
initial
string
is
in
its
in the last article,
positions
coin
half the ordinate
form.
initial
we have
the
Fig. 8.
A PB
represents the halves of the positive
coinciding
and
B qb
when
o.
apA
A,B
oi the negative wave.
of the string, and the
initial
and negative waves,
the other half of the positive,
is
form
is
the two 'curves' which coincide in
are, as before, the
that given
AP B)
ends
by compounding
that
is,
by doubling
the ordinate at every point.
After the lapse of a quarter of a period, the waves will have
been
shifted (one to the right
and the other
to the left) through
a distance equal to half the length {A B) of the
that part of the figure
which
is
within the limits
been changed into the following
Fig. 9.
and
will
have
string
AB
Sudden Changes of Direction,
And from
this
form of the
we
87
obtain by composition the following as the
string at that instant
Fig. 10.
At
the
end of half a period the form
and
at the
will
be evidently con
two half waves again coinciding;
trary to the initial form, the
end of threequarters of a period, the form
and
that of the last figure reversed right
(as
left
it
will
be
would be
seen through the paper from the back).
If the original point of flexure be at the middle of the string,
the form at the end of the
will
be a straight
But
line.
third,
first,
&c. quarter of a period
in other cases the string will always
be divided into either two or three straight portions,
in general, but only twajat the instants
when
negative waves coincide, and also at the instants
of each
is
same end of the
opposite the
three
viz.
the positive
and
when a summit
string,
in
all,
four
times in each vibration.
The
value of j at either end of the string varies discon
tinuously in a remarkable way.
trically
without
but
difficulty,
This
the
may
be traced geome
following
mode
of proof
good example of the use of Fourier's series.
dy
derived from (2), we have,
Putting AT = o in the value of
affords a
at that
end of the
dy
T
Now
string,
%hl
,^=00
r2,i
the series 2*"!
I
iTia
2i'nt
sm
cos
Q cos
evidently represents
(3)
a pe
is r, and which satisfies the
and any such function can, with
the addition if necessary of a constant term, be represented by
such a series. We may include the constant term by extending
the summation to j = o.
riodic function of
condition /(i)
which the period
=y{T
i);
Sudden Changes
88
Consider, then, a function/'(/) of which the value
c from
2]~"
Assuming_/(/) =
is
/=o to /=a;
from /=a to i = 7a;
from
Ta
to /
Q cos
r.
we
shall
have
and
for
Performing the integrations in
values of i except o.
all
separate parts (as in finding
A;^ in (2)),
2{c^ k) sm 21'na
when
T
we
find
Ci =
not o.
is
ZTT
Hence
the discontinuous function /*(/)
is
represented by the
series
which
^2
{c'k\\ ^
k H
will
be identical with (3)
2a,
T
,.
'
if
sm
cos
we assume
2a
a, k,
and
^ so that
hi
a(l
a)
from which we find
3
and
it
AT
2/
follows that the string, at the point
maintains
its
initial
direction
AQ
(Fig. 7, Art. 99),
(IT
from
= o to
= , (that
during the time of wavetransmission along a distance
then suddenly becomes parallel to
tion until
/=
(i
}}T,
2
until
the
when
it
QB and maintains
resumes the
first
a),
is,
it
that direc
direction
end of the period
representation of these
r,
and so on
successively.
The
changes by a diagram in which the
of Direction.
abscissa
^
2it
and ordinate
(ory(/))
is
89
are proportional to /
obvious,
and may be
and
left
to the value of
to the reader,
(See Helmholtz, p. 93, where a greater number of intermediate
forms of the string
is
given,
and a diagram representing
dy
the values ofr at
dx
one end, which
is
taken as the curve of
pressure (or rather of variation of pressure)
on a bridge sup
posed to support the string
The
at that
end.
pressure are sensibly proportional to those
seen in Chap. VII.)
variations
of^t
of
as will be
CHAPTER
VI.
VIBRATIONS OF A STRING {continued).
102.
(in
The most
general form of the infinitesimal vibrations
one plane) of a
Art. 97, which,
in Art. 72,
string is given by the equation (i) of
by a transformation inverse to that employed
may be
written thus
^i sin
,=1
where
J
cos
{^ + a.)
(4)
the distance of any point in the string from one
is
end, and J/ is the lateral displacement of that point at the time /.
This displacement is therefore the sum of the displacements, in
general infinite in number, represented by the several terms of
the series;
and the
ingly be said to be
vibration of the whole string
compounded
may
accord
of the vibrations represented
by those terms.
Let us then consider separately the vibration represented by
the term of the order
we
z.
Supposing
term to
this
exist alone,
have, instead of (4),
tux
/2;7r/
\
^
+ a,.j,
y=Ci sm y cos
.
(^
and the form of the
any time
string at
is
therefore a
harmonic
curve cutting the axis in fixed points or nodes, which divide
the whole length into i equal parts, while the amplitudes of the
waves of the curve vary periodically with the time, and every
individual point (except
an
nodes) performs harmonic vibra
same period 
tions with the
string is
the
oscillation with
Thus, the motion of the whole
nodes, of the kind described in
Harmonics of a String,
Art. 93, but with this
91
the waves are of the
distinction, that
harmonic form.
Now
if,
returning to the general equation (4),
the coefficients preceding
all
arbitrary, there will
we suppose
to vanish, the rest remaining
be the same number of nodes, and the
still
7"
period of the vibration will
may
be; but
still
the form of the waves
be any whatever, as in Art. 93.
If Cj
not zero, there are no actual nodes (except the fixed
is
and the
ends),
first
component of the
is r and
which the period
oscillation of
vibration consists in an
the wavelength
is
twice
the length of the string.
103.
When
that of
component tone heard
and
But other
this is called the
of
string.
harmonic scale of the fundaalso.
(If,
however, the period
so long that the fundamental tone does not
limits
an
in general
fundamental tone of the
tones, belonging to the
mental tone, are in general heard
is
is
which the pitch corresponds to the period r of the whole
vibration,
without nodes, produces
string, vibrating
audible note, the lowest
fall
within the
lowest tone heard will of course be one
audibility, the
of the higher components,)
If there is one node, the period
tone heard
is
becomes 
and the lowest
the octave of the fundamental tone.
7*
And
in general, if there are
the lowest tone heard
is
the
{}
i nodes, the period isjand
\f^ harmonic of the funda
mental tone.
But
in
each case higher harmonic components are in general
heard, so that the sound
The
is
compound
note.
notes produced by a string vibrating with one or
more
nodes, are called by musicians the harmonics of the string.
104. Now, when the string vibrates without nodes, so as to
produce what
is
called
its
fundamental note, the
series of har
monic component tones is in general complete so far as it can
be traced by the ear; and a practised ear, properly assisted
(see below, Art. 115),
we
are able, as
we
can
easily distinguish ten or
shall see presently, to
make a
more.
But
string vibrate
how Propagated,
Vibrations
92
manner
in such a
Cp
coefficients
that
any proposed value of
for
C^^.,
so
vibrations of which the periods
component harmonic
that the
i all the
series (4) shall vanish;
C^^ &c. in the
are  .> &c. are extinguished. And it is found, as a fact,
t
21
that when this is done, the corresponding tones become either quite
or nearly inaudible.
105.
From
the
stated in
the
two
Articles
it
is
obvious to infer that each component tone actually heard,
is
facts
produced exclusively, or
last
at least mainly,
by the corresponding
component harmonic vibration of the string \
But to appreciate the force of this conclusion, we must conphsenomena more
sider the
106.
The
precisely.
vibrations in the ear
which ultimately produce the
sense of sound, are very remotely derived from those of the
string.
In the
first
place,
soundwaves in
the
excited in a very slight degree by the string
be shewn by stretching a
violin
two very firmly fixed supports
when
wall
it
will
air
are
This may
or pianoforte string between
instance, iron pegs in a
for
be found impossible to make
of any considerable strength.
the
itself.
In
all
it
yield a note
stringed
actual
instru
ments, therefore, the supports of the string are so arranged as
to
communicate a
surface of wood.
in the air
and
brane of the
ear,
state
Then
of forced vibration to a considerable
this vibrating surface originates
waves
propagated to the tympanic
mem
these, being
put that
membrane
itself into
a state of forced
which is further communicated, by means of the linkwork of small bones mentioned in Art. 4, to the membrane of
the oval window; and finally, from that, through the fluid of
vibration,
the labyrinth, to those parts of which the vibrations ultimately
affect the auditory nerve.
Evidently, therefore,
the form
it
and period of
material system
by given
is
excited
vibrations
at
any part of a
maintained at any other
and period of the
What sort of vibrations
part are connected with the form
For a discussion of the question,
tones ? see the Memoirs of Ohm and Seebeck,
Ix. 449; Ixii. I.
^
by what law
essential to inquire,
vibrations
in
latter.
produce simple
Poggendorf, vol. lix, p. 497
Lam
The
107.
of Forced
answerv^o
of the law offorced
Oscillations.
this question is
If a material system, acted
contained in a statement
(See Appendix to
oscillations.
^^"^'*fi
on by a
this chapter.)
conservative
system
of
forces ^ be very slightly disturbed from a configuration of stable
and then
equilibrium,
velocities (or
left to itself after
having had very small
none) impressed upon any of
its
particles,
continue for ever to execute small oscillations; that
particle (except
such as
path in which
will
had
it
may
it
may
remain
at
describe a
rest) will
The motion may
in the condition of equilibrium.
may
every
always be very near to the position which
not be a vibration, in the proper sense.
system may, or
will
it
is,
not, pass again
and again
That
is,
or
the
at equal intervals
of time through the same configuration.
108.
If,
however, the displacements and velocities are always
so small that their squares and products
motion
insensible, then the
or else
by
is
itself,
surable
is
may be
treated as
sensibly either a true vibration,
compounded of vibrations each of which might subsist
but of which the periods are in general incommenso that by their
periodic motion, or
more
superposition
they produce a non
properly, a vibration of infinitely long
period.
We may
call these
component
vibrations the natural vibra
tions of the system, to distinguish
tions
them from
the forced vibra
which are now to be considered.
109. In addition to the suppositions just made,
further suppose, either that certain points
let
us
now
of the system are
subjected to small obligatory periodic motions, or else to the
action of small periodic
intensity
is
forces;
which may be
and the other
either constant or
is
is,
forces
of which the
dependent on configurations,
a periodic function of the time.
In either case, provided that
cities
that
expressed by the product of two factors, one of
all
the displacements
and
velo
continue to be of the order of magnitude above supposed,
the whole motion
is
compounded of two
sets
of vibrations:
That is, a system in which the mutual action between any two particles
independent of the velocities of those and of all other particles. (Thomson and Tait, 271.)
^
is
Hypothesis of Resistance.
94
one which as before
may
be called naturaly of which the periods
and which
by a proper choice of the disand another set
posable initial displacements and velocities
which are forced by the imposed motions or forces, and which
are permanent, and in no way dependent on initial circumare independent of the imposed motions or forces,
might be
entirely extinguished
stances.
And
it
/ harmonic
V
can be shewn that no forced vibration can have any
component of a period which does not exist among the
periods of the harmonic components
110.
to
be
We
have so
far
of the imposed motions or forces.
supposed the original system of forces
conservative^ so that the natural vibrations,
would continue
for
But in
ever.
resistances of various
There
of energy ; but the energy
is
which can
if
once begun,
actual cases there are
kinds, which sooi^er or
the natural vibrations.
into other forms,
all
later
extinguish
thus an apparent destruction
is
not really destroyed, but changed
in general
be assigned, such as
heat, &c.
When, however, we only wish
to take account of the energy
of the system in the ordinary mechanical sense,
introduce these resistances under the
of the nonconservative class, that
pendent of
there
is
is,
and on a
we have
to
form of forces
forces which are not inde
particular hypothesis,
which
reason to believe gives sensibly correct results for small
velocities,
by forces
tional
velocities;
fictitious
namely, that the motions of the particles are resisted
directly proportional
difl5culty
arises
problem, but the result
in
is
to
their
velocities*,
no
addi
the mathematical treatment of the
modified in the following manner.
must be understood that the word resistance is here used to denote
any cause which tends to extinguish that particular kind of motion which
^
It
'
constitutes the vibration considered.
In the case of a vibrating string, for
instance, the resistance of the air is one such cause ; another is the com
munication of motion from the ends of the string to the bodies which
support its tension and a third is probably the conversion of part of its
energy into heat. The hypothesis is, that the combined effect of these
causes may be represented by assuming a retarding force to act on each
particle, directly proportional to its velocity; and it is at any rate certain
that results calculated on this hypothesis agree in general much better with
Any
experience than those obtained by neglecting resistances altogether.
other law of resistance would introduce insuperable difficulties into the
mathematical treatment of most cases.
;
Second Approximation,
The
periods of the natural vibrations are altered (in general
slightly),
without ceasing to be constant
diminish rapidly, so that the system
to rest,
If,
95
if
there are
no
is
but their amplitudes
soon brought sensibly
obligatory motions or periodic forces.
we have above supposed,
however, there are, as
small
periodic forces or obligatory periodic motions, the system soon
assumes a permanent condition of motion, consisting of vibrations (which
we
will call forced, as before) of
which the periods
those of the imposed motions or forces
are connected with
according to the law already stated; and there
the natural vibrations except this
is
no trace of
and phases
that the amplitudes
of the forced vibrations depend upon the relative magnitudes
of their periods and those which the natural vibrations would
have
if
they existed.
HI. If any harmonic component of one of the imposed
motions or forces have a period nearly equal to that of a har
monic component of any one of the natural
there will be
amplitude.
vibrations, then
a corresponding forced vibration with a large
On
the supposition of
lute equality of periods, the
no
and of abso
resistances,
amplitude in question would go on
increasing with the time, so as soon to violate the supposition
But
of small motions.
in
all
actual cases the effect of the
resistahcies is to limit the increase
magnitude, which, however,
of the amplitude to a definite
may
be larger than
still
is
con
sistent with the supposition referred to.
112. In fact, in a great
the squares
number
of cases, the supposition that
and products of displacements and
be neglected leads
to results
which agree
proximation, with experiment, but
of a delicate but
for
still
fail
perceptible kind,
velocities
well, as
to explain
may
first ap
phsenomena
which can be accounted
by a second approximation.
The
result of this
second approximation shews that there are
in general forced vibrations of which the amplitudes are small
magnitudes of the second order, and of which the harmonic
components have periods which are
either the
periods of harmonic components of the
forces, or are
halves of the
imposed motions or
such that the numbers of vibrations in a given
Experiments.
96
time are the sums or differences of the numbers of vibrations
of the latter taken two and two.
113.
We
At present we
we
shew afterwards how
shall
accounts for
this result
remarkable phaenomena of socalled 'combinationtones.'
the
see that, so far as the
approximation goes,
first
are entitled to assume that the vibrations which ultimately
affect the auditory nerve
have no harmonic components
differ
ing in period from those of the vibrations of the body from
which the sound
And when we compare
originates.
this theo
conclusion with the observed fact that the extinction of
retical
any harmonic component of the vibration of a
guishes (very nearly,
if
extin
string
not entirely) the sensation of the cor
responding tone, the inference appears unavoidable that the
of simple
sensation
tone
is
produced by simple
harmonic
vibration.
114.
We
will
now
describe
some simple experiments which
exhibit the accordance of the theory of vibrating strings with
facts.
In the
is,
first
place, the isochronism of small vibrations (that
the independence of their periods
shewn by
of sensibly the same pitch, whether
or
softly,
exceed the
The
The
limits usually
it
following
is
is
the verification of the
an easy method of making some of the
making
the ear conscious that
down
(The two or three
c,
it
hears them.
strongly, say c,
so that the vibrations
note should be tuned well in unison.)
fixed
com
usually produced.
any note of a pianoforte rather
by the damper.
of
much
harmonic component tones sensible to an unpractised
hold the key
strike
be made to sound loudly
allowed in music.
point next in importance
ear; or, rather, of
Strike
their amplitudes) is
provided the variations of loudness do not
pound character of the note
principal
on
the familiar fact that a given string produces a note
may
and
not be stopped
strings belonging to the
Immediately afterwards
very gently any note belonging to the harmonic scale
holding the key also down.
upon
Then,
the sound of this latter note as
if
it
the attention be
dies
be heard to remain as a component of the note
away,
first
it
will
struck;
Resonators,
and so
what
distinctly, that
now
is
appear quite surprising that
will often
it
97
a conspicuous phaenomenon should have entirely
escaped observation before attention was thus directed to
In
way
this
or ten harmonic
eight
An
generally be distinguished.
it^.
component tones may
ear which has been musically
trained will soon acquire great facility in tracing these harmonic
up
tones,
to
and
number varying with circumstances,
certain
without any assistance.
fainter ones,
it is
But, in order to distinguish the higher
necessary to put the ear in communica
which
tion with resonators, the action of
may be
here briefly
explained.
They
115.
made of glass
The neck
are usually
of nearly spherical bottles.
and so formed
made
to
There
fit
is
it
of the bottle
with sealingwax
closely into the outer part of the
another
a resonator
far as the
by coating
that
or brass, in the shape
is
applied to the ear,
it
When
ear.
such
forms, with the meatus as
tympanic membrane, a cavity with one opening; and
the air in such a cavity
is
capable of vibrating with a deter
minate period, which depends on the form and
cavity
may be
meatus of the
opposite to the neck.
orifice,
short,
is
it
of the
size
and of the opening.
Suppose now
that there
neighbourhood, the
is
an external vibrating body
air in the cavity will
be put into a
forced vibration, of which the component periods
will
in the
state oi
be those
of the harmonic components of the vibrations of the external
body, but of which the amplitudes
But
siderable.
if
in general
be incon
the period of any one of these
harmonic
components coincide
natural
exactly, or very nearly, with that of the
vibration of the
cavity,
the amplitudes of the forced
vibrations will be large (Art. Ill),
particular
will
component with
with unpleasant loudness.
and the ear
great distinctness,
In order to obtain
will
hear that
and indeed often
this effect in the
highest degree, the other ear should be closed.
116.
We
shall
have to refer afterwards to the general prin
ciples of resonance,
and
to
the use of these resonators
particular.
Helmholtz, p. 86.
in
Resonators,
98
Imperfect substitutes for them
and the following
If a
action.
stiff
may
made
be
an easy way of roughly
is
of pasteboard,
illustrating their
pasteboard tube, of about i\ inch in dia
meter, and of any length, from three or four inches upwards,
be pressed with one end closely upon the
ear, the
together form a cavity open at one end;
responding to the natural vibrations
ascertained
hy tapping
of this cavity
easily
is
the outside of the tube with the ends of
The sound
the fingernails or with a pencil.
a mere
tube and ear
and the note cor
of the taps
not
is
but has a determinate pitch, which, however, an
noise,
unpractised ear
liable to estimate
is
the ccJrresponding note
an
octave too low.
If,
be struck on a pianoforte,
now,
and the
coincidence of pitch be nearly exact, the effect of the tube in
strengthening the fundamental tone of the string
and may be made
removing and replacing the
spicuous,
more
still
striking
And
tube.
if
very con
is
by
alternately
any other note be
struck of which one of the stronger harmonic components has
the pitch corresponding to the natural vibrations of the cavity,
the strengthening of that
component may be made more or
same way.
less strikingly sensible in the
By
tilting
the tube, so that
it
ceases to touch the ear
round, the pitch of the natural vibrations
therefore be
In
tone.
all
and can
brought into coincidence with that of a higher
manner, by
this
may be made
tube
raised,
is
different angles of tilting, the
to strengthen several
of the same note; and
so,
by
tilting
it
backwards and forwards
between complete contact and a considerable opening,
series of tones
may be
same
harmonic components
this
heard upwards and downwards several
times before the vibrations of the string once struck cease to
produce audible sound.
and
practice, but
117.
The
when
is
In the
while a finger
violin species, or
latter case, if
is lightly
is easily
on a
Or
the finger
care
shewn on
horizontal piano
a key be struck and held down,
applied at a nodal point, the string will
sound the corresponding harmonic instead of
note.
little
very striking.
vibration of a string with nodes
any instrument of the
forte.
This experiment requires a
successful
may be
its
applied after the key
fundamental
is
struck, in
Experime7its on Harmonics of String,
which case the fundamental tone, which
is
extinguished, and the harmonic remains
and
Thus,
the fundamental note be
if
harmonic note g'
either
In
be heard.
will
and the
c,
from
at onethird of the distance
may be shewn by
of paper:
strip
this
will
if it
first,
is
finger be applied
string, the
case there are two
not touched by
is
placing on the string a small bent
be placed at any point except the node,
be shaken when the key
will
at
heard alone.
is
end of the
nodes, and the existence of that one which
the finger
heard
99
but
struck;
is
if at
it
the node,
it
remain undisturbed.
The harmonic
may be produced
notes of a harp string
same way, and the
first
of them (or octave)
is
in the
sometime^ used
by harp players.
The
production of harmonic notes on the violin or violon
by touching the
cello,
of a node,
string lightly with the finger at the place
is familiar to
on those instruments.
players
obviously essential to the production of harmonics that
It is
the point at which force
is
make
applied to
the string vibrate
(whether by a hammer, the finger, qr a bow) should not be
a node.
118. It was stated above (Art. 104) that a string
made
manner
to vibrate in such a
component
whose periods
vibration, with all those
may be
any proposed harmonic
that
are aliquot
parts of the period of that one, shall be extinguished.
This follows from the formula (2) of Art.
we suppose
formula
lowe"st terms), that
vibrate
into
it
which
(J
is, if
i is
/ (
we suppose
by being plucked
n equal
being
at
It
series
was
also stated that
for
if
in this
a proper fraction in
that the string
is
made
vibra
are)
n 2n
when
to
divide
terms in the series vanish for
and therefore the component
T
tions of which the periods
any one of the points which
parts, all those
a multiple of ,
99
&c. do not
exist.
this is
done, the corresponding
of harmonic tones becomes nearly or quite inaudible
^.
This fact was discovered by Dr. T. Young. See his * Experiments and
Sound and Light,' Phil, Trans, for 1800, p. 138.
Inquiries respecting
Experiments on Harmonics of String.
loo
To shew
119.
this experimentally,
it is
only necessary to pass
the point of the finger very lightly across a pianoforte or violin
This should be
string.
first
done
at
a point not coinciding
with a node in some proposed division, for instance, at a point
not dividing the string into three equal parts,
and the attention
directed to the corresponding harmonic (in this case the third
component, or 'twelfth' above the fundamental
it
may be heard
distinctly.
across a node, the
Then,
if
the
tone), so that
be passed
finger
absence of the same harmonic
be
will
unmistakeable.
The
following
hand, at
from
and the
with
its
either
is
an easy and
Pluck the string
experiment.
striking
way of making
alternately, with
middle point and at a point onethird of
end.
its
These points must be taken very
fingers passed lightly across the string.
the fundamental tone will
be heard very
when the string is plucked
when it is plucked at the
this
a finger of each
length
exactly,
Then along
distinctly
twelfth
at its middle pointy
octave
other point.
Thus,
third* or d' string of a viplin be used, the tones, a",
the
and the
if
d'', will
the
be
heard alternately.
* The fourth string, which is covered with
The wire covering appears to have the effect
the component
the pluck.
vibrations
which at the
first
wire, does not answer so well.
of immediately reestablishing
instant were extinguished by
APPENDIX TO CHAPTER
VI,
ON FORCED OSCILLATIONS.
(The
is to be taken only as a slight sketch of the
which many points of interest are omitted. For
more complete details on that part which relates to natural
oscillations, see Thomson and Tait, 343.
The process here
given only differs from that employed by those authors in
modifications of detail, and in the extension to the case in
which the system is subjected to obligatory motions.)
