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PART I

OUTLINE OF
PHILIPPINE CONSTITUTIONAL LAW
______________
THE STRUCTURE AND POWERS
OF THE GOVERNMENT

I.

IN GENERAL
A.

Political Law defined


Sinco, Philippine Political Law 1 (11th ed. 1962.)
Divisions of Political Law
Sinco 1
Macariola v. Asuncion, 114 SCRA 77 (1982)

B.

Constitutional Law defined


Sinco 67
Types on Constitutional Law
Sinco 67
Parts of the Constitution

C.

Constitution defined
Fernando, The Constitution of the Philippines
20-21 (2nd ed. 1977)
Constitutions classified
Sinco 68-70

II.

THE BACKGROUND OF THE PRESENT CONSTITUTION


A.

The Institutional Powers


i.
ii.
iii.

Pre-Spanish Regime
Spanish Era
American Occupation
1.
Pre-Commonwealth

2.
iv.

Commonwealth Period

Republic of the Philippines


1. 1935 Constitution
2. 1973 Constitution
3. The February 1986 Revolution and the Proclamation of the Provisional
Constitution
a. Proclamation No. 1, Feb. 25, 1986 (Provisional Government)
b. Proclamation No. 3, March 25, 1986 (Provisional Constitution)
Lawyers League for a Better Philippines v. Pres.Aquino, G.R. Nos. 73748, 73972
& 73990, May 22, 1986
In Re Saturnino Bermudez, G.R. No. 76180, Oct. 24, 1986
Mendoza, Reconstruction and Reunion in Constitutional Law: The Supreme Courts
Decisions in 1986 and the First Half of 1987, 61 Phil. L.J. 219, 220-222; 227-230 (1986)
4. Adoption and Effectivity of the Present Constitution Provisional Const., Art. V,
sec. 5 1987 Const., Art. XVIII, sec. 27
Proclamation No. 58 (Proclaiming the Ratification of the 1987 Constitution)
De Leon v. Esguerra, 153 SCRA 602 (1987)
Compare the effectivity of statutes (Taada v. Tuvera, 146 SCRA 446 (1986)

III.

JUDICIAL ELABORATION OF THE CONSTITUTION


A. Theory of Judicial Review
Angara v. Electoral Commission, 63 Phil. 139 (1936)
Mabanag v.Lopez Vito
Montenegro v. Castaneda
Marbury v. Madison
B. Conditions for the Exercise of Judicial Review-justiceability- proper party, must
be decided at the earliest opportunity

People v. Vera, 65 Phil. 56 (1937)


PBA v. COMELEC, 140 SCRA 455 (1985)
Romulo v. Yiguez, 141 SCRA 263 (1986)
Dumlao v. COMELEC; Igot v. COMELEC, 95 SCRA 392 (1980)
Kilosbayan v. Morato compare Kilosbayan v. Guingona
Bagatsing v. COP
Tatad v. Energy Regulatory Commission
Tolentino v. Secretary of Finance
C. Functions of Judicial Review: Checking, Legitimating and Symbolic
Occea v. COMELEC, 104 SCRA 1 (1981)
Mitra v. COMELEC, 104 SCRA 59 (1981)
Salonga v. Cruz Pao, 134 SCRA 438 (1985)
Javier v. COMELEC, 144 SCRA 194 (1986)
Demetria v. Alba, 148 SCRA 208 (1987)
D. All courts can exercise judicial review
J.M. Tuason & Co. v. Court of Appeals, 4 SCRA 696 (1961)
Ynot v. IAC, 148 SCRA 659 (1987)
E. Effect of Declaration of Unconstitutionality
Civil Code, art. 7 (When the courts declare a law to be inconsistent with the
Constitution, the former shall be void and the latter shall govern.)
Serrano de Agbayani v. Philippine National Bank, 38 SCRA 429 (1971)
(Unconstitutional statute is not always void but on the contrary may produce
legal effects)

IV.

THE PHILIPPINE AS A STATE


A.

State defined
Collector of Internal Revenue v. Campos Rueda, 42 SCRA 23 (1971)

B.

Territory The Archipelago Concept


Const., Art. I

1.

The Philippine Archipelago


Treaty limits

a.

Treaty of Paris, art. III


Treaty between Spain and U.S. concluded at Washington, D.C. on Nov. 7, 1990 and
that between U.S. and Great Britain on January 2, 1930
b.

Method of determining baselines


Rep. Act No. 3046, June 17, 1961
Rep. Act No. 5446, Sept. 8, 1968

2.

Other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or


jurisdiction
P.D. No. 1596, June 11, 1978

3.

Two Hundred-Mile Exclusive Economic Zone


P.D. No. 1599, June 11, 1978
U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea, April 30, 1982

4.

Cases:
La Bugal
Joint Seismic Undertaking

C.

People
1. Different meanings of word people:
a. People as inhabitants (Art. XIII, sec. 1; art. II, secs. 15-16;
Art.III, sec. 2;
Qua Chee Gan v. Deportation Board, 9 SCRA 27 (1963) The right to be
secure against unreasonable searches is a popular right applicable to
citizens and foreigners alike.)
b. People as citizens (Preamble; art. II, secs. 1 and 4; Art. III, sec. 7)
c. People as electors (Art. VII, sec. 4; art. XVI, sec. 2; art. XVIII, sec. 25)
2. Citizenship

a. Who are citizens of the Philippines


Const., art. IV, sec. 1
b. Natural-born citizens, art. IV, sec. 2
c. Dual Nationality Act
Who must be natural born citizens:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)

President
Art. VII, sec. 2
Vice President
Art. VII, sec. 3
Members of Congress
Art. VI, secs. 3 and 6
Justices of the Supreme Court and lower collegiate courts
Art. VIII, sec. 7(1)
Ombudsman and his deputies
Art. XI, sec. 8
Constitutional Commissions
Art. IX, B, sec. 1(1); art. IX, C, sec. 1(1); art. IX
Members of the Central Monetary Authority
Art. XII, sec. 17(2)

