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REPORT OF IN-PLANT TRAINING

AT EXPERIMENTAL DAIRY PLANT


NDRI,KARNAL -132001 (HARYANA)

SUBMITTED TO
COLLEGE OF DAIRY TECHNOLOGY, WARUD (PUSAD)
(A constituent College of Maharashtra Animal & Fishery Sciences University, Nagpur)
SUBMITTED BY
SANIKET ZAGADE (D/12/029)
GANESH SASWADE(D/12/023)
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
DAIRY TECHNOLOGY

APPROVED BY
PROF. N.R.PAWAR
[ I/C, IN-PLANT TRAINING & PC ]

DR.M.R.PATIL
[ASSOCIATE DEAN]

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
To Good be all glory great things he has done. All our sincere gratitude goes to him for
the help he has given us and his unfailing mercies over our life he has been kind to us.
We avail this opportunity to express our heartfelt gratification to DR.M.R.PATIL, Dean,
College of Dairy Technology, UDGIR for giving us such a prestigious opportunity to undergo Inplant Training at Experimental Dairy, NDRI, Karnal (Haryana).
It is our moral duty to record sincere thanks to Prof. Nilkanth Pawar (Incharge
Training),Dr. D.N.Bajad, Dr. S.D.Kalyankar,

Dr.Vijay Kele, Prof. Mahesh Deshmukh, Prof.

Santosh Chopde, Prof. Prashant Bachanti, Prof.Priya Yawale and all administrative staff of
College of Dairy Technology , Warud who have helped during the In-Plant Training.
We owe our profound sense of gratitude to Dr. A.K SINGH , Chairman, Consultancy
Processing Cell and Head of Dairy Technology Division, NDRI, Karnal, to give us such a nice
opportunity to have a practical experience in the professional environment.
We feel greatly indebted to Mr. H.R. Gupta and Mr. P. Mandal, Technical officer,
Experimental Dairy, NDRI, Karnal, for their time to time co-operation during the In-Plant
Training.
We are extremely thankful to all the Sections Incharge and Staff members of
Experimental Dairy, NDRI, Karnal, for their kind support and help at various stages during InPlant Training.
We express our sincere thanks to our seniors and batchmates who helped directly or
indirectly during this training.
Last but not least, words run short to express our heartfelt gratitude to our beloved
parents for their inspiration, encouragements, everlasting blessing and abundant love for us for
successful completion of this achievement.
Date :
PLACE:
SANIKET D ZAGADE(D/12/29)
GANESH SASWADE(D/12/023)

INDEX
Sr. No.

Particulars

Page No.

01

Introduction

05 06

02

Procurement

07-08

03

RMRD

09 10

04

Market Milk Section

11 20

05

Cheese, Butter & Ice-cream Section

21- 32

06

Condensing & Drying Section

33 41

07

Quality Control Section

42 67

08

Cleaning And Hygiene Section

68- 69

09

Maintenance And Refrigeration Section

70-74

10

Effluent Treatment Plant

75- 78

Introduction
The Experimental Dairy of NDRI, Karnal was established in 1961
with the objectives of providing infrastructural facilities to the scientists
for the scaling up of the new products / processes developed in the
laboratories on the pilot scale as well as to provide training facilities to
the students in this field.
The plant was renovated during 1984-85 at a cost of Rs.71 lacks and
now has the capacity to process up to 10 thousand liters of milk per day.

Salient Features

Experimental dairy has its two products i.e. Ghee &


Gulabjamun Mix certified by ISO: 9001 & HACCP: 15000,
which have to be renewed after every three years.

Internal audit takes place twice a year & external audit once a
year.

HACCP meeting is conducted once in every six month.


The Experimental Dairy is divided into 4 main sections as
follows.

Market Milk Section

Cheese, Butter and Ice cream Section

Quality Control Section

Condensing, Drying and Indigenous Products Section

Experimental Dairy Plant at a Glance


Covered Area 1000 m2

1 Market Milk Section


Lassi (sweetened)
Lassi (salted)
Flavored Dairy Drink
Dahi

2 Cheese, Butter Section & ice cream section


Ghee
Table Butter
Paneer
Cheedar cheese
Processed slice cheese
Pizza cheese
Ice- cream

Quality Control Laboratory


Testing of all Milk and Milk Products chemically.

4 Condensing, Drying and Indigenous Products Section


SMP (Roller Dried)
Gulab Jamun Mix Powder
Kalakand

PROCUREMENT
Milk is received from cattle yard in chilled condition.

Reception Time

Morning

8:30 am

Evening

5:00 pm

Total milk procured


Cow Milk

3500 lit/day (avg)

Buffalo Milk

500 lit/day (avg)

Cattle Yard
Milking is done by Milking machine as well as hands. Machine milking system is
installed by De Laval.
Two methods of machine milking are:
1

Vario Tandom Method

2 Flat Barn Method

Total milk procured per day:


Milking time
Morning
Afternoon
Evening

Cow milk
1300 lit
1000 lit
1200 lit

Temp. of milk at cattle yard

4oC

Capacity of chilling tank

3500 lts

No. of units

Buffalo milk
200 lit
280 lit

Raw milk reception Dock


The first and main need of any dairy plant is receiving of raw milk as quickly as possible
and in proper way. Milk is highly susceptible to microbial deterioration and any delay in
reception of raw milk favours the deterioration of quality of milk. RMRD is the place where raw
milk is received by different modes of transportation.
.

Tanker Reception

The Experimental Dairy has a road tanker, which bring milk to the dairy from cattle yard.
Tankers are arrived at the dock are connected through the pipelines which transfer the milk to the
weighing tank. The milk from the tankers flows to the weighing tanks with the help of milk
pump. After unloading the tankers it subjected to cleaning and chemical washing. Then the
tankers are sent to the parking area.

Details of Tankers Reception

Temp of milk at a time of reception

:-

Amount of sample taken for QC lab : -

<5oC
500 ml

Capacity of each tanker

:-

4500 lit

Time of reception at morning

:-

8:30a.m. (Cow milk & buffalo milk)

Time of reception at evening

:-

5.00p.m (only buffalo milk)

Note: - Only cow milk is received through milk tanker, while buffalo milk is received through
cans.

Equipments at RMRD Section


1. Weighing Balance
Capacity

500 lit

2. Dump tank
Capacity

1500 lit

Capacity
Make
No. of plates

5,000 lit/h
Fisher India
53

3. Plate Chiller

4. Milk Tanker
Capacity
Make

4500lit
Truscotts Hamilton,
(Newzealand)

Salient Features of RMRD

Height of RMRD is 2.5 ft.

Sampling procedure for raw milk is as follows:


Method of sampling

Manual

Amounts of sample

about 500 ml

Flooring of RMRD at Experimental dairy, NDRI Karnal is of cast iron glazed tiles of 30 cm.
x 30 cm. with sufficient friction, provided to avoid slippage of cans and workers.

Standard operating procedure for RMRD

Clean the dump tank and weigh bowl with necessary water.

Clean the filter cloth with necessary water and the place it in the original position in the
weighing bowl and the dump tank

Pour milk in the weighing bowl and note down the weight.

Take the sample for analysis.

Dump milk into the dump tank.

Place empty cans on drip saver of can washer.

Switch on the milk pump and pump milk through the chiller.

Store the RCM (raw chilled milk) in milk storage tank

Ending of Raw milk reception

Stop the dump tank pump

Clean the dump tank and weighing bowl with necessary water

Clean the filter cloth of weighing bowl and dump tank with water

Market Milk Section

Technical Specifications of Equipments


1. Vertical Storage tanks
Number
Capacity
Make

Three
1000 lit
Berry

2. Horizontal Storage tanks


Number
Capacity
Make

Three
4500 lit
Swastika Contracting Co.