If x^ y,
be the coordinates of any point of a material
subject,
following
in
system referred to fixed rectangular axes, the differential equawhich define the motion of the system under the action
of given external forces are to be derived from the formula
tions
\m{x"hx^y'hy^z"hz) = ^{Xhx^Yhy\Zhz),
(i)
where accents signify total differentiation with respect to /, and
the summation extends, on the left hand to every particle ^,
and on the right hand to every point at which an external force
is applied.
X, Y, Z are the components of the force applied
at the point x,y^ z.
This formula expresses the proposition (known as D'Alembert's
theorem) that the system
is
at every instant in
a con
figuration of equilibrium with respect to the applied forces
and
the resistances to acceleration arising from the inertia of the
particles.
When the system is not entirely free, the possible
motions of the particles are limited by equations of condition
and bx, by, &c. in (i) represent any arbitrary infinitesimal
alterations which could, at the time /, be made in the coordinates
y, &c. without violating those equations. In other
words, the equation (i) must at every instant subsist for values
of hXf &c. corresponding to any arbitrary infinitesimal displacement which the system could at that instant undergo
.:*;,
Forced
loa
Oscillations.
without violating the conditions which limit the freedom of
its motion.
When the equations of condition contain the time / explicitly,
the expression configuration of equilibrium at any proposed
'
time
is
'
to be understood as
meaning
that
which would be a
configuration of equilibrium, if /, in the equations of condition,
became constant, with the value which it has at the instant in
(Thus, if a particle be constrained to move on a
question.
surface
which
continually changing
is
its
form,
it
is
in a con
any instant if the force applied to
the direction of a normal to the surface at that instant.)
figuration of equilibrium at
it is
in
We may
call the equilibrium relative when the equations of
condition contain / explicitly, and absolute when they do not.
Our present object is to consider the case in which the equations of condition contain / explicitly, only because given points
of the system are subject to obligatory motiofis, so that the
This, it
coordinates of those points are given functions of /.
should be observed, is only a generalization of the common
In either
case in which given points of the system are fixed.
case the terms referring to those points disappear from both
sides of the formula (i), because, whether a point is fixed, or
subject to an obligatory motion, it could not, at any proposed
time, receive any displacement without violating the condition
imposed upon it ; hence h x = o, &c. for all such points.
Suppose, now, we refer the system to a set of independent
coordinates fp fg?
^^ ^^7 kind, that is, quantities of which
the values at any time would determine the configuration of the
system at that time, but could be all assumed arbitrarily without
violating the equations of condition.
The transformation to the Lagrangian form^ of the differential equations is in no way affected by the suppositions now
made, so that we shall have as many equations of the second
order as there are independent coordinates, viz.
on which equations, however,
the following observations are to
be made.
7"
is
the expression, in terms of the
new
variables f^, &c. of
12 m{x'' +/' + /');
the summation extending to all coordinates which appear on
the lefthand side of (i).
The coordinates of those points
*
See Price, /nf. Cat., vol.
iv.,
302,
Forced
Oscillations,
103
which are subject
to obligatory motions therefore
in 7" as expressed in terms oi x^y, z, &c.
do not appear
Let us denote by x, y, z, &c. the original coordinates of those
which are subject to obligatory motions. Then the
relations between the old and new variables will enable us to
express each of the other coordinates x,^, z, &c. as a function
points
of
fi)
6?
^^d
&c.; suppose, for instance,
X, y, z,
^*
= *(fi,f2.x,y,z,...);
then
dx
dx
,
and when these values are
dx
.,
substituted in the original expression
homogeneous,
^^ y'>
Now X, y, ... x', y, ... are given functions of /; and when
their values are introduced T is no longer homogeneous with
respect to ^\ ^\, .. and also contains / explicitly,
for T, the result is evidently
a function which
and of the second degree, with respect
(This
new
value of
is
to ^\, fa'
merely the kinetic energy (or half
is
visviva) of the whole system expressed in terms of the inde
pendent coordinates.)
For the present, however, we
in terms of f'j
x',
will
so that
suppose 7" to be expressed
we may assume
T = jPf + iGfV + + i^xV +
+ Si\i\+... + Te,x'^.. + UK'y' + ...
,^
where the
(3)
Q, &c. are given functions which may
the coordinates, but not their differential coefficients
coefficients
P,
contain
all
f&c.
The
functions S^, S2,
in equations (2) are to
be found
Xbx^rhy + Zhz + ...=^,h^, + ^,h^, + ...,
(4)
...
by means of the equation
which gives
^dx
so that
X, F,
...
nates, Sj, &c. are
dz
^^dy
being given functions of the original coordiknown functions of the new coordinates, con
taining also in general x, y, &c.
have now to introduce the supposition that the obligatory
We
motions consist of small vibrations.
stance, that the point (x, y, z)
x = x<,4a,
where
x,,,
y^,
z^
is
y^jQ
are
Let us assume, for
in
subject to a vibration, so that
+ oLV,
constants, , v,
z = Zq
are
+ aw]
given periodic
Forced
I04
/, and a
a small quantity of the
functions of
is
+
Oscillations,
a constant which
first
We may
order.
may be
call (x^,
considered
j^^z^) the
mean position of the point (x, y, z) (the point (x, y, z) would
become fixed at (x^,, y^, zj if a were = o).
Next we will suppose that the system is always nearly in
;
a configuration of absolute stable equilibrium ; that is, that the
oi^^y differ by quantities of
values of the coordinates f^, fg*
the first order from values (which we will denote by (f^) &c.)
which would belong to a configuration of stable equilibriuni if
a were =
o.
The excursions of the particles being of the first order, we
make the further assumption (which must be justified^ h posteriori) that the differential coefficients ^^, &c. are also
Hence
order.
first
is
of the second order.
.
are of the
first
order, while
,.
first
&c.
&c. are of the second (since
we must
order,
j^i
But y^
^ti
&c. only occur in the coefficients P, &c.).
fi,
retain only terms of the
//
dT
^
of the
Hence,
if
we
reject the terms
&c. in the equations (2).
it is evident that in the coefficients P, Q, &c. we
put x^ for x, &c. and the equilibrium values for f^, &c., so
that those coefficients will receive constant values.
Hence we
may take
Moreover,
may
terms in x', y', ... only, which will disappear in forming
equations (2).
Hence the lefthand member of the first of equations (2)
becomes
[i,
i]r,
[i,
2]r
[i,
sir,
+...+ax+ hf + cx,
and of the second equation
b, sif'a + +.x" b,r + cj',
In these equations the symbols [1,1], &c. as well as
&c. merely denote given constants, and [i, 2] = [2, i], &c.
[2,
iif'i
+ [2, 2]r.
and so on.
j,
^
The justification
The motions
of the particles consist of isochrofollows that the velocities may be diminished
indefinitely by diminishing the amplitudes.
The supposition of small velocities therefore merely implies a certain limit to the allowable magnitude
of the amplitudes.
is this
nous vibrations, from which
it
Forced Oscillations.
members of (2) we observe
&c. for the equilibrium values of
shall have, by Taylor's theorem, as far as terms of
With respect
that,
to the righthand
putting as before
&c.
f,
the
we
first
105
(f,),
order,
s, = (SO
+ (f (fi)) (g) +(f,(f,))
dS,\
/dS,\
(g) +
/dS.
H"Q)^<^)^Q))
where brackets signify values
values of the coordinates.
Now, when
corresponding to equilibrium
the variables have equilibrium values,
2{Xbx + rby\'Zbz) =
o,
and therefore
But since
dfj, &c. are
(Sj) = o,
(S2)
independent and arbitrary,
this implies
&c.
Further, it is evident that we may assume the zeros of the
coordinates f^, &c. in such a manner that their equilibrium
values (fi), &c. shall = o.
Hence, if we denote the constants
(^),
o,
&c. by letters A,
jB,
&c. the
first
of equations (2) will
become
x = Xofa, &c., so that x'' = a", &c. We have also
supposed that u, v, w are periodic functions of /, and therefore
each of them may be expressed as a series of simple harmonic
terms by means of Fourier's theorem.
Suppose sin (;z/+/3)
occurs in the value of x, then it will also occur in x''; and we
Now
now
see that, putting i? for
>
we may
write the above equa
tion in the form
the
righthand side consisting entirely of harmonic terms of
by small coefficients. The second
equation will be of the form
different periods, multiplied
([2,i]Z?^^,)f,+ ([2,2]i)2^,)f,+
and so on.
Thus we
shall
have a
set of
...
= /sin(/+y)h...,
simultaneous differential
Forced
io6
Oscillations.
equations of the second order, as
many
in
number
as there are
independent coordinates.
We will now, however, introduce the further supposition of
small resistances varying directly as the velocities of the parThis does not add any difficulty to the integration of
the equations, and leads to results more in accordance with
ticles.
experience.
This supposition
dx
is
equivalent
to
writing
X^>
&c.
X, &c. in some or all of the terms of the original
formula, e being a small constant"; and it is evident that the
effect of this will be, when terms of the second order are
neglected, to add to Sj, &c. linear functions of f'j,
^, &c. with
constant coefficients; and transposing these terms to the lefthand side of the differential equations, we shall have (using
<Zj, &c. in a new sense),
instead of
= /{sin(/+/3) +
= /sin(/+y) +
..
which are the differential equations of the problem.
This system of equations may be treated in several different
ways, of which the following appears most convenient for our
present purpose.
Adopting abbreviations for the operative symbols,
write the equations thus
[tz^]fi
+ [a<5]f2 + ...
+
\ha'\^^^\bb\^^
= >^sin(/+^) +
.
= /sin (/+y) +
(where it is to be observed that [^3]
Let V be the determinant
\aa\,
\ha\
\ca\
\ab\
\bb\
\cb\
is
we may
not the same as
\hci\).
\ac\..,
\bc\...
\cc\...
Now if we operate upon the differential equations respectively
with the minor determinants
^V
^V
^V
d\aa\
d\ba\
d\ca\
just as in a system of algebraic linear equations, fgj fs? <^c. will
Forced
be eliminated;
Oscillations.
107
and, observing the eifect of differentiation on
members, we see that the
the periodic terms in the righthand
result will
be
Vf, = i^sin(/ + Z) + ..
and
in like
(5)
manner
Vf2 = i^'sin(/+Z') + ..
K, K! L, &c. being known
To
constants,
integrate these equations
we
and K, IC
first
suppose
small.
their
hand members to be absent, so that all the variables f^,
satisfy the same differential equation, which we may write
rightfg'
o,
of the order 2 m, if m be the number of the independent coordinates fp &c.
If we put for a moment V ^/{p), and call a^, a^, a^,
ttgTO the roots of the equation /{x) = o, then we know that
the general solution of V u = o is
and which
is
Cj, C^, ... C^m being arbitrary constants.
Hence the values
of the variables fj, fg'
^^^ ^^ ^^^^ form, differing only in the
values of the constants C^, &c. ; but since the complete solution
of the system can only contain 2 m arbitrary constants, those
in the values of fg? &c. must be expressible as functions of those
in fj.
The relations necessary for this purpose would have to
be ascertained by substituting the expressions for fp &c. in the
original system of equations of the second order.
have no
occasion, however, to perform this operation actually.
Considering now the value of any coordinate, say
We
we
permanently small
equation /"(.r) = o consist
of imaginary pairs, and the real part of each pair be negative,
so that the value of f^ may be put in the form
see that the motion cannot consist of
oscillations, unless the roots of the
fi
= Ciisin(w,/H/3i)HC2e2<sin(Z2^f/32)...
(6)
(where a^ &c. are used with a new meaning). The factors
e"*"!' &c. are introduced solely by the resistances, as is evident
if we observe that the differential equations would only contain
even powers of
if there were no resistances.
The above values of f^ &c. determine the natural vibrations
of the system, such as could exist if the obligatory vibrations
Forced
io8
Oscillations,
were suppressed by fixing the points subject to them ; and they
are compounded of harmonic vibrations, each of which could
We
subsist alone.
see also that the effect of the resistances
would be gradually to diminish the amplitudes of the vibrations
so that the motion would be ultimately extinguished.
We
have thus obtained the complete solution of the system
of equations (5) &c., on the supposition that K^ K' &c. are
And the solution of those equations in their actual form
all o.
may now
be found as follows
for the complete value of
Assume,
fj,
the terms in the ex
pression (6)
+
where A,
(A
>4 sin
(/
Z)
.5 cos (/
+ Z) +
are constants to be determined.
similar pair of terms is to be assumed for every term
.
on
the righthand side of (5); but as the following process would
merely have to be repeated for each pair, we shall attend only
to the first.)
Substituting this value of f^ in (5), and observing that the
operation
destroys the part (6), we obtain the condition
^ V sin (/+ Z) + ^ V cos (/ + Z) = A" sin {ni + Z)
A and B.
(7)
for the determination of
Now
the operation V, consisting partly of even
odd powers of
D (or )
>
may
and
partly of
be put in the form
where the second term is introduced entirely by the resistances,
and if they are considered as small quantities of the first order
the terms depending on them in <^(Z>^) will be of higher orders,
so that (f){Z>^) may be considered as what V would be reduced
The result of the operations on
to if there were no resistances.
the lefthand side of (7)
is
easily seen to
be
(A ^{n')Bnx{n'')) sin {ni+L)
+ {A nx(n^) + B(I>(and
this is to
have
^sin
be identical with
{nt\L)
n")) cos (w/
;
+ Z),
hence we must
A<i>{n'')Bnx{n'') = K,
Anx{n^) + ^<)(') =
o;
from which we find
and when
B
A
<!>(') "
nx(n^)
the values of
{^{n')r^n^x{n')r
and
thus given are introduced in
Forced
Oscillations,
the expression assumed for f^,
reduction)
becomes
it
109
(after
an obvious
f,= C,i^sin(;i/+ft)4...
,sin(/+Z
fl)
...,
(8)
{(*(V+'(x(^)r}*
Q being a constant of which we need not write the actual value.
Thus we see that the effect of every harmonic term in the
obligatory vibrations is in general to add to the value of each
coordinate a term with the same period ; and these added terms
The other terms,
represent the forced vibrations of the system.
= o, &c. give the natural vibrations,
which are the same as if
but these in general soon become insensible through the diminution of the factors e""''!^ &c. introduced by the resistances,
while the forced vibrations are permanent.
It is important to observe that it follows from the nature of
the whole process that no periods will be introduced in the
forced vibrations which do not exist in the harmonic components of the obligatory vibrations, so long as terms of the
first order only are considered, because no periodic terms are
ever multiplied together.
With respect to the amplitudes of the forced vibrations, we
see that those will be large of which the periods are such that
the denominators of the coefficients in (8) are small.
Now in the expression
(<^(V+^(x(V.
the second term
fore small ;
will
is
introduced by the resistances, and
hence the vibration, Tof which the period
have a large amplitude
the roots of the equation
if
supposition
(){
is
n be such that <^( ^) = o
= o give the values of
there
)>
but
<^ (pc^')
+ m^ >/ I,
on the supposition
is
that there are
no
&c.
resistances, so that
on
that
m^^) = o, &c.
Hence it follows that the amplitude of any component of the
forced vibration will be large if its period coincide with that
which would belong to a component of the natural vibrations if
there were no resistances.
And since the effect of the resistances in altering the periods of the natural vibrations is in
general small, we may say in general terms that there will be
forced vibrations of large amplitude if amongst the harmonic
components of the obligatory vibrations there exist any with
periods equal to those of natural vibrations.
no
Lastly,
Forced
we
vibrations at
Oscillations.
see from (8) that though the periods of the forced
all parts of the system are the same as those of
the obligatory vibrations which give rise to them, the phases are
in general different.
The process to be used in the case of periodic forces is
nearly identical with that which has been just explained, but
somewhat simpler, and the results are exactly of the same kind.
It is therefore omitted.
CHAPTER
VII.
ON THE TRANSVERSE VIBRATIONS OF AN ELASTIC
{Dynamical Theory})
STRING.
The
120.
rigorous
motion of an
differential
equations which define the
under given conditions can in
string
elastic
general be formed without difficulty, but cannot be integrated.
It is
only
when
the circumstances of the problem are such that
certain quantities involved in the equations
may
be neglected
without sensible error, that an integrable approximate form
For our present purpose
obtained.
form the rigorous equations; we
it
will
is
not be necessary to
shall introduce ab initio the
conditions of the actual problem, and neglect the small quan
mentioned above, so as
tities
to obtain the
approximate equa
tions directly.
Let us then consider an
fixed at
two points A, ^,
elastic string*
of which the ends are
at a distance /
from one another,
greater than the natural length of the string.
In the condition of equilibrium the form of the string
a straight line of length
stant throughout
its
extension to which
If
its
now
it
length,
and
it
will
have a tension,
motion
will
depending on the amount of the
its
position of
and then
left
to
itself,
will ever be much
equilibrium, and we make the
original disturbance
sensibly transversal;
particle
point.
be
con
be such that no particle
following assumptions
The
will
7",
has been subjected.
the string be slightly disturbed
displaced from
(i)
/,
on
the line
is
such that the vibrations are
that
AB
is,
the projection of any
may be
regarded as a fixed
Vibrations of a String.
112
The
(2)
inclination of every part of the string to the line
AB
The
(3)
is
always an angle so small that the square of
sine or tangent
its
may
be neglected.
extension of any portion of the string due to
change of form may be neglected; or the
the actual length
sequence of
The
(4)
tension
is
of
to the length in equilibrio differs
from
insensibly
its
ratio
(This
unity.
con
evidently
is
(2).)
and may
sensibly constant,
taken as always equal to T.
(This
is
therefore be
a consequence
of (3).)
Now
121.
the position of any element of the string be
let
A, and the
referred to rectangular axes having their origin at
axis of
It
coinciding with
from
follows
AB.
given element,
(i) that, for a
regarded as constant, and from (2) that
an element of which the length
be the coordinates of that end of
X + dx,y ^dy, z + dz
If
no
oi:
is ds,
it
dx =
ds.
or dx, and
which
is
is
let
external forces are taken account
But since
Hence
if
r^,
ds
end
dm
is
x, y, z
nearest to A,
its
extremities
of,
and
the element
r^
ds
at the
end next
so that the whole components are
constant and ds = dx, these
is
only
and the components
of these, in the directions of the coordinate axes, are
at the other
be
now
the other end.
acted on by the tensions at
_r^,
ds
to
Consider
become
be the mass of the element, we have
..4,
Vibrations of a Stri^ig.
113
Let p be the longitudinal density of the string, or the mass of a
(The string
its actual state of extension.
unit of length in
being supposed uniform, p
will
be constant.)
Then
dm ^ pds = pdx,
and
if
we put
T=
c^,
and take
dx
constant,
we
obtain from
9
(i) the equations
,^
^
d?~^ ZP'
dH
The
d^^
" ^
2^
dx
integrals of these equations will determine
functions of the two independent variables
they will give the position, at the time
(The value of
determine
its
/,
defines the particle,
and
and z as
that
/;
is,
of any proposed particle.
and the values of
j^,
displacement from the position of equilibrium.)
122. Since the
first
of equations (2) does not contain
the second does not contain
_y, it
2,
and
follows that the motion of the
on the plane of xy is independent of
on the plane oi yz; so that it will be
one of these equations and we will suppose
projection of the string
that of
its
projection
sufficient to discuss
for simplicity that the
not
exist.
This
motion corresponding to the other does
evidently equivalent to supposing that the
is
displacements and velocities of the particles produced by the
original disturbance
were
all in
one plane, which we
will take
to be that of xy.
We
have then the single equation
of which the general solution
is
y=/{xaf) + F{x\a^).
(4)
This equation represents the transmission of two arbitrary
forms along an unlimited Hne, with the same velocity
a, (cor
responding to the V of Art. 96), in contrary directions and we
have already shewn (Arts. 88, &c.) what must be the general
;
character of these forms in order that the resultant curve
have
nodes, so that
a portion of the
infinite string
between any two nodes may be considered as a
I
may
contained
finite string
Solution of Equations,
114
The mode
two ends.
of obtaining the
same con
fixed at
its
clusions
from equation (4) in a more analytical manner may be
on mechanics.
seen in treatises
Traite de Mecanique^
t.
ii.
(See, for
chap.
example, Poisson,
Price, Inf. Cal. vol.
viii.
iv.
281.)
It
was also shewn how the most general solution of
which the functions
may be
the problem,
J^
where
123.
then
2,=i
aT=
f and P satisfy the
expressed in the form
smy(^.cos^^+^,sm^^j,
The
value of d^
W =gph and d^ =
thickness.
(5)
2I.
yp*
and
(3) in
conditions imposed by
Woe
and
t,
is
^>
W be the weight of the
let
and
For a
r,
the time of a vibration,
string
of given material
is
and
therefore r varies directly as the length
inversely as the square root of the tension.
only be given,
string,
If the material
proportional to the length and to the square
is
of the thickness, so that r varies as the length and the thickness
directly,
and the square root of the tension
If c be the length of string of
the tension T, then
T=gpc, and
inversely.
which the weight would equal
2/
therefore
r= ='
Hence
if
be expressed in the usual manner, the number of vibrations in
a second
is
Vgc.
2/
124.
The form
The form
(5)
may be
arrived at directly as follows
of equation (3) suggests at once as a particular
solution
y = sm.mx{A cos am/ +B sin am^)
cos mx(C cos am/ +Dsin ami),
\
no particular conditions are specified, all
A, B, C,
are arbitrary.
But in order that
in which, as long as
the constants m,
this solution
may
represent the motion of the
finite
string,
we
Vibrations resisted by Retarding Forces.
must have,
X=
for all values of
The
/.
/,
j/
x = 0,
= o when
and
also
when
o,
D = o;
being any positive or negative integer.
Thus
of these two conditions gives
first
115
C=
and the second gives
sinml =
whence ml =
we
z'tt,
obtain
(
y = sm A
.
iiix
cos
as a particular solution
particular solutions
we
o,
is
in at
i'Ttai\
~\
B sm
.
and since the sum of any number of
a solution of a linear
equation,
diflferential
obtain (putting ax = 2I) the form (5) as a
more general
solution.
The
A^, B^ are
coefficients
all
arbitrary unless
circumstances of the motion are given
but
it
the
initial
has been shewn
already (Art. 98) that they can be so determined as to give the
required
initial
The form
values
toy and ^
(5) therefore
is
for
every part of the string.
most general solution of the
the
dif
ferential equation applicable to this simple case of the lateral
(Longitudinal vibrations will be considered
vibration of a string.
in connection with those
of a rod).
The problem becomes ^little more
125.
complicated
if
we
introduce the supposition of a^ retarding force acting at every
point of the string,
and proportional
to the velocity^
The
first
of equations (i) then becomes
And
c being a constant.
where
>^
is
put for
instead of the
first
P
Multiplying (2') by
**,
and using the theorem
See Art. 110, note.
I
of (2)
we
shall
Vibrations resisted by
we
Retcmnng
tcmans"
Forces.
Fi
obtain
j
Assuming
as a solution of tKis equation
find the condition
p=
or
y
is
+ a)sin(/>/4/3),
= sin(w.r
e'^'^
we
= *' sin
k^)^
(a^ n^
hence
{mx + a) sin ({a^ m^  k^)^ / + /3)
a solution.
The ends
values of
It is easily
mi =
t'lr,
or
= o when
= o, and
sin
a=
o,
seen that
we
lose
m=
sin (mi\ a)
no
"2,.=i
From
initial
problem
most general
so
is
k') /
+ ftj;
(5)
arbitrary constants, to be determined as
circumstances.
the above expression
we
see that the amplitude of the
and ultimately become
through the diminution of the factor e~^K
Also that the period of vibration of the
by
by taking a = o; then
^fSin^sm(^(^^
vibrations will progressively diminish,
insensible,
o.