Former natural-born citizens as transferees of private lands


Art. XII, sec. 8
d. Naturalized citizens, Com. Act. No. 473
Who are qualified to be naturalized?
Com. Act No. 473, sec. 2
When is the 10-year residence requirement reduced to 5 years?
Com. Act No. 473, sec. 3
Who are disqualified to be naturalized?
Com. Act No. 473, sec. 4
Declaration of intention
Com. Act No. 473, sec. 5
Procedure
Com. Act No. 473, secs 7-8
When decision executory
Rep. Act. No. 530, sec. 1
Effect on wife and minor children
Com. Act No. 473, sec. 15

Denaturalization
Com. Act No. 473, sec. 18

3. Loss and reacquisition of citizenship


Const., art IV, sec. 3
Com. Act No. 63
a. Loss of citizenship
Express renunciation or EXPATRIATION
Com. Act No. 63, sec. 1(2)
Yu v. Defensor-Santiago, G.R. No. 83882, Jan. 24, 1989
b. Reacquisition or REPATRIATION
People v. Avengoza, 119 SCRA 1 (1982)
Compare the ruling here with the ruling in Jao v. Republic, 121 SCRA 358
(1983)
4. Dual allegiance
Art. IV, Sec. 5
D.

Sovereignty
1. Dominion and Imperium
Sinco 11
2. Territorial, Personal, and Extra-territorial Jurisdiction
Sinco 26-30
3. Sovereign Immunity
(a) Basis
Art. XVI, sec. 3
Republic v. Villasor, 54 SCRA 83 (1973)
(b)

When a suit is against the State and when it is not


Begoso v. Chairman, Philippine Veterans Adm., 32 SCRA 466 (1970)
Del Mar v. Philippine Veterans Adm., 51 SCRA 340 (1973)
Republic v. Feliciano, 148 SCRA 424 (1987)

(c)

Consent to be sued
How consent is given
Republic v. Purisima, 78 SCRA 470 (1977)
Republic v. Feliciano, 148 SCRA 424 (1987)

Express consent
(1)

Money claims arising from contracts


Act No. 3083
Com. Act. 327
Sayson v. Singson, 54 SCRA 282 (1973)

(2)

General Rule and Exemptions

(3)

Quasi delicts committed by special agents


Civil Code, Art. 2180
Merritt v. Government of the Phil. Islands, 34 Phil. 311 (1916)
(Government liability for quasi delict if committed by
special agents)

(4)

Incorporation of government-owned or controlled corporations


PNB v. CIR, 81 SCRA 314 (1978)
Royo v. CFI, 110 SCRa 456 (1981)
SSS v. CA, 120 SCRA 707 (1983)
(Consent to be sued includes actions based on quasi delict even
though committed by a special agent)

Implied consent
(1)

When the Government enters into business contracts


United Sates of America v. Ruiz, 136 SCRA 487 (1985)
Malong v. PNR, 138 SCRA 63 (1985)

(2)

When it would be inequitable for the Government to claim


immunity
Santiago v. Republic, 87 SCRA 294 (1978)

Commissioner of Public Highways v. Burgos, 96 SCRA 831 (1980)

(d)

E.

Scope of consent
(1)

Under Act No. 3083


Commissioner of Public Highways v. San Diego, 31 SCRA 616
(1970)

(2)

Under a charter
PNB v. CIR, 81 SCRA 314 (1978)

Government
1. Government is general defined
United States v. Dorr, 2 Phil. 332, 339 (1903)
2.

Government of the Philippines defined Administrative Code,


sec. 2

V. PRINCIPLES AND POLICIES OF THE PHILIPPINE GOVERNMENT


A. Principles
1. Sovereignty of the People and Republicanism
Art. II, sec. 1
Art. V
2. Adherence to International Law
Preamble
Art. II, sec. 2
Id., secs. 7-8
Art. XVIII, sec. 4 and 25
3. Supremacy of Civilian Authority
Art. II, sec. 3

Art. VII, sec. 18


Art. XVI, sec. 5(4)
Art. XVI, sec. 5(2)
4. Government as Protector of the People and People as Defenders of the State
Art. II, sec 4
Id., sec. 5

5. Separation of Church and State


Art. II, sec. 6
Art. III, sec. 5
Art. IX, C, sec. 2(5)
Art. VI, sec. 5(2)
Exceptions:
Art. VI, sec. 28(3)
Id., sec. 29(2)
Art. XIV, sec. 3(3)
Id., sec. 4(2)
B. Policies
1. Independent foreign policy and a nuclear-free Philippines
Art. II, secs. 7-8
Art. XVIII, secs. 4 and 25
2. A just and dynamic social order
Preamble
Art. II, sec. 9
a. The promotion of social justice
Art. II, sec. 10
Art. XIII, secs. 1-2
Art. II, sec. 26
Art. VII, sec. 13, par. 2
Calalang v. Williams
b. Respect for human dignity and human rights
Art. II, sec. 11
Art. XIII, secs. 17-19

c. Fundamental equality of women and men


Art. II, sec. 14
Art. XIII, secs. 14
d. Promotion of health
Art. II, secs. 15-16
Art. XIII, secs. 11-13

e. The priority of education, science, technology, arts, culture and sports


Art. II, sec. 17
Art. XIV, sec. 2
f.

Urban land reform and housing


Art. XIII, secs. 9-10

g. Reform in agriculture and other natural resources


Art. II, sec. 21
Art. XIII, secs. 4-8
h. Protection of labor
Art. II, sec. 18
Art. XIII, sec. 3
The right of government workers to form unions
Art. III, sec. 8
Art. IX, B, sec. 2(5)
i.

Independent peoples organizations


Art. II, sec. 23
Art. XIII, secs. 15-16

3. The Family as a Basic Autonomous SOCIAL Institution


Art. II, sec. 12
Art. XV (The Family)
Art. II, sec. 13
Civil Code, art. 52 (Marriage is not a mere contract but an
institution)
4. A self-reliant and independent ECONOMIC order

10

inviolable social

Art. II, sec. 19


Id., sec. 20
Art. XII, sec. 6 (National Economy and Patrimony)
5. Communication and information in nation-building
Art. II, sec. 24
Art. XVI, secs. 10-11
Art. XVIII, sec. 23
6. Autonomy of local governments
Art. II, sec. 25
Art. X (Local Governments)
7. Recognition of the rights of indigenous cultural communities
Art. II, sec. 22
Art. VI, sec. 5(2)
Art. XII, sec. 5
Art. XIII, sec. 6
Art. XIV, sec. 17
Art. XVI, sec. 12
8. Honest Public Service and Full Public Disclosure
Art. II, sec. 27
Art. XI, secs. 4, 5-6
Art. II, sec. 28
Art. XI, sec. 17
Art. VII, sec. 12
Art. VII, sec. 20
Art. XII, sec. 21
Art. XII, sec.2, par. 5
Art. VI, secs. 12 and 20
Art. IX, D, sec. 4
Art. III, sec. 7
Valmonte v. Belmonte, G.R. No. 74930, Feb. 13, 1999

VI.

