Sie sind auf Seite 1von 28

Biology Reviewer

Cell Theory
1. All living things are structurally made up of cells. (Matthias
Scheliden, Theodor Schwann)

Zaccharias Janssen- first compound microscope

Light Microscope- image is formed by absorption of light in the
specimen and its transmission through a set of lenses

2. The cell is the fundamental unit of life. (Henry Dutrochet)

a. Bright-field- bright, lighted microscopic field

3. Cells come from the division of pre-existing cells. (Rudolf Virchow)

b. Dark-field- bright image of the specimen against a

dark field of view at an oblique angle

Robert Hooke- coined the term cell; English Father of Microscopy

Anton Van Leeuwenhoek- discovered bacteria and other microscopic
organisms in rainwater; studied structure of plant and animal cells;
Father of Microscopy
Francesco Redi and Lazzaro Spallanzani- disproved Theory of
Spontaneous Generation

c. Phase-contrast- enhances the density differences in

the organelles causing certain structures to appear
brighter or darker than the others; for observing
living cells in their natural condition

Robert Brown- discovered nuclei within cells

d. Differential-interference-contrast- contrasting
brighter or darker appearance of various organelles
through technical optical methods

Felix Dujardin- noted that all living things contain a thick jelly fluid

e. Immuno-fluorescent- certain type of protein can be


Matthias Schleiden (botanist) and Theodor Schwann (zoologist)- all

plants and animals are made up of cells


Johannes Purkinje- coined the term protoplasm, the living matter of the
Rudolf Virchow- omnia cellula e cellula or cells come from preexisting cells
Louis Pasteur- proof of Virchows Theory of Biogenesis

Confocal- use laser beams and special optics for

optical sectioning; 3D

Electron Microscope- uses a beam of electrons and magnetic or

electrostatic fields as lenses
a. Transmission electron microscope- a beam of
electrons is aimed through a very thin specimen;
magnetic fields bend the beam of electrons

b. Scanning electron microscope- specimen is thinly

coated by a metal and then bombarded with
Fractionation- takes cells to separate major organelles for the study of
their individual functions
Homogenization- disruptions of cells
Cellular Structure
Three Major Parts:
Cytoplasm- main metabolic life activities; largely water; reservoir
for the entry and exit of materials in the cell; consists of:
a. A thick, semifluid aggregate of chemical
compounds (cytosol)
b. Internal membrane (cytomembrane)
Protein- most abundant among the organic components of
the cytoplasm; provides materials for the growth and
development of the cell
Cell membrane- outer boundary of the cell; consists of a double
layer of fats or lipid (phospolipid or glycolipid) with scattered
proteins; differentially permeable; has three major functions:
a. Separates the contents of the cell from the external
b. Regulates the passage of materials into and out of
the cell

c. Allows communication with other cells

Nucleus- control center of the cell; regulates and coordinates all
the activities of the cell; consists of:
a. Nucleoplasm- semifluid medium separated from the
cytoplasm by nuclear membrane; consists of
nucleoproteins, granules and fibrils
b. Nuclear membrane- a double membrane, each a
phospholipid bilayer, with nuclear pores
c. Nuclear pores- pathways for the exchange of
materials between the nucleus and the cytoplasm
d. Nucleolus- suspended in the nucleoplasm;
composed of RNA and protein molecules; site
where the subunits of ribosomes are formed
e. Chromatin- composed of DNA; coils and becomes
condensed into chromosomes
Organelles in the Cytoplasm:
Mitochondria- largest organelle in cell; powerhouse of eukaryotic
cells; sites of cellular respiration; made up of:
a. Cristae- folds; provide more surface area for greater
cellular respiratory productivity
b. Matrix- inner cavity into which the cristae project
c. Intermembrane space- narrow region between the
inner and outer membranes

Ribosomes- sites of protein synthesis; of two types:

a. Bound- attached to the endoplasmic reticulum;
make secretory proteins

Free- suspended in the cytosol; produce proteins

that are localized in the cytosol

Different kinds of protein:

a. Channel Protein- allows a particular molecule/ion to
cross the cell membrane freely as it enters/exits the
Ex. Cystic fibrosis
b. Carrier Protein- selectively interacts with a specific
molecule/ion so that it can cross the cell membrane
to enter/exit the cell; transports sodium ions and
potassium ions across the cell membrane; requires
ATP energy
c. Cell Recognition Protein- a glycoprotein that
identifies the cell
Ex. MHC (major histocompability complex)
d. Receptor Protein- a protein that is shaped in such a
way that a specific molecule can bind to it
Ex. Pygmies are short not because they do not
produce growth hormones but because their cell
membrane growth hormone receptions are faulty
and cannot interact with growth hormone.

e. Enzymatic Protein- a protein that catalyzes a

specific reaction
Ex. Adenylate cyclase that is involved in
mRNA copies code of DNA nucleus cytoplasm tRNA translates
message ribosomesamino acids protein
Cytomembrane System- network of pathways through which
materials flow to the different parts of the cytoplasm; passage for
the entry and exit of certain substances in the cell
Endoplasmic Reticulum- transport of lipids and membrane
proteins; has two kinds:
a. Rough ER- protein synthesis
b. Smooth ER- fat metabolism; forms vesicles for
transporting large molecules to other cell parts
Golgi Apparatus- named after Camillo Golgi; modifying,
sorting and packaging macromolecules for secretion or for
delivery to other organelles
Lysosomes- produced by the Golgi apparatus; digestive
sacs; destruction or repair of defective parts of the cell
Peroxisomes- contain oxidative enzymes; convert fatty acids
into sugar in seed germination
Vacuoles- large membranos storage sacs in cells (smaller
ones are called vesicles); storage of water or food; excretion
of waste materials; intracellular digestion; space filling, cell