3. Overhead Storage tanks


Number
Capacity
Make

5. Pre-pack Machine
Make
Number
Packaging Capacity

One
1000 lit
Berry

Vijay Pac,Hyderabad
1
22packs/min (minimum)
54packs/min (maximum)

Note:On average 35-40 packets of 200 ml/min i.e. 7-8 lit/min is packed
Wt. of 200 ml packet

= 206 + 3 gm

Net wt. of Packaging roll = 19.65 kg


Gross wt. of Packaging roll = 20.7 kg
6. HTST Pasteurizer
Capacity
Westfalia Separator India Pvt. Ltd.(GEA)

5000 lit/h

7. Cream Separator
Make
Number
Capacity
Speed
No. of Discs

Tetrapak India Pvt. Ltd., Pune


One
5000 lit/hr
6190 rpm
118

8. Pump
Make
No. of Unit

Shri Pumps, Rajamundry


4

Milk Processing
Milk being highly prone to microbial deterioration, so processing of milk just after
reception is necessary to preserve the milk in correct ways which not only carries quality
attributes but also insures hygiene and keeping quality of milk.

Pasteurization
The term pasteurization means heating every particle of milk up to a temperature of
at least 63oC for 30 minute (LTLT) or 72oC

for 15 seconds (HTST) or for any other

temperature time combination which is equally efficient and then cooling it immediately to a
temperature of 5oC or below.

Preparation of pasteurizer line

Before starting pasteurizer, fill balance tank with hot water and open the steam valve.

Start the feed pump of pasteurizer and run 100 ml Iodophore dissolve in hot water
through the entire line for 20 min.

After circulating water, start the cream separator.

After cleaning the multipurpose storage tank, sanitize it with steam for 5 min.

Run milk through pasteurizer at desired temperature and separate cream as per
requirement.

After completion of process, remove the residual milk by circulating normal water and
then circulate caustic soda for 30 min.

Again run normal water through the line.

Place all the parts of cream separator over a rubber mat and clean it properly.

After completion of daily routine work, clean the processing room and close water and
steam valve.
Flow Diagram
Tanker (Insulated)

Balance Tank
Dump Tank
Chiller
Storage tank
Float Balance Tank
First Regeneration Section
Filtration
Cream Separation
Second Regeneration Section
Heating Section
Holding (78-80C for 15 seconds)
Flow Diversion valve
(Put back into float balance tank if not properly pasteurized)
Second Regeneration Section
First Regeneration Section
Chilling Section
Storage

Preparation of Milk Packaging Machine

Check amount of oil, water and air in the machine before starting it.

Sanitize the machine by hot water.

Before starting the machine switch on the UV-Tube.

During packaging, timely check the amount of milk in the packet and

also

check the code.

Check if there is any leakage in the packet.

Check the Teflon tape, if found to be in bad condition replace it.

After packaging is complete, clean the machine and dry it with air.

Other equipments of Market Milk section


Heating Vat
Milling Machine (Power driven)
Cheese Pressing Machine
Process Cheese Kettle

Products Manufactured
1) Sweetened Lassi
It is a beverage obtained by breaking whole milk curd ( dahi) with the agitator and adding
required amount of sugar syrup and essence.
Starter Culture: Dahi Culture

Sugar syrup: Sugar syrup is prepared by addition of hot water to sugar in a can followed by
steam ingestion. It is then heated to 90oC for 5 min., filtered through muslin cloth in cans and
stored in cold storage to be used for next day.
Flavour
Type

: - Rose white C8536

Net Quantity : - 500ml


Mllk Taken
Fat

: - 1000 lit
: - 4%

Flow Diagram

Reception of milk
Standardization (Fat 3.8 to 4%; SNF 8.5 to 8.8%)
Heating (Pasteurization 85o 90oC)
Cooling 30oC
Addition of starter culture @ 1% (10 kg)
Setting (overnight 12-15h at 22o 25o C till acidity reaches 0.75%)
Agitation
Circulation of broken curd for homogenization effect
Addition of sugar syrup @15% (150 kg)
Addition of flavor (Rose white @ 0.1%)

Cooling (4 5oC)
Packaging
Storage 4-5oC

2. Salted lassi
The basic method of preparation of salted lassi is same as that of sweetened lassi only
difference is that salt is added instead of sugar & flavour. The base material is same as that of
sweetened lassi.
Flow Diagram
Reception of milk
Standardization (Fat 3.8 to 4%; SNF 8.5 to 8.8%)
Heating (Pasteurization 85o 90oC)
Cooling 30oC
Addition of starter culture @ 1% (10 kg)
Setting (overnight 12-15h at 22o 25o C till acidity reaches 0.75%)
Agitation
Circulation of broken curd for homogenization effect
Broken curd taken in 3 cans (120 lits)

Addition of salt @ 2 %
Cooling (4 5oC)
Packaging
Storage 4-5oC

3. Flavored Dairy Drink


It is a product obtained by adding sugar, color and flavor to heated milk.
Milk Taken

: 700-1000 lit

Colour
Type

:- Raspberry red powder IM 7804

Net Quantity :-100gm

Flow Diagram
Reception of milk
Standardization (2.2% fat; 8.7% SNF)
Heating (90oC)
Addition of sugar (@7%) and colour (Raspberry Red @ 0.2%)
Holding (30 min)
Cooling (4 5oC)
Addition of flavour (Raspberry @ 0.1)

Cooling (5oC)

Packaging (in 200 ml packs)


Storage (5oC)

4. Dahi
Flow Diagram
Milk (Std. milk 30 lit + 5 lit skim milk)
Heating (80C)
Cooling (30C)
1.5-2 % culture inoculation
Filling in cups
Incubation (at 30C for 12 hr)
Packaging & Storage (5-6C)

Cheese, Butter & Ice -cream Section

This section is the largest section in which major dairy products are prepared. The
section consumes the major part of milk as the products manufactured are rich in fat and their
demand is continuously increasing.

Technical Specifications of Equipments

1 Ghee kettle
Type
Capacity
2 Ghee clarifier
Make
Capacity
Speed
3 Paneer vat
Make
Capacity
No. of agitator
4

Cheese vat
Make
Capacity

Multipurpose vat
Make
Capacity
No of unit
6 Butter churn
Make
Capacity

Double jacketed
500 kg

Alfa laval
5 lit/min
69-75rpm
Swastika contracting co.
2000 lit
2

Swastika contracting co.


900 lit

Homogenizer
Make

Swastika contracting co.


200 lit
2
Silkeborge, Denmark
500 kg

No of units

Crepaco, APV, Chicago (I)


Goma Engineering, Pune (II)
2

Continuous ice cream freezer


Make
Capacity

Hoyer, Denmark
200 lit/hr

Ice-cream filling machine (Batch)


Make
Cattabriga, Italy
Capacity
2000 cup/hr

10 Storage tank

Make
Capacity
No. of units

Silkeborg, Denmark
500 lit
2

Products Manufactured in the Cheese, Butter & Ice-cream Section

Cheese Types
1) Cheddar
2 ) Processed Slice
3) Pizza

Ice cream

Paneer

Butter Types
1) Table
2) Cooking

Ghee

Cheese types
1) Cheddar Cheese
Cheddar is a ripened and hard variety of cheese. Cheddar cheese has the longest
shelf life as it is ripened after being made for six months. Fresh cheese prepared is called green
cheese and after ripening, it is called as cured cheese. All the other types of cheese have short
self-life as they have high moisture content and thus mold growth can occur easily.
Cheese Vat capacity: 900 lit
Milk received: 800 lit
Cultured used: Dahi Culture
Rennet used:
Type: Meito cheese making enzyme
Net Quantity: 500g

Make:

Meito Sangyo Co. Ltd. Nagoya, Japan

Sorbic acid preparation: Dissolve 100 g sorbic acid in 1 lit of water.