Finally, therefore, the
which A^, ^. are
in
usual by
generality
ITT
lution of (2'^ appropriate to the
y=^
we must have (for all
when x = /; and therefore
of the string being fixed,
/) _y
the resistance in the ratio of
to
tone
i^^
is
increased
If the value of k were so great that, for any values of
>
y
But we
the
of
value
i\
would contain nonperiodic terms.
shall not discuss this case, as
it
does not concern us
practically.
126.
,((*^
We
kind, but of
proceed
more or
now
to
some problems of a
less practical interest.
less simple
For^f
Problem
of it
We
To find the motion of the
i.
string
a given obligatory transverse
subject to
is
Vibrations of String,
suppose, in the
first
when a given point
vibration.
instance, that there
is
no
resistance.
Let b be the distance of the given point from the end A of
the string and suppose that at this point the value of j/ is to be
(We have no occasion to consider the external forces
k^vant.
necessary to maintain this obligatory motion ; we suppose them
to be applied, whatever they may be.)
It is evident that the portions of string on the two sides of
the given point may move independently of one another, except
that the value oiy must be the same for both when x = b.
Let us assume then that from x =
io x ^b,
;
j/
mat + B sin ma t).
= ^\Timx[A cos
This satisfies the differential equation, and also the condition
that y = o when x = o.
We have next to satisfy the condition that when x = b,
y = ksmnt. This gives
svi\mb{A cos
mat ^Bsmmat) = ksmnt,
which can only be true for
that A =0, ma = n
hence
values of /
all
on
the supposition
sm
and the value oiy becomes
k
v=
.
sm
This however
no
(for this part of the string)
.
^'Sm
nb
nx
.sm/.
a
.
only a particular solution, since
is
/^v
(6)
^
'
it
contains no
evident that we may still satisfy
the differential equation, without violating the prescribed condition, if we add the terms which would give the natural vibration
arbitrary constant.
of
we
But
of the string,
this part
it
is
if
the given point were fixed.
Thus
get
y=
.
sm
sm
nb
a sm ni
nx
+ 2,^i sm^(^.cos
and the
^ + B.smjy
(6)
series of arbitrary constants A^, B^, will enable us to
satisfy the initial
conditions relative to this part of the string,
Forced Vibrations of String.
ii8
so that the above equation gives the general solution of the
problem.
The motion of the other part may be found exactly in the
same way, and will be given merely by writing lx and lb
instead of
and ^
in (6').
127. Attending for the present only to the first portion of
the string, we see that the value of j/ in (6') consists of two
parts, the first of which depends only on the imposed obligatory
motion, and determines the forced vibration of that portion.
The other part is independent of the obligatory motion, and
represents the natural vibration.
In any actual case the natural vibration is soon extinguished,
because the string is constantly giving up some of its momentum to the air and to the bodies which support the tension
of its ends.
But the forced vibration will continue as long as
the obligatory motion is sustained.
If we call r the period of this forced vibration, so that
r =
TT
and neglect the natural
be written
y=
vibration, the equation (6)
27r.r
r'Sm
ar
277^
sm
may
277/
5
(7)
'
^
sin
in
which
vibration
ar
remembered that k is the amplitude of the
imposed upon a point at the distance b from one end,
it is
to be
the length of the portion of string now considered.
at a distance x from the fixed end the
amplitude of the forced vibration is therefore
so that b
is
For any given point
2'nx
sm
7,
ax
which expression becomes
277^
sm
00
ar
(except for
x = 6)
This cannot of course actually happen; in
the preceding reasoning
the string
is
that
become
when
sin
o, or
forced vibrations will be
JV
ditions.
XT
Now sm
2 71^
ar
if
sin
o.
the whole of
the excursions of any part of
we can really infer therefore
All that
large.
is
fails
fact,
if
very small, the amplitude of the
much
.
= o gives
greater than under other con2
77*^
ar
Z77,
or 20 = iaT.
Suppose A the length of a portion of the
string
which would
X
Forced Vibrations of String.
have T
period of
for the
(Art. 94),
natural vibration;
its
and therefore the above condition
<5
= A;
that
is
119
then 2A. = ^t
equivalent to
is,
the amplitude of the forced vibrations in this portion of the
string becomes large when its length is any multiple of that
"which would vibrate naturally in the same period ; or, which is
the same thing, when the tone corresponding to the period of
the forced vibration belongs to the harmonic scale of tones
which would be given by the natural vibrations of this portion
if
both ends were
128.
which
The
fixed.
points of
minimum
disturbance will be those at
2 11
IT JC
vanishes
sin
the supposition
that
now made,
sin
at
is,
which
7 = o
sin
that
is,
= o
or,
at points
on
which
divide the length d into / equal parts, so that there will be guast
nodes at these points.
Similar conclusions may be deduced for
the other portion of the string ; and it is easily seen that if the
obligatory vibration be imposed at any one of the points of
division of the
whole string into
equal parts, and
if its
period
be ~th of the period of the natural vibrations of the whole
string, the forced vibrations will
be large, and the tone
will
be
of the harmonic scale of the string.
Thus we learn that in order to produce strong forced vibrations in a string, the obligatory vibration must be imposed at
what would be a node in the case of natural vibrations of the
the
zth
It
same period
a conclusion which may appear strange.
might have been conjectured that a point of greatest motion
ought to have been chosen. The explanation is simple, and
may be left to the reader.
;
We
have so far supposed, for simplicity, that the
129.
But if it
obligatory motion was a simple harmonic vibration.
were a compound vibration consisting of the superposition of
any number of harmonic vibrations of different periods, phases,
and amplitudes, it would be easily shewn that every one of these
components would produce a corresponding term (analogous to
(7)) in the expression for the forced vibrations of the string.
= b^
Thus, if the imposed vibration required that, when
J/
=2
cos
B. sm
the forced vibration of the string, from
expressed by the equation
)>
= o to
j;
^,
would be
Experimental Illustrations,
130
Q.'RX
sin
ar,
^=2
277/
Tl^iCos
2'nb
+ B.sm
2'nt>
)
sin
ar.
In this case,
if
t^
2/
;
that
is,
if
the period of every
com
ponent of the imposed vibration is some aliquot part of the
natural period of the whole string, then the above expression is
not altered by changing x and b into lx and lb\ and
therefore it holds good for the whole string.
130. These results may be approximately verified by experiment as follows
If a tuningfork be struck, and the end of
its stalk be then placed on the string of a pianoforte, violin, or
violoncello, at any point, it may be considered approximately
as imposing an obligatory vibration on that point.
And it will
be found that in general the only sound heard is the note of the
tuningfork, very weak.
If, however, the point of application
be such that the portion of string intercepted between it and
either end could vibrate naturally so as to give, either as a
fundamental tone or as a harmonic, one of the component
tones of the tuningfork, then that portion of the string is
thrown into strong vibration, so as to give the corresponding
:
tone very distinctly.
The fundamental tone of a tuningfork is by far the strongest
of its component tones. The higher components proper, are
very high tones with incommensurable periods, which are hardly
heard after a few seconds. But there is also a harmonic tone,
an octave above the fundamental tone, which is weak, but persistent, and this, as well as the fundamental tone, may be produced from a string in the manner just described^.
For instance, if a /' tuningfork be placed on the second
string of a violin at the point where the finger would be placed
in playing /', that tone will be heard, and /'' may, by attention,
be distinguished as sounding with it. But if the fork be placed
on the first string at the proper point for the finger in playing
c'\ that tone will be distinctly heard, while /' will be weak^.
^ This harmonic octave in the sound of the tuningfork is a phsenomenon
of the second order, of the kind mentioned in Art. 112,
^ The sound actually heard is caused by waves in the air originating not
directly from the vibrations of the string, but indirectly from those communicated from the string, through the bridge, to the soundboard. An
investigation of the effect of placing a tuningfork on the string, in v^^hich
this circumstance is taken into account, is given by Helmholz {Beilage III).
The practical results agree with those of the simpler process in the text.
Forced Vibrations modified by Resistance.
These are
resonance, of
The
131.
applicable,
particular cases of the general
which we
shall
\%i
phaenomenon of
have to speak hereafter.
(6), or its equivalent (7), becomes inwas shewn in Art. 127, when the obligatory
imposed at such a point that its period is any aliquot
expression
as
vibration is
part of the natural period of vibration of the portion of string
considered.
may be
avoided by introducing the hyunder the form already employed in
as the result will be useful in a subsequent
This inconvenience
pothesis
of
resistance,
Art. 125.
And
We
problem, we shall give the process as briefly as possible.
shall neglect altogether the natural vibrations, which are soon
extinguished, and with which we shall have no concern in the
application to be made hereafter.
Let / be the length of the whole string. Then, putting c
instead of 2 /^ in the differential equation (2') of Art. 125, we
have
dy
d'^y
and we are
to obtain a solution of this equation satisfying the
conditions
when x =
may assume
y =p sin nl\q CO?, nt
For
this
purpose we
b^
and
y=
y = u^\nnt\v cos nt^
x to be determined.
value oi y in the differential
when
0.
u and V being functions oi
Substituting this
equation,
and
equating to o the coefficients of sin/ and cosw/, we find the
two conditions
{c^IJ^ 'Yf^)u\cnv
oA
{a^D'>tn'^)vcnu^o,]
in
which
stands for
Eliminating v

dx
we obtain
{{a'^D'^n')''^c'n^\uo',
and therefore
where
a^, a^, 03, a^
are the four roots of the equation
{a^o?^n'f^c''n^
that
is,
= o)
the four values of the expression
/rx
^'
Forced Vibrations 7nodiJied by Kesistance.
12^
To
put
convenient form, assume
this result in a
= tan
tan
\//,
n
I
+
~
 \/
cos
whence, emplo}dng
De
(cos
a/^
\/a ^
/3,
then
~ a/ I sin\/r)
^
H
'^
Moivre's theorem, and observing that
cosJ\/a
Vi(3^^
\/cos\/r
we
find for the values of the expression (a) those of
and the above value of u becomes
{AB)^/^^, {CD)V~^i,
(after putting
and
C,
B instead of
instead of
^+^,
u  sin0(^^^ + ^^^) + cos(9(Ce^Vi^^'),
in
6 =
which
113^
a
equation for v is of the same form as that
for u.
Hence the value of v will only differ from that of u in
having different constants A\ B, C, D' instead o^ A, B, C, D.
But these eight constants cannot be all independent of one
another, since the solution of the simultaneous equations (I)
cannot contain more than four arbitrary constants.
In fact, on
substituting the values of u and v in those equations, we obtain
= A, IT = B.
the relations
A' = C, B' = D,
The
differential
Moreover, since ^ = o when x = o, for all values of/, we must
have u = o and v = o when 6 = o; hence
C+D
from which
and
and C' + T?' =
= B.
cr
Finally, therefore,
+ (Cosin^ ^
=
'
^'
6cos^)cos/;
b
It
remains to determine
and
so that the above expression
identical with
/sin/+^cos/
when X =
d,
that
is,
where
=
may become
o,
changing
and J C, we may write the values of u and v
= (^ osin^+C6cos^)sin/
into J
thus:
o,
follows that
it
when
6 =
Exact and Approximate
Putting therefore
for the
(\>
Results.
123
for this particular value of ^,
corresponding values of
o,
6,
we have
oQ sin(^ I C 80 cos</) =
CcroSin<^ y4 8()Cos^ =
4
and
o^,,
h^^
the two equations
/),
^,
whence
^ (o/sin^(^ + 8/cos'^(/))
= /or^sint^
^6(,cos<^,
+ Vcos^0) = ^ooSin(^+/6oCOS();
of A and C thus determined are to be introduced
C(oo^sin^(/)
and the values
in the above expression for j/.
The
result
may be
conveniently expressed thus
II
^(ToSin</)+/6oCOS0
put
then
T = tan*;
/ oQ sm 9 ^ Oo cos 9
\r ^1
(oo^sin^^
5,
sin int
{ o sin
+ <^)
+ Vcos^*^)*
+ 8 cos ^ cos (/+*)}.
(II)
This gives the exact solution of the problem; that is, it deThe
termines the motion of the string from x = o to x = b.
motion of the remaining part of the string will be given by
putting lx for x, and lb for b, in (II).
The radical in the
denominator must evidently be understood to have the same
sign as sin (^, in order that this value of ^ may agree with that
found, as in Art. 126, when resistance is neglected, or ^ = o.
The
period of the obligatory vibration
is
natural vibration of the part of the string from
>
and that of the
= o io
= b
\'5
2b
or
hence,
an
 =
if
the former period be any aliquot part of the latter,
the value of
ob
^V
becomes
>
so
^/I^2
^yi_^2>'
that, /3 being supposed very small, and h^ being of the same
order as /3, the denominator in the expression (II) becomes
very small ; but it cannot vanish for any value of qf), and therefore this expression always gives a finite value for j/.
The expression (II) is however too complicated for use in
the problem for the sake of which we have obtained it.
(See
Art. 138.)
We shall therefore neglect j8 in every part of that
expression except where it is essential to retain it.
Now ^3 =
gives
o
1,
(T^=
I,
8 = o, 0 = o tan* =
.
But we must retain
Case of Periodic Pressure.
i:z4
the term h^Q.o^<\i in the denominator, in order that j/
thus obtain
become infinite when sin ^ = o.
may
not
We
y=
sm ^ ^
(III)
(sin^(/)
+ ao'cos2(#))*
as an approximate expression, which sensibly coincides with
that obtained on the supposition of no resistance, for all but very
small values of <^, but agrees with experiment in giving a large
but not infinite value for_y
be remembered
when
that, in (III),
sin
</)
o,
and
or ^ =
fix
(^
(It
must
fib \
J.
imposed at the point where x = b were not of
harmonic kind, then instead of the righthand member of (III) we should have a series of analogous terms, as in
If the vibration
the simple
Art. 129.
132. Problem
To find
2.
the motion
0/ the string when a given
point of it is subject to a given finite periodic pressure, in a direction
B, resistance being neglected.
at right angles to
Suppose that the pressure is applied at a distance b from the
end A, and that at the time / it is/>sin/, p being a given finite
constant force.
To
solve this
equation (see
problem we must recur
(i), Art.
to
the fundamental
121)
of which the meaning is that the force on any element dm is
the difference of the tranverse components of the tension at
its two ends.
Now
in general the
change of direction of the string
tinuous, so that d(j\\'s> infinitesimal.
But
if
is
con
the element
dm
contain the point at which the finite pressure is applied, there
will, or at any rate may, be a sudden change of direction at that
point, so that the values of r^ at
of
it,
however near,
may
differ
two points on
by a
finite
for that particular element we must write
dy
</(); and
since
it
is
different sides
quantity.
a()
Hence,
instead of
\dx'l
acted on by the given pressure in ad
Case of Periodic Pressure.
component
we must
dition to the difference of
for
tensions,
25
have,
that elementJ
and
dm;
equation must subsist, however small we take
this
hence in the
limit
becomes
it
r.A(^)+/sin/ = o,
(8)
is
a condition that must be satisfied for the point at which
all
other points the usual differential equation (3) must be
which
At
satisfied.
Now we may satisfy (3) with the
X ^o and x = and at the same time
1,
dy
change in the value of
value h, by assuming
when
j
finite
=
conditions that
for
allow the possibility of a
passes through the
x^o\.q x =
y = ^vcimx{^AQ,o?>mat\B^v[vmai) from
y = sinw {Jx) (A' cos mat\B' sin mat^
The
condition that these values oSy must
g^^^s
b,
x = hXo x =
coincide when x = b,
from
1.
^ sin rnh = A' sin m (/ h\
B sin mb = B^ sin m (I b).
Moreover
it is
without taking
evident that
ma
will
it
be impossible to
satisfy (8)
n.
Hence we may put
n(lb)
y = sm
.
sm
.^
nx
,
n sm /),
a
nt+lJ
(c7 cos
X=o
from
nb
sm
y = sm
a
.
nilx),^
and
if
and
7^
X ^bXo X = 1;
D are constants to be determined by the condition
(8)
Now
X ^ b,
V
A
sm nt)
(C cos nt\JD
^^
from
where
to
we put X = bvcv
dy
the values ofr derived from the two
dx
expressions above given, and then subtract the
the second, we obtain
first result
/dy\
nl ^
n
^
A^^
=  sm
(C;cos/+Z/sm/);
.
J
from
Pianoforte String.
'
12,6
so that, in order to satisfy (8),
we must have
and
o,
whence
r;
y
^
nx
^sm
n(ld)
sm^
a p
= =
n
^
;
sm
.
sinm
/
(::
nl
= o *to
:<;
z\
o),
'
a
.
sm
sm
nb
^^
= .
nT
^
=
{x
^
sm/
sm
K9)
nilx)
nl
o\.ox^
I).
^
These expressions determine ih.Q forced vibration of the string
and it is evident that we may add the terms representing the
;
natural vibration,
viz.
sm^ j^.cos + ^iSmy.
2.^1
(9
(The above expressions for the forced vibration lead to a
which at first sight appears paradoxical. Suppose, namely,
result
that sin
0,
which
will
happen
if
the period of the forced
vibration coincide with that of the natural vibration of the
first
portion of the string, considered as fixed at both ends.
Then
in the other portion will be always o, or that
the value oi
portion will remain at rest, if the constants A^^ B^ be all o.
The explanation is merely that in this case the periodic
pressure is equal to that which the string would exert on a fixed
point at the same place, if the portion on one side of it were
vibrating naturally, and the other portion at rest.)
have introduced this problem for the sake of the
133.
use which may be made of it in finding approximately the
character of the vibrations excited in a pianoforte string by
the blow of the hammer.
For this purpose we shall adopt
the hypothesis proposed by Helmholz, (the reason for which
is explained below, Art. 134,) namely, that the pressure of the
hammer on the string during contact may be represented by an
expression of the form p sin nt, but that it lasts only during
We
"77
half a period, viz. from
hammer
Now
is
if,
= o to
= .
n
The
breadth of the
neglected.
in the solution
of the above problem,
we suppose
Pianoforte String.
127
the constants A^, B^ to be so determined that at some one
instant when the pressure vanishes, say when / = o, the values
dv
oi y and of
^ shall
subsequent motion
begun
we
to exist,
vanish at
be the same as
will
and
points of the string, then the
all
the pressure
if
had only
to disturb the string, at that instant.
If then
dy
find the values of_y
of pressure, that
when
is,
^ at
and
end of the
the
= , these
first
halfperiod
will give the initial
data
which would follow if the
pressure then ceased to exist, as we suppose it to do in the case
of the pianoforte.
Now referring to the general expression (9) + (9') obtained
for j^, we see that the condition j' = o when / = o gives A =^ o
for calculating the natural vibrations
dy
and the condition
for all values of i\
inx
n(lb)
.sm
ap
^sm
jj
^^
= o gives
 ^
nx
^oiox^b)
{X
sin
a
.
ap
sm
nilx)
a sm^ a
nb
= ^to.^ =
(^
I
/);
sin
whence, multiplying each side by ?,\ndx, and integrating
from
= o io
inT
sm
2/>
I,
^& have
B.
nl
.
= sm
aji
nx
sm ~dx
.
sm
n{lx)
inx
member
and therefore
sm
tirb
r
(10)
^
'
of this equation
nl
sm
found to be
naP
zttx
s>mrdx.
sm^^^
value of the righthand
C^
'
nb r^
+ sm
The
n(ld)
>
will
be
Pianoforte String.
128
Now
^^ =
o,
if,
we
in the general expression (9)
when
find, for the instant
nt
inx
ZTi^a
_
V = 2 ^. sin J sm
dy
where the value
air
of^
tTiX
+ (9')
for
y, we put
tt,
zir'^a
is
7iilb)
7i{lb)
nx
sinI ^
ap
sin
from
from
nl
o io
b.
= b to
l\
^
sin
a
nb
sin
ap
^
T
and
nilx)
sin
a
:
nl
sin
a
dy
and these are the
initial
values of
with
y and jdl
which we are
to calculate the subsequent natural vibrations.
If then
we begin
to
reckon
afresh from this instant,
and
assume
j/
^+
2siny(^Qcos
and compare the above
this expression,
we
initial
Z)^sin
yj,
(12)
values with those derived from
find
^^^^'""nT'
an
.^
inx
and multiplying the
from
we
X=o
obtain
to
X=
I,
last
air
._
ZTT^a
equation by sin
i'ttx
dx, and integrating
(observing that (10) gives
'
Law
and
therefore the value (12) oi
duction,
22
Hammer,
of Pressure of
becomes,
129
after a
sinsmr(/+
^^cos
slight re
);
(13)
which equation determines the motion of the string
after the
J/
pressure has ceased to act.
The
t^^
amplitude
harmonic tone
replaced by
its
of the component vibration which gives the
is
2^. cos
therefore
:
actual value (11), the amplitude
naP
4/>
i'n^a
ii:b
or,
B being
is
,
(This expression will be seen to agree with the result obtained
a different manner by Helmholz, {Beilage IV. equation
(12^),) if it be observed that p, T, i, n in (14) correspond to
Helmholz's A^ S^n,m\ and that Helmholz's ^ is the amplitude only of the negative wave, and is therefore half the
amplitude of the complete vibration.)
134. In order to understand the results deducible from the
expression (14) we must recur to the hypothesis made above
concerning the law of pressure during the contact of the
hammer with the string. That hypothesis is founded on the
assumption that the impact may be assimilated to that of an
elastic body upon a hard fixed obstacle.
On this supposition
let A be the length of the hammer, \l its mass, [kk'^ its moment
of inertia about the axis on which it turns, Q the angle through
which it has turned from rest at the time /, Q^ and Q\ the values
in
of Q and
at the instant
when
contact begins, and at which
we will suppose /o; then the pressure will be ^^(06^)
during contact, g being a constant depending on the elasticity
* The meaning of 'amplitude' has been before defined (Art. 48) with
reference to the harmonic vibration of a point. In the case of the harmonic
vibration of a string, expressed by the equation
.
jj/
or
= Z sm
* (iaat
T sm
ittx
jt
by the equivalent form
ittx ( ^
iitat
itrat\
^
y = sm ^C cos + D sm 7
.
the amplitude may be defined as the maximum displacement from the
position of equilibrium. This maximum displacement is evidently equal to
Z, or to (C^ +
Z>"^)3,
and occurs
at points
which
bisect the nodal intervals.
Law
130
of Pressure of Hammer,
of the material of which the head of the
shall have, during contact,
hammer
made
is
and
we
~
dt''
and
if this
be integrated
way, and the constants
in the usual
determined by the conditions 6 =
result is
'
iiie^
(9/
6^,
= 6\ when
o,
the
where
and the pressure during contact
and the duration of contact
is
7
v
therefore
is
 irV'
K
n
q
Hence
of/ in (14) is Q\k^\x.q, which depends on
the hammer at the beginning of impact, as well
the value
the velocity of
on its weight, material and form. But the value of n, which
determines the duration of contact, depends only on the latter
circumstances, and not on the velocity.
as
135. Referring
vanishes
if sin
now
r = o
to the expression (14)
that
is, if
ib
= ml,
we
see that
it
being any integer.
This shews that if the blow of the hammer be applied at any
one of the points which divide the string into i equal parts, all
the harmonic component tones which would have nodes at
those points are extinguished.
(We found a similar result on
the supposition that the sound was excited by plucking the
See Art. 119.)
In general the quality of the note produced, which is determined by the comparative strength of its different component
tones, is independent of the momentum of the blow, (which
only affects the value of the coefficient />,) but depends upon
string at a given point.
the two ratios 
and 
nl
blow
is
struck,
that
and upon the
is,
the place
upon
r
r
ratio of the duration
at
which the
of contact to
the period of the fundamental tone of the string (viz.