Cell Cycle Stages

Mitosis- division of nucleus; 2 diploid cells in one division (46
Prophase- no pairing of chromosomes; nuclei and nuclear
membrane disappear; spindle fibers are formed; homologous
chromosomes (synapsis)

Telophase- haploid daughter cells

Meiosis II
Prophase- dyads are present (one dyad per homologous
Metaphase- dyads at equator (haploid number)

Metaphase- diploid number of dyads; alignment; tetrads at equator

Anaphase- sister chromatids separate (chromosomes)

Anaphase- sister chromatids separate; migration

Telophase- four daughter cells

Telophase- 2 diploid daughter cells; reverse prophase

Interphase- stage between two successive divisions
Gap 1 or G1 phase- cells increase in size; RNA synthesis
Synthesis or S phase- DNA synthesis; chromosomes are replicated
(sister chromatids)
Gap 2 or G2 phase- continuation of RNA synthesis and protein
synthesis; increase in size
Meiosis- 2 haploid daughter cells (23 chromosomes); for male gonads to
produce sperm cell
Meiosis I
Prophase- pairing of homologous chromosomes; formation of
Metaphase- tetrads at equator
Anaphase- homologous chromosomes separate

Cell Reproduction
Reproduction- ability of an organism to increase in number and produce
their own kind; process in which living things can perpetuate their species
Sexual Reproduction- involves union of gametes
Asexual Reproduction- offspring is genetically identical with its
single parent; results in the formation of clones
Budding- buds or outgrowths from the parent cell/body grow
into new individuals
Ex. Yeast, Hydra
Spore Formation- spores (haploid) germinate into new
individuals without fertilization
Ex. Bread molds, mosses and ferns
Fission- single-celled organisms
Ex. Bacteria, some protozoans

Fragmentation- parent body breaks up into several pieces

that develop into new organisms

Axial Skeleton
Skull- protects the brain

Ex. Sponges, flatworms

Backbone- or vertebral column; protects the spinal

cord; gently curved like a double S; consists of:

Regeneration- growth of lost body part of an animal

Ex. Sea star

24 movable vertebrae7 cervical vertebrae

(neck region), 12 thoracic vertebrae (chest
region), 5 lumbar vertebrae

Skeletal System

9 fused vertebraesacrum (5 vertebrae fused

into one), coccyx (4 vertebrae fused into one)

Functions of Bones:

Rib cage- protects the heart and lungs

a) Support

Appendicular Skeleton

b) Protection
c) Calcium storage

Bones of the forelimb

d) Blood cell production

Shoulder girdle

e) Serves as body framework

Bones of the hind limbs

Pelvic girdle

Shapes of Bones:
a) Flat- red marrow; scapula, skull, ribs


b) Irregular- vertebra

1. Immovable- no movement, ex. suture

c) Long- yellow marrow (fatty substances)

2. Slightly/Partially movable- ex. Cervical vertebrae

d) Short

3. Movable

The human body has 260 bones:

a) Ball and socket- one bone is cup-like and the other is

rounded; rotation

Ex. Shoulder, hips

b) Hinge- forward and backward movement
Ex. Elbow, knee
c) Pivot- rotate 180
Ex. Atlas, axis
d) Gliding- bones slide with one another
Ex. Wrist and ankle
Bone Tissue
1. Periosteum- tough membrane covering of a bone

b) Yellow bone marrow- fatty tissue; produce

6. Joint- point where two bones meet
7. Haversian system- circular-patterned units in the cross-section of
the bone
8. Lamellae- rings within the Haverian system
9. Lacunae- small cavities between adjacent lamellae
10.Canaliculi- small branching canals interconnected to lacunae
11.Haversian canal- interconnecting channels containing nerves
and blood vessels that supply the body cells

2. Epiphysis- spongy end part of long bones

12.Synovial fluid- lubricant secreted by a connective tissue

membrane surrounding a joint

3. Compact bones- hard outer part of long bones; gives bone


13.Bursae- sacs of fluid that cushion a joint against shock

Calcium phosphate- gives hardness and strength of bones

14.Osteocytes- mature bone cells that secrete the hard bony matrix

4. Diaphysis- the shaft

15.Osteoblasts- bone-forming cells (secrete protein matrix of bone)

5. Spongy bone- or cancellous; softer part of the bone containing

small spaces; makes up most of the volume of bone; contains
bone marrow

16.Osteoclasts- bone-absorbing cells (removing bony substances)

2 Types of Bone Marrow:

a) Red bone marrow- fat and blood-producing
cells; produce RBC
All the bone marrow during infancy is red.