Wt. of Cheese block: 18-20 kg
Hoop Size: - 34x28x16 cm3

Flow diagram
Sterilization of vat
Reception of Pasteurized cow milk (at 16-18 OC)
Standardization (Fat: 3.0-3.2%; SNF: 8.5%; Fat: Casein 1: 0.7)
Heating (30oC)
Addition of starter culture (@ 1% at 30 oC)
Addition of rennet (at 31oC) @ 1-1.5 gm /100 lit of milk 10 times diluted
When whey acidity increased by 0.02 %( L.A)
Setting (31oC, 45 min)
Cutting (First Horizontal then vertical then Cross sectional)
Cooking (30 mins / 31-39 oC)
Drainage of whey
Cheddaring (at 38oC for 2 hr )till whey acidity becomes 0.35-0.45 %(L.A)

Milling
Salting @ 3 % of milk (2.4 kg)
Hooping (at 40oC)
Dressing
Pressing
Redressing for 3 hrs, after 1 day
Storing in cold storage
Turning (after 2 day)
Sorbic acid treatment (after 3 day)

Paraffining / Vacuum Packaging (after 4 days)


Curing (7-8oC/3 months 8-10oC) in cold storage

2 Processed Slice Cheese


Processed cheese is defined as a modified form of natural cheese prepared with the aid of
heat, salt and emulsifier to form a homogenous plastic mass which is packed hot.
Flow Diagram
Selection of Cheddar Cheese (60% of young and 40% old)

Tempering and cleaning


Grinding
Heating and stirring continuously in steam jacketed
Vat to get homogeneous mass
Addition of salt @ 0.5%
Addition of sodium citrate@ 2.5%
Heating of stirring (at 85oC till pasty, shiny product is obtained)
Packing in processed slice cheese box
Cold Store at 4oC
Cutting of processed cheese in Cheese Slicer
Vacuum packaging
Storage

Pizza Cheese

In this type of cheese, a definite proportion of cheddar and mozzarella cheese are mixed
to get the desired Body and flavour.
Flow Diagram
Mozzarella (36 kg) and Cheddar (9kg)
Grinding

Mix Properly
Add sodium citrate (1.25 kg) & salt (2.5 kg)
Cooking (85C)
Packing in cup
Storage at (4C)

Ice-cream
Ingredients

Quantity

Milk (5% fat, 8.7 % SNF)

50 kg

Sugar

30 kg

Concentrated milk
Cream
Stabilizer

70 kg
36 kg
1 kg

Flow diagram
Dissolve sugar in milk (at 500C-600C)
Filtration
Addition of Cream, Concentrated milk, Stabilizer, Emulsifier
Pasteurization (70-720C/30 min)

Homogenization
Cooling (100C)
Addition of Vanilla flavour (1gm/kg mix)
Freezing (-150C)
Filling in Cups
Hardening & Storage (-200C)
Note:
Total 200 lit is achieved by flushing with 15 lit water.

Paneer

Paneer is an acid and heat coagulated product made by coagulating buffalo & cow milk with
citric acid, which leads to formation of coagulum.
Milk taken: 1200-1300 lit
Citric acid preparation: Dissolve 3.6 kg in normal water & raise the temperature
by injection of steam.

Flow Diagram
Reception of milk
Standardization of milk (Fat: SNF 1: 1.75)
Heating (85oC)

Cooling (80oC for CM & 75 oC for BM)


Addition of citric acid @ 200-300 gm/100 lit of milk
Stirring (until coagulum is formed)
Setting of curd
Drainage of whey
Collecting coagulated mass in muslin cloth
Pressing (at 65-70 oC for 20 to 30 min)
Cutting into blocks
Dipping in chilled water (4-10 oC for 2-3 hrs)
Packing (at 30 oC)
Storage (5oC)

Butter
There are two types of butter being prepared at the experimental dairy.
a)Table Butter
b)Cooking butter

1 Table butter
It is the product obtained from churning of pasteurized cream of cow milk or buffalo milk
or mixture thereof with or without the addition of common salt and annatto color.
Cream taken

: 300 kg

Fat

: 40-60%

Flow Diagram
Cream
Pasteurization

Addition of colour (@1g / kg of cream fat)

Lower temperature to 10-12oC

Churning (40 rpm for 45 min)

Drainage of butter milk

Washing 2 times

Moisture adjusted to 16.5%

Addition of salt (2.0%)

Working (20 rpm for 15 min)

Packaging & storage(at -18 to -23c)

2 Cooking Butter
As it is the product obtained from churning of raw cream. It should not contain any salt,
color as foreign fat.
Cream taken : 300kg
Fat

: 40-60%

Flow Diagram
Cream (10-12oC)
Churn (40 rpm)
Drain Butter Milk
Collecting in crates
Storage
Used for Ghee preparation

Operational Procedure of Butter churn


1. Before starting the machine, check oil in gear box.
2. Clean the churn before filling it with cream.
4. Do not run the churn when manhole is open.
5. Do not put cream in the churn having a temperature more than 15 oC .
6. Close the water and steam valve after completion of work.

Ghee
Ghee is the pure clarified fat derived solely from cooking butter with no coloring matter is
added.
Butter taken : 300 kg
Yield

: 240-250 kg (80-83%)

Ghee residue : 12 kg
Type

: Cow milk ghee


Mixed milk ghee

Flow Diagram
Reception of butter
Placed in double-jacketed steam kettle
Cooking (for 2.5 hrs. with continuous agitation)
Final Heating (110 oC)
Cooling (90oC)
Clarification
Packaging (1 kg pack)
Storage (5-10oC)

3 Condensing & Drying Section


Production of condensed and dried milk products has become an increasingly
important segment of the dairying industry. There is a scope for greater production of dried milk
and milk products in future due to their better keeping quality, lesser storage space requirements
and lower transportation cost as compared to fluid milk. Condensed milk contains all the milk
constituents in small bulk with prolonged keeping qualities. It also makes possible handling of
excess of milk supply in flush season and these products can then be used in lean season.

Triple effect Evaporator


Capacity

: 600-700 lit/hr

Steam pressure: 4-5 kg/cm2

Principle:
The principle in this evaporator is the utilization of vapour from the first effect for
heating the condensed milk in the 2nd & 3rd effect and thus improving the economy from that of
single effect evaporator

Technical Specifications of Roller Drier


Make

Richard Simon & Sons, Nottingham,

No. of Rollers
Diameter of drum
Length of drums
Clearance
Material of drum

England
Two
45 cm
136 cm
0.5 0.75 mm
Cast iron

Time of contact of milk with rollers


Roller speed
Method of feeding
Temp. of feeding
Capacity of balance tank
Angle of inclination of blades
Concentration of milk used
Minimum Concentration required
Steam pressure
Min. Pressure required
Processing Capacity

3 sec.
18 rpm
Nip
5 10oC
300 lit
20 23oC
25 -30 %
16%
55-65 psi; 4-5 kg/cm2
40 psi
100 lit/hr

Roller Drier

Principle
In a roller drier the milk is distributed on to the rotated steam heated drums or rollers. As
drum revolves a thin film of milk solids adheres over the drum, which after drying removed by
doctor blade.

Drying of milk using Three Effect Evaporator & Drum Dryer


Flow Diagram
Receiving milk in float control balance tank (8-9 oC)
1st effect (67 oC & 620 psi)
2nd effect (62 oC & 650 psi)
3rd effect (57 oC & 710 psi)
Concentrated milk (27-28 %)
Concentrated milk to balance tank
Drum drying
Scrapping of drying film
Grinding

Packaging
Storage (room temp.)

Spray drying Unit


Make

SSP Ltd., Faridabad & funded by MOFPI,

Type of Atomizer
T.S. of feed
Min. quantity of feed required
Capacity
Power requirement
Material of construction
Air inlet Temp.
Air outlet Temp.
Hot air temp. at fluid bed
Cold air temp. at fluid bed
Steam Pressure

Govt. of India.
Pressure nozzle
40%
100 lit.
10 kg/hr
7.8Hp
S.S.
160-210 0C
60-90 0C
55 - 75 0C
5-6 0C
4.6 kg/cm2

Principle
The Principle of it involves the atomization of concentrated milk in the form of spray of
very minute droplets which are then mixed with a current of hot air and due to large surface area
moisture is removed instantaneously and dried to a fine powder which is removed continuously.

Flow Diagram

Receiving concentrated milk in feed tank


Duplex filter
Pump
Spray nozzle
Drying ( inlet temp.160-210 0C & outlet temp. 60-90 0C)
Conveying to fluid bed by hot air (55-75 oC)
Heating in fluid bed (55-75 oC)
Cooling in fluid bed (5-6 oC)
Packaging

Products Manufactured
Khoa
Preparation:
Khoa is prepared by continuous heating of whole milk with constant stirring and scrapping
till reaches the required solid consistency. The steam supply is stopped when pan content
start leaving the pan & start sticking together.
Milk Taken

: 40 lit

Yield

: 20-25 %

Shelf Life

: 4-5 days at room temperature.