THE STRUCTURE AND POWERS OF THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT


A.

Congress
1. Composition, Qualifications, and Term of Office

11

a. Senate
Art. VI, secs. 2-4
b. House of Representatives
1.
District Representation
Art. VI, secs. 5-8
Art. IX, C, secs. 6-8
Art. XVIII, sec. 7
i. Fixing of legislative districts
ii. Creation of legislative districts

2.

Sectoral Representation
Constitution, Article

3.

Party-List Representation
Constitution
RA 7941
Ang Bayan Ko-OFW v. Comelec
Atong Paglaum v. Comelec

c. Synchronized terms of office


Art. XVIII, secs. 1-2
2. Election
a. Regular election
Art. VI, sec. 8
b. Special election
Art. VI, sec. 9
Rep. Act. No. 6645, Dec. 28, 1987
Art. IX, C, sec. 11
Lozada v. COMELEC, 120 SCRA 337 (1983)
3. Organization and sessions
a. Election of officers
Art. VI, sec. 16(1)

12

b. Quorum
Id., sec. 16(2)
Avelino v. Cuenco, 83 Phil. 17 (1949)
c. Rules of proceedings
Id., sec. 16(3)
Id., sec. 21
Pacete v. Secretary of the Commission on Appointments, 40 SCRA 58
(1971)

d. Discipline of members
Id., sec. 16(3)
Alejandrino v. Quezon, 46 Phil. 83 (1924)
Osmea v. Pendatun, 109 Phil. 863 (1960)
(suspension for 15 months)
e. Journal and Congressional Record
Art. VI, sec 16(4)
(1)

The Enrolled Bill Theory


Mabanag v. Lopez Vito, 78 Phil. 1 (1947)
Casco (Phil.) Chemical Co. v. Gimenez, 7 SCRA 347 (1963)

(2)

Probative value of the Journal


United States v. Pons, 34 Phil. 729 (1916)

(3)

Matters to be entered in the Journal


a. Yeas and nays on third and final reading of a bill
(Art. VI, sec. 26(2))
b. Veto message of the President (Art. VI, sec. 27(1))
c. Yeas and nays on repassing of a bill vetoed by the President
(Art.VI, sec. 2(1))
d. Yeas and nays on any question at the request of 1/5 of members
present (Art. VI, sec. 16(4))

13

(4)

Journal Entry Rule vs. Enrolled Bill Theory


Astorga v. Villegas, 56 SCRA 714 (1974)
Field v. Clark, 36 L. Ed. 294 (1891)
(It is not competent for the appellants to show from the journals
that the enrolled bill contained a section that does not
appear in the enrolled act in the custody of the State Dept.)
Morales v. Subido, 27 SCRA 131 (1969)

(5)

f.

Congressional Record
Art. VI, sec. 16(4), par. 2

Sessions
(1)

Regular sessions
Art. VI, sec. 15
Id., sec. 16(5)

(2)

Special sessions
Id., sec. 15
Art. VII, secs. 10-11
Art. VII, sec. 18, par. 3

(3)

Joint sessions
(a)

Voting separately
Art. VII, sec. 4 (Choosing the President)
Id., sec. 11, par. 4 (Determining the Presidents temporary
disability)
Id., sec. 9 (Confirming the nomination of a Vice President)
Art. VI, sec. 23(1) (Declaring a state of war)
Art. XVII, sec. 1(1), (Proposing constitutional amendments)

(b)

Voting jointly
Art. VII, sec. 18 (To revoke or extend martial law or
suspension of privilege of habeas corpus)

14

4. Salaries, Privileges and Disqualifications


a. Salaries
Art. VI, sec. 10
Art. XVIII, sec. 17
PHILCONSA v. Mathay, 18 SCRA 300 (1966)
Ligot v. Mathay, 56 SCRA 823 (1974)
b. Freedom from arrest
Art. VI, sec. 11
Rev. Penal Code, art. 145
Martinez v. Morfe, 44 SCRA 22 (1972)

c. Speech and Debate Clause


Art. VI, sec. 11
Jimenez v. Cabangbang, 17 SCRA 876 (1966)
d. Disqualifications
(1)

Incompatible and Forbidden offices


Id., sec. 13

(2)

Other prohibitions
Art. IV, sec. 14

e. Duty to disclose
Art. XI, sec. 17
Art. VI, sec. 12
Id., sec. 20
5. Electoral Tribunals
Id., secs. 17 and 19
Taada v. Cuenco, 103 Phil. 1051 (1957)
Lazatin v. HRET, G.R. No. 84297, Dec. 8, 1988
6. Commission on Appointments

15

Id., secs. 18-19


Cunanan v. Tan, 115 Phil. Vii (1962)
7. Powers of Congress
A. General plenary powers
Art. VI, sec. 1
a.

Limitations on the legislative power

(1)

Substantive limitations
(a)

Express substantive limitations

Art. III (Bill of Rights)


Art. VI, secs. 25 and 28
Art. XIV, sec. 4(3)
Art. VI, sec. 29
Id., sec. 30
Id., sec. 31
(b)

Implied substantive limitations


Prohibition against delegation of legislative powers
Prohibition against passage of irrepealable laws
Exceptions to Nondelegation Doctrine
Delegation to the President:
Art. VI, sec. 23(2) and sec. 28(2)
Delegation to the people:
Art. VII, sec. 32
Delegation to local governments:
(Pelaez v. Auditor General, 15 SCRA 569 (1965)

(2)

B.