Bone Growth and Development

Bone development consists of change in number of bones, growth
in bone size and change of composition.
Osteogenesis or Ossification- process of bone formation

1. Intramembranous Ossification- mainly occurs during formation

of the flat bones of the skull; bone is formed from mesenchyma

a) Because the bones of babies are soft, they can easily be

b) Bones in childhood are less subject to fracture or breaks
than they will be after ossification

a) Development of ossification center
b) Calcification

Change in the Number of Bones: At birth the human body has about
350 bones, but by the time adulthood rolls around, some of our
bones have fused together to give us a total of 206 bones

c) Formation of trabeculae

Muscular System

d) Development of periosteum

Types of Muscles:

2. Endochondral Ossification- occurs in long bones, e.g., limbs;

bone formed from cartilage
a) Development of cartilage model
b) Growth of cartilage model
c) Development of primary ossification center
d) Development of secondary ossification center




Number of



One or two

Presence of


Few striations or


Cell shape








e) Formation of articular cartilage and epiphyseal plate

Ossification- hardening of bones is mainly postnatal, beginning in
the first year and ending during puberty; begins at the ossification
center; dependent upon secretion of a hormone from the thyroid
Importance of Ossification:

Structures of Muscles
1. Sarcolemma- muscle cell membrane; acts as cover
2. Sarcoplasm- muscle cytoplasm; holds organelles
3. Sarcoplasmic reticulum- muscle endoplasmic reticulum;
transport unit

4. Myofibrils- muscle filaments; muscle cell contractile subunit

a) Actin- thin filaments with troponin and tropomyosin for
muscle contraction
b) Myosin- thick filament; crosses bridges/heads that holds
actin filament during muscle contraction
5. Sarcomere- functional unit of myofibril

Mucus membrane
Nasal cavity

sarco- jelly-like


myo- muscle


Digestive System- for energy production

Peristalsis- rhythmic movement


Two Phases of Ingestion

Mastecation- constant grinding of food

1. Mechanical- physical change in food

Sphincter- cardiac/esophoseal bulb at the end of the esophagus; regulates

entry and exit

2. Chemical- enzymes (organic catalysts that speed

up chemical reaction) act on food

Stomach- contains strongest acid- HCl acid; contains gastric acids


Pepsin enzyme + HCl = peptide bond

Elimination or defecation

Three Layers:


1. Longitudinal

Teeth (32)

2. Circular

Tongue- smooth muscle; contains taste buds (detects chemical)

3. Angled/Oblique

Salivary glands

B. Valves
Circulatory System- process in which blood is delivered to the capillaries
where exchange of molecules take place

1. Antrioventricular valves- between atria and ventricles

a. Tricuspid- has three cups/flaps at the right side of the heart

Importance: transport of

b. Bicuspid (or mitral)- has two flaps at the left side of the heart

1. Food nutrients

2. Semilunar valves

2. Respiratory gases

a. Pulmonary semilunar valve- between right ventricle to

pulmonary arteries

3. Cellular wastes
Organs of Circulatory System:
A. Heart- double pumping organ/machine; right side pumps
deoxygenated blood and left side pumps oxygenated blood
Pericardium- outer covering
Septum- structure that separates right side to left side
Layers of Heart Wall

b. Aortic semilunar valve- between left ventricle to aorta

Cardiac Cycle (lasts .85 seconds)



.15 seconds

.30 seconds

.40 seconds

1. Epicardium- protects the barriers of the heart

2. Myocardium- muscle contraction and propulsion of blood

S- Systole

3. Endocardium- lines the chambers of the heart where blood

passes through

D- Diastole

Trabeculae- fiber in muscles found in endocardium

Visceral pericardium- a cavity filled with fluid that avoids friction
due to contraction
Pericarditis- disease where there is water in the heart

Heart contracts by 70x/min. or heartbeat lasts about .85seconds.

Heart Sounds:
1. Lub- vibration of heart when atrioventricular valves closes
2. Dupp- vibrations of the heart when the semilunar valves closes

Cardiac Conduction System

The very muscular wall with many elastic fibers

allows the artery to withstand and maintain a
high blood pressure.

Nodal Tissue- has muscular and nervous characteristics which

causes heart to beat independently of any nervous stimulation
1. Sinoatrial node (SA)- initiates heartbeat and automatically
send out an excitation impulse every .85 seconds to cause
atria to contract. It is called as the pacemaker because it
keeps heartbeat regular.

Pocket valves close to prevent back flow

of blood. This is essential to get blood
back to heart.

2. Antrioventricular node (AV)- signals ventricles to contract

by way of a special fiber, Purkinje fiber

As capillary is one cell thick, it is very

leaky as substances like oxygen and
glucose can pass out and carbon dioxide
move in.

Purkinje fiber causes ventricles to contract.

Electrocardiogram- electrical recording device to study heartbeat by
recording voltage changes occurring during heart contraction
ECG- record results; has waves:

2. QRS wave- ventricular excitation and contraction

Respiratory System- complete process of getting oxygen to body cells

for cellular respiration and the reverse process of ridding the body of
carbon dioxide by the cells

3. T wave- recovery of ventricles from contraction

Air passages:

1. P wave- excitation and contraction of atria

a. Sinus tachycardia- fast heartbeat due to fast pacemaker

b. Ventricular fibrillation- irregular heartbeat due to irregular
stimulation of ventricles
c. Mitral stenosis- mitral/bicuspid obstructed

1. Nose- has two nasal cavities separated by a septum; ciliated cells at

the upper portion as odor receptors lacrimal (tear gland) duct and
communicates with cranial sinuses during cold or allergic reactions
causing inflammation, mucus accumulation and sinus headache. As
air entered, it is filtered by cilia, warmed by heat given off by blood
vessels lying close to surface lining of air passages, and moistened
by wet surface of the passages. Its air moves out, if loses moisture.
Nasopharynx- passage of air from nose through throat

2. Pharynx- connection point of air and food passages found at the

back of the throat
Glottis- a slitlike opening between the vocal cords (elastic
ligaments) at the top of the larynx and is covered by a flap of tissue
(epiglottis) to prevent the passing of food

membranes (outer and inner). Normally, intrapleural pressure is less

than atmospheric pressure that causes air to enter.
Lung capacities:
1. Tidal volume- amount of air moved in and out of the lungs (500 ml)
that can be increased by deep breathing

3. Larynx (voice box)- sound is produced. Pitch of voice depends upon

the length, thickness, degree of elasticity of vocal cords and the
tension at which they are held. Voice growth of larynx is much rapid
and accentuated in males producing Adams apple. Their voice
breaks due to inability to control vocal cords.