Burfi
It is the product obtained by the addition of sugar to the khoa.
Flow Diagram
Reception of milk
Filtration
Standardization
Heating
Addition of sugar (@30%)
Kneading of sugar
Cooling in trays (25oC)
Cutting into pieces
Packaging (in card board boxes kg each)

Kalakand
Flow Diagram
Reception of milk
Standardization
Open pan condensing
Khoa

Addition of sugar (@33.3% of milk)


Mixing of sugar
Cooling in trays 25oC
Cutting into pieces
Packaging (in 500 gm packs)
Storage

Skim Milk Powder (Roller Dried)


Flow Diagram
Reception of milk
Preheating (35-40oC)
Cream separation
Skim milk
Pasteurization (80oC/15 sec)
Condensing to 20-25% TS
Cooling (5-10oC)

Drum drying

Scrapping (pulverizing)
Grinding
Cooling
Packaging
Sealing & Storage at room temp.

Gulab Jamun Mix Powder


Ingredients
SMP (roller dried)
Maida

Percetage
43.5%;
25%;

Suji

15%;

Ghee

15%;

Baking powder

1.5%

Preparation of 20 kg batch:
Ingredients

Quantity

SMP (roller dried)

9 kg

Maida

5 kg

Suji

3 kg

Ghee

3 kg

Baking powder

350 gm

Flow Diagram
Sieving of dry ingredients

Blending of ingredients
Addition of vegetable oil (40C)
Mixing thoroughly
Packing into sachets of 500 gm
Sealing
Storage at Room Temperature

4 Quality Control Section

Introduction

Milk is a product of biological origin and is a suitable vehicle to accommodate


any additive without apparent changes in its look. The quality of milk and its products depends
upon quality of raw milk used in their manufacture, processing and handling conditions. It is
therefore, necessary to check quality of raw milk to assess its suitability for processing, through
various quick tests called Platform Tests.

Equipments used in laboratory


Equipments

Manufacturer

Laminar air flow

Toshiba (India)

B.R. apparatus

Naveen scientific industry

Spectrophotometer

Bausch & laumb

Infra-Analyzer

Barun + Luebbe

Centrifuge

Remi Laboratories

Muffle Furnace

--

Solubility Index Mixer

--

Lactowin Bulk Densitometer

Naveen scientific industry

Refrigerator (3-unit)

Godrej

Serological water bath (2-unit)

YORCO

Microscope

--

Weighing machine(2 unit)

Phoenix

Incubator (2-unit)

--

Heating mantle (Micro-Kjeldhal)

--

Alcohol distillation unit

--

Water distillation unit

--

R.M Value apparatus

--

Moister tester

--

pH meter

Lab India PHAN

Oven

--

Sampling procedures

The sampling procedure differs according to the nature of material and the purpose
for which the sample is required. The sample should be representative of the bulk. Different
procedures followed in collecting samples for milk & milk product analyses are given below.

1).Sample from single container

The procedure involved is thorough mixing of contents. If it is small container the


contents should be poured from one vessel to another with swirling. In case of can the contents
should be mixed with the help of plunger which should be moved up and down and sideways for
about 10-15 times. The sample is then drawn with the help of dipper from different levels and
collected in clean and dry sample bottles.

2. Samples from number of containers

Milk from different containers are first poured into a vat and then the sample is drawn
by thorough mixing as above. If the cans are of same diameter, mix contents of each can with a
plunger and draw equal quantities from each container and mix together.

3. Samples from storage tank

Before drawing sample from storage tank, switch on the mechanical agitator and allow
the contents to mix for 15 to 20 minutes. Discard first 1.0 lt of milk. Transfer 250-500 ml of the
mixed milk from the outlet valve into a sample bottle.

4. Samples from road tankers

Open the lid of the tanker and insert .a a big plunger through the main hole and
move it forward, downward and backward bring the plunger to the surface at each stroke.
Continue mixing for 1520 minutes. Draw proportionate quantities of sample with the help of
suitable dipper from different levels. Draw 250-500 ml of well-mixed sample into the sample
bottle. The total volume of individual composite sample should not be less than 150 ml.

Platform Tests
The term platform tests include all the tests which are carried out to check the

quality of incoming milk. On receiving milk these tests are done quickly to decide about the
acceptance or rejection of the milk. Every morning routine tests are conducted for morning milk
(cow and buffalo), buffalo milk (evening). The various platform tests are as follows
1. Smell (odour)
2. Taste
3. Appearance
4. Temperature

Chemical test
1. Acidity test
Normal acidity of milk is due to its constituents like casein, citrates, phosphates and
CO2, The natural acidity of milk neither makes the milk sour nor does it affect the normal

properties of milk. However, the developed acidity adversely affects the quality of milk. This
acidity can be measured by titrating milk against a standard alkali solution using an indicator and
is expressed in terms of lactic acid. It should come within range of 0.12 to 0.15.
Procedure:

Transfer 10 ml of milk into beaker, with the help of pipette.

Add 1.0 ml (3-4 drops) of 0.5%phenolphalein solution as an indicator.

Titrate the contents with N/10 NaOH solution.

Observe occurrence of pink colour as end point for the titration.

Note the titre value.

Calculate percent acidity of the sample as lactic acid.


Calculation
Titrable acidity % (as lactic acid) = 9 X V1 X N / V2
Where,
V1=volume of N/10 NaOH used.
V2=volume of milk sample,
N=normality of NaOH used.

2. Fat Test
(a) Gerber method
When definite quantity of sulphuric acid and amyl alcohol are added to definite
volume of milk, the proteins dissolve and fat globules are set free which remains in liquid state
due to heat produced by the acid. Upon centrifugation, fat being lighter separates on the top of
the solution as liquid fat column in butyrometer stem.
Procedure:

Transfer 10 ml of sulphuric acid (Gerber acid) into milk butyrometer (range 0-10%) using
automatic measure.

Mix well the sample from of milk and draw 10.75 ml with the help of milk pipette.

Transfer the milk slowly from the side of butyrometer wall taking care not to wet the neck of
the butyrometer.

Add 1.0 ml of amyl alcohol using automatic measure. Clean & dry the neck of butyrometer
with cotton if it is wet.

Stopper the butyrometer with a lock stopper, using the key, and the contents well.

Place the butyrometer in Gerber centrifuge, balance the machine and centrifuge the contents
for 5 min. At 1100-1200 rpm.

Keep the butyrometer in water bath at 650C for 5min.

Read the fat content (colour less column) directly on the butyrometer stem. Reading in
butyrometer give the fat % of milk.
(b) Gravimetric method:
For quantitative separation of fat it is necessary to break the protective film
surrounding the fat globule by suitable agent (ammonia).The passage of fat globule from
aqueous phase to solvent is facilitated by alcohol. The mixed solvent system brings about
extraction of fat from non-fatty solids in the solution.
Procedure:

Weigh 10g of well-mixed sample of milk into the extraction tube.

Add 1ml of concentrated ammonia and mix well by gentle swirling motion.

Add 1ml of alcohol and again mix well.

Add 25 ml of diethyl ether, stopper the tube with cork and shake vigorously for one min.

Remove the cork and add 25ml of petroleum ether, stopper and shake well for 30 seconds.

Allow the tube to stand until ethereal layer is separated clearly from the aqueous Layer (for
Rose-Gottlieb method)

In case of Majonnier method-centrifuge the Majonnier flask for 10 minutes.

Decant the clear ethereal layer into a previously weighed aluminium fat dish.

Repeat extraction with 15ml portions each of diethyl ether and petroleum ether, twice to
extract fat completely from the sample.

Transfer the ethereal layers from each extraction into the fat dish.

Place the fat dish on a hot plate (60-650C) and allow the ether layer to evaporate slowly.

Dry the fat residual fat at 98 0C in an oven and then allow the fat dish to cool by placing in a
desiccator.

Weigh the fat dish and note the weight.

Repeat heating, cooling and weighing until successive weighing do not differ by more than
1mg.

Calculate amount of fat by difference of weight in fat dish before and after extraction.

Divide reading A by the weight of sample and multiply by 100 to get percent fat in sample.

