Sie sind auf Seite 1von 112

Chapter-10

Shear Strength of Soils

Strength of Different materials

Steel

Tensile
Strength

Concrete

Soil

Compressive
Strength

Shear
Strength

Complex
Behavior

Presence of Pore Water

What is Shear Strength of Soils?


Shear Strength of Soils is the capacity of the soil to resist
shearing stresses.

The Resistance of the Soil to withstand Shear Stress.


Numerically, Shear Strength equals the Shear Stress
induced under Loading in a soil material, at failure.

OR, Maximum Value of the Resting Shear at the Time of


Failure.
3

Components of Shear Strength


FRICTION between the Individual Soil Grains at the
Point of Contact.
INTERLOCKING between Soil Particles.
(In Cohesion less Soils)

COHESION between the Surfaces of the Soil Particles


(In Cohesive Soils)

T = N tan

Influencing Factors on Shear Strength


Soil Composition: mineralogy, grain size and grain
size distribution, shape of particles, pore fluid type
and content.
Initial state: State can be describe in terms of loose,
dense, over-consolidated, normally consolidated, stiff,
soft, etc.
Structure: Refers to the arrangement of particles
within the soil mass; the manner in which the particles
are packed or distributed. Features such as layers,
voids, pockets, cementation, etc. are part of the
structure.
6

Soil Failure and Shear Strength


Soil failure usually occurs in the form of shearing along
internal surface within the soil.

Thus, structural strength is primarily a function of shear


strength.

Shear strength is a soils ability to resist failure and


sliding along internal surfaces within the soil mass.
7

Shear Failure
Soils Generally Fail in Shear.

Embankment
Strip Footing

Mobilized Shear
Resistance
Failure Surface

At failure, shear stress along the failure


surface () reaches the shear strength (f).
8

Shear Failure

Failure Surface
The soil grains slide over
each other along the
failure surface.

No crushing of
individual grains.

Shear Failure Mechanism

At failure, shear stress along the failure surface


() reaches the shear strength (f).
10

Shear Failure of Soils


Soils Generally Fail in Shear.

Retaining
wall

11

Shear Failure of Soils


Soils Generally Fail in Shear.

Retaining
wall

Mobilized
shear
resistance
Failure
surface

At failure, shear stress along the failure surface


() reaches the shear strength (f).

12

10.1 Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criterion

10.1.1 Mohrs Failure


Criterion (1900)
At Failure, the Shear Stress
on the Failure Plane is an
Unique Function of the
Normal Stress on that
Plane.
f = f (nf) ----- (10.1)
where, f = shear stress at
failure
nf = normal stress
at failure
Failure Envelope defined
by Eq. (10.1) is a Curved
Line.

Charles
Otto Mohr
f = f (nf)

f
nf

If we know the principal stresses at failure, we can


construct a Mohr circle to represent this state of stress.

Fig. (a) Mohr Circles at Failure


Define the Mohr Failure
Envelope

Fig. (b) Mohr Circles for a


Three-dimensional State of Stress

Any Mohr circle lying below the Mohr failure envelope (such
as circle A in Fig a.) represents a stable condition.
Failure occurs only when the combination of shear and
normal stress is such that the Mohr circle is tangent to the
Mohr failure envelope.
The circles lying above the Mohr failure envelope (such as
circle B in Fig. a) cannot exist.
14

10.1.2 Coulombs Failure Criterion (1776)


At Failure, the Shear Stress of
a particular plane is Linear
Function of the Normal Stress
on the Same Plane.

Charles-Augustin
de Coulomb

f = c + nf Tan ----- (10.2)


where, c = cohesion
= angle of shearing
resistance or angle of
internal friction

Coulombs Failure
Envelope

15

10.1.3 Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criterion


(in terms of Total Stresses)

f c tan

Cohesion

Friction Angle

f is the maximum shear stress the soil can take


without failure, under normal stress of .