2. Vital capacity- total volume of air that can be moved in and out
during a single breath. It is the total sum of tidal, inspiratory
reserve and expiratory reserve volumes

4. Trachea (wind pipe)- has C-shaped cartilaginous rings and ciliated

mucus membrane. If an object blocked this passage, a tube is
inserted in an incision on the throat as an artificial air intake and
exhaust duct through the operation called tracheoctomy

4. Expiratory reserve volume- increased expiration by 1, 400 ml of air

5. Bronchi- two divided tubes from the trachea that are branched into
6. Bronchioles- smaller brances with thinner walls and terminates in
7. Alveoli- air packets/sacs (300M, with total cross-sectional area of
50-70m2) where gasses are exchanged in its one layered squamous
epithelium surrounded by blood capillaries and lipoprotein lining
that lowers lung surface tension that prevents them from closing.
Premature babies die when lipoprotein is not present in their lungs
(Infant respiratory distress syndrome).
Lungs- coneshaped organ lying on both sides of the heart within
thoracic cavity (ribs, sternum and muscles) above the dome-shaped
horizontal muscle, diaphragm and are enclosed by the pleural

3. Inspiratory reserve volume- increased inspiration (3,100 ml) by

contrasting the thoracic muscles.

5. Residual volume- remain air in the lungs that is no longer useful for
gas exchange purposes
Factors Affecting Lung Capacity:
1. Activity
2. Health condition
3. Higher altitude
4. Gender
Dead space- air passages that are filled with air that never reaches the
lungs. Breathing through a tube increases the amount of dead space
beyond maximal inhaling capacity that can cause death to the
individual because the air inhaled never reaches the alveoli.
Components of Respiration:

A. Breathing- entrance and exit of air in and out of lungs

Importance: To supply the body with oxygen and the metabolic end
product carbon dioxide must also be eliminated by breathing
C6H12O6 + 6O2 6H2O + 6CO2
Normal breathing is 14-20x/min. Person at rest utilizes 250ml of
O2/min. and 500ml/min. with mild exercise.
Mechanism of Breathing:
When breathing, there is a continuous column of air from the
pharynx to the alveoli of the lungs because air passages are open.
1. Inspiration- active phase of breathing; induced by:
a. Concentrated CO2 and H+ ions in the blood causing the
respiratory center in the medulla oblongata to be stimulated,
b. Chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies (in carotid arteries) and
aortic bodies (in aorta) to respond to H+ ion concentration,
CO2 and O2 in blood
c. Nerve impulses causes diaphragm to contract and lowers, rib
cage muscles contract and move upward and outward
increasing the size of the thoracic cavity and lungs to
expand. As the lungs expand, air pressure within enlarged
alveoli lowers.
2. Expiration- happens when:

a. The expanded lungs with stretched alveoli stimulate special

receptors in the alveolar walls to initiate nerve impulses to
travel to the breathing center.
b. Medulla oblongata inhibits and stops sending signals to the
diaphragm and the rib cage causing it to relax and resume its
shape. The abdominal organs press up against the
diaphragm, rib cage moves down and inward and the lungs
recoil as air is pushed out.
B. External Respiration- exchange of gases between air in the alveoli
and blood in the pulmonary capillaries through diffusion determined
by the pressure or tension gradient carried as bicarbonate ion
H+ + HCO-3 H2CO3 H2O + CO2 (CO2 leaves the body)
The enzyme carbonic anhydrase present in the RBC speeds up the
reaction. The respiratory pigment hemoglobin gives up the H ions it
has been carrying causing HHb to be Hb (hemoglobin). Hemoglobin
more readily takes up O2 and becomes oxyhemoglobin (HbO2).
Hb + O2 HbO2 (O2 is entering the body)
Hemoglobin takes up O2 more readily at the warmer and more
acidic pH f the tissues.
C. Internal Respiration- exchange of gases between blood in
systematic capillaries and tissue fluid by reducing hemoglobin from
oxyhemoglobin as oxygen diffuses out of blood into the tissues.
HbO2 Hb + O2

Diffusion of O2 out of blood into the tissues occur because the O 2

concentration of tissue fluid is low (the cells continuously use up O 2
in the cellular respiration). Diffusion of CO 2 into blood from the
tissues occur because CO2 concentration of tissue fluid is high. CO 2
enters the blood taken by haemoglobin forming
carbominohemoglobin (HbCO2) which disassociates to H+ ions and
bicarbonate ions (HCO3-).
Carbonic Anhydrase speeds up the reaction.
CO2 + H2O H2CO3 H+ + HCO3The globin portion Hb combines with excess H + ions produced by
the reaction, and Hb becomes HHb making blood pH fairly constant.
The bicarbonate ion diffuses out of the RBC cells and is carried in
the plasma.
D. Cellular respiration- production of ATP in cells
External Respiration Process: alveoli to blood
1. H+ HCO3- H2CO3 H2O + CO2
2. HbCO2 Hb + CO2

Mechanism of Breathing


1. Medulla sends stimulatory

messages to the
diaphragm and rib

1. Stretch receptors in lungs

send inhibitory messages
in medulla.