1 Solid-not-fat content (SNF Test)


Lactometers are used for rapid determination of specific gravity of liquids. The
method is based on the law of floatation, which states that when a solid is immersed in a liquid it
is subjected to upward thrust equal to the weight of liquid displaced by it and acting vertically
upwards. Lactometers are variable immersion type hydrometers and calibrated before hand with
liquid of known specific gravity.
The addition of water to milk results in the lowering of its lactometer reading. Hence this test is
applied for detection of adulteration of milk with water. Then apply appropriate correction factor
to get corrected lactometer reading. Normally it is taken within temperature of 27 35 C and
correspondingly a factor related to the amount of fat present is added or subtracted and %SNF is
calculated by given formula:
%SNF = {CLR/4 + 0.25%F + 0.44}
Procedure:

Adjust the temperature of milk sample to measuring temperature prescribed for lactometer
(27 C).

Mix the sample well avoiding incorporation of air or foam formation.

Pour sufficient milk into the glass or steel cylinder to allow free floating of lactometer.

Place the lactometer in the milk and allow it to float till it stops and assumes a constant level.

Record the lactometer reading and temperature of milk at the same time.

Get corrected value (CLR) from the standard table for corresponding temperature.

Calculate solid-not-fat (SNF) content using the giving formulas.


Specific Gravity = CLR/ 1000 +1
%SNF = {CLR/4 + 0.25%F + 0.44}

TEMPERATURE
(I)
19

FAT PERCENT OF SAMPLE


0
2
4
(II)
(III)
(IV)
-2.2
-2.4
-2.6

6
(V)

8
(VI)
-2.7

-2.
9

19.5
20
20.5
21
21.5
22
22.5
23
23.5
24
24.5
25
25.5
26
26.5
27
27.5

-2.1
-2.0
-1.8
-1.7
-1.5
-1.4
-1.3
-1.1
-1.0
-0.8
-0.7
-0.6
-0.4
-0.3
-0.1
0.0
+0.1

-2.3
-2.1
-2.0
-1.8
-1.7
-1.5
-1.4
-1.2
-1.1
-0.9
-0.8
-0.6
-0.5
-0.3
-0.2
0.0
+0.2

-2.4
-2.2
-2.1
-1.9
-1.7
-1.6
-1.4
-1.3
-1.1
-1.0
-0.8
-0.6
-0.5
-0.3
-0.2
0.0
+0.2

-2.6
-2.4
-2.2
-2.0
-1.9
-1.7
-1.5
-1.4
-1.2
-1.0
-0.9
-0.7
-0.5
-0.3
-0.2
0.0

-2.7
-2.5
-2.3
-2.2
-2.0
-1.8
-1.6
-1.4
-1.3
-1.1
-0.9
-0.7
-0.5
-0.4
-0.2
0.0
+0.

+0.2
2

28

+0.3

+0.3

+0.3

+0.3

28.5

+0.4

+0.5

+0.5

+0.5

+0.
4
+0.
5

29

+0.6

+0.6

+0.6

+0.7

+0.
7

29.5

+0.7

+0.8

+0.8

+0.9

30

+0.8

+0.9

+1.0

+1.0

+0.
9
+1.
1

30.5

+1.0

+1.1

+1.1

+1.2

+1.
3

31

+1.1

+1.2

+1.3

+1.4

31.5

+1.3

+1.4

+1.4

+1.5

32

+1.4

+1.5

+1.6

+1.7

+1.
4
+1.
6
+1.
8

32.5

+1.5

+1.7

+1.7

+1.9

+2.
0

33

+1.7

+1.8

+1.9

+2.0

33.5

+1.8

+2.0

+2.1

+2.2

34

+2.0

+2.1

+2.2

+2.4

+2.
2
+2.
3
+2.
5

34.5

+2.1

+2.3

+2.4

+2.6

+2.
7

35

+2.2

+2.4

+2.6

+2.7

+2.
9

Check the heat stability of milk


a Clot on boiling test (COB)
To assess the suitability of milk for pasteurization & drying.

Procedure:

Transfer 5 ml of milk in a 20 ml test tube using graduate pipette

Place the tube in boiling water bath for 5 min.

Alternatively, hold the tube over a flame and allow the contents to boil.

Observe formation of clots or flakes on the test tube wall.

Formation of flakes / clots indicates positive test.

Presence of clots/flakes indicates that the milk has high developed acidity and is not suitable
for pasteurization or drying

(b) Alcohol test


To assess the suitability of milk for high heat processing.
Procedure:

Transfer 5 ml of milk in a test tube using graduated pipette.

Add equal amount of ethyl alcohol (75% for cow milk & 68% for buffalo milk).

Close the mouth of the test tube with thumb and mix the contents well by inverting the test
tube several times.

Observe formation of any flakes on the wall of the test tube.

Presence of flakes indicate positive test.

Flake formation shows that the milk is abnormal due to high acidity or disturbed salt balance.
Such milk is not suitable for high heat treatment.

TEST FOR ADULTERANTS

Urea Test:

2 ml milk sample + 2 ml urea test solution (4-di-methyl amino benzaldehyde solution), shake and
put test tube in hot water bath for few minutes.
Observation:
+ve

-ve

Light yellow color

No color change

Neutralizer Test (Aim to acidity decrease):

2 ml milk sample + 2 ml Rosolic acid, mixed properly.


Observation:
+ve

-ve

Rose red color

Light orange color

Starch Test:

3 ml milk sample + 1 ml 1% I2 soln., mixed properly.


Observation:
+ve

-ve

Blue black color

Yellowish white color

Sugar Test

3 ml milk sample + 5 ml dil HCl containing 0.1% resorcinol solution, and then keep in boiling
water for 5 min.
Observation:
+ve

-ve

Pink/Brick Red color develop

No color change

Alcohol Test

5 ml milk sample + 5 ml 70% alcohol solution.


Observation:
+ve

-ve

Coagulation occurs

No coagulation

Hydrogen peroxide Test (H2O2):

(As Preservative)
5 ml milk sample + 2-3 drops para-phenylene diamine solution (2% w/v)
Observation:
+ve

-ve

Blue color develop

No color change

TESTING OF MILK PRODUCTS


1

Pasteurized Milk

For determination of efficiency of pasteurization of milk.


A. Phosphatase Test
Raw milk contains phosphatase enzyme that is destroyed by efficient
pasteurization. When milk containing phosphatase is incubated with p-nitro-phenyl disodium
orthophosphate it librates para-nitro-phenol, which gives yellow colour under alkaline
conditions. The colour is measure of phosphatase content of milk..

Buffer solution:Dissolve 3.5g anhydrous sodium carbonate and 1.5 g sodium bicarbonate in distilled
water and make up the volume to 1.0 litre in a volumetric flask
Buffer-substrate solution:Transfer 0.15g of substrate (p-nitro-phenyl disodium orthophosphate) in 100ml
volumetric flask and make up the volume with buffer solution. Stopper the flask and store in
refrigerator protected from light. This is a colourless solution, which should be used before oneweek time.
Procedure:

Transfer 5.0ml of buffer substrate solution to a test tube.

Stopper the tube and place in water bath at 370C.

After 10 mins add 1.0 ml of pasteurized milk sample to the tube, stopper and incubate at
370C for 30 minutes and further 2 hours.

Similarlly prepares blank using boiled milk.

Note the time for decolourazation.


Interpretation of the results:
If time taken for decolourazation is more than 4.5 hr. Then it indicates that milk is properly
pasteurized.

2 Cheese, Processed Cheese, Pizza Cheese


A. Fat % (Gerber Method)
Procedure

Take sample 2-3 g grated sample in 25 ml or 50 ml beaker

Add H2O (5-6ml) & keep on hot plate(To dissolve the sample properly)

Add conc. H2SO4 90% 8-9 ml (In batches of 3 ml each)

Add amyl alcohol (1 ml) & fill rest of the butyrometer with water.

Put rubber stopper.

Shake the cheese Butyrometer & Centrifuge for 3 minutes.

Take the reading.


Calculations
% fat = ( Butyrometer reading/ Weight of sample) x 3
B. Salt
Procedure

Take sample 2-3g grated (kjeldahls flask)

Add distilled water (50 ml)

Heated to 70C & again cool them

Add conc. HNO3 (10 ml)

Add 0.1711 N AgNO3 (10 ml) slowly by 10 ml pipette

Keep for digestion 30-45 min. until light green colour appears

Add FeCl3 1% (1ml) Indicator

Titrate with 0.1711 N KSCN / NH4SCN

Brick red color appears (end point)

Calculations
% Salt = (10 Y) / weight of sample
Where,
Y = Titrate value (i.e. volume used Of KSCN / NH4SCN)

(e.g. Y may be 6, 7, 8)

C. Total solids
Procedure

Take 2-4g grated sample in Al-dish.