Procedural limitations
Art. VI, sec. 27

Non-Legislative powers of Congress:


a. Question hour-Oversight functions
Art. VI, sec. 22

16

b. Legislative investigations
Art. VI, sec. 21
Arnault v. Nazareno, 87 Phil. 29 (1950)
Arnault v. Balagtas, 97 Phil. 358 (1955)
Drilon v. Executive Secretary
Neri v. Senate
c. Act as board of canvassers for Presidential elections
Art. VII, sec. 4, par. 4
d. Call special election for President and Vice President
Art. VII, sec. 10

e. Revoke or extend suspension of privilege of habeas corpus or declaration of


martial law
Art. VII, sec. 18
f.

Approve Presidential Amnesties


Art. VII, sec. 19

g. Confirm certain appointments


Art. VII, sec. 9 (by Congress)
Id., sec. 16 (Through the Commission on Appointments)
Sarmiento v. Mison, G.R. No. 79974, Dec. 17, 1987
Concepcion-Bautista v. Salonga, G.R. No. 86439, April. 13, 1989
h. Concur in Treaties
Art. VII, sec. 21
i.

Declaration of war and delegation of emergency powers


Art. VI, sec. 23

j.

To be judge of the Presidents physical fitness


Art. VII, sec. 11, par. 4

k. Power of impeachment

17

(1) Who are subject to impeach


Art. XI, sec. 2
(2) Grounds for impeachment
Art. XI, sec. 2
(3) Procedure for impeachment
Id., sec. 3(1)-(6)
(4) Consequence of impeachment
Id., sec. 3(7)

l.

Power with regard to utilization of natural resources


Art. XII, sec. 2

m. Amendment of the Constitution


Art. XVII, secs. 1-2
C.

Legislative Process
a. Requirements
(1) As to titles of bills
Art. VI, sec. 26(1)
Which should control, the title or the text of a statute?
Cruz v. Paras, 123 SCRA 569 (1983)
(2) Requirements as to certain laws
(a)

Appropriation laws
Art. VII, sec. 22
Art. VI, sec. 24-25
Art. VIII, sec. 3

18

Demetria v. Alba, 148 SCRA 208 (1987)


Id., sec. 29
Bengzon v. Drilon, 208 SCRA 133
Philippine Constitutional Association v. Enriquez 235 SCRA
506
Lawyers Against Monopoly and Poverty (LAMP) v. Secretary
of Budget and Management,
Social Justice Societyt v. Drilon, G.R. Nos. 208566. Et.al., June
26, 2013
Realignment of Funds:
Sanchez v. Commission on Audit,
DAP case
Line-Item veto:
Bengzon v. Drilon
Gonzales v. Macaraig
(b)

Tax laws
Art. VI, sec. 28
Art. XIV, sec. 4(3)
YMCA v. Collector of Internal Revenue
Bishop of Nueva Segovia v. Provincial Board, 67 Phil. 352
(1927)
Province of Abra v. Hernando, 101 SCRA 104 (1981)
Apostolic Prefect v. Treasurer, 71 Phil. 547 (1941)
Tolentino v. Secretary of Finance

b. Procedure for the passage of bills


Art. VI, sec. 26(2)
c. Qualified veto
Art. VI, sec. 27
Compare 1935 Const., art. VI, sec. 20
Bolinao Electronics Corp. v. Valencia, 11 SCRA 486 (1964)

19

No pocket veto in the Philippines. What is a pocket veto? Compare art. I,


sec. 7 of U.S. Const.: If any bill shall not be returned by the President
within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to
him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless
the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return in which case it
shall not be a law.
d. Legislative vetoes
Miller v. Mardo, 2 SCRA 898 (1961)
e. Effectivity of laws
Civil Code, art. 2
Taada v. Tuvera, 136 SCRA 27 (1985)
Same, resolution of motion for reconsideration, 146 SCRA 446 (1986)
Executive Order No. 200, June 18, 1987

D.

Executive Department
1. The President
a. Qualifications, election, term and oath
Art. VII, secs. 2, 4 and 5
PBA v. COMELEC, 140 SCRA 455 (1985)
v. Poe
b. Privilege and salary
Art. VII, sec. 6
c. Prohibitions
Art. VII, sec. 13
Compare prohibitions against other officials
Art. VI, sec. 13
Art. IX, A, sec. 2

20

Art. IX, B, sec. 7


Exceptions to rule prohibiting executive officials from holding another offices
a.

Vice President as member of the cabinet (Art. VII, sec. 3,


par. 2)

b.

Secretary of Justice as member of Judicial and Bar Council


(Art. III, sec. 8(1))

d. Succession
(1)

In case of vacancy at the beginning of term


Art. VII, sec. 7
Id., sec. 10

(2)

In case of vacancy during term


Art. VII, sec. 8
Id., sec. 10

(3)

In case of temporary disability


Art. VII, secs. 11-12

e. Removal
Art. VII, secs. 2-3
f.

Powers and Functions of the President


(1)

Executive Power
Art. VII, secs. 1 and 17

(2)

Control of executive departments


Art. VII, sec. 17
Free Telephone Workers Union v. Minister of Labor and
Employment, 108 SCRA 757 (1981)

(3)

General supervision of local governments and autonomous


regions
Art. X, sec. 4

(4)

Power of appointment

21

With consent of Commission on Appointments


Sarmiento v. Mison, G.R. No. 79974, Dec. 17, 1987
Concepcion-Bautista v. Salonga, G.R. No. 86439, April 13, 1989
Compare Ramos v. Alvarez, 97 Phil. 844 (1955)
(a)
(b)
(c)

(d)

(e)

Heads of departments
Art. VII, sec. 16
Ambassadors, public ministers, and consuls
Art. VII, sec. 16
Officers of the armed forces from the rank of colonel and
naval captain
Art. VII, sec. 16
Chairman and members of Constitutional Commissions
Art. IX, B. sec. 1(2)
Id., C, sec. 1(2)
Id., D, sec. 1(2)
REGULAR Members of the Judicial and Bar Council
Art. VIII, sec. 8(2)

Upon recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council


(a)
(b)

Members of the Supreme Court and all other courts


Art. VIII, sec. 9
OMBUDSMAN and Deputies
Art. XI, sec. 9

Appointment of Vice President as member of the Cabinet (Art. VII, sec. 16)
(a)
(b)