2. Diaphragm contracts and


2. Diaphragm relaxes and

resumes a dome position.

3. Rib cage moves up and


3. Rib cage moves down and


4. Lungs expand.

4. Lungs recoil.

5. Negative pressure builds

in lungs (air does not
force the lungs open
because lungs are pulled
open as air comes in).

5. Positive pressure builds up

in lungs.

6. Air is pulled in.

3. Hb + O2 HbO2
Internal Respiration Process: blood to cells/tissues

Components of Air

Inspired Air (%

Expired Air (%

1. HbO2 Hb + O2




2. Hb + CO2 HbCO2




3. HbCO2 H2CO3 H+ + HCO-3

Carbon Dioxide



Five Types of Circulation:

1. Pulmonary- lungs
2. Coronary- heart
3. Ephatic portal- pancreas, stomach, digestive system
4. Renal- kidney
5. Systemic- intarbody
Respiratory Infections and Diseases
1. Common cold- viral infection; scratchy throat, watery mucus
discharge from nasal cavities
2. Influenza (flu)- viral infection; fever, aches and pains in the joints
3. Bronchitis- viral infection from nasal cavities to sinuses (sinusitis),
to middle ears (otitis media), to the larynx (laryngitis), and bronchi.
Acute bronchitis is caused by secondary bacterial infection with
heavy mucus discharge and coughing and responds to antibiotic
therapy. Chronic bronchitis is caused by constant irritation of
bronchi lining resulting to loss of cilia and normal cleansing action;
caused by smoking
4. Strep throat- bacterium streptococcus pyogenes infection; difficulty
swallowing and fever; can lead to rheumatic fever if not treated
with antibiotics
5. Pneumonia- bacterial/viral infection; lobes of lungs are filled with
mucus and pus
6. Tuberculosis- tubercle bacillus infection

7. Emphysema- caused by smoking that leads to the destruction of

lung tissue with ballooning/inflation of the lungs due to the trapped
air. The bronchioles collapse causing cutting off of renewed oxygen
supply in alveoli. The trapped air makes alveolar walls to rupture,
thus exchange of gases are reduced and insufficient amount of
oxygen reaches the heart and the brain.
8. Pulmonary fibrosis- caused by inhalation of silica (sand), coal dust
and asbestos leading to building of fibrous connective tissues in the
lungs that enables breathing capacity to be seriously impaired.
Excretory System- involves the ridding off of unwanted substances such
as the end product of metabolism
1. Ammonia (NH3) amino acid metabolism excreted by kidneys
2. Urea ammonia metabolism excreted by kidneys and skin
3. Uric acid nucleotide metabolism created by the kidneys. Excess
uric acid precipitates out of the plasma. Gout is a painful ailment
caused by crystals of uric acid collected in joints.
4. Creatinine creatine phosphate metabolism excreted by the
5. Bile pigment haemoglobin metabolism excreted by the liver.
Jaundice is a skin discolour condition caused by bile pills from a
blocked bile duct
6. Carbon dioxide bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) excreted by the kidneys
as end product of cellular respiration
7. Ions important to the pH, the osmotic pressure, and the
electrolyte balance of blood. The balance of potassium and sodium
ions is important to nerve conduction, calcium ions to muscle
contraction, iron ions in haemoglobin metabolism excreted by the

large intestine, magnesium ions help many enzymes to function

8. Water excreted by the kidneys
Organs of excretion:
1. Kidneys primary excretory organ and consistently rid the body of
urea. It has regulatory functions:
1. For the adjustment of blood pH and ion balance (excretion of
hydrogen ions (H+) and ammonia (NH3) and reabsorption of
sodium ions and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) if blood is acidic. If
blood is basic only, few hydrogen ions are excreted and few
sodium ions and bicarbonate ions are reabsorbed); thus
making ions balance

5. Large Intestine excrete salts, iron and calcium directly into its cavity
by the epithelial cells lining it
Urinary System (Path):
1. Kidneys 2 bean-shaped reddish brown organ at fist size that forms
urine compound of metabolic waste products. Its external structure
features a depression where renal blood vessels and ureters enter.
Internal structure involves:
o Cortex outer granulated layer which dips down in between

2. Maintains blood volume under the control of hormones ADH

(increases the permeability of collecting duct to absorb
Diuresis increased amount of urine, less ADH secretion
Antidiuresis decreased amount of urine, more ADH secretion
And aldosterone (maintains Na+ and K+; increases Na+ in blood
causes water to reabsorb that leads to increase blood volume and
blood pressure)
2. Skin has sweat glands to excrete sweat (water, salt and urea) to keep
body temperature within normal range
3. Liver excretes bile pigments
4. Lungs excrete carbon dioxide and water (moisture by blowing onto
cool mirror)

Medulla radially striated or lined layer that contains conical

masses of tissue called renal pyramids. At the tip of each
pyramid there is a tube that joins with others to form the
renal pelvis.