16

10.1.3 Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criterion


(in terms of Effective Stresses)

f c' ' tan '

' u

Effective
Cohesion

u = pore water
pressure

Effective
Friction Angle

f is the maximum shear stress the soil can take


without failure, under normal effective stress of . 17

Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criterion


Shear Strength consists of two
components: Cohesive and Frictional.

f c f tan

f tan

Frictional
Component

c
f

c and are measures of shear strength


called Shear Parameters
Higher the values c and , Higher the Shear Strength.

18

19

Graphical Representation of Mohr-Coulomb


Failure Criterion
(Pure Sand)

(c Soil)

Pure Clay or Purely Cohesive Soils

20

10.2 Inclination of the Plane of Failure


Caused by Shear
What are the Principal Planes?
At every point in a stressed body, the planes on
which the shear stress are zero.

21

Principal Planes & Principal Stresses


Principal Planes the Planes Having ZERO Shear
Stress.
Principal Stresses the NORMAL STRESSES Acting on
the Principal Planes.

3 Orthogonal PPs Major PP, Intermediate PP & Minor


PP
3 Principal Stresses Major (1), Intermediate (2) &
Minor (3) Stresses
22

Mohrs Stress

23

Mohrs Stress
B

C
Fig. Forces on an
Element

24

Mohrs Stress Circle

1
Fig. Mohrs Circle

25

Mohr Circle of Stress


1

Soil element

Resolving forces in and directions,

1' 3'

Sin 2q
2
'
'
'
'

' 1 3 1 3 Cos 2q
2
2

'

2

'
1

' 2
3

' 2
3

'
1

Mohr Circle of Stress

'

2

'
1

' 2
3

' 2
3

'
1

1' 3'
2

3'

1' 3'
2

1'

Mohr Circle of Stress

'

2

'
1

' 2
3

' 2
3

'
1

(, )
1' 3'

3'

1' 3'
2

PD = Pole w.r.t. plane

1'

Mohr Circles & Failure Envelope

Failure surface

Y
X

f c' ' tan '


Y
X

Soil elements at different locations

Y ~ stable
X ~ failure

Mohr Circles & Failure Envelope


The soil element does not fail if
the Mohr circle is contained
within the envelope
GL

c
Y

c
Initially, Mohr circle is a point

c+

Mohr Circles & Failure Envelope


As loading progresses, Mohr
circle becomes larger

GL

c
Y

c
c
.. and finally failure occurs
when Mohr circle touches the
envelope

Orientation of Failure Plane


1

Failure envelope

(, f)

(90 q)

3'

1' 3'
2

PD = Pole w.r.t. plane


Therefore,
90 q = q

q 45 + /2

1'

Mohr Circles in terms of Total & Effective Stresses

v
X

v
h

u
h

effective stresses

v h

total stresses

or

Mohr Coulomb Failure Criterion with Mohr Circle


of Stress
v = 1
X

Failure envelope in terms


of effective stresses

h = 3
effective stresses

X is on failure

(1 3)/2

c Cot (1 3)/2

Therefore,

1' 3'
1' 3'
Sin '

c' Cot '


2
2

Mohr Coulomb Failure Criterion with Mohr Circle


of Stress

1' 3'
1' 3'
Sin '

c' Cot '


2
2

'
1

) (

3' 1' 3' Sin '2c' Cos '

(1 Sin ') (1 Sin ') 2c' Cos '


'
1

'
3


'
1

'
3

(1 Sin ') 2c' Cos '


(1 Sin ')
(1 Sin ')

'
'

Tan 45 2c' Tan 45


2
2

'
1

'
3

Determination the Inclination ()


of the Failure Plane with the Major Principal Plane

Mohrs Circle and Failure Envelope


Radial Line ab defines the Major Principal
Plane = CD and
Radial Line ad defines the Failure Plane = EF
fgh is the Failure Envelope defined by the
relationship
36

--- (2)

Also,
ad =

---- (3)

Putting Eqns. (2) and (3) into (1), we get,

37

-- (4)

--(5)

38

In Terms of Total Stress Parameters,

39

1- 3 Relation at Failure
1

X
X

soil element at failure

1 3 tan (45 / 2) 2c tan(45 / 2)


