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The Craft of Statistical Analysis Webinars

Effect Size Statistics

Effect Size Statistics:


The Craft of Statistical Analysis Webinars

Karen Grace-Martin

Copyright 2014 The Analysis Factor


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The Craft of Statistical Analysis Webinars


Effect Size Statistics

What is an effect size statistic?


an index that is (1) responsive to the strength of the
association between an experimental manipulation and
changes in behavior and (2) independent of sample size.
- Keppel
provide information about the magnitude and direction of the
difference between two groups or the relationship between
two variables.
- Durlak

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Effect Size Statistics

Key uses
Sample size calculations
Reporting results
Comparing effects across studies
Meta analysis

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Effect Size Statistics

Dimensions
Measures of
difference &
association

Measures of
Shared Variance

Simple

Standardized

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Effect Size Statistics

R, R2 and adjusted R2

rxy

( x x )( y y )

=
i

sx s y

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Effect Size Statistics

R, R2 and adjusted R2

rxy

( x x )( y y )

SS R
R =
SST
2

sx s y

(1 R 2 ) (n 1)

Radj2 = 1
n k 1

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Effect Size Statistics

b: Unstandardized and Standardized

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Effect Size Statistics

Mean differences
Simple metric

Cohens d:

yT yC

yT yC
d=
s

Readers may be unaware that a direct comparison


of group means can serve as a useful ES.
~ Durlak (2009)
8

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Effect Size Statistics

Standardized Mean differences


yT yC
F
Cohens d: d =
s

( (n

s pooled =

s =

2
2

1)
s
(n
1)
s
T
T
C
C)

nT + n C 2
2
2
s
+
s
( T C)/2

s = sC
9

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The Craft of Statistical Analysis Webinars


Effect Size Statistics

Standardized Mean differences


yT yC
F
Cohens d: d =
s

( (n

s pooled =

2
2

1)
s
(n
1)
s
T
T
C
C)

nT + n C 2
Bias Correction:

s =

2
2
s
+
s
( T C)/2

s = sC

N 2
N 3
F =

N
N 2.25
10

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The Craft of Statistical Analysis Webinars


Effect Size Statistics

Interpretation and T-shirt sizes


Small .2
Medium .5
Large .8

It is always important to think in terms of actual, absolute effect


sizes, in the same units of measurement as where the
inference is to be made. There is really no honest way around
addressing both the numerator and denominator of d
separately.
~Lenth (2000)
11

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Effect Size Statistics

Eta squared, partial eta squared, and omega squared

p2 =

SS Effect
SSTotal

SS Effect
SS Effect + SS Error

A2 =

SS A (a 1)(MSError )
SST + MSError
12

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Effect Size Statistics

Eta squared, partial eta squared, and omega squared

SS Effect
SSTotal

2
Age
=

4.934
= .05
99.141

13

Copyright 2014 The Analysis Factor


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The Craft of Statistical Analysis Webinars


Effect Size Statistics

Eta squared, partial eta squared, and omega squared

2
Age
=

p2 =

4.934
= .05
99.141
SS Effect

SS Effect + SS Error

p2 ( Age ) =

4.934
= .028
4.934 + 168.387

14

Copyright 2014 The Analysis Factor


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The Craft of Statistical Analysis Webinars


Effect Size Statistics

Eta squared, partial eta squared, and omega squared

2
Age
=

p2 ( Age ) =

A2 =

4.934
= .05
99.141

4.934
= .028
4.934 + 168.387

SS A (a 1)(MSError )
SST + MSError

2
Age
=

4.934 3*.794
= .026
99.141 + .794
15

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Effect Size Statistics

Odds ratios
Outcome 1

Outcome 2

Treatment

Control

OR = b
c
d

13

b
d

a
c

OR =

7 = 2.88
18
28
16

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Effect Size Statistics

Correlation Coefficients
Variable 1

Interval/Ratio

Variable 2

Ordinal
Nominal

Interval/ Ordinal
Ratio

Nominal

Pearsons r

Spearmans
rho

Point Biserial

Spearmans
rho
Polychoric

Rank Biserial

Phi,
Tetrachoric

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Effect Size Statistics

References and Resources


Effect Size Calculators http://www.uccs.edu/lbecker/index.html
Coe, R. (2002). It's the Effect Size, Stupid
What effect size is and why it is important
http://www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents/00002182.htm
Morris & DeShon (2003). Estimating Common Metric Effect
Sizes From a Variety of Research Designs
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.121
.2394&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Lenth (2001). Some Practical Guidelines for Effective Sample
Size Determination
http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~maccoun/PP279_Lenth.pdf
Durlak (2009). How to Select, Calculate, and Interpret Effect
Sizes
http://jpepsy.oxfordjournals.org/content/34/9/917.full.pdf 18

Copyright 2014 The Analysis Factor


http://TheAnalysisFactor.com

The Craft of Statistical Analysis Webinars


Effect Size Statistics

References and Resources at The Analysis Factor


A Comparison of Effect Size Statistics
http://www.theanalysisfactor.com/effect-size/
How to Calculate Effect Size Statistics
http://www.theanalysisfactor.com/calculate-effect-size/
The Most Difficult Step in Calculating Sample Size Estimates
http://www.theanalysisfactor.com/sample-size-mostdifficult-step/
On Demand Workshop: Calculating Power and Sample Size
http://theanalysisinstitute.com/on-demand-workshopsample-size/

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