Keep under Moisture tester for 10-15 min. or keep in oven at 100C for 4hrs.

Note W1, W2, W3 and then calculate T.S.


Where,
W1 = wt. of empty Al-dish
W2 = wt. of sample + wt. of empty Al-dish (before heating)
W3 = wt. of sample (after heating)
Calculations

Loss _ of _ Moisture
X 100
Wt _ of _ sample
% Total solids =
D. Acidity
Procedure

Take 2-3g sample in 100 ml beaker

Dissolve it in double the amount of hot water & cool it

Add phenolphthalein indicator (1ml)

Titrate with N/9 NaOH & note titre value


Calculations
% Acidity =Titre Value / Wt. of Sample

2) Paneer
A. Fat % (Gerber Method)
Procedure

Take sample 2-3 g grated sample in 25 ml or 50 ml beaker

Add H2O (5-6ml) & keep on hot plate. (To dissolve the sample properly)

Add conc. H2SO4 90% 8-9ml Add amyl alcohol (2 ml) & rest water in cheese butyrometer

Put rubber stopper

Shake the cheese Butyrometer & Centrifuge for 3 minutes

Take Reading
Calculations

Butyrometer _ reading
X3
Wt _ of _ sample
%Fat =
B. Total solids
Procedure

Take 2-4g grated sample in Al-dish.

Keep under infrared rays for 10-15 min. or keep in oven at 100C for 4hrs.

Note W1, W2, W3 and then calculate T.S.


where,
W1 =

wt. of empty Al-dish

W2 = wt. of sample + wt. of empty Al-dish (before heating)


W3 = wt. of sample (after heating)
Wt. of sample = W2 W1
Loss of moisture =W3 W1
Calculations

Loss _ of _ moisture
X 100
Wt . _ of _ sample
% Total Solids=
C. Acidity
Procedure

Take 2-3g sample in 100 ml beaker

Dissolve it in double the amount of hot water & cool it

Add phenolphthalein indicator (1ml)

Titrate with N/9 NaOH & note titre value


Calculations
% Acidity =Titre Value / Wt. of Sample
D. Fat on Dry Matter (FDM)

FDM % =

Fat %
X 100
T .S

2 Burfi & Kalakand


A. Fat % (Gerber Method)
Procedure:

Take sample 2-3 g in 25 ml or 50 ml beaker

Add H2O (5-6ml) & keep on hot plate (to dissolve the sample properly)

Add conc. H2SO4 90% (9 ml In batches of 3 ml each)

Add amyl alcohol (2 ml) & rest water in cheese butyrometer

Put rubber stopper

Shake the cheese butyrometer & Centrifuge for 3 minutes

Take Reading
Calculations

Butyrometer _ reading
X3
Wt _ of _ sample
%Fat =

B. Total solids
Procedure:

Take 2-3g sample in Al-dish with sand & glass rod

Keep on hot plate until the colour of sample become brown.

Note down W1, W2, and W3 and calculate T.S.


Where,
W1 =

wt. of empty Al-dish, sand, glass rod

W2 = wt. of sample + wt. of empty Al- dish, sand, glass rod (before heating)
W3 = wt. of sample (after heating)
Wt. of sample = W2 W1
Loss of moisture =W2 W3
Calculations

Loss _ of _ moisture
X 100
Wt . _ of _ sample
% Total Solids=
C. Acidity
Procedure:

Take 2-3g sample in100 ml beaker

Dissolve it in double the amount of hot water

Add phenolphthalein indicator (1ml)

Titrate with N/9 NaOH & note titre value

Calculations:

9 NV
wt _ of _ sample
Acidity % =
Where,
N

Normality (N/9 NaOH)

Titre value i.e. volume of NaOH used

D. Fat on Dry Matter (FDM)

FDM % =

Fat %
X 100
T .S

3 Ghee
A. Acidity (as % oleic acid)
Procedure:

Take 50 ml ethyl alcohol in conical flask

Heat it

Add 5-7 drops phenolphthalein indicator

Titrate with N/9 NaOH(To make neutral ethyl alcohol)

Add 8-10g sample in beaker

Again boil

Add 5-7 drops phenolphthalein indicator

Titrate for free fatty acid using N/9 NaOH & note reading.
Calculations:

28.2 XT
wt _ of _ sample
Acidity

(% of free fatty acid as oleic acid) ,Where,T= Titre Value


B. Moisture
Procedure:

Take 4-5g sample in Al-dish.

Keep in hot air oven at 110C for 1 hr.

Note W1, W2, W3 and calculate moisture.


Calculations:

Loss _ of _ moisture
X 100
Wt. _ of _ sample
% Total Solids=
Where,
W1 =

wt. of empty Al-dish

W2 = wt. of sample + wt. of empty Al- dish (before heating)


W3 = wt. of sample (after heating)
Wt. of sample = W2 W1
Loss of moisture =W2 W3
C. B.R Value
Procedure:

Melt the sample at 40oC.

Place one drop of sample onto butyrorefractometer lenses

3 Maintain temperatures at 40oC by circulating hot water bath.

Observe the reading on instrument scale directly and make note.

The BR reading for milk fat should be in the range of 40 43.


D. Detection of vanaspati in ghee (Baudouin Test)
Procedure:

Take 5gm of melted fat in a test tube.

Add 5 ml of conc. HCl and 0.2 gm of sucrose.

Mix well for 1 min and keep tube undisturbed for 5 min.

Appearance of crimson colour indicates presence of vanaspati.

Add 5ml of distilled water and keep for 5 min.

Persistence of crimson colour confirms the test.

6. Cream
A. Fat % (Gerber Method)
Procedure:

Take 9-10g sample in 100 ml volumetric flask

Dissolve in distilled water, make up volume upto mark (100ml) of volumetric flask

Dissolve it well

Take 10.75 ml sample from vol. flask using pipette & transfer into milk butyrometer
containing 10 ml conc. H2SO4

Add 1 ml amyl alcohol & if needed then add water for leveling

Centrifuge for 3 min and note reading

Re ading
X 100
Wt . _ of _ sample
Calculations:
B. Acidity

Fat %=

Procedure:

Take 9-10g sample in 100 ml beaker

Dissolve it in distilled water (4-5 ml)

Add phenolphthalein indicator (1 ml)

Titrate using N/9 NaOH


Calculations:

9 NV
wt _ of _ sample
Acidity % =
Where,N

Normality (N/9 NaOH)

Titre value i.e. volume used

7. Dahi
A. Fat % (Gerber Method)
Procedure:

Take 10g of well stirred sample in 100 ml volumetric flask in milk butyrometer already
containing 10 ml conc. H2SO4

Add 1 ml amyl alcohol & if needed then add hot water for leveling

Centrifuge for 3 min.

Take B.R. reading


Calculations:

B.RX 11.25
X 100
wt _ of _ sample
Fat % =
B. Acidity
Procedure:

Take 9-10g of well stirred sample in 100 ml beaker

Dissolve it in distilled water (4-5 ml)

Add phenolphthalein indicator (1 ml)

Titrate using N/9 NaOH


Calculations:

9 NV
wt _ of _ sample
Acidity % =
Where,N

Normality of N/9 NaOH

Titre value i.e. volume used

C. Total solids
Procedure:

Take 4-5g sample in Al-dish.

Keep in hot air oven at 110C for 1 hr.

Note W1, W2, W3 and calculate T.S.


Calculations:

Loss _ of _ moisture
X 100
Wt. _ of _ sample
% Total Solids=
Where,
W1 =

wt. of empty Al-dish

W2 = wt. of sample + wt. of empty Al- dish (before heating)


W3 = wt. of sample (after heating)
Wt. of sample = W2 W1
Loss of moisture =W2 W3

8. Lassi
A. Fat % (Gerber Method)
Procedure:

Take 10.75 ml sample using pipette & transfer into butyrometer containing 9 ml conc. H2SO4

Add 1 ml amyl alcohol & if needed then add water for leveling

Centrifuge for 3 min.