2

3 1 tan (45 / 2) 2c tan(45 / 2)


2

10.3 Laboratory Tests for Determination of Shear


Strength Parameters
(c, or c, )

Laboratory
Tests
on
specimens
taken
from
representative undisturbed
samples
Most common laboratory tests
to determine the shear strength
parameters are,
1.Direct Shear Test
2.Triaxial Shear Test
3.Unconfined Compression Test
Other laboratory tests include,
Torsional Ring Shear Test, Plane
Strain Triaxial Test, Laboratory Vane
Shear Test, Laboratory Fall Cone
Test

Field Tests

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Vane Shear Test


Torvane
Pocket Penetrometer
Fall Cone
Pressuremeter
Static Cone Penetrometer
Standard Penetration Test

41

Objectives of Shear Strength Test of Soil

To Determine the Shear Strength


Parameters of Soil.
Shear strength parameters
*
c&

c &

42

Laboratory Tests
Field Conditions

A representative
soil sample

vc
hc

hc
vc

Before construction

vc +
hc

hc
vc +

After and during


construction

43

vc +

Laboratory Tests
Simulating Field Conditions in
the Laboratory
0
vc
0

0
Representative
soil
sample
taken from the
site

hc

hc

vc +

vc

hc
vc

vc

Step 1
Set the sample in
the apparatus and
apply the initial
stress condition

hc

Step 2

Apply
the
corresponding field
stress conditions 44

10.4 Direct Shear Test


Schematic Diagram of the Direct Shear Apparatus

45

Direct shear test is most suitable for consolidated drained tests


specially on granular soils (e.g.: sand) or stiff clays

Preparation of a sand sample


Porous
plates

Components of the shear box

Preparation of a sand specimen


46

Preparation of a sand sample


Pressure plate

Leveling the top surface


of specimen

Specimen preparation
completed

47

Test Procedure

Steel ball
Pressure plate

Porous
plates
S

Proving ring
to measure
shear force

Step 1: Apply a vertical load to the specimen and wait for consolidation
48

Test Procedure

Steel ball
Pressure plate

Porous
plates
S

Proving ring
to measure
shear force

Step 1: Apply a vertical load to the specimen and wait for consolidation
Step 2: Lower box is subjected to a horizontal displacement at a constant49
rate

Shear box

Dial gauge to
measure vertical
displacement

Proving ring
to measure
shear force

Loading frame to
apply vertical load

Dial
gauge
to
measure horizontal
displacement
50

Analysis of Test Results


Normal force (P)
Normal stress
Area of cross section of the sample
Shear resistance developed at the sliding surface (S)
Shear stress
Area of cross section of the sample
Note: Cross-sectional area of the sample changes with the horizontal
displacement

53

Direct Shear Tests on Sands


Shear stress,

Stress-strain Relationship

Dense sand/
OC clay

Loose sand/
NC clay

Expansion

Compression

Change in height
of the sample

Shear displacement

Dense sand/OC Clay


Shear displacement

Loose sand/NC Clay


54

Direct Shear Tests on Sands


Shear stress,

How to determine strength parameters c and

Normal stress = 3
Normal stress = 2

f3

f2

f1

Normal stress = 1

Shear stress at failure, f

Shear displacement

Mohr Coulomb failure envelope

Normal stress,

55

Direct Shear Tests on Sands


Some important facts on strength parameters c and of sand

Sand is cohesionless
hence c = 0

Direct shear tests are


drained and pore water
pressures
are
dissipated, hence u = 0
Therefore,
= and c = c = 0

60

Direct Shear Tests on Clays


In case of clay, horizontal displacement should be applied at a very
slow rate to allow dissipation of pore water pressure (therefore, one
test would take several days to finish)

Shear stress at failure, f

Failure envelopes for clay from drained direct shear tests

Overconsolidated clay (c 0)
Normally consolidated clay (c = 0)

Normal force,
61

10.5 Triaxial Shear Test


Piston (to apply deviatoric stress)