Renal pelvis inner space/cavity that is continuous with the


Nephron known as the renal/kidney tubules. It is made up of:

Bowmans capsule double-walled cup of specialized cells that

allow easy passage of molecules located at the cortex that contains
a capillary tuft called glomerulus.
Proximal convoluted tubule highly coiled region of nephrons
cortex with cells that are cuboidal with many mitochondria and
inner brush border

Loop of Henle cells are flat and tubes become narrow making a Uturn located at the medulla

Distal convoluted tubule cells are cuboidal, with mitochondria but

no brush border at the cortex

Collecting duct a tube that receives urine from several distal

convoluted tubule are located at the medulla

2. Ureters muscular tubes that convey urine from the kidneys toward the
bladder by peristaltic action
3. Urinary bladder hollow, muscular organ that holds 600 mL of urine. In
males, it lies ventral to the rectum, the seminal vesicles, and the vas
deferens. In females, it is ventral to the uterus and the upper vagina
4. Urethra extends from urinary bladder to the external opening. In
males, its length averages 15 cm when penis is relaxed. In females, it is
only about 2.5 cm long making bacterial invasion possible
Steps in Urine formation
1. Pressure filtration blood pressure forces small molecules (water,
glucose, amino acids, salts, urea, uric acid, creatine) form the
glomerulus into Bowmans capsule
2. Selective absorption diffusion and active transport return
molecules (water, glucose, amino acids, salts) to blood at proximal
convoluted tubule
3. Tubular excretion active transport moves molecules (uric acid,
creatine, hydrogen ions, ammonia, penicillin) from blood into the
distal convoluted tubule
4. Reabsorption of water along the length of the nephron and
notably at loop of Henle and collecting duct, water returns by
osmosis following active reabsoprtion of salt
5. Excretion urine formation rids body of metabolic wastes (water,
salts, urea, uric acid, ammonia, creatinine)
Problems with kidney functions:
1. Urethritis infection of the urethra
2. Cystisis infection of the urinary bladder

3. Pyelonephritis infection of the kidney

4. Glomerulus damage glomerulus blockage no fluid moves into
the tubules, or glomerulus are more permeable even blood cells
and albumin is present in urine
5. Uremia extensive glomerulus damage and waste substances are
accumulated in blood
6. Edema fluid concentration in body tissues due to retention of
water and salts
7. Loss of consciousness and heart failure imbalance of ionic
composition in body fluids
Kidney failure replacement/remedies
1. Kidney transplant survival rate from a relative is 97% and 95%
from a non-relative
2. Dialysis utilizing a kidney machine / CAPD (continuous ambulatory
peritoneal/abdominal dialysis) which diffuses dissolved molecules
through a semipermeable membrane. A fresh amount of dialysate is
introduces directly into the abdominal cavity from a bag attached to
a permanently implanted plastic tube. Wastes and water molecules
pass into the dialysate from the surrounding organs before the fluid
is collected 4 or 8 hours later. Individuals can go about his/her
normal activities during CAPD
3. Hemodialysis patients blood is passed through a semipermeable
membranous tube that is in contact with a balanced salt (dialysis)
solution (dialysate). In a 6hr hemodialysis, 50-250g of urea are
removed from a patient, which greatly exceeds the urea clearance
of normal kidneys. Patient needs to undergo treatment only about
twice a week and cannot do any activities during the treatment.
Nervous System- accountable for quick reaction to external and internal


temperature, and responses to satisfy

physiological needs; controls emotions

1. Sensory Input- sends signals through sensory receptors to

the central nervous system (CNS)

b. Midbrain- connected to sensory nerves of eyes

2. Integration- CNS integrates and formulates appropriate

reaction from the sensory input

c. Hindbrain
c1. Pons and medulla oblongata

3. Motor Output- facilitates the action in the efferent nerves

(muscles and glands)

c2. Cerebellum- balance, coordination of


Parts of the Nervous System


c3. Brain stem

Central Nervous System- the bodys main control center

A. Brain- control center of the nervous system;
responsible for behaviour
Parts of the Brain:
a. Forebrain- where major processing centers are
a1. Cerebrum- most anterior or most dorsal
region of the nervous system (memory and
a2. Thalamus- sorts out all information from the
sense organs as well as the other parts of the
brain before relaying them to the cerebrum
(sends information towards cerebrum)
a3. Hypothalamus- controls the secretion of
many hormones; regulates blood pressure, body

B. Spinal Cord- pathway towards the brain


Peripheral Nervous System or PNS- nerves that project from CNS

1. Somatic Nervous System- sensory and motor
2. Automatic Nervous System- motor neurons only;
involves the:
b1. Sympathetic Nervous System- controls the
internal organs during stressful situations and
increased activity
b2. Parasympathetic Nervous System- controls
the internal organs during routine conditions

The Twelve Cranial Nerves:

1. Olfactory (smell)
2. Optic (vision)

3. Oculomotor (eye movements)

4. Trochlear (eye movements)
5. Trigeminal (facial sensation and jaw movements)
6. Abducent (eye movements)
7. Facial (facial expression and taste)
8. Acoustic or Vestibulocochlear (hearing and balance)
9. Glossopharyngeal (taste and throat sensation)
10.Vagus (breathing, circulation and digestion)
11.Spinal Accessory (movement of neck and back muscles)
12.Hypoglossal (tongue movement)
Drugs and the Nervous System:
1. Stimulants- drugs that exert their action through excitation of the
CNS; used to enhance mental alertness and reduce drowsiness and
a. Coffee- If the dosage of caffeine is increased
above 200g (about two cups of coffee), it does
not increase mental performance but may
increase nervousness, irritability, tremors and
b. Amphetamines- lose weight; increase alertness;
elevate mood, reduce feelings of fatigue and
hunger, facilitate powers of concentration , and
increase the desire and capacity to carry out

work; induce exhilarating feelings of power,

strength, energy, self-assertion, focus and
enhanced motivation; need to sleep or eat is
c. Cocaine- in nucleus accumbens; local
2. Sedative- induce sleep
a. Barbiturates- depress the reticular formation
(thus promoting sleep) and in high doses =, the
medulla oblongata (thus stopping breathing)
3. Opiates- effective painkillers; control coughing, breathing and
intestinal motility; exceedingly addictive, quickly producing
tolerance and dependence
a. Morphine- used as painkiller
b. Codeine- used as painkiller and in cough medicine
c. Heroin- more effective as a painkiller than morphine
and codeine; so highly addictive that its use is illegal
4. Marijuana- drowsiness, dulling of pain, perception distorting effects
of the psychedelics
Endocrine System- utilizes chemical messengers that bring about the
coordination of body parts.
Hormones- chemical messengers that influence the metabolism of the
receiving cell
Categories of Chemical messengers:

1. Pheromones - act a distance between individuals

b) Anterior - "master gland"; controls secretion of other endocrine

glands; produces hypothalamic-releasing & inhibiting hormones

2. Traditional Endocrine Hormones & Secretions of Neurosecretory cells act a distance within the individual.

Growth Hormone/Somatotropin (GH)- cell division, protein

synthesis, bone growth

3. Prostaglandin & Neurotransmitter substances - local messengers

Lactogenic Hormone/Prolactin (LTH)- mammary gland
development; milk production

Types of Hormones
1. Peptide/Polypeptide/Protein/Amino acid hormones- coded by genes &
synthesized at the ribosomes; activates exciting enzyme in the cell
(combines with receptors, produces cAMP, activates a certain cell and so
on); acts on the target cell with a lesser period of effect
2. Steroid Hormones- produced by adrenal cortex, testes, ovaries
(combines with receptors, enters the nucleus, binds with chromatin,
activates a particular gene and synthesis of certain enzymes), ex.
Anabolic/Synthetic Steroids (1930); prevents muscle atrophy to burn
victims and surgery patients; prolonged use leads to stunted growth, high
blood cholesterol, liver cancer and mood swings.

Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH)

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)- stimulates thyroid
Adrenocottinocotropic Hormone (ACTH)- stimulates adrenal
Gonodotropic Hormones- stimulates the gonads
Lutinizing Hormone
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone

Endocrine Glands and Hormones

1. Hypothalamus - regulates internal environment (water level,
temperature, blood pressure, etc.)
2. Pituitary Gland- connected to hypothalamus
a) Posterior
Antidiuretic Hormone/Vasopressin (ADH)- promotes H2O
reabsorption in the kidney
Oxytocin- uterine contraction; artificially induce labor;
produce milk in mammary glands

3. Thyroid Gland - iodine is actively transported

Thyroxin- increases metabolic rate
Calcitonin- regulates the calcium level in the blood and
opposes the action of the parathyroid hormone.
4. Parathyroid Gland
Parathyroid Hormone/Parathormone (PTH)-increases
calcium level and decreases phosphate level in blood
5. Adrenal gland

a) Cortex
Glucocorticoids/Cortisol- Amino acid to glucose; raises
blood glucose level
Mineralocorticoids/Aldosterone- regulates level of sodium &
Sex hormones
b) Medulla
Norepinephrine- responses associated with fight or flight
response; blood glucose level and metabolic rate increases.

Estrogen- development and maintains female sex

Progesterone- stimulate growth of uterine lining
8. Thymus - active and largest during childhood.
Thymosin- aids in the differentiation of T cells and
stimulates immune cells
9. Pineal Gland - receives nerve impulses via eyes (optic tract)
Melatonin- Circadian rhythms in sleep cycle
10. Other glands

Epinephrine- responses associated with fight or flight

response; blood glucose level and metabolic rate increases.
6. Pancreas - Islets of Langerhans produces & secretes hormones
Insulin- secreted when there is a high level of glucose in
the blood
Glucagon- stimulates breakdown of stored nutrients;
causes blood level to rise
7. Gonads - determines sexual characteristic
a) Testes - male
Androgen (Testosterone)- develops and maintains male sex
b) Ovaries - female

a) Heart
Atrial Natriuretic Hormone
b) Stomach
Gastric juice (HCL & Pepsin )
c) Small Intestine
Intestinal Juices
Diseases Related to the Endocrine System
Diabetes Insipidus - inability to produce ADH
Giantism - associated with GH (too much)
Dwarfism - associated with GH (too little)

Acromegaly - associated with GH (abnormal growths in the body)

2. Type II (Maturity-Onset Diabetes)- produces insulin but cells don't

respond due to faulty receptor or lack of glucose

Hypothyroidism - low level of thyroxin in the blood

Renin - enzyme from the kidney that converts:
Hyperthyroidism - high level of thyroxin in blood
a) Angiostensinogen to Angiostenin I
Simple Goiter - lack of thyroxin
b) Angiostenin I to Angiostenin II
Cretinism - extreme hypothyroidism during infancy/childhood
Myxedema - lethargy, weight gain

- releases Aldosterone to raise Blood Pressure by constricting arteries and

absorbing sodium and H2O

Exopathalmic goiter - too much thyroxin

Reproductive System

Tetany - drop in calcium level


Addison's disease - inability to maintain glucose level in the blood

Cushing's Syndrome - high-level hormone secretion
Diabetes Melitus - high level of cortisol, deficiency of insulin
Acidosis - buildup of acids in blood
Feedback Mechanism- regulates the activities of most endocrine glands in
the secretion of hormones
a) Negative Feedback Homeostasis; last step is against the first step
b) Positive Feedback - last step stimulates the first step
Types of Diabetes
1. Type I (Juvenile-Onset Diabetes)- not producing insulin