A.
If
Intensity of Tone,
expression (14)
latter ratio, the
put V for this
Ave
131
may be
written
form
in the
8/>/
liY^rv^)
ii:h
'
The
value of v depends, caeteris paribus, on the coefficient of
elasticity q, and becomes very small if q be very great, that is, if
the
hammer
pv
is
of a hard unyielding material.
But the product
to the values of p and v, to be independent of q, so that the above expression for the amplitude
seen,
is
on reference
becomes
{^i
^^7 sinr
,
cos(z*7rz;);
A depends upon the weight, form, and velocity of the
hammer, but not upon its elasticity. If we suppose the hammer
where
absolutely hard, or
2;
then the expression becomes
o,
 sin
r
on different suppositions as to
and the value of v may be seen in Helm
table of results calculated
the place of the blow
holz, p. 135,
appears that in general the effect of diminishing v is to
increase the strength of some of the higher harmonics as compared with that of the fundamental tone.
In numerical applications it must be remembered that the
intensity of the tone is supposed to be proportional (for each
harmonic component) to the square of the amplitude multiplied
by 2*2. See Problem 3.
It
Problem
136.
3.
To find
the energy
of a string vibrating
naturally.
First, suppose the vibrations are in one plane, and such that
the note produced is simply the z'*^ harmonic component. Then
the form of the string at any time
equation
^
j/
The
/^^
may be
(r^at
^smysm(^y
represented by the
n
h
ay
{15)
energy at any time consists, as we know from general
two parts, kinetic and potential, of which the sum
constant.
The kinetic energy is that due to the motion of
total
principles, of
is
is measured by half the visviva.
The potential
due to the deviation of the string from the form
of equilibrium, and is entirely converted into kinetic energy
whenever the string is passing through the position of equilibrium, that is, whenever
the string,
energy
is
and
that
/iitat
/mai
sm ( ,
\
I
o.
Energy of Vibrating String,
132
the total energy at any time is equal to the kinetic
energy at any one of those particular instants.
Hence
Now
when
(15) gives,
dy
SO that,
if
sin (
.'na
f
a) =
o,
ziix
p be the mass of a unit of length, the kinetic energy
at that instant is
We
is the required value of the total energy at any time.
be the mass of
transform this expression as follows let
Then
the whole string, and t. the period of the vibration.
which
may
pi =
'^
2/
:i^
J
M.
and
t = ^
.
or
ia
T^
 =
hence the above expression becomes
^w4;
{16)
from which we learn that in this case the energy is proportional
to the product of the mass of the whole strings the square of the
amplitude^ and the square of the number of vibrations in a unit of
time.
Next, suppose the vibrations
most general kind
j/
then, at
still
in
one plane, but of the
any time,
2sm^(^^iCosy + B.^myy
.
iiix /
iirat
i'nat\
In this case the string, in general, never passes through the
form of equilibrium, and the potential energy is therefore never
entirely converted into kinetic.
Let us consider the string
instant
at the instant
.
>/
and
and the
total
where
(18), and
by (17).
is
= 2^.smy,
~ = j2tB^smj',
energy
is
when
at that
/^^
(1.7)
(18)
K+ P
the kinetic energy due to the motion expressed by
is the potential energy due to the form expressed
Energy of Vibrating String,
The
and
if
value of
is
133
easily found, for
the square of the series within brackets to be
we suppose
we see
at once that all the terms will be destroyed
by the integration except those comprised in the series
developed,
and these
give,
on
integration,
\l2i^Bl.
Hence we have
K^yi(^^^^i'B,K
(19)
To
find the value of P, we may proceed as follows
Suppose the string to be put in the form (17), and then left to
After the lapse of any time /,
itself without any initial velocity.
its total energy will still be equal to P, but will have been partly
converted into kinetic, so that
where K^
is
the kinetic energy at the instant in question, and
energy due to the form at the same instant.
/*j is the potential
Suppose then the
string to be
again left to itself for a time
.P,
and so on
successively
t'
brought to rest in that form, and
we should have in like manner
;
= K, + P
thus
P ^K^ + K^^K^^ ...adtnfin.,
where K^, K^, ... are the kinetic energies which the string
would have after successive intervals of time equal to /, if,
beginning with the form (17), it were left to itself for a time /,
then brought to rest in its actual form, and left to itself again,
and so on successively.
Now the string, left to itself at a given instant in the form
(17), will vibrate (see Art. 98) so that at any time (reckoned
from that instant)
.
j/
and
at the
iTTX
2^^smycos
end of any time
/', if
..
iiiat
we put
.
 =
inx
^ = 2^^.cos?y.smT;
0,
we
shall
have
,
(20)
'
Energy of Vibrating String,
134
^ =
and K^
is
^22^^. sinz^.sin^;
the kinetic energy obtained from (21) in the
K was from (18);
way
as
To
find
(21)
K^ we have
to
same
hence
proceed in the same way, merely assuminitial form; thus
ing (20) instead of (17) as the
'
^2 = \pi Cf) ^'^^'
^""^^ '^^' ^"''^ '^^'
and so on successively, the value of Kn^i being always deduced
from that of K^ by changing A^ into A^ cos lO. Therefore
= ip/(y) ^i^A?i,smi6f{i\{co^ifff + {co^ieY...adm/)
and, the series within brackets being equivalent to
we have
i{cosi6f
{sin id f
finally**
.Tra^^
thus found to that of ^(19), we obtain
the required expression for the total energy (I^ of the string,
Adding the value of
The
representation of
by an infinite series corresponds to the physical
it would require an infinite number of operations of the kind
described in the text to bring the string into the condition of equilibrium.
It may be observed that, if the arbitrary $ be taken incommensurable with
v, the series within brackets cannot become divergent, though for infinitely
large values of i it may approach infinitely near to divergence ; but this will
be compensated by the factor (sin 1 6)'^ becoming infinitely small. If we
took t' equal to half a period (or 6 v), it is evident that the operations
described would never bring the string to rest.
In this case the factor
But we
(sin t9)^ would vanish, and the series within brackets become 00.
arrive at a true result by interpreting the product as representing i for this
as for all other values of 6.
''
fact that
Energy of Vibrating String,
135
is the mass of the string, and r^. the period
where, as before,
of the i^ harmonic component vibration.
Now, observing that A^^B^ is the square of the amplitude
of the component vibration, and comparing this result with
(16), we see that the total energy ^is the sum of the energies
harmonic components.
take the most general case, in which the
The displacement of any point
vibration is not in one plane.
in the string at a distance x from one end is then compounded
of two displacements y and z in planes at right angles to one
another, and the whole vibration is compounded of two represented by equations
due
to the several
Lastly,
>/
we
will
2sm^(^^.cos^ +^.smy.
3 =
iTix /
.,
2sm^(^^,.cos
j,
inatx
+^_, .sm
j;
ill at
the square of the velocity at any point of which the abscissa
X, is now, when / = o,
is
(y){(2^^<sinp) +(2,^..sm^)};
and the process is the same as before, with obvious modifications which may be left to the reader.
The
result is
sum of the energies due
harmonic component vibrations in both planes.
It will be observed that the numerator in the above expression
is for each harmonic vibration the sum of the squares of the
amplitudes of its components in the two planes and this sum
may, by an extension of meaning, be called the square of the
and, as before, the total energy
is
the
to the several
amplitude of the actual vibration, which, for a given point,
general
137.
is
in
elliptic.
The
valent of the
value of
found
in the last article
work which would have
is
the equi
be done, if the string
were at rest, in order to put it into its actual form and state of
motion. And it appears natural to take this as the measure of
the strength or intensity of the note produced.
But the propriety of this definition cannot be absolutely demonstrated by
experiment, because, although the ear can judge with great
accuracy which of two notes is the louder, when both have the
to
Vibrations of Violin String,
136
same
ment
and the same
cannot form a precise judgthe other hand, when two
notes have the same quality but differ moderately in pitch, the
ear can still decide with some certainty whether they are or are
not of equal intensity, and if not, which is the louder; and it
might perhaps be possible to arrange an experiment in which
a series of notes should have the same quality and equal intensities according to the theoretical measure, and the ear would
judge whether equality of loudness subsisted at the same time.
(The definition of quality will be discussed in another chapter.)
quality
pitch,
as to the ratio of intensity.
it
On
138. Problem 4. To examine the motion of a violin string
under the action of the bow.
This problem is much more difficult than that of the pianobecause the force exercised by the bow upon the
string is determined by circumstances which seem to defy
calculation, and we can hardly make any plausible hypothesis
a priori. We are obliged therefore to have recourse to observation, and endeavour to determine experimentally some
characteristics of the motion from which the analytical representation of it may be deduced.
In the first place then it may be easily verified by any one
with a practised ear, that when the bow is drawn across the
string at any point of aliquot division, no component tone
which would (if existing alone) have a node at that point is
heard in the note produced. (In order however to extinguish
these tones, it is necessary that the coincidence of the point of
application of the bow with the node should be exact.
A very
small deviation reproduces the missing tones with considerable
strength.)
The other facts to which we shall have to refer are
ascertained not by the ear but by the eye.
The character of
the vibration of any point of the string may be observed by
means of the vibrationmicroscope,' the principle of which
was explained in Art. 64, and in this way Helmholz has
arrived at results of which the following are the most imforte string,
'
portant
When
the bow is applied at a point of which the distance
from the bridge is an aliquot part of the string, and the point
observed is one of the other nodes of the same division, the
curve obtained by the imaginary unrolling of the cylinder
(Art. 65) reduces itself to a zigzag line, so that a complete
(a.)
vibration
is
represented thus
Vibrations of Violin String.
Fig.
AB
I.
represents the period (t) of the vibration, and the ordinate
in the line Z^.fi'i^ represents the displace
PM of any point P
ment of the observed point at the time /{ = AAf) reckoned
from the instant of greatest negative displacement. It appears
to be implied that AD=CE, or that the excursions on opposite sides of the position of equilibrium are equal.
It follows evidently that the velocity of the observed point is
constant throughout each of the two parts (the ' swing and the
swang ') of the vibration, but is not in general the same in
each.
When, however, the observed point is at the middle of
= CB, and the velocities are
the string, it is found that
'
'
AC
therefore equal.
(b) If at any point
we
call
the
'swing' that part of the
which is performed while the point is moving in
accordance with the bow, then the velocity of the swing is less
than that of the swang, if the observed point is in the same half
of the string as the point of application of the bow, and greater
in the contrary case.
would represent the
Thus, in Fig. i,
swing and
the swang at a node in the contrary half to that
in which the bow is applied.
It appears probable that at the
point of application the string is dragged by the bow with its
vibration
EF
own
velocity during the swing.
{c)
When
vibration
Fig.
DE
I.
the observed point is not one of the nodes, the
represented approximately but not exactly by
In this case the lines DE, EF, instead of being peris
still
of a series of ripples or wavelets, though
maintaining their average directions.
When the bow is applied at a point which is not a node, the
character of the vibrations has not been satisfactorily made out.
(Helmholz, p. 139, &c.) (The reader will observe that we are
here using the word node to signify not an actual node, but a
point which would be a node if the corresponding component
fectly straight, consist
vibration existed alone.)
Vibrations of Violin String.
138
These results have been confirmed by Professor Clifton, who
observed the vibration curves of points on the string by means
of revolving mirrors.
(On the principle of this method of observation, see Note at the end of this chapter).
139. Assuming the facts above stated,
the length of the string
is
/,
and
let
that the
us suppose that
is applied at a
bow
we will call Q, at a distance b from the bridge.
Now, whatever be the character of the actual vibration of Q,
we know that it can be expressed by means of Fourier's theorem
point which
in the
form
^iV/
^ sm
^ D^
+
where r
is
2t'nt.
^\Ci cos
the period of the vibration, which
the natural vibration of the string, since
fundamental note
is
produced
hence r =
(22)
must be
we assume
that of
that
the
Moreover it is evident that if the actual vibration of Q were
known, we might suppose it to become obligatory, and the
motion of the rest of the string would remain unaltered.
We shall therefore in the first place assume that the series of
coefficients Q, D^ are known, and that (22) is the obligatory
Value oiy at Q.
Then (see equation (III), Art. 131, and the remark at the
end of that article) the vibration at any point of the string from
.r  o to X = b will be approximately represented by the
equation
y%
sin Q,
=^
(sin2(>,
+ 6/ cos2
(/>.)*
f C, cos 2
z'tt
Z>,sin 2 zV
)
(23)
where, in the present case,
217:
^'
a =
iTix
iitb
*' = 7'
'
And
a small quantity depending on the resistance.
is not altered by changing x into lx and
b into / 3, it will hold good for the whole length of the string.
and e/
is
since this formula
140. The facts above stated ((^) {b) {c)) have been ascertained only in the case in which the point Q, at which the bow
is applied, is a node.
must therefore assume this; and in order to determine
Q, Z>^, we shall further assume that the vibration of Q, represented by (22), is of the same kind as that observed at other
We
Vibrations of Violin String.
139
nodes; so that (22) must give the value of the ordinate at any
(Fig. i), if the abscissa
point /* in a line such as
be taken proportional to /.
= t\ let
= r^, and
= ^, so
We shall have then
that /3 is the amplitude of the vibration at Q, t^ is the duration
of the swing,' and r  r^ of the swang,' at the same point.
Now the problem of representing a locus such as
by
means of a periodic series with period r, has been already
solved in Art. 76.
In order to make use of equation (3) of
that Article, it is evidently only necessary to omit the .constant
AM
DEF
AC
AB
CE
'
'
DEF
term, and change
into
We
3,
a,
a,
2/3,
r,
t^,
/.
thus obtain for the ordinate the value
and the values of Q, D^ are
to be so taken that the expression
(22) shall be identical with
down
these values, as
troduced in (23) that equation
2^r
It
will
141. In this equation
is
it
j
is
unnecessary to write
when they are in
become
*?sin(9.
^2 = 00
abbreviations for
this.
easily seen that
is
it
to be
.2 277,
remembered
that 6i,
In order however that
(fy^
it
are
may
determine completely the value ofy at every point of the string,
T
it is necessary that the value of the ratio ^ should be known.
T
Now it has been already stated as a fact of experiment (Art.
138) that every component tone is extinguished which would
have a node at the point of application of the bow; that is,
every component of which the period is an aliquot part of
the period of vibration of a string of length d.
Hence the value
of J' (25) ought to vanish
d =
r^,
and t =
multiple of ^,
sinzV^ ought
hypothesis
or
when
2 3
is
a multiple of
so that y ought to vanish
when
to vanish
we can make
<^^
is
when
is
that
when 7^
a multiple of
sin<^^ vanishes,
it.
now
is
Therefore
and the simplest
Vibrations of Violin String.
140
= sin
sin
This may be
= sin ^
by
satisfied either
II.*
</)^
'^J^;
or
but if / (in Fig. i) is reckoned from an instant at which Q
begins to follow the bow, so that the positive direction of y
is that of the motion of the bow, the latter supposition must be
adopted, because t^ ought to be greater than rr^. Then we
shall
have
tTtTc,
sin
COSZTT,
=
I
Tib
sinT
,
inx
cosztt. sin r
and Since
ittUx)
^
sin
,
we now agree to measure x from the other end of the string,
which is equivalent to changing lx into x, (25) will be
reduced to the form
if
y=f
In
this
r^
^.2.
isin
(/
equation the factor
is
^)(26)
very nearly
(sin2(j!),+ e/cos2(/)i)*
equal to i, for all values of i except those which make sin <^j = o
If we substitute 1 for this factor, we obtain the
or very small.
approximate equation
and, comparing this with (24), we see that for any particular
value of X, that is, for any particular point of the string, it gives
a vibrationcurve of the same kind. For if we take a quantity
T such that
y=j
= XL
>
2.
(27)
may be
^sm
put in the form
sin
(/
^)' (28)
which the part under the sign of summation can be reduced
same form as in (24) by changing the arbitrary instant
from which / is reckoned. Hence it represents a zigzag like
in
to the
;
'
Vibrations of Violin String,
Fig.
but with a different amplitude;
I,
141
and the phase of the
vibration at any given time varies with /, that
Now
part of
it,
is, with x.
of the first
the duration of a whole vibration, and
T
X
^ , expresses that
or swing ; ' hence the equation
is
'
at any point the durations of the ' swing and of the * swang
are proportional to the lengths of the two parts into which that
point divides the string; and Helmholz has ascertained, by
in Fig. i, that this relation
observing the ratio of
to
'
^C
actually
subsists,
so
that
CB
hypothesis assumed
the
above
is
justified.
The
equation (27) agrees with the approximate formula which
Helmholz has obtained in a somewhat different manner. It
fails to represent two of the observed facts, namely, (i) the
extinction of those component tones which have nodes at Q,
and (2) the existence of ripples in the vibrationcurve when the
observed point
The more
actly, if
we
is not a node.
accurate formula (26) represents these facts ex
consider the factor
to be =
(as
(sin2()^+e/cos2(^i)*
very nearly) except when sin <^^ = o, in which last case it
For we have already seen that the vanishing of this
factor causes the extinction of the component tones in question
and the vibrationcurve (27) will be modified by the disappearance of the corresponding component curves ; and the effect of
their disappearance will evidently be to change the zigzag of
straight lines represented by (27) into a zigzag of rippled
it
is
is
o.
fines
If
".
we put
for the amplitude of the vibration at
)3'
ticular point, then, neglecting
whence
kt
P be
e^.,
any par
we have
2i3r^
2/3^r^
^' = ^I^illlll) =
^^(^
the amplitude at the middle point of the string, then
F = i f
and therefore
To(lTo)
* Helmholz's Fig.
25 (p. 144) represents the vibrationcurve of a point
so near the end of the string, that one side of the zigzag is too steep to
have ripples. But Professor Clifton has found that they are seen on both
sides when the observed point is nearer to the middle of the string.
Vibrations of Violin String,
14^^
which gives the ratio of the amplitude at any point
middle point.
Introducing the above value of/* in (27), we obtain
to
that
at the
which agrees with Helmholz's equation (3 c) {Beilage V).
This equation (or (27)), considered as an equation between
X and_y, determines approximately the form of the whole string
at
When
any time.
T
/
is o,
for
all
T
or any multiple of 5^ vanishes
2
values of x, so that the whole string
is
straight at these
instants.
142. At
other times the two portions of the string between
and the point of greatest displacement, are
straight.
This is easily shewn as follows. It was proved in
Art. 99 that the equation to a locus consisting of two straight
portions AC,
(Fig. 2)
all
extremities
its
CB
Fig.
is
(from
^o\.o
2.
x ^T),
AB = /
and x^y y^ are the coordinates of C (Fig. 2),
x and y) from A. And it is evident that this
equation may be made identical with (29) at any determinate
time /, by taking x^ and^^ so that
where
reckoned
(like
sm
mx
/
the
same
The
2 /
sign being taken in both.
first
C of the
of these equations shews that the locus of the vertex
two parabolic arcs passing through
string consists of
Vibrations of Violin String.
extremities
its
143
A, B^ and on opposite sides of AB, belonging
which the equations are
to the parabolas of
The second
time
determines the position of the vertex at the
and writing
/;
it
in the
form
smzTT^ = +sm2'7r
we
that (beginning
see
with the instant
when t=\T^
it
is
by supposing x^ to vary uniformly from o to / and
then from / to o and so on successively, the time occupied
by each of these successive changes being \ t, and the upper
and under sign being taken alternately. (This will be most
clearly seen by examining the case of i = i.)
satisfied
=r=^ ,
.^^
.^^^
The
string therefore vibrates in the following
It is
always divided into two straight portions, as
AC\
C'B\ and
the vertex
alternately in such a
manner
manner
A C, CB^ or
describes the two parabolic arcs
that the foot of the ordinate,
moves backwards and forwards between
and
M,
with a con
(Helmholz, Beilage V.)
Hitherto we have supposed the bow to be applied in the
usual manner, so as to produce the fundamental note of the
string.
But if the point of application be taken gradually
nearer to the bridge, while the bow is drawn with a somewhat
quicker motion and lighter pressure, the fundamental tone
becomes weaker; and ultimately a node is established at the
middle of the string, the fundamental tone is extinguished, and
the note produced is the octave, or first harmonic.
These changes in the character of the note are accompanied
by a corresponding series of changes in the vibrationcurve,
which passes from the original zigzag, through a series of
intermediate forms, into a similar zigzag of half the period and
smaller amplitude.
This
(See Helmholz's Fig. 26, p. 145).
stant velocity.
Loaded
Vibrations of a
144
String.
phgenomenon has
it
also been observed by Professor Clifton.
has not been submitted to mathematical analysis.
But
143. Problem 5. To examine the vibration of a string which
loaded with a finite mass at a given point.
is
We shall assume that the weight of the mass is insignificant
compared with the tension of the string, so that the vibration is
modified only by its inertia; and also that its dimensions are so
small that the consideration of its motion relatively to its own
In other words, we shall
centre of inertia may be neglected.
consider it as a small but finite mass, concentrated at a point.
Let then fx be this mass, and suppose / is the length of the
and b the distance of the point at which ^ is attached
from that end of the string from which x is reckoned.
string,
As
in
Problem
2,
we must suppose
undergo a sudden change when
and at that point the equation
must be
The
satisfied.
difi"erential
that the value of
f^may
dx
passes through the value b
rest
of the string
/2^
is
subject to the usual
equation

dt^
dx''
Now we may satisfy the latter equation, together with the
and when x = I, and that
when x =
conditions that y =
the value of^ must not change suddenly when x = b, exactly in
shall therefore assume
the same way as in Problem 2.
We
y = ^mm{lb)sm.mx{A cos amtjB sin am
from X = to X = bj and
y = smmbsinm{lx) {Acosamt+B smamt),
from X = b to x =
t),
(32)
(33)
1.
Either of the above equations gives, for
d^y
^ =
=^b,
a'm^smmbsmmilb) {A cosamt+Bsinamt);
and, taking the diff"erence of values of
equations
when
x = b, we
a(~^ =
find, as in
Problem
given by the two
2,
msmml.{Acosamt\Bsmamt);
Vibrations of a
Loaded String,
145
hence, in order to satisfy (31), we must have
\k(^m sin mh\nm {lb) = Tsm ml.
This
last
equation determines m, while
unless the
The
and
B remain arbitrary
circumstances of the motion are given.
initial
value of a^
is
(Art. 123),
If then
density of the string.
where p
the longitudinal
is
we put i^^pX,
length of string which would have the
above equation will become
so that
same mass
as
mXsmmbsm.m{lb) = ^mmL
It will evidently
have an
infinite
number of
the
the
is
/m,
(34)
roots,
and
if
we
the complete solution of the prodenote them hy m^, m^,
blem will be given by the equation
.
y = 2[ir ^i (^t cos amit\ B. sin am^t)
in
(35)
which
sin m^
.,.{ sin m^
{lb)
sin
sin
lUiX
mi(lx)
and the coefficients A^, B are
by initial conditions.
all
(^ = o
(x =b
to
.Jif
^),
x = /),
io
arbitrary, unless
determined
144. The complete vibration therefore consists, as in the case
of the unloaded string, of simple harmonic vibrations superposed.
But the values of m, which determine the periods of
these component vibrations, are not in general commensurable
numbers, so that the component tones do not belong to a
harmonic scale, and can only be improperly called harmonics.'
If in equation (34) we suppose A = o, or 3 = o, or b = 1, we
get the condition for an unloaded string, namely, sin w / = o, as
in the original investigation of that case.