Failure plane

O-ring
impervious
membrane

Soil
sample

Soil sample
at failure
Perspex
cell

Porous
stone
Water

Cell pressure
Back pressure

Pore pressure or
pedestal

volume change
62

Sample preparation (undisturbed sample)

Sampling tubes
Sample extruder63

Sample preparation (undisturbed sample)

Edges of the sample


are carefully trimmed

Setting up the sample


in the triaxial cell
64

Sample preparation (undisturbed sample)

Sample is covered
with
a
rubber
membrane and sealed

Cell is completely
filled with water
65

Sample preparation (undisturbed sample)


Proving ring to
measure
the
deviator load
Dial gauge to
measure vertical
displacement

66

Pore Pressure Parameters


A simple way to estimate the pore
pressure change in undrained
loading, in terms of total stress
changes ~ after Skempton (1954)

1
Y

u B 3 A( 1 3 )
3

u = ?

Skemptons pore pressure


parameters A and B

Pore Pressure Parameters


B-parameter
B = f (saturation,..)
For saturated soils, B 1.
A-parameter at failure (Af)

Af = f(OCR)
For normally consolidated clays Af 1.
For heavily overconsolidated clays Af is negative.

Types of Triaxial Tests


Depending on whether drainage is allowed
or not during
initial isotropic cell pressure application, and

shearing,
there are three special types of triaxial tests
that have practical significances. They are:

Consolidated
Drained (CD) test
Consolidated
Undrained (CU) test
Unconsolidated Undrained (UU) test

69

Step 2

Step 1

Under all-around cell pressure c

Shearing (loading)

Is the drainage valve open?


yes

Is the drainage valve open?

no

yes

no

Consolidated

Unconsolidated

sample

Drained

Undrained

sample

loading

loading

CD test

UU test
CU test

10.5 Consolidated drained (CD) Triaxial Test


Total,

Neutral, u

Effective,

Step 1: At the end of consolidation

VC

VC = VC

hC

Drainage

hC = hC

Step 2: During axial stress increase

VC +
hC

Drainage

V = VC + = 1

h = hC = 3

Step 3: At failure

VC + f
Drainage

hC

Vf = VC + f = 1f

hf = hC = 3f

Consolidated- drained Test (CD Test)


1 = VC +

3 = hC

Deviator stress (q or d) = 1 3

Expansion

Volume change of sample during


consolidation

Time
Compression

Volume change of the


sample

Consolidated- drained Test (CD Test)

CD Test
Deviator stress, d

Stress-strain relationship during shearing


Dense sand or
OC clay

(d)f
(d)f

Loose sand or
NC Clay

Expansion
Compression

Volume change of
the sample

Axial strain

Dense sand or
OC clay
Axial strain
Loose sand or
NC clay

CD Test How to determine strength parameters c and


Deviator stress, d

(d)fc

1 = 3 + (d)f
Confining stress = 3c
Confining stress = 3b

(d)fb

Confining stress = 3a

(d)fa

Shear stress,

Axial strain

Mohr Coulomb
failure envelope

3a

3b 3c 1a
(d)fa

1b
(d)fb

1c

or

CD Test
Strength parameters c and obtained from CD tests

Since u = 0 in CD
tests, =

Therefore, c = c
and =
cd and d are used
to denote them

CD Test Failure envelopes

Shear stress,

For sand and NC Clay, cd = 0

d
Mohr Coulomb
failure envelope

3a

1a

or

(d)fa

Therefore, one CD test would be sufficient to determine d of


sand or NC clay

CD Test Failure envelopes


For OC Clay, cd 0

NC

OC

c
3

(d)f

or

Some Practical Applications of CD


Analysis for Clays
1. Embankment constructed very slowly, in layers over a
soft clay deposit

Soft clay

= in situ drained
shear strength

Some Practical Applications of CD


Analysis for Clays
2. Earth dam with steady state seepage

Core

= drained shear strength


of clay core

Some Practical Applications of CD


Analysis for Clays
3. Excavation or natural slope in clay

= In situ drained shear strength


Note: CD test simulates the long term condition in the field.
Thus, cd and d should be used to evaluate the long
term behavior of soils