Note Reading
Calculations:
Fat % =Butyrometer reading
B. Total solids
Dilution:
Lassi: Water = 1: 2 = 10 : 20
Calculation
% TS =

0.6CLR+1.2F+4.40

C. Acidity
Procedure:

Take 10ml sample and add little water for dilution

Add phenolphthalein indicator (1 ml)

Titrate with N/9 NaOH

Note titre value


Calculations:

9 NV
wt _ of _ sample
Acidity % =
Where,N

Normality (N/9 NaOH)

Titre value i.e. volume used

9. Flavoured Dairy Drink


A. Fat % (Gerber Method)
Procedure:

Take 10.75 ml sample using pipette & transfer into butyrometer containing 9 ml conc. H2SO4

Add 1 ml amyl alcohol & if needed then add water for leveling

Centrifuge for 3 min.

Take Reading
Calculations:
Fat % =

Butyrometer reading

B. SNF %
Dilution:
FDD

: Distilled water

15

: 16

150ml : 160ml

( Fat CLR) / 10 5.5


SNF %=
C. Total solids
% Total solids

0.5 CLR + 1.2 Fat + 0.44

10. Table Butter


A. Moisture
Procedure:

Take 10g sample in long neck Al-dish.

Keep on hot plate till formation of ghee.

Note W1, W2, and W3 and calculate moisture.

Calculations:

Loss _ of _ moisture
X 100
Wt . _ of _ sample
% Total Solids=
Where,
W1

wt. of empty Al-dish

W2

wt. of sample + wt. of empty Al-dish (before heating)

W3

wt. of sample (after heating)

Wt. of sample =W2 W1


Loss of moisture=W2 W3
B. Fat %
Procedure:

After heating (making ghee) wash the sample by 10 ml petroleum ether (for dissolving fat)

Keep undisturbed for some time

Wash again 3-times

Dry the Al-dish on hot plate

Cool the sample in desiccator & weigh


W1

wt. of empty Al-dish

W2

wt. of sample + wt. of empty Al-dish (before heating)

W3

wt. of sample (after heating)

W4

wt. of sample (after washing & heating)

Calculations:
W3 W4
Fat %

=
W2 W1

C. Salt %
Procedure:

100

Take the above sample (salt + curd) & transfer into 250 ml. volumetric flask

Dissolve in distilled water & make up volume 100 m

Add K2CrO4 indicator (2-3 drops)

Titrate using 0.1711 N AgNO3 Solution

Reddish brown/brick red colour develop (i.e. end point)


Calculations:
Salt % =

Volume of 0.1711 N AgNO3 used x 100


Wt. of sample

D. Curd
Curd % = 100 (Moisture + Fat + Salt)

11. Cooking Butter


A. Moisture
Procedure:

Take 10g sample in long neck Al-dish.

Keep on hot plate till formation of ghee.

Note W1, W2, W3 and calculate moisture.


Where,
W1

wt. of empty Al-dish

W2

wt. of sample + wt. of empty Al-dish (before heating)

W3

wt. of sample (after heating)

Wt. of sample =

W2 W1

Loss of moisture=

W2 W3

Calculations:

Loss _ of _ moisture
X 100
Wt . _ of _ sample
% Total Solids=
B. Fat %
Procedure:

After heating (making ghee) wash the sample by 10 ml petroleum ether (for dissolving fat)

Keep undisturbed for some time

Wash again 3-times

Dry the Al-dish on hot plate

Cool the sample in desiccator & weigh


Where,
W1

wt. of empty Al-dish

W2

wt. of sample + wt. of empty Al-dish (before heating)

W3

wt. of sample (after heating

W4

wt. of sample (after washing & heating)

Calculations:
W3 W4
Fat %

100

Wt. of sample
C. Curd
Curd % =

100 (Moisture + Fat)

12. Milk Powder


A. Bulk Density
Procedure:

Transfer 25 gm of milk powder in to 100ml measuring cylinder and note the volume.

Tap the cylinder 20 times with constant strokes so as allow packing of powder.

Again note the volume.

Calculation:
Bulk density = Mass of packed material / Vol. of packed particle.
B. Insolubility Index
It is measure of insoluble material present in the milk powder. The values for spray dried powder
should not be more than 2.0 ml and for roller dried milk not more than 15ml.
Procedure:

Weigh 13gm of whole milk powder or 10gm of skim milk powder into 250ml jar.

Add 100ml of distilled water at 40oC and mixed the contents for 5 min.

Remove the foam and fill the liquid into 50ml graduated Centrifuge tubes.

Centrifuge the tubes at 3000rpm for 5min.

Decant the supernatant and add water. Centrifuge the continents.

Note the volume (ml) of sediment in the tube.

Cleaning and Hygiene


Cleaning
Raw Milk Reception (Can Milk)
Make a circuit from dump tank to raw milk chiller and back.
Circulator hot caustic solution of 1 -1.5% strength at 70 to 750C for 30mts.

Flush the solution with hot water at 70 to 80C.


Cool the circuit with normal water
Manual cleaning:
Line strainer:

Daily before reception

Weight blow and Dump tank:

Daily before reception

Can:

All cans of dock daily by scrubber with


Detergent solution (soda ash) with normal
water

Manual cleaning:
Manual cleaning of pipe lines of pre pack section done once a week,
however, balance tanks of pre-pack machine will be cleaned manually daily.
Before starting the pouch packing, Chlorine solution (200 ppm) is
circulating through the pouch filling machines.
Pre-pack machine and lines are flushed with tap water.
The filters in pre-pack machine are checked, cleaned and torn filters, if any
are replaced before filling of milk.
Machine is checked and film roll are loaded.
Backup rubbers and Teflon Tapes of all the M/C heads are replaced.
Sterility test must be conducted at least once in a week.
Routine checking of can clean (cans to be selected randomly) on daily basis.
CIP of pasteurizer
Flow diagram:
Circulation of normal water (10 min.)

Circulation of 1% Nitric acid (30 min)

Hot water (5-10 min)

Circulation of 1.5% caustic solution (30 min)

Circulation of hot water (45 min)

Preparation of cleaning solution:Nitric Acid:- Dissolve 3 kg nitric acid in balance tank, which circulates through
pipe line containing about 300 lit of water.
Caustic solution:- Dissolve 4.5 kg caustic in balance tank, which circulates
through pipe line containing about 300 lit of water.
Note:- Acid cleaning is done twice a week, while caustic cleaning is done daily.
Milk Packing Machine:
Pre-rinse:
Hot water rinse:
Caustic circulation:
Frequency:
Manual cleaning of butter churn: -

10 min. or till water comes clear.


10min. at 75oC to 8oC.
1- 1.5% for 30mts at 75oC to 800C.

Normal water rinse for 10 min.


Hot water rinse for 5-10 min
Cleaning by Teepol for 5-10 min
Again hot water rinse for 5-10 min.

MAINTENANCE SECTION
At Experimental dairy, the maintenance and utility section manages the supply of
the following:
1) Power Supply
2) Raw Water
3) Steam
4) Air Pressure
5) Soft Water

Various sections under Maintainance department are:


1. Boiler Section
2. Refrigeration Section
3. Air Compression section
4. Water Supply Section
BOILER SECTION
STEAM REQUIREMENT IN DAIRY:
Steam is most economical heating medium for various operations in day
plants. Approximately 1kg steam is produced from 0.9 litre of fuel oil or 1.4 kg of
coal. Generally low pressure, say about 2kg/cm2 steam is used in dairy plants up
to a temperature requirement of 115C. Steam in dairy plants is used for
processing, heating, cleaning and sterilization etc. In pasteurization of milk
about 0.28 to 0.35 kg steam is used to pasteurize 1kg milk in batch pasteurizer
while HTST pasteurization method needs 0.2 to 0.3kg steam for 1kg milk.
Sterilization requires 0.4 kg steam per kg of milk. A large amount of steam is
utilized in washing and sterilization of dairy equipment in dairy plants. CAN
washing uses 0.51kg steam per can alone.

STEAM BOILER
A steam boiler is a closed pressure vessel, in which the heat produced by
combustion of fuel is transferred to water for conversion into steam of required
pressure and temperature. Steam boiler consists of the boiler shell, combustion
chamber, grate, furnace, heating surface mountings and accessories.