Those whose appointments are not otherwise provided by


law
Those whom he may be authorized by law to appoint

Limitations on appointing power of the President


Art. VII, secs. 13 and 15
Aytona v. Castillo, 4 SCRA 1 (1962)
Jorge v. Mayor, 10 SCRA 331 (1964)
Quimsing v. Tajanglangit, 10 SCRA 446 (1964)
Interim or recess appointments
Art.VI, sec. 9

22

Art. VII, sec. 16, par. 2


Temporary appointments
Com. Act. No. 588
Limitations on appointing power of Acting President
Art. VII, secs. 14-16
(5)

Executive clemencies
Art. VII, sec. 19
Art. IX, C, sec. 5
(a)
(b)

(c)
(d)

(e)

(f)

(6)

Pardon distinguished from probation


People v. Vera, 65 Phil. 56 (1937)
Pardon distinguished from parole
Tesoro v. Director of Prisons, 68 Phil. 154 (1939)
Torres v. Gonzales, 152 SCRA 272 (1987)
Pardon distinguished from amnesty
Barroquinto v. Fernandes, 82 Phil. 642 (1949)
Effect of Pardon
Cristobal v. Labrador, 71 Phil. 34 (1940)
Pelobello v. Palatino, 72 Phil. 441 (1941)
Lacuna v. Abes, 24 SCRA 780 (1968)
Monsanto v. Factoran, G.R. No. 78239, Feb. 9, 1989
Sanctions against violations of conditional
pardons
Torres v. Gonzeles, 152 SCRA 272 (1987)
Who may avail of amnesty
Tolentino v. Catoy, 82 Phil. 300 (1948)
Macaga-an v. People, 152 SCRA 430 (1987)

Powers as Commander-in-Chief
Art. VII, sec. 18
Art. III, sec. 13
Art. VIII, sec. 1, par. 2
David v. Arroyo (Proclamation 1017)-calling powers of the
President
Marcos v. Manglapus
David v. Arroyo
Affirmed:

23

Lansang v. Garcia, 42 SCRA 448 (1971)


Overruled:
Garcia-Padilla v. Ponce Enrile, 121 SCRA 472 (1983)
Aquino v. Ponce Enrile, 59 SCRA 183 (1974) (on political
questions)
Aquino v. Military Commission No. 2, 63 SCRA 546 (1975)
Olaguer v. Military Commission No. 34, 150 SCRA 144
(1987)
(7)

Emergency powers
Art. VI, sec. 23(2)
Araneta v. Dinglasan, 84 Phil. 368 (1949)
Rodriguez v. Gella, 92 Phil. 603 (1953)

(8)

Contracting and guaranteeing foreign loans


Art. VII, sec. 20
Art. XII, sec. 21
Rep. Act No. 4860

(9)

Power over foreign affairs


(a)

Treaty making
Art. VII, sec. 21
Treaty distinguished from executive agreements
Commissioner of Customs v. Eastern Sea Trading, 3 SCRA
351 (1961)
USAFE Veterans Assn v. Treasurer, 105 Phil. 1030 (1959)

(b)

Deportation of undesirable aliens


Qua Chee Gan v. Deportation Board, 9 SCRA 27 (1963)
Go Tek v. Deportation Board, 79 SCRA 17 (1969)

(10)

Power over legislation

24

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

(11)

Address Congress
Art. VII, sec. 23
Preparation and submission of budget
Id,, sec. 22
Veto power
Art. VII, sec. 27
Emergency powers
Art. VI, sec. 23(2)
Fixing of tariff rates
Art. VI, sec. 28(2)
Residual powers

Marcos v. Manglapus
(12)

Immunity from suites


Carillo v. Marcos, Resolution, G.R. No. 56461, April 6, 1981
In re Bermudez, G.R. No. 76180, Oct. 24, 1986

2.

E.

Vice President
a.

Qualifications, election, term and oath


Art. VII, sec. 3
Id., sec. 4
Id., sec. 5

b.

Privilege and salary


Art. VII, sec. 6

c.

Prohibitions
Art. VII, sec. 13
Id., sec. 3, par. 2

d.

Succession
Art. VII, sec. 9

e.

Removal
Art. XI, secs. 2-3

The Judicial Department

25

1.

The Supreme Court


a.

Composition
Art. VIII, sec. 4
Vargas v. Rilloza, 80 Phil 297 (1948)

b.

Appointment and qualifications


Art. VIII, sec. 7(1)
Id., sec. 8(5)
Id., sec. 9
practice of law requirement Monsod v.

c.

Salary
Art. VIII, sec. 10
Art. XVIII, sec. 17
Perfecto v. Meer, 85 Phil 522 (1950)
Endencia v. David, 93 Phil. 696 (1953)
Compare 1973 Const., art. XV, sec. 6
Not exempt from income tax
Nitafan v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, G.R. 78780, July 23, 1987

d.

Security of Tenure
Art. VIII, sec. 11
Id., sec. 2, par. 2
De la Llana v. Alba, 112 SCRA 294 (1982)

e.

Removal
Art. VIII, sec. 11
Art. XI, sec. 2

f.

Fiscal autonomy
Art. VIII, sec. 3

g.

Jurisdiction
Art. VIII, sec. 1

26

Id., sec. 2, par. 1


Id., sec. 5
Art. VI, sec. 30
Art. VII, sec. 18
Lopez v. Roxas, 17 SCRA 756 (1966)
People v. Daniel, 86 SCRA 511 (1978)
People v. Ramos, 88 SCRA 486 (1979)
a.
b.
c.

exclusive original jurisdiction


appellate jurisdiction
concurrent jurisdiction

h.

Act as Presidential Electoral Tribunal


Art. VIII sec. 4, par. 4
Lopez v. Roxas, 17 SCRA 756 (1966)

i.

Administrative powers

j.

(1)

Supervision of lower courts


Art. VIII, sec. 6

(2)

Temporarily assign judges to other stations in the public interest


Art. VIII, sec. 5(3)

(3)

Order a change of venue or place of trial to avoid miscarriage of


justice
Art. VIII, sec. 5(4)

(4)

Discipline of judges
Art. VIII, sec. 11

(5)

Appointment of officials and employees of entire judiciary


Art. VIII, sec. 5(6)
Rule making

Art. VIII, sec. 5(5)


Art. XII, sec. 14, par. 2
Art. XIII, sec. 18(3)

27

k.