Consolidated Drained (CD) Test


no excess pore pressure throughout the test
very slow shearing to avoid build-up of pore
pressure
gives c and

Can be days!
not
desirable

Use c and for analysing fully drained


situations (e.g., long term stability,
very slow loading)

82

10.8 Consolidated- Undrained Test (CU Test)


Total,

Neutral, u

Effective,

Step 1: At the end of consolidation

VC

VC = VC

hC

Drainage

Step 2: During axial stress increase

V = VC + u = 1

VC +
No
drainage

hC

hC = hC

h = hC u = 3

Step 3: At failure
Vf = VC + f uf = 1f

VC + f
No
drainage

hC

uf

hf = hC uf = 3f

Expansion

Volume change of sample during


consolidation

Time
Compression

Volume change of the


sample

Consolidated- Undrained test (CU Test)

Consolidated- Undrained Test (CU Test)


Deviator stress, d

Stress-strain relationship during


shearing
Dense sand or
OC clay

(d)f
(d)f

Loose sand or
NC Clay

Axial strain

Loose sand
/NC Clay

Axial strain
Dense sand or
OC clay

CU Test How to determine strength parameters c and


Deviator stress, d

(d)fb

1 = 3 + (d)f
Confining stress = 3b

Confining stress = 3a

3
(d)fa

Total stresses at failure

Shear stress,

Axial strain

ccu

cu

Mohr Coulomb failure


envelope in terms of
total stresses

3a

3b

1a

(d)fa

1b

or

CU Test How to determine strength parameters c and


1 = 3 + (d)f - uf

Shear stress,

Mohr Coulomb failure


envelope in terms of
effective stresses

uf

Effective stresses at failure

Mohr Coulomb failure


envelope in terms of
total stresses

ccu

3a

3b
3a

ufa

3b

3 = 3 - uf

1a
(d)fa

cu

ufb

1b
1a

1b

or

CU Test
Strength parameters c and obtained from CD Test

Shear
strength
parameters in terms of
total stresses are ccu and
cu

Shear
strength
parameters in terms of
effective stresses are c
and

c = cd and = d

CU Test Failure envelopes


For sand and NC Clay, ccu and c = 0

Shear stress,

Mohr Coulomb failure


envelope in terms of
effective stresses

Mohr Coulomb failure


envelope in terms of
total stresses

3a 3a

1a 1a

cu

or

(d)fa
Therefore, one CU test would be sufficient to determine cu
and (= d) of sand or NC clay

Some Practical Applications of CU


Analysis for Clays
1. Embankment constructed rapidly over a soft clay deposit

Soft clay

= in situ undrained
shear strength

Some Practical Applications of CU


Analysis for Clays
2. Rapid drawdown behind an earth dam

Core

= Undrained shear
strength of clay core

Some Practical Applications of CU


Analysis for Clays
3. Rapid construction of an embankment on a natural
slope

= In situ undrained shear strength


Note: Total stress parameters from CU test (ccu and cu) can be used for
stability problems where,
Soil have become fully consolidated and are at equilibrium with
the existing stress state; Then for some reason additional
stresses are applied quickly with no drainage occurring

Consolidated Undrained (CU) Test


pore pressure develops during shear
Measure

gives c and

faster than CD (preferred way to find c and )

93

10.9 Unconsolidated- Undrained Test (UU Test)


Data analysis

Initial specimen condition

Specimen condition
during shearing

C = 3
No
drainage

C = 3

No
drainage

3 + d

Initial volume of the sample = A0 H0


Volume of the sample during shearing = A H

Since the test is conducted under undrained condition,


A H = A0 H0

A (H0 H) = A0 H0
A (1 H/H0) = A0

A0
A
1 z

Unconsolidated- Undrained test (UU Test)