If, on the other hand, we suppose /x = 00 (which we are at
liberty to do if we also suppose gravity not to act), then A = 00 ,
and the second member of (34) is insignificant in comparison
with the first, and the condition for determining m becomes
'
sin
so that either
w^ sin m (/ ^)
mimb = o,
=o
or sin m(lb) = o.
Either of these equations gives^ = o when x = b; that is, the
point at which fx is attached remains fixed, as it evidently
ought.
The periods of the component vibrations are now those
which belong to the separate portions of the string ; and
'
Vibrations of a Loaded String,
146
equation (35) shews that each can only exist in its own portion.
it is evident that we may now, without violating any prescribed condition, take sin/(5 = o in one portion and ^\nm
(15) = o in the other; thus the motion consists in general
of the natural vibrations of the two portions, existing indeThe infinite attached mass is simply equivalent to
pendently.
a fixed point.
But
145. In general the roots of the transcendental equation (34)
could only be found by troublesome approximations.
Two
special cases however deserve attention.
The first is that in which the mass /ut is attached at a node, so
that 3
"v?
lj,j' being
(34) then becomes
integers.
/'
/'
mk svamb sin^^r mb = sm.~
J
mb'y
it is evident that this is satisfied by taking for mb any
multiple of /tt.
Thus we shall get a series of roots (not all the
roots) by giving i integer values from i to 00 in
and
iji:
z'/'tt
"^^
The period of the i^^ component
we see from (35),
tone given by this series
is,
as
Now
2/
which
2/
aiy
77 is the
when
21:
am^
period of the vibration of the unloaded string,
it is vibrating so as to give the lowest harmonic tone
has nodes at the points of division of the string into y
equal parts.
We
when the mass is attached at a node,
component tones which have nodes at that point remain
unaltered.
But the fundamental, and other component tones,
all
see therefore that
the
be changed.
This may be verified by attaching a small lump of wax to
one of the points of aliquot division of a violin or pianoforte
will
string.
The
other case
is
that in
that the square of the ratio
Since (34)
is
satisfied
which the attached mass
j
may
is
so small
be neglected.
by ml =11: when
A.
o,
we may assume
Loaded String,
Vibrations of a
that
when A
is
small
it
be
will
satisfied
ml=
hy
z''7r
+ e,
147
where
is
of the same order as 
Substituting therefore
 (/tt + e) sin  {it: + e)
for
in (34),
we obtain
) {iir + e) = sin (ztt +
sin (i
e)
and, terms of the second order being neglected, this becomes
.
b
\
..
jsmti: smu'n
whence we get
so that
tit
we may
it:
sin^ /tt j
tit
take
?'7r
m,
The
= COS
i'nj\
X.
z
b.
it: /
period of the corresponding tone
of vibrations in a unit of time
b\
is
or the
number
^^*
am
is
\
hence the number of
277
vibrations
is
diminished by the load in the ratio of
I
^urti:^ to
I,
and the fundamental tone, as well as the higher components,
are all lowered; moreover the components belong nearly but
not exactly to a harmonic series, so that the compound note
will sound slightly discordant.
The examination of particular
cases
may
be
left
to the reader.
NOTE.
On
the Principles
of
the Use
of Revolving Mirrors.
(See Art. 138.)
AB
If a plane mirror revolve about a fixed axis
in its own plane, the
path of the image of any stationaiy point ^ is a circle which passes through
Q, and has its centre at the point where a perpendicular from Q meets AB4
And this path is the same whether one side only, or each side, of the mirror
be a
reflecting surface.
If the axis of rotation, AB, be not in, but parallel to, the plane of the
mirror, then the path of the image of ^ is a curve of the 4th degree, having
L 2
Revolving Mirrors.
148
a double point at Q, and two loops, one within and the other without the
The inner loop is the path of the image formed
circle described as above.
by reflection at the outer surface (reckoning from AB) of the mirror, and
the outer loop of that formed by the inner surface.
A usual arrangement is to join four mirrors together so as to form four
sides of a cubical box, with the axis of rotation passing through the centre
of the box, parallel to their planes, and equidistant from them all. The
outer surfaces of course alone reflect, and the images formed by them all
describe the same path.
But an eye placed at any determinate point will only see one image at
one time, and only while it describes a small portion of its path and if the
velocity of rotation be sufficiently great, this small portion of the path of the
image of a stationary continuously illuminated point will appear to the
eye as a continuous and stationary line. If however the point, while continuously illuminated, have a vibratory motion of sufficiently short period,
parallel to the axis of rotation, and if the velocity of rotation of the mirrors
be so adjusted that one quarter of its period is equal to, or a multiple of,
the period of vibration, then the passage of each mirror through any given
position will always happen when the vibration is in the same phase ; and
consequently the visible portion of the path of the image will appear as one
or more waves of a continuous and stationary vibration curve, formed by
compounding the two motions along and perpendicular to the line before
;
mentioned.
On
the other hand,
the point be stationary, but illuminated only at
intervals of time, it vidll appear, when
viewed by the eye directly, as a continuously illuminated point ; but when
seen by reflection from the revolving mirrors, it will appear, not as a continuous line, but as a row of points, which will be stationary if one quarter
of the period of rotation of the mirrors be equal to, or a multiple of, the
interval of time between successive illuminations.
Some of the most usual applications of revolving mirrors depend upon
these principles. They appear to have been first used, for purposes of
observation, by Wheatstone.
instants separated
if
by sufficiently short
CHAPTER
VIII.
ON THE LONGITUDINAL VIBRATIONS OF AN
ELASTIC ROD.
The
146.
may be
either
and both kinds may, when
small,
vibrations of a uniform elastic rod
transversal or longitudinal,
coexist without sensibly modifying each other.
fore study
them separately
and we
shall
We may
of longitudinal vibrations, as being the simplest.
as
we
did in the case of the string,
first
We
of infinite length
but
we
might,
consider the subject
assuming the law of wavepropagation
kinematically,
there
begin with the theory
in a
rod
prefer to proceed at once to the
dynamical theory.
147.
We
suppose then the motion of
all
the particles to be
in directions parallel to a fixed straight line in space, with
the axis of the rod always coincides.
meant a
line passing
By
which
the axis of the rod
through the centres of inertia of
its
is
trans
verse sections.
we suppose
Further,
that all the particles
which at any one
instant are in a plane at right angles to the axis, continue to be
so at
all
in the
times.
same
The
first
because we
of the rod
and
In other words, the velocities of
all
the particles
transverse section are equal.
of these suppositions cannot be rigorously true,
know
is
vzce versd.
displacements
that a longitudinal
in general
extension of any part
accompanied by a
lateral contraction,
But when the vibrations are small these
may be
neglected without sensible error.
lateral
Longitudinal Vidratiofis
150
We
148.
shall first investigate the conditions of equilibrium,
and then deduce the equations of motion from them by the help
of D'Alembert's principle.
The
usual law of elasticity
is
assumed, namely,
a constant (the modulus of
<7
force,
per unit of area, which must be applied,
is
directions, to
any two transverse
an extension (or compression)
and
effect will
2"
if
elasticity),
produce
sections, in order to
If 7"
e.
is
the
is
contrary
in
tension, or pulling
be positive extension, or elonga
force, the effect will of course
tion
and
where
be a pushing force (or negative tension) the
be negative extension, or contraction.
of extension, which includes both cases,
The
definition
is
actual length
natural length
\B
Fig.
I.
Let AB (Fig. i) be the axis of the rod, coinciding with a line
OX fixed in space. And us suppose that the rod actually
let
is
in equilibrio
under the action of given
directions are
all
parallel to
of any transverse section
and
from
end A.
Let f be the actual abscissa
(By the same section
taining the same particles.)
which the
reckoned from the fixed origin O,
the natural (or unextended) distance of the
the
We
OX.
Pp
forces, of
And
let f^
is
same
meant the
section
section con
be the value of f
at
have then to consider the conditions of equilibrium when
the following external forces are applied
(i)
force
F^ per
unit of surface applied to the
and a force F^ of the same kind
usual rule of signs being adopted,
force
tive,
if it is positive,
at the
F^
and a pulling
end A,
end B.
will
force
while the converse will be true of F^.
The
be a pushing
if it is
nega
of a Rod.
(2)
force
per unit of mass
applied throughout the
between two sections of which the
infinitesimal slice
f and f +</f.
actual abscissae are
149. Let
151
be the area of the section, and
o)
The
length of the rod.
natural
/ the
equilibrium being established,
Pp
part of the rod between
and
were cut
maintain the equilibrium of the remainder
to apply to the surface of the section
it
off,
if
the
in order to
would be necessary
P p some force 7^ per unit
of area, and the condition of equilibrium would be
pXd^+F(o=^o;
F^(o + (of
interior
To
is f,
mass of the
find
poiXd^is
so that
an expression
is
face, required to
r^
ax
the whole force
upon
the
slice.
for
thickness of any slice being dx,
the extension
which
in the section of
where p represents the actual density
the abscissa
(i)
i,
we
observe, that the natural
and the actual thickness
and the force per unit of
produce
d^,
on each
area,
this extension, is therefore
(g0' ^^
supposing no forces (such as
of the
Now when
slice.
without
limit,
the forces
X)
to act
on the
interior
the thickness of the slice
on
its
faces remain
is
finite,
portional to areas, whereas the interior forces,
if
being pro
there are any,
being proportional to volume, diminish without limit
also,
are therefore negligeable in comparison with the forces
faces.
Hence ?to(7
mass
diminished
and
on the
ijis the force which must be ap
plied to the surface of the section to maintain the existing state
this therefore is the value
of extension
which, since
x = o when
f=
fo>
o(Fh/Xhus
"^ay be written
(i)
becomes
Longitudinal Vibrations
1^2
Differentiating this equation with respect to x,
Let
Po
we
obtain
be the natural density of the rod; then, since p^codx
and poid^hoth express the mass of the same
slice,
we have
so that the last equation becomes
150.
To
deduce from
the equation of motion, in the
this
case in which no forces are actually applied except on the surfaces of the ends,
we have merely
(iDpQXdx supposed
celeration arising
is,
to write
from
d^e
j^
act
to
the
the resistance to ac
X.
of
oopodx.;
dp
Thus we
obtain,
^^^
that to
which we were led by
solution of this equation gives
at
any time
X,
its
/,
and
f as a function of the two
That is, it gives the position,
/.
of any proposed section defined by the value of
natural distance from the
solution
end A.
is
i=<t>(xaf)t/{x\a^);
and the two
initial
that
putting
dp^'dx''
independent variables
The
substitute for the force
namely,
inertia,
an equation of the same form as
the problem of vibrating strings.
The
to
slice,
d^S
its
instead
p,""'
on
(5)
arbitrary functions have to be determined
displacements
and
velocities,
together
with
by the
the
given
conditions relative to the extremities.
151. If in equation (2)
and, putting
.:r
= o in
this.
we put
for
p~
ox
its
value p^,
we
get
of a Rod,
If
rod,
i^'^
we had considered the equilibrium of
we should have found in like manner
These two equations merely express
extension at each end of the rod
is
the other part of the
that the condition of
always such as corresponds
to the force applied there.
The
152.
equation
differential
value as
f=
satisfied
is
(4)
^ sin(wAr + a)sin(w/+i3);
but in order to satisfy the given conditions in
find
it
by such a
cases,
all
we
shall
necessary to add a nonperiodic term such as
b\c{xat)\c\x{at\
which
obviously of the general form (5) and
is
But the part b\{/ c)at of
form motion of
may,
way
if
signifies
whole rod.
Such a motion
but as it in no
the terminal conditions admit
we
neglect
part of
it,
exist;
And
are concerned with in studying the vibrations,
it,
a uni
and assume only a term
kx
we may
in addition to the periodic
f.
153.
no
translation of the
satisfies (4).
term merely
modifies the relative motion of the different sections, which
all
is
this
We
first
we
proceed
will
to
Then F^ =
forces.
consider
0,
(V)> give
F^^ o, and
dj _
dx~
both when
x=
the
most important
suppose the rod entirely
and when
.r
/,
free,
the
cases.
and acted on by
two equations
(6),
'
as the terminal conditions.
Assuming then
^=kx\'A
sin(z.^
+ a)sin(2^/+j3),
the terminal conditions are
when
x=o
k>rmA cos {mx\Q) sin {ma/+fi) =
and when x = /, for all values of /.
Hence we must
k=i,
i,
evidently have
cosa =
o,
cos(2/+a) = o;
'77
of which equations the
last
two are
satisfied
by a = , ml =
2
(/
being any integer), and therefore
iir,
Longitudinal Vibrations
154
f=
a solution,
is
^+^
and
change of form, as
in
f=^ + 2^.^i
cos
 sm
J + /3
(^
being arbitrary
former cases, we
and making a
may
+ ^iSmyj
cosy(^^,.cosy
slight
take
(8)
as the general solution.
(If
we included
= o
a constant term to
in the
summation, we should merely add
which would be equivalent
f,
to
an
alteratipn
of the fixed origin from which f is measured.)
154. To understand the equation (8) we must recollect that
is
the distance from a fixed origin, at the time
end
The
x.
is
value of
origin of
and
is
on the
independent of the
f.
Let us
now
find the position of the centre of inertia of the
Its abscissa
is
given by the equation
the integrations being extended from
Now we
have (Art. 140),
hence
we
if
of the par
therefore depends only
particular set of particles considered,
rod.
/,
a plane section of which the natural distance from the
ticles in
put, in the
one end
above equation, ^
limits of the integrations are jr
= o and
dx for
x = l/\\.
to
the other.
^f, so that the
becomes simply
^l==Jjdx;
but from (8)
we have / ^dx =
Jo
hence
or the centre of inertia remains fixed (as
it
 from
2
we know a
must do under the supposed conditions), and
the origin of
f.
It
is
priori that
at a distance
must not however be inferred from
of a Rod,
this that the section
155
which, in the natural condition, contains
the centre of inertia remains fixed ; that
B^
A^^
are o for
remains
by
all
even values of
fixed, the place
will
when
only happen
In general, no section
i.
of the centre of inertia being occupied
different particles periodically.
155. If the vibrations ceased, the centre of inertia
taining
its
position, the periodic part of (8)
still
main
would disappear,
and we should have ^ = x 2X all points of the rod hence the
periodic part, which is the actual value of ^x, gives the dis;
placement, at the time
/,
of the section defined,
as
before
explained, by the value of x.
The
Hence
density at any point
is
given (Art. 149) by the equation
the general equation (5) gives
^^^'{xai)^f{x^aty,
P
which represents the transmission of two
s/afes
of density in
contrary directions with the same constant velocity a relatively
to the matter of the rod.
This
is
not rigorously the same thing
as a constant velocity relatively to fixed space, because x, in the
motion,
state of
is
not the actual abscissa of the particles in a
given section, reckoned from a fixed point, but differs from
by the small periodic displacement due
This being understood, we
sists
may
say that the vibration con
the transmission, in contrary directions, of
in
condensation and dilatation; just as the
string consists in the transmission of
ment ; and
it
to the vibration.
waves of
lateral vibration
waves of
of a
lateral displace
the waves appear to be reflected from the ends in
both cases.
156.
The
periodic part of (8) does not in general vanish for
any value of x, so
that there are in general
of no displacement.
which
all
is
But there
any odd multiple of
values of i except
will
no
nodes, or sections
be n nodes, at sections for
provided A^, B^ vanish for
odd multiples of
n.
Thus
the rod
may
have any number of nodes, of which those next the ends are
Longitudinal Vibrations
156
from the ends by half the distance between any two
distant
nodes.
From
we have
(8)
also
^ = ^
dx
p
I
when x =
hence
y 2? sm J [A^ cos J + Bi sin j)
and when
x=
That
I.
there
is,
is
no
P
variation of density at the free ends.
be variation of density
except when
when
.a;
is
a multiple of
i is
But there
a multiple of 
will in
, the variable part
of
general
B^ vanish
If A^,
at all other points.
vanishes
Hence, when there are nodes, the
sections in
which there
is
no
variation of density are those
bisect the nodal intervals in the state of equilibrium,
no
sections of
displacement,
ill
cos
157.
the
variation of density are also sections of greatest
as
be
will
J
is
The
for values
on inspection of
seen
of x which make sin
ill
y
(8),
o.
number of simple harmonic
itself; the i^ com
infinite
each of which might subsist by
ponent vibration would have i nodes
and
in this case, as in
the case of the string, the tones corresponding to the
ponent vibrations form in general a complete harmonic
The
period of the
i^ component
2/
tone
is r
the fundamental tone
a would
2/
we
the wavelength
is
time,
or^,
is
is
and
the period of
be the time of transmission of a wave over
the distance 2/,
of a (Art. 150)
a
is
comseries.
^^
2/
Since
since
vibration represented by (8) consists as usual of
superposition of an
vibrations,
which
and these
infer,
exactly as in the case of a string, that
twice the length of the rod.
()
the
number of
Po
W^\*
Since the value
vibrations in a unit of
of a Rod.
and
157
therefore, ccBteris paribus, inversely proportional
is
length.
It is,
as
evidently ought to
it
be,,
to the
independent of the
thickness.
The most
158.
general case in which there
middle of the rod
is
that in
a node at the
is
which cosy vanishes,
values of i included in the series (8),
when x =  In
for
all
order that
may be the case, ^^., B^ must vanish
The gravest component tone is then
this
i.
of the rod, but the higher tones
Thus
the
+ fifth)
(octave
Now
upper tone
first
will
even values of
for all
the fundamental tone
of even orders
disappear.
be at an interval of a twelfth
above the fundamental tone.
in this case the middle section of the rod
might become
and
absolutely fixed without disturbing the motion,
either half
might then be taken away, so as to leave a rod of half the
original length with
Hence we
one end fixed and the other
infer that the
free.
fundamental tone of a rod, with one
same as that of a rod of twice the length, with
But the component tones of the rod with a
form a complete harmonic series, containing
end
do
not
fixed
tones
of
odd orders. The wavelength is four times
the
only
end
fixed, is the
both ends
free.
We
the length of the rod.
afterwards in a
159.
more
direct
We will next
shall arrive at the
same conclusions
manner.
suppose the terminal sections of both ends
to be fixed.
Let
Then,
be the distance between the planes of the fixed ends.
if /'
be different from the natural length
at rest, is in
tained
/,
the rod,
when
a state of uniform elongation or contraction, main
by the tensions or pressures on the
fixed ends.
suppose, for clearness, that /'>/, so that the rod
Assuming, as in
is
We
will
elongated.
Art. 153,
^=kx{A^\Ti{rnx\a)\xi{mat\^
(in
which equation
x has
the conditions 37 = o
at
its
when
original meaning),
x=o
and when
we have to
x=L
satisfy
for all values
Longitudinal Vibrations
158
of
Hence we must have
/.
^=
when
sin {rnx\a)
= o when
and
which conditions are satisfied by taking
ml =111;
a = o,
/,
now
moreover, since the ends are
fixed,
we may assume
the
f is measured to coincide with one end, so
f = o when x = o\ then k must be such that f = /' when
origin from which
that
X=
I'
1,
or ^ =
Thus
the expression above assumed for f
becomes
f=y^ + ^sm
now
the end of the rod
(9)
when
= jx;
at rest in its actual condition
and
we
=
from
of ex
and
take, as
the
general
x ^2smjj{^AiC0Sy + BiSmjr)
(9)
tension, then x^
sum
before, the
^=
sm(^y + /3);
be the distance of the section defined by
let at'
solution,
we
of the
if
particular
put a
solutions
a,
for
obtain
This equation evidently expresses a vibration in which the
velocity of wavetransmission
is
a'
=  a}
Thus
the tension to
which we. have supposed the rod subjected increases the velocity
This value of the velocity of wavetransmission might be obtained
let T' be the tension in the state of rest,
the actual tension
at any point then
*
directly thus
r=.(^,)
from which we
find
and
r=,(^J.).
by eliminating dx,
r=r+(i7+r)(^i);
if
we now
p'
being the density of the rod at
investigated directly the differential equation,
di^
we have
p,
>
r
= =
hence
dx^^
we should
find
p'
rest.
But
p^
being the unextended density,
'== .,^.
(f /^
(f )V
of a Rod.
159
But the period
of transmission in proportion to the extension.
V

2
2I
is
the
same
as
if
there
was no
tension.
160. Comparing (9') with (8), we see that the periods of the
fundamental and other component tones are the same in the
rod with both ends fixed as in that with both ends
when
there are nodes they are not at the
same
free.
places.
But
The
rod with fixed ends has always two nodes, namely, the fixed
ends themselves ; the i^ harmonic component would have i i
nodes (besides the ends) dividing the rod into i equal parts.
The mode of division in the free rod was explained in Art. 156.
The
161.
theory of the longitudinal vibrations of a rod ex
tended by tension at
its
ends,
is
evidently applicable at once to
the case of a string similarly extended, in so far as the
between tension and extension
relation
may
assumed
be supposed to
subsist.
The
longitudinal vibrations of a
excited by gently rubbing
it
pianoforte string
may be
longitudinally with a piece of india
and those of a violin string by placing the bow obliquely
across the string, and moving it along the string longitudinally,
keeping the same point of the bow upon the string. The note
rubber,
is
unpleasantly
pitch
both cases.
shrill in
(The
relation
between the
of lateral and longitudinal vibration will be considered
afterwards.)
If the
peg of the
violin
be turned so as to
the lateral vibrations very considerably,
pitch
The
of the longitudinal vibrations
reason of this
is
it
will
alter the pitch
of
be found that the
has varied very
slightly.
that in the case of the lateral vibrations
the change of velocity of wavetransmission depends chiefly on
the change of tension, which
is
considerable.
But
in the case
of the longitudinal vibrations, the change of velocity of wavetransmission
comparatively
depends on the change of extension, which
slight.
vibrations of rods,
steel,
rod
it
or glass tubes.
may
For
is
experiments
on the
is
longitudinal
convenient to use rods of deal, or of
One end may be
fixed in a stand
or the
be held lightly in the fingers at the place of a node.
Longitudinal Vibrations
i6o
The
vibrations
cloth,
may be
excited by rubbing the glass with a wet
and the rods with powdered rosin on a dry
162.
If,
supposed a constantforce applied
would be
ditions
/'o
at
we
each end, the terminal con
/^ = constant.
must have the same given
suming
glove.
instead of supposing both ends of the rod fixed,
Hence
^r,
value, say
(Art. 151)
t^ i
As
both ends.
at
then, as before (Art. 153),
^=kx\A
sin(7.;tra)sin(;/+/3),
we must have
k\{mA
both
when
x=o
k =
Q,o^{rnx\a) %\Xi{mai\^^ =
and when
x=
l,
cos a = o,
e^
e\
and therefore
cos (;7z/+ a) = o
whence, as in Art. 153,
w/=
a = 
ztt;
f=
^.r
it: at
^,1=00
itiXf
^^.^^ cos
J (^^i
cos
iT:at\
^ + ^. sm y J
we
and, putting ex=^x', el = l\ ea = a\ as in Art. 159,
should
have
f=J?
2^.^j
cos^(^<cos^+^<sm^);
which x' now signifies the distance
end A of the rod, supposing it to be at
in
of
any section from the
rest
under the action of
the terminal forces.
Comparing
period of the
in both cases,
We
this
z^^
result with
component
equation (8)
vibration (
and the nodes are
we
=
see that
is
the
the
same
similarly situated.
infer then that in the
three cases, (i) both ends free,
(2) both ends fixed, (3) both
ends pulled or pushed by equal
constant forces, the series of component tones
But the
distribution of the nodes,
which
is
the
is
same
the
same.
in (i)
and
(3), is different in (2).
The
case (3) cannot be realised in practice, because
it
is
impossible by any mechanical contrivance to apply a constant
force at the ends.