No quasi-judicial and administrative work for judges


Art. VIII, sec. 12
Manila Electric Co. v. Pasay Trans. Co., 57 Phil 600 (1932)
Garcia v. Macaraig, 39 SCRA 106 (1971)
In re Judge Rodolfo Manzano, Adm. Matter No. 88-7-1861, Oct. 4, 1988

l.

Report on the judiciary


Art. VIII, sec. 16

m.

Manner of sitting and votes required


Art. VIII, sec. 4
Rule 56, sec. 11
Rule 125, sec. 3

n.

Requirements as to decisions
Art. VIII, sec. 13-14
Valladolid v. Inciong, 121 SCRA 205 (1983)
Mendoza v. CFI, 51 SCRA 369 (1973)
Bacolod Murcia Milling Co. v. Henares, 107 Phil. 560 (1960)

o.

2.

Periods for deciding cases


Art. VIII, sec. 5
Art. VII, sec. 18, par. 3
Art. XVIII, sec. 12-14

Lower courts
a.

Qualifications and appointment


Art. VIII, sec. 7(1)(2)
Id., sec. 8(5)
Id., sec. 9

b.

Salary
Art. VIII, sec. 10
Nitafan v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue,G.R. No. 78780, July 23,
1987

28

c. Tenure
Art. VIII, sec. 11
Id., sec. 1
Ocampo v. Secretary of Justice, 51 O.G. 147 (955)
De la Llana v. Alba, 112 SCRA 294 (1982)
d. Removal
Art. VIII, sec. 11
e. Jurisdiction
Art. VIII, sec. 1
Ynot v. IAC, 148 SCRA 659 (1987)
f.

Requirements as to preparation of decisions


Art. VIII, sec. 14

g. Period for deciding


Art. VIII, sec. 15
Art. XVIII, secs. 12-14
Overruled:
Marcelino v. Cruz, 121 SCRA 51 (1983)
De Roma v. CA, 152 SCRA 205 (1987)

F.

3.

The Judicial and Bar Council


Art. VIII, sec. 8

4.

Automatic release of appropriation for the judiciary


Art. VIII, sec. 3

The Constitutional Commissions


1. Civil Service Commission
a. Composition and qualifications of Commissioners
Art. VII, sec. 13, par. 2
b. Appointment and term of office of Commissioners
Art. IX, B, sec. 1(2)

29

c. Appointment of personnel of CSC


Art. IX, IX, A, sec. 4
d. Salary
Art. IX, A, sec. 3
Art. XVIII, sec. 17
e. Disqualifications
Art. IX, A, sec. 2
f.

Impeachment
Art. XI, sec. 2

g. Functions of the CSC


Art. IX, B, sec. 3
Art. IX, A, sec. 7
Id., sec. 8
h. Scope of the civil service
Art. IX, B, sec. 2(1)
National Service Corp. v. NLRC, G.R. Nos. 69870 & 70295, Nov. 29, 1988
Alliance of Govt. Workers v. Minister of Labor & Employment, 124 SCRA 1
(1983)
Overruled:
NHA v. Juco, 134 SCRA 172 (1985)
Quimpo v. Tanodbayan, 146 SCRA 137 (1986)

i.

Terms and conditions of employment in the civil service


(1)

Oath of allegiance to the Constitution


Art. IX, B, sec. 4
Art. XI, sec. 18

(2)

Merit System
(a)
Appointment of lameducks
Art. IX, B, sec. 6
(b)
Appointment or designation of elective and appointive
officials

30

Art. IX, B, sec. 7


Art. VII, sec. 13
Art. VI, sec. 13
(3)

Standardization of pay and ban on double compensation


Art. IX, B. sec. 5
Id., sec. 8

(4)

Ban on partisan political activities


Art. IX, B, sec. 2(4)
Compare Art. XVI, sec. 5(3) (with respect to members of AFP)
Cailles v. Bonifacio, 65 Phil. 328 (1938)
Santos v. Yatco, 59 O.G. 548 (1959)

(5)

Removal or suspension only for cause


Art. IX, B, sec. 2(3)
De los Santos v. Mallare, 87 Phil. 289 (1950)
Corpus v. Cuaderno, 13 SCRA 591 (1965)
Ingles v. Mutuc, 26 SCRA 171 (1968)
Cristobal v. Melchor, 78 SCRA 175 (1977)

(6)

Summary removal
Acolola v. Tantuico, 85 SCRA 789 (1978)

(7)

Right of self-organization
Art. III, sec. 8
Art. IX, B, sec. 2(5)
Alliance of Government Workers v. Minister of Labor, 124 SCRA 1 (1983)
National Service Corp. v. NLRC, G.R. Nos. 69870 & 70295, Nov. 1988

j.

Review of decisions of the CSC


Art. IX, A, sec. 7

k. Fiscal autonomy
Art. IX, A, sec. 5
2. Commission on Elections

31

a. Composition and qualifications of Commissioners


Art. IX, C, sec. 1(1)
Art. VII, sec. 13, par. 2
b. Appointment and term of office of Commissioners
Art. IX, C, sec. 1(2)
Nacionalista Party v. Angelo Bautista, 85 Phil. 101 (1949)
c. Appointment of personnel
Art. IX, A, sec. 4
d. Salary
Art. IX, A, sec. 3
Art. XVIII, se c. 17
e. Disqualifications
Art. IX, A, sec. 2
f.