Technical Specifications: Make


Life
Type
Capacity
Heating Surface Area
Diameter of tube
Height of chimney
Type of draft
Material of Insulation
Material
Fuel requirement
Fuel temp.
Air requirement
Water consumption capacity
Max. Working pressure
Normal working pressure
Temp. in main drum
In section 1
In section 2
Inside chimney

Crepp Metals, Delhi


18 years
Fire tube boiler
3 tons /hr
194.6 m2
1.25 cm
110 ft
Natural
Glass wool
Cast Iron
110litre/hr.
30 0c
16.5 pound/kg fuel
3000 lit/hr
100 psi
75 psi
900 0c
480 0c
380 0c
1800c

Type of oil
Oil storage tank
Outside oil storage tank 1
Outside oil storage tank 2
Outside oil storage tank 3

High speed oil


600 lit
70000 lit
60000 lit
15000 lit

Safety point

Two safety Valves


Safety valve(I) 120 psi
Safety valve(I) 120 psi
7.4
Nil
10,000 lit
4 Hr

pH of Feed Water
Hardness of water
Water storage tank
Operating hour

Refrigeration Section
Introduction:Refrigeration is a main requirement to keep the milk & milk products save
from deterioration. Experimental Dairy has a Vapour compression refrigeration
system.
The capacity of refrigeration plant is 60TR .The refrigerant used is
ammonia (R-717). Form IBT chilled water is supplied to different section as per
requirement and the return chilled water comes to the IBT for re-chilling.
Technical Specifications:Type of refrigeration system
Capacity
Suction Pressure
Suction Temperature
Discharge Temperature
Refrigerant
Loss of refrigerant
Cooling medium
Capacity of chilled water tank
Evaporator
Compressor
Cooling medium for condenser
Operating hour

Vapor compression system


60 Ton
150-210 psi
45-75 0C
20-32
Ammonia
300kg/year
Water
4500 liter.
Shell and tube type
Reciprocating
Water
12 hr

Component of Refrigeration System:-

Compressor:
Make

Frick

Capacity

15 Ton

Price

2,80,000 Rs.

No of unit

Type

Reciprocating

Both the compressors are electrically operated motor driven. The compressors
receive the ammonia vapor from the evaporator compresses it up to 1:10 ratio of
the final volume to initial volume. The compressed ammonia is then send for
condensation to condenser. Under normal condition only two compressors work,
but when either refrigeration system is started or deep freeze is in functioning then
all four compressor is under working. The type of compressor are used
refrigeration plant size from 0.25 TR to 1000 TR capacity per unit.
Oil Separator
The lubricant oil in the crank space of compressor, possibly in the refrigerant
during compression, may choke the system. For removing this oil, oil separator is
installed in the system. It is a simple cylinder, which separate the oil and vapor
ammonia by gravity separation. It is connected in the system between compressor
and condenser. Vapor ammonia enter in oil separator is super heated hence oil
separator as well as the pipeline from compressor to condenser is insulated.
Condenser
The condenser in the refrigeration system is open type water-cooled. It is a
heat exchanger which converts high temperature & high-pressure ammonia vapour
to low temperature & high-pressure liquid, at the cost of latent heat of vaporization
of vapour. Water acts as cooling medium. In this system, the refrigerant flows
inside the coil and water is sprayed over these coils. The water is collected in the
tank below the coils and re-circulated. Potassium permanganate is added to water
which acts as algaecide, it doesnt allow formation of scale & algae on the tank and
pipes.
Receiver

This is a well- insulated cylinder where liquid refrigerant is collected.

Controlling Devices
Expansion Device:
This is one of the basic components of refrigeration system. The various
functions performed by it are as follows:
It reduces the pressure & temperature of refrigerant coming from condenser
as per requirement of the system.
It regulates the flow of refrigerant as per load on the evaporator.
Evaporator
The evaporator is shell and tube type heat exchanger, in which the refrigerant
flows through shell and cools the glycol flowing through the tubes. During this
exchange of heat the liquid refrigerant boils and gets converted into vapors.
Accumulator:
It collects unvapourized liquid refrigerant and facilitates uninterrupted flow of
vapour refrigerant and re-circulated back to the compressor via suction line.
Ammonia:
1. Before starting the machine check the ammonia leakage.
2. Before starting the machine also run condenser water pump and check
whether the pump is able to pump the water properly or not and whether the
water is falling over condenser or not.
3. If ammonia line is leaking, spray water over it.
4. Use mask when filling ammonia gas.
5. After running the compressor, remove water from the condenser and also
check the pressure.
6. Check oil level before running the compressor.

7. Change the oil filter of compressor after a certain period of time.

Effluent Treatment Plant


Introduction
Effluents coming out of plant need to be treated. This is because they
contain loads of organic protein, Fats, Carbohydrates waste and inorganic
substance (Caustic Soda, Acid) etc. Due to High Biological and chemical oxygen
demand and also to meet the legal standards of state and central pollution board
these wastes must be treated before their disposal in public sewages and / or
natural sewages. The treated water is used for irrigation of farming land.

Source and characteristic of effluent:The combined effluent stream generated in the dairy operation during
RMRD, Process section Cheese & Butter section, QC lab and Powder plant as well
Utilities.
COD:COD is measure of O2 consumed during the oxidation of the oxidizable
organic matter by a strong oxidizing agent. Potassium dichromate in the presence
of H2SO4 is generally used as on oxidizing agent in COD determination.
The sample is refluxed with dichromate % H 2SO4 in the presence of mercuric
sulphate to neutralize the effect of chlorides & silver sulphate (catalyst) the excess
dichromate is titrated against ferrous ammonium sulphate using ferroin indicator.
The amount of dichromate used is proportional to the oxidizable organic matter
present in the sample.
B.O.D:-

It is measure of degradable organic matter present in the water sample &


can be defined as the amount of O 2 required by microorganism in establishing to
biological organic matter under aerobic condition.

Standards adopted by Experimental Dairy


Test

Frequency of

Effluent

Treated H2O

PH
BOD (Max)
COD (Max)
Suspender solid
Oil/Grease (Max)

checking
60 min
7 day
8 hrs
8 hrs
8 hrs

6.5 - 9.5
1000 mg/l
2200 mg/l
500 mg/l
460 mg/l

6.5 - 9.5
30 mg/l
250 mg/l
100 mg/l
10 mg/l

Operation:
ETP in Experimental Dairy Plant has capacity of handling 250m3 effluents /day.
Waste water (Sewage water & Dairy effluent)

U.A.S.B. reactor

Aeration tank

Oil and greased trap

Secondary
clarifier

Screen chamber

Grit chamber

To discharge

Sludge dry bed

Procedure:
The effluent generated at the dairy plant is led to the ETP through
conveyance system by gravity.
It goes through screen chamber where coarse floating matter is screened off.
The effluent then enters into oil a grease trap where these are separated.
Then it is led to equalization tank.
Compressed air is diffuses into equalization tank through aeration grid
placed at the bottom of tank 3HDPE tanks are provided at the equalization
tank.
For preparation holding, closing of urea, DAP and lime solution in
respective tank. Dosing is done so that pH of effluent lies in 6.5-7.5range.
The effluent is then pumped into UASB (up flow Anaerobic sludge Balance)
where anaerobic dehydration takes place it is provided with done where CH4
generates is collected.
The sludge is withdrawn hydrostatically into SDBC (Sludge Drying Bed).
The overflow of UASB is led to aerobic tank which is provides with aerator
which supplies O2 for aerobic degradation and also keeps suspender solid
content in control.
After aerobic degradation, effluent is fed into secondary clarifier, which has
peripheral drive system the sludge is collected at the central pocket.

Exceed sludge goes to SDB by operating valve and rest recycled in aerobic
tank to maintain MLSS level 4000 mg/l.
The water from clarifier flows through unnoted, which are clarifier to note
down vol. Of water discharge.
The crack developer on the surface of SDB shows drying of sludge, which
can be utilized as manure.

Specification
Pump/Motor
Air Blower
Effluent Pump
Surface aerator
Clarifier
Return Sludge Pump

No
2*
2*
1
1
2*

Note: 2* - one as 100% stand by.

Capacity
45 CF at 3PSI
12.5m3/hr
1.1 KgO2/Hp/hr.
8.0 m3/hr