In case (2) the force supplied by the fixed
of a Rod.
supports of the ends
is
the actual value
that of
a periodically varying quantity, of which
q{^\\
) at the other end, and the
(^
is
i6i
at
the end A,
mean value
and
is
40163. The only remaining case of practical interest is that in
which one end of the rod is fixed, while the other end is either
entirely free, or loaded with a given finite mass.
We
shew how the solution of the problem in these cases
obtained by means ^f the more general supposition that
both ends of the rod are loaded, but otherwise free. The condition of fixity at either end can then be introduced by supposing the mass attached at that end to be infinite, and the
condition of perfect freedom by supposing it to be nothing.
Suppose then masses M^ M^ to be attached to the two ends.
The forces F^, F^ (Art. 151) will then be the resistances to
acceleration arising from the inertia of these masses ; and the
terminal conditions will therefore be
shall
may be
whence
(see equations (6), (7)),
di
1
dx
if
m these
j:
o,
qoi
dx
And
M^d"^
when
Nt.
dt^
qoi
equations
we
when
rJ
dr
x=
1.
substitute the values of
from the assumedJ equation
.
.1
f = ^ar + ^
we
have
/^
them
and
cot
+ a)
sin(/?2.r
see that, in order to satisfy
imx
+ a)= md^
^
=
md^
sin
d^ d'^
^
dx
(w/+/3),
for all values of
when x =
dt^
(10)
/,
we must
0,
qo)
when x = L
qta
Let
Iqui
u.
u
then these conditions give
Iqta
cot (mi \ a) =
iJi^ml;)
'
Longitudinal Vibrations
i6z
from which, by eliminating
a,
we
find
(i/^of^i(^^')tan;w/+(/x, + /Xi)2/ =
o.
(12)
164. Suppose /i, m^, &c. are the values of m which satisfy
the equation (12).
To each value m^ will correspond a value
of a, say a^, which can be found from (11). Then (10) will
give the form
f=
+ 2 sin {m^x + a^) (A^ cos m.a/+B. sin /,/);
:r
(13)
where A^^ B^ are arbitrary constants.
This would give the solution of the problem if the values of
m^ were known. These values in general could only be found
by troublesome approximations. We see however that (13)
expresses a vibration compounded of simple harmonic vibrations, of which the periods are inversely proportional to the
values of m^, so that the component tones do not in general
belong to a harmonic scale.
165. If we suppose ju,, = o, and jUj = o, then both ends of the
rod are perfectly free, and equations (11) give
cota =
coi{ml\a) =
o,
o'j
TT
or
a=
ml=i'K, as we found before.
Again,
if
/ut^
and
00
we have
juij
cota = 00
a = o,
=
,
or
as
we
also found
oo
then both ends are fixed, and
cot
{ml+a) =
00
ml=t'Kt
before in the case of fixed ends without
extension.
But if juto = 00 juij = o, then the end A is
end free; and we have from (11),
cot a = 00,
cot{ml+a) =
,
or
a=
o,
fixed
and the other
o,
ml={2i\i)i
so that (13) becomes
2/
Here the periods of
4/
7
r
(22+1)^
>
the
component
vibrations are the values of
and the numbers of vibrations
therefore proportional to the
in a unit of time are
odd numbers
i, 3,
5, ....
Thus
of a Rod,
163
the component tones form a harmonic scale with alternate
tones (namely, the octave of the fundamental tone with all its
harmonics) left out. The wavelength of the fundamental tone
is 4 /, and its pitch is the same as that of a rod of length 2 /,
(See Art. 158.)
fixed at both ends or free at both.
166. Lastly, we shall consider the case of a rod fixed at one
Then we
end, and loaded with a small mass at the, other.
shall have
/ijj
and
the
00
of these
first
Ml
if e
we may
(a small quantity)
cot{ml\a) = eml:
is satisfied
cos
Now
from (11),
cot a = 00,
therefore,
by a =
were = o the solution of
therefore
o,
and the second becomes
ml = mi sin ml.
this
would be ml ={2i + i)i
assume
mil={2z
+ i) + d,
6 being a small quantity of the same order as
cos((2e
of the second order being neglected,
9sm(2z+i)
= e(2/+i).sin(2/f i);
6 =
whence
IT
(2z
+ i)i
^
'
and
in the ratio
).
of the small load
eff"ect
is
simply to
number of vibrations of every component tone
i e
i.
Each tone is therefore lowered by the
interval,
and the whole
series
scale with alternate tones omitted
The
;w^/= (2z'+i)~(i
This shews that the
diminish the
Then
+ i)2 + ^) = ((22+i)2 + a)sin((2/+i)2 + l9);
or, quantities
same
e.
following result
is
still
belongs to a harmonic
'^.
found by carrying the approximation one step
further.
Let
and the
mean
the ratio of the attached mass to the whole mass of the rod
attached mass. Then
/=i{t.+
^^^4
Longitudinal Vibrations of a Rod.
64
167. Since a^ = ^(Art. 160), the values oi
^o
are
M,
\l^,\i^
(Art. 163)
M^
now /poO) is the mass of the rod ; hence /x^, \k^ are simply the
ratios of the attached masses to the mass of the rod, and e in
the last problem has the
The
same meaning.
chapter afford a method of determining experientally the modulus of elasticity by observing the
tones produced by longitudinal vibrations.
Thus, taking the
case of the rod with one end fixed and the other free, we have
for the period of the fundamental tone (Art. 165),
168.
results
of
this
^ q ^
and
therefore
if
be the number of
i6n^P =
and
vibrations in a unit of time,
qui== i6n^l.lp^ui:
Po
now if a second be the unit of time, the weight of the rod
expressed in theoretical units of force is tp^cog; hence, calling
this W, we have
i6n^l
g
Thus
rod,
if
the pulling force which would double the length of the
the law of extension held good without limit, is
i6V
X weight
of rod.
The value of n can be ascertained with great accuracy by
methods of which the principle will be explained afterwards.
is the number of vibrations, in a unit of time, of the unloaded rod.
the higher component tones become unharmonic.
For instanc e, thg
ratio of the interval between the fundamental tone and the first upper tj^g,
js (to the same approximation) 3 (i+fir^c^), which exceeds a twelfth b y an
mferval of which the ratio is i + ^ir^t^. This would be a diatonic semitone
where
Hence
\{^Tf^i^=z^^ or
6^
which gives ^ nearly
for
the
ratio
of the
mass to the mass of the rod.
The interval by which the first upper tone is put out of tune relatively to
the fundamental tone, being measured by the logarithm of i +^ir^e^, varies
Jattached
as
6* nearly.
v.
/M
r^^^
Iff
ijnr
CHAPTER
IX.
ON THE LATERAL VIBRATIONS OF A THIN
ELASTIC ROD.
The
169.
theory of the lateral vibrations of a rod becomes
susceptible of tolerably simple mathematical treatment
when
the
following assumptions are made.
The rod
condition
and
equal,
line
sections
We
supposed
is
it is
straight,
to
be homogeneous.
and
all its
In
its
undisturbed
transverse sections are similar,
similarly situated.
passing through the centres of inertia of
may be
called the axis
all
transverse
of the rod.
suppose the vibrations to be small, and such that
(i)
One
principal axis of every section remains in a fixed
plane.
(2)
No
part of the axis pf the rod undergoes
any elongation
or contraction.
(3)
The
particles
which
in the undisturbed state are in
any
transverse plane section, remain always in a plane
normal
The
to the axis of the rod.
mentioned in (i) is small. (This is
meant by calling the rod thin.)
The plane which always contains the principal axis mentioned
{4)
principal axis
what
in (i)
may be
is
called the plane
It follows evidently
of vibration.
from the above assumptions that the
condition of the whole rod at any time
position
and form of
is
determined by the
its axis.
170. Taking rectangular coordinate axes fixed in space,
we
Conditions of Equilibrium
1 66
will
suppose, for clearness, that the axis of
from
zontally
Thus
left
the plane of
2^
and
directed hori
upwards.
suppose that
undisturbed condition coincides with
its
Thus
is vertical,
coinciding
the small principal axis of every
always in the vertical plane of xy, and the other
section
is
(which
may
may
or
the axis of the rod
not be small)
AB, we
condition the lefthand end
is
vertically
will also
that the plane of vibration
with the plane of xy.
Let
We
horizontal.
is
the axis of the rod in
the .raxis,
and the axis of ^
to right,
is
always horizontal.
Calling
suppose that in the undisturbed
will
coincides with the origin.
be the abscissa of any given
particle in the axis of the
We
rod in the undisturbed condition.
suppose (as in the case
of the string) that the vertical displacement of any particle in
the axis
so small that
is
horizontal displacement
its
Hence we may
neglected.
consider that
and
for a given particle in the axis,
is
the
same
as the abscissa
Then,
of that particle reckoned from the fixed origin.
the (vertical) ordinate of the
Also,
quantity.
may
dx
put
i,
if
same
particle, _>/ is
problem
is
to express
variables
and
m
.
o)
axis,
be
we
^,
The
the case of the strmg.
two independent
as a function of the
/.
171. In the undisturbed condition let p
rod,
ifj/
always a small
ds be an element of length of the
dy
dy
^ = ;7^j as
may be
remains constant
be the density of the
the area of the section, and / the actual length of the
axis (which remains constant).
If either
one or both ends of the
length of the rod.
different
But
if
axis are free, /
both ends are fixed
from the natural length, the axis
permanent extension or contraction, and
is
/ is
is
the natural
at
a distance
in
state
of
not the natural
length.
When
either
face at that
end of the axis
the axis are so fixed that there
if either
is
fixed, the
end may or may not be
is
fixed.
whole of the terminal
When
both ends of
extension or contraction, then
terminal face be not entirely fixed,
normal tensions or pressures applied
we must suppose
at all points of its surface
.such as would, in the undisturbed condition, maintain
all
the
longitudinal
of Elastic Rod,
167
filaments of the rod at the
same length as the
axis.
172.
We
must
first
investigate the conditions of equilibrium
of the rod under the action of such forces as could produce a
displacement of the kind supposed to exist at any time during
the motion.
The
forces
of signs will be observed with respect to
usual rule
and moments
will
be considered positive which tend to
produce xoi2i\\oxifrom the axis of x towards that oiy.
The
the
included between two plane sections cutting the
slice
jtraxis at
same
distances x, x\dx from the origin, always contains
matter, though
the disturbed condition.
(i)
A vertical
the
force
same
its
We
faces are not in general parallel in
shall
suppose
i^per unit of mass, constant throughout
slice (so that
F is a function of x).
(2) Forces parallel to the plane of vibration, acting
particles of the slice,
plane, of which the
and reducible
moment
on the
to a couple, in that
is
Z X (mass of slice) = LpcadXy
L
being a function of x.
(If there
not reducible to a couple, they
to
(3)
were such forces
would
in general tend
produce extension or contraction of the
axis.)
force T^ per unit of area, applied at every part of the
terminal face A^ at right angles to
its
plane.
(4) Tangential forces in the plane of the same face, parallel
to the plane of vibration, and reducible to a single
force i^o^j ^^ t^^^ plane, applied at
its
(5) Forces applied to the surface of the face
centre.
A, reducible
to
a couple in the plane of vibration, of which the mo
ment
(6)
is 6^0 o).
Analogous forces applied
at the face
B, and denoted by
! F,, G,.
In the condition of equilibrium these forces are balanced by
the forces of elasticity called into action by the state of strain
which they produce in the rod.
Conditions of Equilibrium
i68
Suppose then the equilibrium
disturbed
if
to subsist.
would not be
It
the part of the rod included between any
became
verse sections
And
rigid.
if
two trans
the rest of the rod were
then removed, in order to maintain the equilibrium of this part
it
would be necessary to apply
to ascertain
what these
part
we have supposed
and
to
deduce the
to
to
become
differential
We
proceed
on the supposition
that the
certain forces.
it
forces are,
rigid is
an infinitesimal
slice,
equation which expresses the con
dition of equiUbrium.
173. In Fig.
suppose the plane of the paper to be the plane
of vibration, and
ab be an
let
infini
tesimal portion of the axis of the rod,
and
FG
the section of an infinitesimal
contained between transverse sec
slice
tions cutting the axis in a
Let
point
and
b.
X be the abscissa of/*, the middle
of ab^ and x \ dx, x + \dx the
abscissa of a,
b.
Suppose
the
through
a,
sections
transverse
meet
in
then (quantities
PC
of the third order being neglected)
is
the radius of curvature of the axis at
Py which we will call P.
Suppose the slice to be made up of
longitudinal filaments having dta for the
area of their section; and
the
let
apfi be
projection of such a filament on the plane of vibration.
Then,
if
Pp =
rj,
aP
Now
it is
plain that
%ab
('
the state of extension of
length
is
one end
infinitesimal)
same value
its
any such filament may (since
its
be considered to vary uniformly from
to the other, so
extension at
+ !) dx.
that
we may
obtain
middle point by calculating
at all its points, that
is,
it
as
by the formula
actual length
I.
natural length
of
the
state
if it
had the
of Elastic Rod,
Let then dx^ be the natural length of
dx
169
This
or ah.
the natural length of a^, so that the extension at/>
is
also
is
dx
dx
Now
is
the extension of the axis (which
is
constant), so
(tx^
that
if
we
where q
put
is
.dx
the
modulus of
elasticity,
T will
be the value of a
constant tension, per unit of sectional area, due to the per
manent extension.
Then, calling
T the
actual tension in the filament a^,
we
have
Hence
Consider
section.
plied at
these forces
all
They
DE (on either side
on one
of
it) is
side (say the
are reducible to a resultant force =
P, and a couple of which the moment
the ordinate
t^
is
is /
j'qdoD'so,
is
its
and
T' dm ap
r;
T'Vo), the
Now
since
centre of inertia
P, we have
Irfdoa^itiK^j
the radius of gyration of the area of the section about
the horizontal principal axis
on
of the
reckoned from a horizontal axis in the plane of
the section, passing through
where k
left)
integrations being extended over the whole section.
acting
upon any
the pulling force exercised by the filament
element din of the section
in
its
plane.
Thus
the forces
the lefthand side of the section, due to extension, are
equivalent to a resultant force
Tin
perpendicular to
applied at P, and a couple in the plane
its
plane,
FG of which the
mo
Lateral Vibrations.
lyo
174.
We
can now find the forces which must be applied to
the elementary slice in order to maintain
the rest of the rod
is
supposed
to
its
equilibrium
be removed, the
slice
when
having
become rigid.
If we call Q the moment (which we have just determined)
of the couple due to extension acting on the lefthand side
of the section DE^ then the moment of that on the lefthand
face of the slice will be
and of that on the righthand
The sum
of these
face
is
_g^, = _(,+ r).<o^(Ly..
(a)
we found a resultant pulling force Tm on each side
Hence on each face of the slice there is a resultant
Moreover,
of P.
and b respectively.
components of these forces may be considered
opposite directions).
But the vertical components
pulling force, applied perpendicularly at a
The
horizontal
equal (in
are
these are equivalent to
d^'y
a vertical resultant force = Tu) r^dx,
and no couple.
(For the
moment
the horizontal components
^Ta>dy,
(d)
of the couple resulting from
is
^Tco^dx,
while that from the vertical components
is
dy
(difference of forces)
xi
(distance between them) = To> =~ dx).
Differential Equation of Equilibrium.
But we must not assume that the only forces
171
by the
lost
re
moval of the other parts of the rod are the couple and resultant
force just found; for the parts removed virill in general have
exercised tangential forces in the planes of the faces of the
reducible to resultant forces in the plane of vibration
slice,
and applied
at the centres of the faces.
Suppose then Fui
force
on
the left
and
is
the value of this tangential resultant
right sides of the section
the lefthand face of the slice,
it
will
DE\
then,
on
be
and on the righthand
These expressions
vertical
will
also give [as
we
neglect
components ; and therefore the forces
yj))
the
in question are
equivalent to
a resultant vertical force =s,(j!i~dx,
kcS'
dx
and a couple of which the moment
is
uiFdx.
{d)
(The horizontal components, being of the order of (i^)
are
neglected.)
175.
Now
in the actual
forces are balanced
condition of equilibrium
all
these
by those which we have supposed to act on
mass of the slice, namely, a vertical force pcaFdx,
and a couple of which the moment is p(oLdx. Hence we
must have
(^) + (^) + poyrdx = o,
the interior
(a)
f
(d)
{poiLdx = o.
Introducing the actual values of
servmg
we
that,
smce we neglect
find, after dividing
(a), (^), (c),
/dy\^
(d),
I
and obd^y
put ^ =  V^a'
(^^ j we may
by codx,
d'y dF
Differential Equation of
172
(s+^'^'^P+pL'O.
(2)
In order to eliminate the unknown F, we have only to subtract, after differentiating (2).
We thus
as the differential equation which
obtain, finally,
must be
con
satisfied in the
dition of equilibrium.
176.
it
We
have no occasion to integrate the equation (3)
essential to ascertain the conditions
is
determine the arbitrary constants contained in
These are
lution.
relative to the
Now
to
but
which would serve to
its
general so
be obtained from the data of the problem
ends of the rod.
the forces acting
on the
surface of the lefthand face
are only the given external forces (Art. 172), and the interior
tensions arising from extension, and
and
end of Art. 173)
(see
The
first
of these, combined with
These equations
ditions.
these must balance one
Hence we must have
another.
((4)
and (5))
(2), gives
will furnish the
(It is evident that similar
required con
equations must subsist at
the other end of the rod.)
177. In order to form the differentia] equation of motion,
have
we
now
only to substitute in (3) the forces arising from the
resistances of the particles to acceleration, instead of those sup
posed to act on the
interior
Hence, instead of the
on
the
d'y
mass of a
r^ instead of V,
slice,
of the mass.
vertical force
we must
puaVdx, supposed to act
substitute
po)
rr
^^
dx
or
Motion formed and
And
situte
integrated.
instead of the supposed couple poiLdx,
one which
173
we must sub
found as follows
is
Since the particles
a plane transverse section remain in
in.
a plane section, and since the inclination of the plane of the
dy
section to the vertical
dm, reckoned
its
is
ax
if
r;
be the ordinate of a particle
from
(as in Art. 173) in the plane of the section
horizontal principal axis, the angular velocity of the plane
being
(^{m
velocity of
therefore
dm
its
the direction of positive rotation), the linear
(estimated from right to
left)
resistance to acceleration (in the
is
ry
same
>
and
direction) is
f] {r^ 1 dm, and the moment of this resistance, with its
^d/y ^^
d ^dy
proper sign, is l^ij) t" ^^ Now, considering dm as the'
mass of an element of an
infinitesimal slice,
hence the above momerit
we have dm = pdoidx;
is
d^y
and taking the sum of
we have
cPy
as the expression to be
must put
^
as"
such moments for the whole
slice,
d\
<,
substituted for
ptaLdx.
Hence we
d^y
K^ tV4
Making
all
dfdx
instead of L.
these substitutions in (3)
we
obtain
the differential equation required ^.
^ See Klebsch, Theorie der Elasticitdt fester Korper,
6i, where this
equation (with a different notation) is deduced, as a particular case, from
the general theory of elastic solids.
The equation usually given in ele
mentary works does not contain the term
/,
^,
which
arises
from the
angular motion of the sections of the rod. (See, for example, Poisson,
Traite de Mecanique, tom. ii. 5.)
It may in fact be neglected without
sensible error in ordinary cases.
Differential Equation of
174
178. This
may be
put in a somewhat more convenient form
as follows
Put
q^T=
T^a^p, and
b'^p,
it
becomes
(In order to see the homogeneity of this equation
meanings of a and
sirable to observe the
Tim
b.
it
and p the actual density, in the axis of the rod.
would have to be applied to the rod
tension,
the tension which
natural state in order to double
tension held
good without
its
length,
Tm
Hence
limit.
if
is
de
the actual
is
qui is
in its
the law of ex
and
qua are forces,
and can be represented by weights, say by the weights of
Then
lengths A and A' of the rod, taken at its actual density p.
To) =gp\(o, qo) =^pA'a), and therefore
so that
a^,
are the half squares of the velocities which would
be acquired by a heavy body
A + A'.
Hence a and
falling vertically
b are of
down
one dimension
distances A,
in space
and i
in time.)
179. In order to find particular integrals of (6') we assume
j/
= cos
u and V being functions of
/+z;sm
to be determined.
Substituting this value ofj/ in (6'),
the form
y,
6/
in
which 17 and
the equation
V do
cos
^.
we
K /+ Fsm K
^
not contain
we must have
(7)
/,
find
an equation of
/=o,
so that in order to satisfy
separately
17=0,
V=o.
These equations are exactly similar in form, and we
need only consider one of them. The first is
^'^'.^(^^)&"=.
therefore
()
which, being linear with constant coeflScients, can be integrated
in the usual way.
The
general solution
is
Motion formed and
where
>S k^^ k^,
k"
making
+ {m'a')k'' ^
= o
(9)
^^ {a^m" {{a'm'')^ + ^mH^)i}.
We may represent
and,
i "j^
k^ are the roots of the equation
K'bH''
which gives
integrated.
(9')
the four values of k in the form
for convenience a
change in the meaning of the
D, we may put the
constants A, B, C,
values of u and
z;
in
the form
u=
\
B
2
+C
z'
+n
= a similar expression with
c\
different
A\ B\
constants, say
ly.
180. Introducing these values of u and v in
value of J/, which
is
a particular integral of
the constants, including
all
(10)
so if we had
we have also
only to satisfy
/,
But
obtain a
in
problem
and these con
in every actual
to satisfy the terminal conditions
ditions lead to
we
and
which
and would remain
are arbitrary,
(6').
(7),
(6'),
an equation of which the roots are the only
admissible values of ^, besides other equations which partly
*
determine the constants A^ B, &c.
Before investigating these conditions however in particular
cases,
we
of
k'^
we
we
is
will
examine more
call
shall
the positive value a^
k=
of ^; and thus
the negative value
yS^,
it
is
then
^V 1
we may put
(10) in the form
+ Ccos^x\D%m^x,
\B
2
which
and
have
k= aj
in
nature of the four
k.
for the four values
u=
closely the
Since the last term of (9) is negative, one value
necessarily positive, and the other negative.
Suppose
values of
(11)
important to remember that
functions of w, given
to be determined.
by
(9),
a,
while the value of
are determinate
itself
has
still
Case of Fixed
176
We
181.
now
will take
Ends of Axis.
the case which
some
in
is
respects
the most simple, namely, that in which the ends of the axis
of the rod are fixed, but the terminal faces are subject to no
(The tension T^ which must be supposed
other constraint.
be applied to them on every unit of surface,
This case
the directions of the faces free.)
because
terest,
mined by
Now
on
stretching
at both
referring to the terminal equation (4) (Art. 176)
now made we must
the suppositions
we
see
o,
and
put G^ =
d^y
ends of the rod.
(The equation
(5) gives
no condition.
to determine the value of the pressijre
would merely serve
F^tja
deter
is
over bridges.
it
consequently
It
of practical in
is
taken to represent that of a wire
a pianoforte string) of which the vibrating part
(e. g.
that
may be
it
to
will evidently leave
supported by the point to which the end of the axis
is
fixed.)