Impeachment
Art. IX, sec. 2

g. Powers and functions of the COMELEC


Art. IX, C, sec. 2
(1)

Enforce election laws


Art. IX, X, sec. 2(1)
Id., sec. 10
Sanchez v. COMELEC, 114 SCRA 454 (1982)

(2)

Decide administrative questions pertaining to election, except the


right to vote
Art. IX, C, sec. 2(3)

(3)

Petition for inclusion or exclusion of voters


Art. IX, C, sec. 2(6)

(4)

Prosecute election law violators


Art. IX, C, sec. 2(6)
BP Blg. 881, sec. 265
EO 134, sec. 11, Feb. 27, 1987

32

De Jesus v. People, 120 SCRA 760 (1983)


Corpuz v. Tanodbayan, 149 SCRA 281 (1987)
(5)

Recommend pardon, amnesty, parole or suspension of sentence of


election law violators
Art. IX, C, sec. 5

(6)

Deputize law enforcement agents and recommend their removal for


violations of its orders
Art. IX, C, sec. 2(4)
Id., sec. 2(8)

(7)

REGISTRATION of political parties, organizations and coalitions


and ACCREDITATION of citizens arms
Art. IX, C, sec. 2(5)
Registration under the party-list system
Art. IX, C, sec. 6
Id., sec. 7
Id., sec. 8
Art. VI, sec. 5(2)
Art. XVIII, sec. 7

(8)

Regulation of public utilities and media of information


Art. IX, C, sec. 4
Id., sec. 9
UNIDO v. COMELEC, 104 SCRA 17 (1981)

(9)

Decide election contests and cases


Art. IX, C, sec. 2(2)
Id., sec. 3
Javier v. COMELEC, 144 SCRA 194
Pimentel v. COMELEC, 101 SCRA 769 (1980)

h. Rule-making
Art. IX, A, sec. 6
i.

Other functions
Art. IX, A, sec. 8

j.

Act as national Board of Canvassers for Senators

33

EO 144, sec. 1, March 2, 1987


k. Review of Comelec DECISIONS, ORDERS AND RESOLUTIONS
Art. IX, A, sec. 7
l.

Fiscal autonomy
Art. IX, A, sec. 5

3. Commission on Audit
a. Composition and qualifications
Art. IX, D, sec. 1(1)
Art. VII, sec. 12, oar. 2
b. Appointment and term of Commissioners
Art. IX, D, sec. 1(2)
c. Appointment of COA personnel
Art. IX, A, sec. 4
d. Salary
Art. IX, A, sec. 3
Art. XVIII, sec. 17
e. Disqualifications
Art. IX, A, sec. 2
f.

Impeachment
Art. XI, sec. 2

g. Powers and functions


Art. IX, D, sec. 2
Id., sec. 3
Art. VI, sec. 20

h. Rulemaking
Art. IX, A, sec. 6
i.

Other functions
Art. IX, A, sec. 8

34

j.

Review of decisions of the COA


Art. IX, A, sec. 7

k. Fiscal autonomy
Art. IX, A, sec. 5
G.

Sandiganbayan
Art. XI, sec. 4
PD 1606, Dec. 10, 1979
Nuez v. Sandiganbayan, 111 SCRA 433 (1982)

H.

Office of Ombudsman
See also PD 1630, July 18, 1979
1. Composition
Art. XI, sec. 5
2. Qualifications
Art. XI, sec. 8
3. Appointment and term
Art. XI, secs. 9 and 11
4. Rank and salary
Art. XI, sec. 10
5. Disqualifications
Art. XI, sec. 8
Art. XI, A, sec. 2
6. Jurisdiction
Art. XI, sec. 12
Quimpo v. Tanodbayan, 146 SCRA 137 (1986)
7. Powers and functions
Art. XI, sec. 13
8. Fiscal autonomy
Art. XI, sec. 14

35

9. Appointment of personnel
Art. XI, sec. 6
I.

Office of the Special Prosecutor


Art. XI, sec. 7
Zaldivar v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. Nos. 79690-707, April 7, 1988 and Resolution,
May 19, 1988
See PD No. 1630, secs. 10, 12-15 (administrative investigations) and sec. 17
(criminal investigations)

J.

Central Monetary Authority


Composition and qualifications
Art. XII, sec. 20
Functions
Art. XII, sec. 20-21

K.

Economic and Planning Agency


Art. XII, secs. 9-10

L.

National Commissions
1. Commission on Human Rights
a. Composition and qualifications
Art. XIII, sec. 17
b. Powers and functions
Art. XIII, secs. 18-19
c. Fiscal autonomy
Art. XIII, sec 17(4)
2. National Language Commission
Art. XIV, sec. 9
3. National Police Commission
Art. XVI, sec. 6

36

4. Commission on Indigenous Cultural Communities


Art. XVI, sec. 12

VII.

LOCAL GOVERNMENTS

A. Local government units


Art. X, sec. 1
B. Autonomy of local governments
Art. II, sec. 25
Art. X, sec. 2
1. General supervision of local governments by the President
Art. X, sec. 4
Id., sec. 16
2. Local Government Code
Art. X, sec. 3
BP Blg. 337
Torralba v. Municipality of Sibagat, 147 SCRA 390 (1987)
a. Term of office of local officials, except barangay officials
Art. X, sec. 8 (Three years)
Art. XVIII, sec. 1
b. Term of office of barangay officials
Art. X, sec. 8
Rep. Act No. 6679, sec. 1 (Five years)
c. Local legislative bodies
Art. X, sec. 9
d. Creation, abolition, division or merger of local government units
Art. X, sec. 10
Tan v. COMELEC, 142 SCRA 727 (1986)
e. Metropolitan political subdivisions
Art. X, sec. 11
f.

Right to vote
Art. X, sec. 14

37

Ceniza v. COMELEC, 95 SCRA 763 (1980)


3. Powers of local governments
a.

Revenue and taxing power


Art. X, sec. 4

b.

Share in national taxes


Art. X, sec. 6

c.

Share in the proceeds of national wealth


Art. X, sec. 7

d.

Coordination of efforts, services and resources for common benefit


Art. X, sec. 13

4. The two autonomous regions

VIII.

a.

Creation
Art. X, sec. 13
Id., sec. 18
Id., sec. 19

b.

Powers of autonomous regions


Art. X, sec. 20
Id., sec. 17
Id., sec. 21

c.

General supervision by the President


Art. X, sec. 16

ACCOUNTABILITY OF PUBLIC OFFICERS


A. Public office as a public trust
Art. XI, sec. 1
Id., sec. 18
Art. IX, B, sec. 4
See Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Public Officials and Employees (Rep.
Act. No. 6713), effective March 25, 1989
B. Disclosure of assets, liabilities and net worth

38

Art. XI, sec. 17


C. Ban on financial accommodation
Art. XI, sec. 16
D. Agencies for insuring public accountability
a. Congress Impeachment
Art. XI, secs. 2-3
b. Sandiganbayan
Art. XI, sec. 4
c. Ombudsman, known as Tanodbayan
Art. XI, secs. 5-6
Id., secs. 8-14
d. Office of Special Prosecutor
Art. XI, sec. 7
Zaldivar v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. Nos. 79690-707, May 19, 1988; Zaldivar v.
Gonzales, G.R. No. 80578, May 18, 1988

IX.