Step 1: Immediately after sampling

0
0
Step 2: After application of hydrostatic cell pressure
3 = 3 - uc

C = 3
No
drainage

C = 3

uc

3 = 3 - uc

uc = B 3
Increase of pwp due
increase of cell pressure

to

Increase of cell pressure


Skemptons pore water
pressure parameter, B

Note: If soil is fully saturated, then B = 1 (hence, uc = 3)

Unconsolidated- Undrained test (UU Test)


Step 3: During application of axial load

No
drainage

1 = 3 + d - uc

3 + d
3

3 = 3 - uc

ud

uc ud

ud = Ad
Increase of pwp due to increase
of deviator stress

Increase of deviator stress

Skemptons pore water


pressure parameter, A

Unconsolidated- Undrained Test (UU Test)


Combining steps 2 and 3,

uc = B 3

ud = Ad

Total pore water pressure increment at any stage, u

u = uc + ud
u = B 3 + Ad
u = B 3 + A(1 3)

Skemptons
pore
water
pressure
equation

Unconsolidated- Undrained test (UU Test)


Total,

Neutral, u

-ur

Step 2: After application of hydrostatic cell pressure

No
drainage

C
C

-ur uc = -ur c
(Sr = 100% ; B = 1)

Step 3: During application of axial load

No
drainage

C +
C

-ur c u

C + f
C

h0 = ur
VC = C + ur - C = ur
h = ur
V = C + + ur - c

-ur c uf

h = C + ur - c
Vf = C + f + ur - c

Step 3: At failure

No
drainage

Effective,
V0 = ur

Step 1: Immediately after sampling

uf = 1f

hf = C + ur - c
= 3f

Unconsolidated- Undrained Test (UU Test)


Total,

Neutral, u

C + f
C

Effective,

Vf = C + f + ur - c

Step 3: At failure

No
drainage

uf = 1f

hf = C + ur - c
= 3f

-ur c uf

uf

Mohr circle in terms of effective stresses do not depend on the cell pressure.

Therefore, we get only one Mohr circle in terms of effective stress for different
cell pressures

Unconsolidated- Undrained Test (UU Test)


Total,

Neutral, u

C + f
C

Effective,

Vf = C + f + ur - c

Step 3: At failure

No
drainage

uf = 1f

hf = C + ur - c
= 3f

-ur c uf

uf

Mohr circles in terms of total stresses


Failure envelope, u = 0

cu
ub

3a

3b
3

ua

1a
1b
1

or

Unconsolidated- Undrained test (UU Test)


Effect of degree of saturation on failure envelope

S < 100%

3c 3b

S > 100%

1c 3a 1b

1a or

Some Practical Applications of UU


Analysis for Clays
1. Embankment constructed rapidly over a soft clay deposit

Soft clay

= in situ undrained
shear strength

Some Practical Applications of UU


Analysis for Clays
2. Large earth dam constructed rapidly
with no change in water content of
soft clay

Core

= Undrained shear
strength of clay core

Some Practical Applications of UU


Analysis for Clays
3. Footing placed rapidly on clay deposit

= In situ undrained shear strength

Note: UU test simulates the short term condition in the field.


Thus, cu can be used to analyze the short term
behavior of soils

Unconsolidated Undrained (UU) Test


pore pressure develops during shear
Not measured
unknown

= 0; i.e., failure envelope is


horizontal

analyse in terms of gives cu and u


very quick test
Use cu and u for analysing undrained
situations (e.g., short term stability,
quick loading)

105

10.9 Unconfined Compression Test on


Saturated Clay(UC Test)

1 = VC +

3 = 0

Confining pressure is zero in the UC test


106

1 = VC + f

Shear stress,

Unconfined Compression Test (UC Test)

3 = 0
qu
1
Normal stress,

107

Stress Point
X

t
stress point

stress point

(v-h)/2

h
(v+h)/2

v h
2

v h
2
108

Stress Path
During loading

Stress path
is the locus
of stress
points
Stress path

Stress path is a convenient way to keep track of the


progress in loading with respect to failure envelope.
109

Failure Envelopes

failur
e
tan-1 (sin )

c cos

stress path

During loading (shearing).

110

111

The End

112