But the
fixity
of the ends of the axis gives us two
more
conditions, namely,
j/
=o
We
have then to put in (7) the value (11) for ,
and a similar value for v^ with A\ B' &c. instead of ^, B, &c,.,
at both ends.
and then express
the conditions that
y^o
both
when x =
and
= o,
and when j; = /, for all values of /. These
.a; = o, give, as will be easily found,
conditions, relatively to
A + C = o,
which
it is
are
o,
impossible to satisfy otherwise than by
C = o,
A=o,
The
^'+C'
conditions relatively to
.;r
A' = o,
C" =
/ thus
become
ea/^^a^
4Z?sin/g/=o,
2
(d
o?B
cai
/3Z>sini3/=o,
o.
simplified,
and
Y
Final Equation in
this Case.
with similar equations for B" and If,
177
These give
Z>sin/3/=o;
0,
now
the factor multiplied
by
Bi
=0,
cannot vanish, since a
real.
is
Hence we must have
^ = 0,
Hence
and If remain
sin^/=o.
arbitrary, while
^ must
satisfy the
equation sin/3/ = o, which gives
182.
to
The
y = sm^x(l)cos
in
now reduced
values of , v (see equation (11)) are
= Z) sin j3;t;, v = If sin ^x, and therefore from (7)
mt
f
which 3 may have any of the
all
to each value of
corresponds a value of
by putting
k"^
ticular values
values to the integer
of values
from
we have
for
to 00
m obtained
Hence, taking the sum of
/3^.
of J/,
infinite series
obtained by giving
/3
mt^
^ sin
all
and
from (9)
the par
the general solution of (6')
appropriate to this problem
^ = 2,=i sm^(Qcos^+Z>.sm^);
(12)
where Q, D^ are arbitrary constants in the usual sense, that is,
depend only on initial displacements and velocities. (It will be
easily seen that
it
is
useless to include negative values of
since m^ (see next article) only depends
183. Solving equation (9) for m^,
ductions,
and
m^ _
a^
k'
b'^
on
we
/,
i"^^
find,
after
slight
re
k^
^
since, for real values of
/3,
the above formula gives
m,^
c2
Pn''
/^
Po' +
Pti'^kH''
P\P'u''k^
(13)
Application
378
Now
to
Metallic Wire.
(12) shews that the vibration
compounded of simple
is
harmonic vibrations of which the periods are the values of
or the number of vibrations, in a unit of time, of the i^
ponent tone,
m *
is
CalUng
this
number
n^,
we have from
com(13),
2'7rK
This shews that in general the component tones do not belong
to a harmonic scale
^.
184. Let us however examine some special cases.
If
we suppose
The
together.
we may
the rod infinitely thin
d^
neglect k al
then reduces
differential equation (6')
itself to
,^
the ordinary equation for a perfectly flexible string; and (14)
gives ^ =
But
we
if
finitely thin,
will
this
the value found before.
consider the rod as very thin, without being in
so that
is
a very small fraction, the value (14)
be applicable to the case of a metallic string or wire.
case,
neglecting the square of
and
In
assuming
the
section of the wire to be a circle with radius r, so that }^ = \r^.
we
ia
find
hence
if
we put
= N^
Pir' r^
(the
number of
vibrations calculated
the supposition of infinite thinness or perfect
put for
b'^
and
a^ their values (Art. 178),
flexibility'^),
on
and
we have
^ The process which has been given in Arts. 179183 is substantially
the same as that of Klebsch, 61.
^ Strictly speaking, the supposition of infinite thinness ought to be distinguished from that of perfect flexibility.
can imagine a thick string
of which only the central infinitely thin axis should resist extension or contraction.
Such a string might be regarded as perfectly flexible. But the
We
Correction for Rigidity.
which gives what
is
called the correction for rigidily.
may be
This correction
179
form thus: from
in another
put
(14) we have
'c^,,
2/v
,Ai
+ ?*'^^^^(^^2))
^2
so that for a given value of
order, the
number of
that
is,
a tone of given
for
may be
flexible,
by
substituting for
calculated as
thus added
is
Ta
if
the string were perfectly
fictitious
tension
sensibly independent of T, since
actual length between the bridges)
is
constant,
and r
be supplied by a weight W, then
W = T(o.
Suppose
weight which would double the length of the string
extension
fictitious
weight
good
held
indefinitely,
then
/ (the
sensibly
is
If the tension
moderate variations of T.
invariable, at least for
any actual
vibrations corresponding to
tension
The term
1,
nearly
Q^q<a.
if
is
the
the law of
Hence
the
weight to be substituted in calculation for the actual
is
W\P'^^Q.
4/
It
would be
difficult
to calculate the value of the
added term
^
a priori, because the values of the very small
the very large weight
accuracy;
but
it
is
inertia of the outer parts
ratio fy j
and of
could hardly be obtained with sufficient
easily ascertained experimentally
would introduce the term
dfdx'
d^y
,
.,
by com
in the differential
equation, though the term ^ , which arises from the resistance of the outer
parts to extension or contraction, would disappear.
But the strings used
for musical purposes never approximate to this character, though the converse arrangement is common,
wire upon a silk core.
e. g.
in guitar strings
made by winding
fine
Case of no Tension.
i8o
The
paring the tones produced by two different weights.
corresponding to other values of
and they are found on
tones
can then be calculated,
agree very exactly with those
trial to
actually produced.
We
185.
still
next suppose that, the ends of the axis being
will
fixed, the distance
rod, so that
between them
T=o', hence a =
where
o,
b^
is
the natural length of the
and (14) becomes
= 
P
In
this case, since k is small, the values
values of
bers
/,
i^, 2^,
4th, gth^
tones
The
&c., so that the
3'',
are, for
Thus
the
first
one octave and a major second above the
supposition
(e. g.
possible to
moderate
numi^t,
and the
first
now made may be approximately
which the simplest consists
the
of the upper
two octaves above the fundamental tone
is
several ways, of
a rod
component tones are
&c. of a harmonic scale.
is
second
of
sensibly proportional to the series of square
&c.
realized in
in merely laying
a bar of steel) upon two bridges placed as close as
its
ends.
instead of merely supposing the ends of the axis
the planes of the terminal faces of the
rod to be fixed, then, instead of the simple formula (13) which
gives the values of m, we should have found a very complicated
transcendental equation.
The same thing happens if one
terminal face be fixed and the other entirely free, or if both be
In the two latter cases this equation is always
entirely free.
186.
fixed,
If,
we had supposed
somewhat
fore
the term
generally
duce
by the circumstance that Z =
becomes much more simplified
simplified
a^o.
But
"^
it
in the
do without
differential
sensible error.
this simplification in
what
o,
if
and
we
equation, which
We
there
neglect
we may
shall therefore intro
follows.
187. Since the differential equation was founded on the
hypothesis that the particles which in the undisturbed state are
in a plane at right angles to the axis continue to be so at all
times, if a terminal face of the rod be fixed, the axis at that
end
Simplified Differential Equation.
must always be
itself is fixed,
at right angles to
we must
it
and as the end of the
i8i
axis
have, at that end,
dy
These
But
therefore are the terminal conditions for a fixed face.
a terminal face be entirely free, we must obtain the
conditions from equations (4) and (5) (Art. 176).
Now, at a free end, G^ (or G^ and F^ (or F^ are both o.
Also Z, in (5), arises (see Art. 177) from the angular motion of
the planes of the elementary slices, the effect of which we are
now going to neglect ; hence these equations give
if
terminal
d'^y
d^y
~d^~^'
dx^
as the terminal conditions at a free end.
have already seen that the conditions are
We
d'^y
at
an end where only the extremity of the axis
is
fixed, so that
the direction of the plane of the face is free.
There are altogether six possible combinations, of which
we
have already considered one. Of the remaining five we shall
only examine the three which are of most importance, namely,
both faces fixed, both free, one fixed and the other free.
188. The equation (6'),
a = o (since we suppose
if
we omit
T= o),
To
the second term and put
becomes
find particular solutions of this equation,
we may con
veniently assume
Kb
Kb
y = ucosj^m^t\v^mj^m^i]
which
and
(16)
be functions of x, I is the length of the
to be determined.
Substituting this
value oiy in (15), we find that in order to satisfy that equation
for all values of /, we must have
in
rod,
, v are to
constant
'd^ ^ T""'
lb? ^ T'"'
The general solution of the
evidently be written in the form
first
of these equations
may
Ends
Case of doth
1 82
mx
mx
^
A cosy +Bsinj
u=
mx
mx
inx
+C
and V
free,
+ /5
tnx
^
(.7)
be given by a similar equation, with other constants
will
A\ B\ C, D\
It will save
much
trouble to adopt the following abbreviated
notation.
L2:1_
Let
Then we
i_l_=8(^).
(t((9),
shall evidently have,
= (r(a),
o(^)
^(o) =
8(^)=_8(_^),
^a{n0) = nb{nd),
o,
(r(o)=i,
~b{ne)
= ncr{nd).
189. Thus the equation (17) becomes
.
u = Acos
mx
and we have now
mx ^ /mx\ ^./mx\
_
+^sm^ +C(r{^)+ Db{^);
.
to find the values of the constants
each case.
First, then, let us suppose both ends entirely
ditions (see Art. 187) are
(18)
which
will
satisfy the terminal conditions in
both
dx'~^'
when x = o and when
satisfied for all values
of
/, it
free.
The con
dx^'""'
x = l\
is
and since these are to be
evident that we must have
d^u
d^v
d^u
(^v
d^^""'
d^^""'
^^''
d^^""'
Putting then x =
and x = I successively in the values of
these differential coefficients deduced from (18) and from the
corresponding expression for v, we find (for ^ = o)
^ + C=o,
^ + Z> = o;
so that
(cos
 + .(_))+ 5(sm^+8());
and then the conditions
relative to
Jt:
= / become
A[ co^7?i + a{m)){B(^ ?,mm'tb{m)) = o,')
a\
sin/^z
+ 8(w)) + ^(cosw + o(z7^))
= o;3
^'^^
Case of Fixed Terminal Faces.
183
A and 5, we have
cos vif = (b(m)ysin'^m
from which, eliminating
(o (2)
now, by the definition of o(w) and
hence
(()),
equation becomes
this
a{??i)cosm =
or
1,
+ ~
^cosw=i.
(20)
^
'
The
if
;
and
roots of this equation are the admissible values of
we denote them by m^, m^, &c., and call A^, B^ the corre
sponding values oi A, B, either of the equations (19) gives the
ratio
We may therefore
A^: B..
take
Ai= Q(sinw, a(w,.)),
B.^ Ci(cosm(T(mi)),
where C
Thus we
arbitrary.
is
Ui
+ a (^))
^(cos^,<tK)) (sinS^f
+a(^));
(sin
v^^D^Xp
m,t
where
(,)
is
(cos
(2,)
another arbitrary constant.
The
the sum of all particular values,
then be
J/
and
Z>^ is
general value of y, which
will
have from (18)
where
X, =
and
shall
= C^X^y
= 2Z,(C,cos'i^///+Z?,sin'^ ;//);
this is the
(22)
equation expressing the vibration of a rod free at
both ends.
The
constants
ments and
Q, D^
in
velocities,
are determined
by the
initial
displace
a manner which will be explained
afterwards.
190. If instead of supposing the ends of the rod entirely
we suppose both the terminal faces entirely fixed, the
terminal conditions are (Art. 187)
free,
1/
= o,
dy
^^ =
ax
and when x = /.
Assuming then (16) and (18) as
both when
o,
'
and proceeding
same equation (20) for
before,
exactly as in the last Article, we find the
the determination of the values of ?n, but
Case of Permanent Tension,
184
2r,.(Qcos^w//+Asin^2//),
and
j;
where
F^ = (sin
m^b
{m^)) (cos ^
^ (cos micr{m;))
(sin
Comparing the expressions
(23)
^(~7~))
b
(22), (23),
( ))
we
see that the
(24)
com
ponent tones have the same pitch, whether the terminal faces
be both free or both fixed. For the values of m^ are the roots
of the same equation (20) in both cases, and the number of
vibrations in a unit of time, for the tone of the
t'^'^
order, is
Kb
m,^
The constant h depends (Art. 178) only on the material of
which the rod is made, and m^ is an abstract number, independent both of material and dimensions. Hence, when the
material
is
given, the
number of
vibrations, for a tone of given
order, varies inversely as the square of the length of the rod,
about
plane of vibration.
If the section is elliptic or rectangular, then k is simply proportional to the thickness measured in the plane of vibration.
and
directly as the radius of gyration of the sectional area
that diameter
which
is
at right angles to the
was supposed that both the terminal
was no permanent tension, so
that the natural length of the axis was maintained.
The supposition of permanent tension, with fixed terminal
191. In the last Article
it
faces were fixed, but that there
much more complicated equations, but they may
be treated in an approximate manner in the only case of
practical importance, namely, that in which the thickness of the
rod is very small compared with its length. The result may
then be considered as giving the correction for rigidity for a
wire, or for a long and thin lamina, not stretched over bridges,
but firmly clamped at the ends.
faces, leads to
We may
in Arts.
take in this case the equations (7), (9), and (it), as
179 and 180.
But we
shall
suppose the term
in (6') to be neglected, so that instead of (9')
form
2 ? b^W
<22
(a*
+ 4 ni^h')^
we
get the simpler
Application
and
Wire with Clamped Ends,
to
therefore, since o?
and
/3^
are the
two values of
k'^,
185
we may
write the value of o? thus
will be given by changing
of the numerator.
and ^^
in the case of a metallic wire or lamina,
number
is
inn
into
(see Art. 178), since
very small
is
is
q/
is
is
a large
But
q.
and the legitimacy of the following approxi^2
j^ is so
mation depends upon the assumption that
small compared with
the last "term
IP
Now
+1
From
also very small.
this
assumption
it
small that
follows that
very large, since a^/^ is expressed by a fraction in which
is > 2 and the denominator is the small fraction
the numerator
Now
^ =
the terminal conditions are_>/ = o,
and from
these,
equation (11)
o, at
both ends
proceeding as in Art. 189, we find from
A\C = o,
aB\^D = o,
A <T{al)^ Bb {al)h Ccos 131+ sin 131 = 0,
a{Ab{al) + B(T{al)){^{Dcosl3lCsm^i) = o;
and hence, eliminating A, B, C, D, and reducing by means
of the identity (o(a/))2_(g(a/))2 =
5(a/)sin^/
i,
we
find, finally,
,.
2a(3 _
'
ia(al)cos(3ra''^^
and
in this equation the values of
if
a and
13
given above were
we should
obtain an equation in 7n, of which the
roots would be the values ofm^^, m^, &c.
Now the values of a^, fi^ give, as will be found at once without
introduced,
,.^
difficulty,
neglecting
aS
^
^
e^,
mb
(r(a/)
becomes
Also,
is
very large,
we
have,
= 6(a/) = Je+^, and the equation (w)
Je'^^sin^/
I
smce a/
j^C0S/3/
2mb
= 0;
Application
1 86
or, e^^
Wire with Clamped Ends,
to
being again neglected,
^.
tani3/=
Now
the value of
gives
/3*
/^^
nearly
(by developing the binomial as
//3
Ka
second term)
far as the
hence
nearly.
VI
But the number of vibrations
in a unit of time is
and
2 TTK
since the case differs very
string, this
very
little
from
2mb
r =
and
number
tan
z'tt,
or /3/ =

p/ = tan Q
+ 0,
is
^,
from
,5
where Q
is
an
infinitely thin
so that
very small
1
we may take
differs
hence
mb
 =
y,
2?;/<5
^l=ni\
and, equatmg this to
or,
/ir
from
little
J
very small; and
therefore
little
very
differs
that of
^;
we have
introducing the subscript index to distinguish the different
values of w.
Let
n.
/th tone,
be the number of vibrations, in a unit of time, of the
and
iV^ the
infinite thinness
Ni
number
calculated
on
the supposition of
then
= i
and
n.
hence
Comparing this with the corresponding expression deduced
184 on the supposition that the directions of the terminal
in Art.
faces were free,
viz.
Case of one Fixed End.
we
187
see that they differ essentially, especially in this respect, that
in the case {n) oi fixed faces the pitch of all the component
tones is raised, by the rigidity, through the same interval, so
do not cease to form a harmonic series whereas
other case (') each tone is raised through a greater
interval than the next lower one, and the series is therefore no
longer strictly harmonic.
An expression equivalent to (), and obtained by nearly the
same process, was given by Seebeck\ and found by him to
agree with experiment when the ends of the wire were clamped.
In the case of a wire stretched over bridges, the form (')
has been found to agree with experiment, in the manner
mentioned at the end of Art. 184. But the deviation of the
upper tones from the harmonic scale is probably too small
that they
in the
to
be made sensible to the
is
is
The
ear.
of the cases which we proposed to examine
that in which one terminal face (suppose that at which x ^<S)
fixed and the other free.
The conditions then are (Art. 187)
192.
last
y = 0,
when
.^^3=0,
when
^y
d'y
o,
0,
jt:
=L
o,
Again then, assuming (16) and (18), we find
A + C = o, B\D = o, and then
in the first
place
A (cos m\<T {ni))\ (sin m\h {m) ) = o,
A (sin in h {m)) B{cosm{(T{m}) = o;
eliminating A and B we obtain, after reduction,
(J
{m)cosm = I,
or
cosz=i
as the equation for determining the values of
take
A, = Ci (sin m, + 8
so that the value
ofy
(m^)
will
which Cp D^ are
^^ =
and we may
 Q (cos m. + a (m^))
be
^ = 2Zi(C,cos!^
in
),
(25)
</+i),sin'^/.V);
arbitrary,
and
See the memoir referred to below (Art. 205).
(26)
Periods of Tones
i88
Z, =
(sin
(cos^a(^)
m,^h {mi)
(cos/, + ,rK))(sin^8(^)).
(27)
Since the equation (25) is not the same as (20), the periods
of the component tones will not be the same as in the two
former cases. But the law of their variation with the length
and sectional area of a rod of given material is still the same as
that stated at the end of Art. 190.
193. To complete the solution of the problems considered
in Arts. 187192, we should have first to find the roots of the
equations (20) and (25), which determine the periods of the
component tones, and then to find the values of x which satisfy
the equations Xi = 0, Y^ = o, for each root of (20), and Z^ = o
for each root of (25), in order to ascertain the positions of the
nodes corresponding to each tone. The required calculations,
for small values of
which belong to the most important tones,
are troublesome
especially those which relate to the nodes.
And we shall only give a sufficient specimen of them to enable
the reader, who may be so disposed, to verify the results which
will be given below.
First, then, we have to find the values of w^, which are the
roots of the two equations (see (20) and (25)),
z',
cos.;t=+i:
(28)
'
where the upper sign corresponds to the case of both ends
fixed or both free, and the lower to that of one fixed and the
other
It
free.
is
evident
on inspection
equation (28), then 7n and
observing that
co^{m6) =
cos {7716
that
V i) = a
771
{7716),
be any root of either
are
also roots;
now
a (7716) = a{m6)f
co% niO,
Sm{ 7710) = sm77i6,
sin {7710
if
+m Vi
a{77i6
Vi) = cos77i6),
h{ 77ld)= b{77ld),
V^) = \/^T. b (mO),
6(+w^'/ 1)= +>/ i.sinz^^,
we
see,
on examining the forms of the functions X^, V^, Z^,
one of the four values 771^,
that the effect of changing any
m^Vi
into
any
other, will in
every case be merely to
found
in two Cases.
189
and
multiply the function by one of the factors+ i,+ \/ i
given by the
consequently all the four terms in the value oi
four roots can be united into one term of the form (22), (23),
or (26), according to the case in question. It is therefore only
;
necessary to consider the positive real roots of (28).
194. The position of the roots of (28) may be most clearly
If we draw the curve
exhibited by a graphic construction.
of which the equation is
y=
it
will cut the positive axis
cos^,
of
at distances
>
<KC.
and the distances from the
axis ofj/ at which
be the positive roots of (28).
The curve itself will consist of a series of unsymmetrical waves,
of which the amplitudes increase without limit. In Fig. 2, the
from the
it
origin,
cuts the
two
lines j/
+1
will
"^
Pj
A\
Pi
P3
It'.2
Fig.
2.
hues PPi,
^3 represent portions of the curve in^2'
cluded between the lines j/ = i, so that Pp^, Pp<^ are two
roots corresponding to the upper sign in (28), and QP^^ QP^j
QP^ are three roots corresponding to the lower sign.
Since
increases indefinitely with Xj
it
is
evident that
(28) requires
+cosjt: to diminish indefinitely with x, so that
i the values of m^ must approximate without
for large values of
limit to
+ (2 + i) 2"
At the points A, B^ C,
&c.,
where
Periods of Tones
190
found
two Cases,
222
dy
the values of
^^^ alternately negative
numerically without
Hence
limit.
and
positive, increasing
the roots corresponding to the
upper sign are alternately greater and
than
less
and those corresponding
22
77
and
less
thanj
&c.
On
the scale to which the fiofure
drawn, the portion of curve /a^s
from the ordinate at C,
We
will
&c.,
to the lower sign alternately greater
377
j
now shew how
is
quite undistinguishable
is
to calculate the values of
QP^, QP^i
pp..
195. Suppose that in either of the equations
cos j; = "~
f
we have found an approximate
assuming
m+a
Developing
this,
value of x, say
as the true value,
^va.
+ I.
_
and neglecting powers of a above the
find (using the notation explained in Art.
If the value
m+a
thus found
is
(29)
first,
188)
cosm.o(m)+i
(m) cos m
sm m.o (m) \i\
a=
Then
we have
cos(m
+ a)/ =
\
we
not sufficiently exact, then
it
must be assumed as an approximation, and the process repeated,
and so on as often as may be necessary.
We will take as an example the case of the fundamental tone
of the rod with one end fixed. We then have to find the least
positive root of (28), taking the lower sign
and we have seen
;
77
(Art.
194)
that this
is
somewhat
greater than
then
(29),
^
X ^\a
as a
first
we have
approximation, and putting
0.398 nearly
'
Assuming
Assuming
77
77
therefore
.r
= 40.398
+ 0,
m= m
.
Numerical
we
shall find the value
Results.
191
of a by putting
m =  + 0.398
This gives
in (29) (taking the lower sign in the numerator).
a = 0.089 and .r = 1.88 nearly.
The
next approximation gives
.^tr
which
is sufficiently
= 1.8751,
accurate.
196. For the higher tones of the rod with one end fixed, and
rod with both ends fixed or both free,
The following are the results
the approximation is more rapid.
for all the tones of the
in the
two cases
II.
I.
One end
m^
m^
W3
fixed
and one
Both ends
free.
fixed or
1.8751
4.7300
4.6940
7.8548
10.9955
10.9957
both
free.
78532
141372.
^4
For still higher tones the formula
Mi ^{21
=P
i)
may
be used without sensible error, the upper sign belonging to
I. and the lower to case II.
The numbers of vibrations, being proportional to the values
of m^, are, for the higher tones, sensibly proportional to the
squares of the odd numbers.
197. To find the interval between any two tones we may
proceed as in the following example. The interval between the
fundamental tone and the first upper tone, of the rod with one
case
(4.6940\^
logarithm
is
is
of which
and observing that log 6 = 0.77815,
Now
equal to 6 x 1.0445 nearly.
0.79704
find that this ratio
1.0445 =
the
we
+^^&c.,
of which the first three convergents are Tjlf^lij hence r.0445
exceeds ff by a fraction less than g^^,
interval is therefore a very little less than
6xff = txfxff.
Position of Nodes investigated.
192
It follows that
and the
the interval
interval (f f )
is
is
= two octaves + fifth + (f f ) nearly
less than f t^^s of a diatonic semi
little
tone, for (^f )^ = 1^ nearly.
Hence, if the fundamental tone were C, the
would be
than b ' by a
flatter
first
upper tone
more than a quarter of a
little
diatonic semitone^.
In this way we find the following to be the first four tones of
a rod in the two cases, supposing the fundamental tone in each
case to be C.
II.
I.