NATIONAL ECONOMY AND PATRIMONY


A. Goal
Art. XII, sec. 1
B. Natural Resources
1. Citizenship requirement
Art. XII, sec. 2
Art. XII, sec. 7

2. Classification, size, and conditions for grant of public lands


Art. XII, sec. 3
Meralco v. Castro-Bartolome, 114 SCRA 799 (1982)
Republic v. Villanueva, 114 SCRA 875 (1982)
Director of Lands v. IAC, 146 SCRA 509 (1986)
Republic v. Court of Appeals, 155 SCRA 344 (1987)
3. Conservation of forest lands and national parks

39

Art. XII, sec. 4


4. Protection of ancestral lands of indigenous cultural communities
Art. XII, sec. 5
C. Private lands
1. Citizenship requirement
Art. XII, sec. 7
Godinez v. Pak Luen, 120 SCRA 223 (1983)
Yap v. Grajeda, 121 SCRA 244 (1983)
Tejido v. Zamacoma, 138 SCRA 78 (1985)
Moss v. Director of Lands, 80 SCRA 269 (1977)
Republic v. Quasha, 46 SCRA 160 (1972)
1973 Const., Art. XVII, sec. 11
2. Exceptions
(a) Acquisition by LEGAL succession
Ramirez v. Vda. De Ramirez, 111 SCRA 704 (1982)
(b) Acquisition by former NATURAL-BORN citizens
Art. XII, sec. 8
3. Agrarian reform
Art. XIII, secs. 4-8
4. Urban land reform and housing
Art. XIII, secs. 9-10
D. Regulation of economic activities
1. Rationale
Art. XII, sec. 6
Id., sec. 12
Id., sec. 13
2. The NEDA and development program
Art. XII, secs. 9-10
3. Organization and regulation of private corporations
Art. XII, sec.16

40

4. Operation of public utilities


Art. XII, sec. 11
Id., sec. 17
5. Practice of professions
Art. XII, sec. 14
6. State operation of private enterprises
Art. XII, sec. 17
Id., sec. 18
7. Monopolies, combinations, and unfair competition
Art. XII, sec. 19
8. Money, banking and credit
Art. XII, secs. 20-21
9. Cooperatives
Art. XII, sec. 15

X.

SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS


A.

Social justice defined


Art. XIII, sec. 1
Calalang v.Williams, 70 Phil. 726 (1940)

B.

Aspects of social justice


1. Labor
Art. XIII, sec. 3
2. Agrarian and natural resources reform
Art. XIII, sec. 4-8
See Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law of 1988 (Rep. Act No. 6657) and
Executive Order No. 229, July 22, 1987

3. Urban land reform and housing


Art. XIII, secs. 9-10
See P.D. No. 1517, June 11, 1978

41

4. Health
Art. XIII, secs. 11-13
5. Women
Art. XIII, sec. 14

XI.

ESTACS
A.

Education

1.

Right to education
Art. XIV, sec. 1
Villar v. TIP, 135 SCRA 706 (1985)
Tangonan v. Cruz Pao, 137 SCRA 245 (1985)

2.

Educational mandate of the state


Art. XIV, sec. 2
Id., sec. 5

3.

The educational system


Art. XIV, sec. 3
Id., sec. 4

B.

Language
Art. XIV, sec. 6-9
1.
2.
3.
4.

National language: Filipino


Official language: Filipino and English
Auxiliary official languages: regional languages
Voluntary and optional languages: Spanish and Arabic

C.

Science and technology


Art. XIV, secs. 10-13

D.

Arts and Culture


Arts. XIV, sec. 14-18

E.

Sports

42

Art. XIV, sec. 19


XII.

THE FAMILY
Art. XV

XIII.

GENERAL PROVISIONS
A.

On the flag
Art. XVI, sec. 1

B.

On the name, anthem and seal


Art. XVI, sec. 2

C.

On the Armed Forces of the Philippines


1. Concept of citizen army
Art. XVI, sec. 4
2. Regulation of the armed forces
Art. XVI, sec. 5
Art. XVIII, sec. 24

D.

On the national police


Art. XVI, sec. 6

E.

ON retirement and other benefits


1. War veterans
Art. XVI, sec. 7
2. Government and private sector retirees
Art. XVI, sec. 8

F.

On consumer protection
Art. XVI, sec. 9

G.

On Mass and advertising media


1. Policy
Art. XVI, sec. 10
2. Ownership and management of mass media
Art. XVI, sec. 11(1)

43

3. Ownership of advertising companies


Art. XVI, sec. 11(1)
Art. XVIII, sec. 23
XIV. THE AMENDING PROCESS
A. Proposal
Art. XVII, secs. 1-2
Gonzales v. COMELEC, 21 SCRA 774 (1967)
1. By Congress
Art. XVII, sec. 1
Gonzales v. COMELEC, supra
Compare 1935 Const., art. XVI, sec. 1
2. By Constitutional Convention
Art. XVII, sec. 3
3. By the people through initiative
Art. XVII, sec. 2
B. Ratification
1. In case of amendments proposed by Congress or Convention
Art. XVII, sec. 4, par. 1
2. In case of amendments propose through initiative
Art. XVII, sec. 4, par. 2
C. Theories regarding the position of a constitutional convention in our system of
government
Tolentino v. COMELEC, 41 SCRA 702 (1967)
D. Judicial review of the amending process
Gonzales v. COMELEC, 21 SCRA 774 (1967)
Tolentino v. COMELEC, 41 SCRA 702 (14967)
Javellana v. Executive Secretary, 50 SCRA 30 (1973)
Art. VIII, sec. 1, par. 1
Sanidad v. COMELEC
Defensor Santiago v. COMELEC

44

E. When will proposed amendments take effect? Compare art. XVII, sec. 4 with XVIII,
sec. 27. Recall De Leon v. Esquerra, 153 SCRA 602 (1987)

45