One end
fixed
and one
Both ends
free.
free or
sign
fixed.
f^
\>d'"
The
both
signifies
the
that
and the sign that
tone indicated by the letter.
sharper,
it
sound is somewhat
somewhat flatter, than the
actual
is
We find also that the ratio of the interval between the fundamental tone of a rod with one end fixed, and of the same rod
with both ends free or fixed, is 6x1.106 nearly so that the interval is a very little less than two octaves f fifth + minor second.
Thus, if the fundamental tone were C in the first case, it would
be a little flatter than a in the second.
;
198.
We
shall
now shew how
the nodes in the several cases,
rod with one end
to determine the position of
and we
will take first that
of the
fixed.
Referring to equations (26), (27), (Art. 192), we see that
node j/ = o for all values of /, the values of x, or the
distances of the nodes from the fixed end, must be in this case
roots of the equation Z^ = o, namely, those positive roots which
are less than /.
since at a
^
more systematic way of defining a small interval is to assign its ratio
to the semitone of the equal temperament,' which is the twelfth part of an
An interval of which
octave, and which we may call the ' mean semitone.'
'
^ ean
loff
r contains
the ratio
is
contains
TVlog2
semitones.
Thus
the interval (1.0445)
'
=0*787 such semitones
'
nearly.
(See Art. 23.)
'
The octave contains 10.74 diatonic semitones nearly; and the mean
semitone is about 0.89 diatonic semitones. (Compare the table of intervals
on
p. 27.)
Nodes
Position of
investigated,
This equation (subscript indices being omitted)
/
(sinzw
^/ NX
o(?))
(cos
(cosz + o(2))^sin^8(^)) =
which
in
{m^ of
\,
a determinate root
? is
is
/mx\\
^\i~))
^^
^
193
o,
(30)
the equation
<j{in)co?>m =
(31)
The equation (30) may be transformed as follows
From (31) we have o(/7z.) = secw^, and therefore
Now we
have seen (Art. 194) that m^
(2/* i) according as i
{i
is
greater or less than
odd or even, so
is
that
we may
put
= o being excluded)
^< =
where
a^ is
(2
'i)^ ()*<,
a small positive quantity, which diminishes in
definitely for increasing values of
Hence cosm^
/.
always negative, and sin;^ has the same
is
sign as
sin(2/ i),
^{m^)
necessarily positive,
is
(32)
b (m>i
that
)*
is,
Y^^
Consequently, since
we must have
tan m^ = cos
it:
tan m^
and therefore
sin
m.
cosmi
4
h (m.)
sin m.
+ a{m)
+ cos
cos
2*77
cos m^ + cos iir
tan m^
m^ sec m^
sin
= cot
w^
+ sin
2*77
nh' + Z*77
;
and (30)
is
therefore
easily
seen to become (indices being
omitted)
/mx
mx
cos
(7
m+
77ZtZ77\
2TT\
/mx\
m\ii:
^)nr)<=^
mx\ m\ii:
= o;
_8(_)s.n_.
which
is
reducible,
cos^ + sin^=
by means of the
V2,sm(Q + \
identities
cos0 sin^= ^/l.cos(6
+ \
of Nodes
Positio7i
194
to the
investigated.
form
m + ti:^
/mx
,
V 2. cost
^ I
e^
/in\i'n
sin
ttx
h)
4>'
ntx
6
Now
removed
the origin of abscissae be
let
axis of the rod,
C0S(^ +j = 0.
to the middle of the
by writing x{~ instead of x, so
that
now mean
the distance of a node from the middle point.
above equation then becomes
/mx
/
iTT\
/m + tTT
(.30)
will
The
7r\
m + zir
IT
^+7) =0.(33)
Now
from equation
(31),
which
is
= seem.
we
and subtracting
get (by adding
^(2+
i)
= secmsin^
'^y
nt
J(e2 e
and
since sec vi
have
the
is
2 )2
_ sec 2 cos
always negative, whilst the sine and cosine of
same
signs as the sine
and cosine of (22*
i)
(as is evident
from (32)), these equations give
c2
+e
/
TT
M
V sec/.sm sm(2z i)>
(2
_e
V secw
cos
cos(22 i);
4
2
and thence, by addition and subtraction,
e2
V seczw.cosi\
+)
224
V sec m
m
.
cos
V 2
J./
it:
7r>
A/j
Position of Nodes investigated.
195
Introducing these values in (33), and observing the identities
sin ^ cos
= 4
()
(sin (^
cos^cos(/> = J(cos(^
we
find, after
(/))
obvious reductions,
V2 cos(
but from (32)
+ + sin (^ </>)),
+ 0) + cos(^ <))),
it is
+ I \/ cosw.(e
cosztt)  o;
evident that
cos/w. =
sina^.;
hence the equation becomes
)+ J\/4 sin 0^.(6
cos(^^^
"/"
/"coszV) =
0.
(34)
Another form is obtained from (33) by substituting for ;;/.,
under the sine and cosine in the last two terms, the value (32).
This will easily be found to give
V2.cos(
\
^^
199.
free,
To
'
+e
^^
^'\i
^/gjnio.
"^y
find the places of the
we have
(see Art.
189)
(smm b(m))
^
x\
COS
til
COS ^0^ = 0.
(34')
nodes when both ends are
to solve the equation
/
l^
^^
cos
/mxs.\
^ +
o
(^
(cos/;z o(^2))( sin^ + 8( n = o:
in
which
is
a determinate root (m^) of the equation
(7
and
(Art.
(35)
{fn)
secm;
194),/= o being excluded,
2
a small positive quantity, which
definitely for increasing values of i.
In this case cos 7;^^. is always positive, and
where
/3^
is
proceeding as in the
last Article,
6 (m^)
we
= tan m^ cos
2
find
i'tt
also
diminishes
in
^sin^^; and,
Position of N'ocies investigated.
196
b{m.)
+ ii:
=tan
cos m^ a {m^
sin
?n^
ftii
^^
= vsec/;z^cos(^
and
^"
JJJ
hence (35) becomes
4'
nix
e
smi
4
and, transferring the origin of abscissae to the middle point of
the axis as before, we obtain finally, instead of (34) and (340,
the two equations
ntiX
sin(
/
)4i>/isin^..(
/tnx
V2sin(^^
\
i'n\
)
^
wzY+i\
003/77) = o;
(37)
^
+ '\r^)%m\^.
.
~'"'\J'^i)cOSlTTCOS^fii = 0.
(37')
200. The equations (34) or (34') and (37) or (37') determine, in the two cases, the positions of the nodes for each
value of I, that is, for each component tone ; the value z = 1
The values
belonging to the fundamental tone in both cases.
^/and +4/ give the distances of the
of Ji: which lie between
nodes from the middle point.
The numerical values of m^ in the two cases have already
been given. The values of a^ ^^ are the differences (taken
positively)
between these numbers and the values of
and are as follows
TT
>
^
= 03043,
020.0184,
01
a,
__
(2 ?'+ 1)
= 0.0008,
^1 = 0,0176,
^2 = 0.0008,
ySg = 0.000 1.
(For values of z above 3, there is no significant figure in the first
four decimal places.)
201. We will first consider the case of the rod free at both
ends, which is the simpler of ihe two.
It is evident that equation (37) is satisfied by .r = o when
z is even; and that, in all cases, if x^ be a root, then
.r' is a
root also.
Position of
Nodes
investigated.
197
Hence
the nodes are symmetrically distributed with respect
might be foreseen a priori) and when
even, that is, for the 2nd, 4th <fec. component tones, there is
to the middle point, as
i
is
a node at the middle point.
P'or values of / not greater than 3, the actual numerical
values of m^ and ft must be introduced, and the equation (37)
or (37') solved by approximation.
Since the second term of (37) is essentially positive, the first
term must be negative
and from this condition it may be
shewn (but more easily by making a graphic construction for
one or two particular cases) that the number of roots between
\l and J/, that is, the number of nodes, is i\ 1. Thus the
fundamental tone has two nodes, &c. (see Art. 205).
For greater values of /, it is evident on inspection of the
values of ft given in Art. 200, that the second term of (37) will
;
DC
be insignificant when
'y
numerically small.
is
Hence,
for the
higher component tones, and for nodes not near the ends of the
rod, the values of x will be such as make the first term vanish, or
mX
n being an integer
and putting
77
value (2z'+ i) for m^,
Thus
.77
we
in this equation the
get
2i+i
2n
the nodes which are not near the ends are distributed at
any two con
sensibly equal distances, the interval between
secutive nodes beiner
202. But
the ends,
will
approximate
r
21+1
for values
/.
of / greater than
we may proceed
when x
be insignificant
3,
and
The
as follows.
nodes near
term of (37')
for
last
is
positive,
and  not a small
fraction.
In the second term we may put for sin
proximate value derived from the equation
=
a (Wi)
*'
sec m^ =
(see Art. 199),
.
smft.
which gives
sm ft. =
2 6"^t

ft
an ap
Position of Nodes investigated.
198
(the square of C"''" being neglected),
and therefore
i^i = es
Hence the second term of (37') becomes
X nti
sin
since ^^
is
very small.
mi
and
if
in this term
we
(2
put the approximate value
+ i)
for
the equation becomes
/TTliX
V 2 sm ~
/
ITT \
Now
+e
7 = ^,
let
o.
then
/2sin^
4;
{38)
have a determinate series of positive
and this equation
roots, say B^, 32, , Sj,, which can be found by approximation.
The values of x will then be given by the equation
will
or, if
;;z^
be replaced by
its
approximate value,
Xj
iV 2^.
This formula gives the distances, from the middle point, of
And we know
the nodes towards the positive end.
that the
nodes in the negative half of the rod are respectively
same distances from the middle point.
It is easily found (by roughly drawing the two curves
at the
IT
y=
that,
a/2 sin x,
for increasing
and
j/
[J
1)17;
values of/, ^^ tends rapidly
to
become
so that the above expression for y tends to assume
the same form as that given in Art. 201 for nodes near the
middle.
The numerical results will be given below. (Art. 205.)
203. When one end of the rod is fixed, the nodes are not
symmetrically distributed, and the positions of those near the
two ends must be found separately. For values of 2 not greater
Nodes
Position of
investigated,
199
than 3, the equation (34) or (34') must be solved by approximation, after the numerical values of a^ have been introduced.
for greater values of
But
for
and
/,
may
nodes not near the ends), we
we then
of (34), and
of Art. 201),
find
from which
it
21
is,
neglect the second term
at the end
i {2n\\)
T"
(that
same way as
the
(in
Xj
X

for small values of
'
follows that, near the middle, the interval between
any two consecutive nodes
sensibly equal to
is
2/
.
and
when i is odd (being greater than 3) one node (namely,
the middle node, if the fixed end be reckoned as one) is sensibly
at the middle of the rod.
that
free end, since
For nodes near the
X

is
positive,
we may
neglect the last term in (34'); and in the second term we may
introduce the approximate value of a^ derived from the equa
198)
tions (Art.
o"
{vi^
sec m^,
cos m^ =
give approximately (as
which
Art. 202)
sin a<
so that (34O
is
the corresponding equations in
"**;
reduced to
/
or, since w,
sin a^
/m.X
2*77
mi
= {21 i) approximately (see (32)),
2
V2C0s(^^
so that,
if
if
+ e^
tV
^
IT
4=0;
we put
/TT
m^x
*/
we have
and
we
2.
cos ^ f
4=0;
call Q^^Q^^. ., 6j, ... the roots
tir
0,,
or
of this equation, then
Position of Nodes investigated.
ijoo
'5
of/
for increasing values
it
is
easily seen that Q^ tends to be
come (271).
204. For nodes near the fixed end x is negative, and therewhich is (see last Article) ap
fore the second term of (34'),
proximately
is
m^^
Neglecting
small.
and putting
it,
for
cos
in
the last
term,
we have
v2COS(^
or,
smce ^ =
24
and
if
'^
approximately,
we now put
m,x
the equation
is
it:
reduced to
V2C0S</) e
Let
2cosz7r = o;
<^i, </)2,
<^j
4=0.
be the roots of
this last
equation
then
(41)
while, for increasing values of/,
(/>_,
tends to become
(2^+
1)77.
205. The following numerical results have been given by
Seebeck^, who, however, has treated the fundamental equations
(30) and (35) in a somewhat different manner.
Case I. (One end fixed and the other free.)
* In a memoir on the transverse vibrations of rods.
{Abhandlungen d.
Math. Phys. Classe d. K. Sachs. Gesellschaft d. Wissenschaften. Leipzig,
1852.)
2:
Theory of Transverse Vibrations completed. 201
Distances of nodes from the free end, the length of the rod
being taken as unity
2n<i
0.2261,
tone,
3rd
0.1321,
0.4999.
4th
0.0944,
0.3558,
.^^
The
last
49820
90007
4Z2
422
4Z2
row
in this table
may be
42
473
422
42109993
4/7OI75
42 2
422
must be understood as meaning
that
taken as the distance of the ^j^ node from the
free end, except for the
Case
0.6439,
13222
first
three
and
last
two nodes.
(Both ends free.)
Distances of nodes from nearest end
ist
II.
tone,
0.2242,
2nd
0.1321,
0.5,
3rd
0.0944,
0.3558,
,t,h
^32^ 49820
42H2
42'+2
90007
^
'
42'+
42'+
206. To complete the theory of the
a rod, it is necessary to shew how the
time during the motion, is determined
ments and velocities of its points.
On reference to Art. 179, &c. it will
cases which have been considered, the
the time / is of the form
J'
473
transverse vibrations of
form of the axis, at any
by the initial displacebe seen that in all the
equation to the axis at
= 2'.iri(^<cos./+^iSin^/);
(42)
which p 723,... w^,... are determinate constants, depending
upon the roots of an equation, in general transcendental, and u^
is a determinate function of x and of ^, which satisfies a
differential equation such as (8), in which the coefficients depend
(through m) upon n^. We shall consider only the case in which
there is no tension, so that = o, and shall also neglect, as
in
dPu
before, the
term m^
tttj
dx^
d*_y
which
arises
from the term
,,
dt^dx^
in
202
Theory of Transverse Vibrations completed.
(6'), introduced by taking account of the angular motion of the
transverse sections of the rod.
With
any two
simplification we may write equation (8) thus for
different roots of the transcendental equation referred
this
to above
which we only require
in which p^, p^ are two constants, of
know that they are different.
From
these equations
d^u.
we have
d'^Ui
Now if we multiply
X ==L the result is
by dx^ and integrate from
this
(PiPh
for the first
to
^=o
to
dx = o\
/ ii
JO
two terms of the equation, multiplied by dx^ are
the differential of
d^u.
^ dx^
d^Ui
dud'^u,
duz
dx^
dxdx"^
dx dx^
d'^u^
of which every term vanishes at both limits, on every supposition as to the terminal conditions.
(See Art. 187.)
wheny
It follows therefore that
is
from
different
I u^u^dx^Q,
but
(43)
uMx
i:'
will
be a determinate constant, depending
Now
the
to be given,
initial
we
wherey {pc) and
for all values oi
have,
</>
upon/
displacements and velocities being supposed
when
{pc)
o,
are functions of which the value
from o to
2^,. =/(^),
/.
Hence, from
(42),
2^ B,u^ =
<#>
is
given
Torsion Vibrations,
303
and if these equations be multiplied by u^ dx, and integrated
from jt: = o to X = /, the result (by (43) ) is
Aj
u/ dx =
/(x) Ujdx,
Jo
Jo
njBJ ufdx=
Jo
(l){x)ujdx;
Jo
so that Aj, Bj are determined, and the form of the axis of the
rod at any time /is then given by equation (42).
Torsion Vibrations.
207. Torsion vibrations may be properly included in
general class of lateral vibrations; but as they are of
practical importance
we
shall discuss
them
briefly.
the
little
Such
vi
when
a uniform elastic rod is left
to itself after undergoing a slight disturbance by forces reducible
to couples in planes perpendicular to its axis.
If the rod were in equilibrio under the action of such forces,
it would be in a state of torsion or twist
and the twist may be
called si?nple when the particles in any transverse plane section
are not displaced relatively to one another, and the distance
brations will be produced
between any two sections remains unaltered.
Suppose a cylindrical rod, whether solid or hollow (as a
tube), to be twisted by equal and opposite couples applied only
in the planes of its ends
then, if there is no relative displace;
ment of
of these terminal sections, it is
evident that there will be none in any other transverse section ;
and it is known that the length of the rod remains unaltered, or
rather is altered only by a quantity of the second order, when
the twist is small.
Under the action of such forces the rod,
particles
in either
when
in equilibrio, will be in a state of uniform simple twist.
probable that such a condition cannot be realised in
practice except in the case of cylindrical rods, though it may
subsist, more or less approximately, for other forms.
In what
It
is
follows
we
208.
shall
When
assume
the twist
that the
is
form
is cylindrical.
uniform, the rate of twist
\^
defined
by the angle through which any transverse section is turned
relatively to any other, divided by the distance between the two
sections.
And the limit of this ratio, when the distance between
the two sections is diminished indefinitely, is the rate of twist in
that section with which they ultimately coincide, whether the
twist be
When
uniform or not.
the twist is uniform,
all
the particles which, in the
Condition of Equilibrium,
204
untwisted
will lie
state, lay
upon
upon any
And
a helix.
straight line parallel to the axis,
the inclination of a tangent to this
any point, to the axis, will be directly proportional to
When this
the rate of twist and to the distance from the axis.
inclination is small where it has its greatest value, that is, on
the exterior surface, the twist may be called small.
It is evident
helix, at
that a small twist
is
consistent wdth a large relative angular dis
placement of the terminal sections,
be small compared with its length.
if
the radius of the cylinder
When
equilibrium subsists under the action of couples
it is evident
that the moments of these couples must be equal and opposite ;
and it is known from experiment that when the twist is small,
the rate of twist is, for a rod of given material and section,
proportional to the moment of the couples.
If, besides the terminal
couples, there are twisting forces
acting on the interior matter of the rod, the conditions of equiLet x be the distance of
librium are easily found as follows.
any transverse section from one end {A ) of the rod, and Q the
209.
appHed only
in the planes of the terminal sections,
Then
angular displacement of that section.
the rate of twist in a section at the distance
from
208)
(Art.
and
is
the
moment
of the couple which would have to be applied in the
plane of that section in order to maintain equilibrium, if the rod
were cut
there,
shall consider
would be
more
being a constant which we
particularly below.
210. Let us consider then an infinitesimal
between two sections
at distances
If all the rest of the rod
slice
contained
x^dx, x>r\dx
were removed,
it
from ^.
would be necessary, in
order to maintain the equilibrium of the slice, to apply in
two faces couples of which the moments are
(those couples
being considered
positive
which tend
to
its
in
crease 6\
Hence, if Lpcadx be the moment of the twisting forces
acting on the mass of the slice, where p, o) are the density, and
area of section of the rod, the condition of equilibrium will be
Lp(iidx\
and the
differential
6 ^^dx =
o,
equation of motion will be obtained from
Isotropic Rod.
205
by substituting for Lpoidx the sum of the moments of the resistances to acceleration of the particles of the
this as usual,
slice,
namely,
<PQ
where dca is an element of area of the transverse section, and
If then we put k for the
r the distance of ^co from the axis.
radius of gyration of the area of the section about the axis
of the rod, so that
**
/&2^,
J
we
shall
d'e
have
dt'
d^d
the equation of motion to be satisfied at
for
(I)
k^pm dx"
all
parts of the
rod.
The
terminal conditions will be
^ = o at a fixed end, and
7
dx
= o at a free end.
(The latter condition is evident if it be observed that at a free
end the rate of twist must be o, since there is no couple in the
terminal face.)
On
the supposition that the material of the rod is
{Tait and Thomson^ 676), and therefore equally
elastic in all directions, the constant C can be expressed in
terms of q, the modulus of elasticity (Art. 148), and of another
constant /x, the meaning of which we will now explain.
If a uniform bar, of any section, be extended by forces
applied uniformly to the surfaces of its ends only, it is known
that the transverse linear dimensions are contracted.
Let e be
the longitudinal extension (see Art. 148), and /xe the transverse
or lateral contraction; then, the extensions and contractions
being always supposed small, )ot is a constant for a given material, and moreover must have a value between o and i, if,
as is the case with all ordinary substances, the volume of the
bar is increased under the circumstances supposed.
It can be shewn that in the case of a cylindrical, solid or
hollow, rod, the value of the constant C in the last Article is^
211.
isotropic
2(l+M)'
^
The demonstration
afford space for
it
here.
of these propositions is elementary, but
See Klebsch, 2, 3, 92.
we cannot
3o6
Result of Integration,
so that equation (i) becomes
We
need not repeat the process of integrating
analogous to that which has been applied
problems (see Art. 122) and can offer no difficulty.
merely give the result in two cases.
(i) If both ends of the rod are free, then
212.
it
(2), since
js. exactly
^ =
(2) If the
2,^i
in
former
We
shall
^iCOSysm(y + ,).
end from which
is
measured
is
and the
fixed,
other end free, then
^1=^
where A^,
a.,
in
determined by
equation
(2/*+i)'7r.r
/
(2/+i)7r/
each case, represent arbitrary constants, to be
circumstances, and a is defined by the
initial
a^
2(i+ix)p
The
period of the
z'^^
tone
(
4/
is
therefore
)
in case (i),
 (^+ rt/oa
)
/2(i
m
.
case (2).
g
Now comparing these with the periods of longitudinal vibrations of the same rod under the same terminal conditions,
we see that the tone of given order produced by torsion vibrations is lower than that of the same order produced by
longitudinal vibrations, by an interval of which the ratio is
22+
{2(l+ix))i.
The
value of the constant fi is probably different for
different substances.
Navier and Poisson, by reasoning now
generally admitted to be illegitimate, deduced a priori the value
213.
jLi
= i for all substances.
Wertheim found experimentally^ M ^ i
for glass
and
brass.
Kirchoff ^ found values differing sensibly from this for steel
bars, and for a drawn brass bar in which the longitudinal
elasticity differed
Ann.
from the
lateral.
de Chim. et de Phys. 3rd
Poggendorfy vol. cviii. p. 369.
series, vol. xxiii. p. 54.
Value of
The
207
iJL,
would afford an experimental
were possible to be assured that
the rods used were isotropic, and to observe with sufficient
precision the intervals between the tones given by longitudinal
and torsion vibrations.
results of the last Article
means of determining
/x,
if it
Chladni asserts that this interval is always a fifth. If this
were so, or rather, for substances in which it is so, we must
have 2 {1 + \j) =^ ^, or II = ^. If the value of /x were ^, the ratio
of the interval would be (f)^ = 1632.
It is impossible however, or at any rate very difficult, to
observe with great exactness the interval between the two tones,
and a small error in the ratio of the interval may evidently
produce a considerable error in the value of /ut. Hence this
constant must be determined by other methods.
214. Torsion vibrations may be excited in a cylindrical rod
by friction with the same substances as would excite longitudinal
vibrations in the
same
rod.
a piece of stout glass tube, four or five feet long, be
gently but firmly clamped in a tablevice at its middle, after
winding a piece of broad tape about it at that part to protect it
from the vice, and if a wet piece of the same tape be passed
Thus,
if
once round the tube not far from its middle, and the ends
rather lightly and quickly pulled backwards and forwards at
right angles to the tube by the two hands, the torsion vibrations
will be easily produced.
When the rod is not cylindrical the friction of a bow (charged
Thus the torsion
as usual with powdered rosin) should be used.
vibrations of a rectangular deal rod may be excited by clamping
one end in a vice and drawing the bow across one of its edges
at right angles to the rod, at
a point distant from the fixed end
about a fourth of the length.
THE END.
I Lai
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'1
//,
O'
^7L
,/
/^Jl^^Ut^
.'^/MU^lC^
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A^
<^
f,
lO
to
o^
ID
u
05
P4
1O
^
o
o