1. Production and development of egg cell for possible fertilization

2. Preparation of the uterus for implantation of embryo
3. Production of progesterone and estrogen
1. Ovary- main organ; there are two ovaries; contains hundreds of
thousands of follicles, as a girl; puberty is when the first meiotic
division occurs; coitus- second meiotic division
2. Oviduct- of fallopian tube (2); has finger-like projections at the end
(fimbrae) that sweeps the egg cell towards the fallopian tube; sight
for fertilization; where egg cell and sperm cell meets
*Ectopic Pregnancy-fertilization occurs outside the fallopian tube;
development of fetus on abdomen; cuts off nourishment of fetus

*2 egg cell + 2 sperm cell= fraternal twins

3. Uterus- where the embryo develops; most glandular and most
vascular organ due to number of blood vessels; mostly made up of
tissue and muscles
Menstruation- uterine lining (endometrium) thickens with estrogen
and progesterone; without fertilization, it sheds
4. Cervix- vaginal canal; elastic; opens so that the baby may go out
5. Vagina- birth canal; receives the sperm cell; site of ovulation; exit of
menstrual flow
6. Vulva- external structure of female
7. Labia Majora

Folds with pubic

hair; protection
8. Labia Minora
from dirt
9. Vestibule- cleft between labia minora which contains the urethra
and the vaginal opening
*Hymen- ring of tissue that partially closes the vagina; indication of
virginity; can be destroyed during childhood

Primary Follicles


Primary Oocytes




Graafian Follicles

Corpus Luteum

-contains mature

-produces progesterone

mature egg cell;

that thickens lining of

will burst when it

can no longer hold

Meiosis I

mature egg cell

uterus; disintegrates if
no fertilization occurs;
3-6 months in mother
Meiosis II

10.Mons Pubis- fatty prominence underlying the pubic hair

11.Clitoris- has erectile tissue homologous to penis and is capped by a
pea-shaped glans; has sensitive receptors (sexually sensitive organ)
Regulations of Hormone Levels
1. Ovarian Cycle
a. Follicular Phase (1-13 days)- FSH promotes the
development of the follicle and it secretes estrogen
b. Ovulation (day 14)- mature egg cell is released
followed by menstruation
c. Lutheal Phase (15-28 days)- LH promotes the
development of the corpus luteum as it secretes

progesterone until it regenerates and menstruation

occurs again
2. Uterine Cycle- FSH starts to increase production for maturation of
a. Menstruation (1-5 days)- uterine lining disintegrates
and blood vessel rupture
b. Proliferative phase (6-13 days)- increased production
of estrogen to thicken the endometrium and become
vascular and glandular
c. Ovulation (day 14)
d. Secretory phase (15-28 days)- increased production of
progesterone by corpus luteum for endometrium
thickness and uterine glands to mature producing a
thick mucoid secretion. If pregnancy does not occur,
corpus luteum disintegrates
*Within five days, fertilized egg must be in fallopian tube.
* Females have four hormones: estrogen, progesterone, LH and FSH
*Androphose- diminish of progesterone
Fetal Stages
Development- concerns with the events and processes that occurs as a
single cell becomes a complex organism.
Processes of Development
1. Growth- cell divides gets larger and divides again

2. Differentiation- when cells become specialized in structure & function

3. Morphogenesis- when body parts are shaped and patterned into a
certain form
"Ontogeny Recapitulate Phylogeny"- Latin saying which means the
development of the embryo retraces the evolution of its species.
Gill Clefts are developed pharyngeal pouches in advanced vertebration.
1st pair- auditory cavity 3rd pair- thymus
2nd pair- tonsils 4th pair- parathyroids
Developmental Stages
A. Embryonic Development
1st Week- early developmental stages
1. Cleavage- cell division w/o growth (from fallopian tubes to uterus)
2. Morula- solid ball of cells (embryo reacts at 3rd day)
3. Blastula- (5th day) cavity is formed called blastocysts having 2 main
parts: tropoblasts (outer and becomes the chorion) and inner mass
(becomes the fetus)
4. Gastrula- (2nd week) implantation of the embryo at the uterine wall due
to the enzyme secreted by the tropoblast that digest away some of the
tissue and blood vessels of the uterine wall & secretion of HCG (Human
Chorion Gonadotropin) as basis for pregnancy test that appears in the
urine & maintains the corpus luteum in secreting estrogen and
progesterone that lasts for 3 mos.
At 5 mos. the placenta begins to secrete estrogen and progesterone in
greater amount as corpus luteum degenerates, formation of the 3
embryonic layers- ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm

5. Neurula
- (3rd Week) appearance of the nerve cord and heart; development of the
Nervous System
- (4th-5th weeks) formation of the 4th extraembryonic embrane (allantois)
that later becomes the umbilical cord connecting the developing embryo
to the placenta; human features appear (head, arms, legs)
- (6th-8th weeks) brain development; neck formation; NS development for
reflex actions; all organ systems are established; placenta is mature and
fully functioning; 1 1/2 inches long and weighs like an aspirin tablet
B. Fetal Development
2-4 mos.
- large head, flat nose, eyes apart and ears distinctively present, sex are
determined; heart beat is felt; skeleton ossified; 6 1/2 inches long and 1/2
5-7 mos.
- movement, eye lids open, pink-colored skin, have lanugs covered with
greasy cheese like substance (vernix caseosa) for protection from
amniotic fluid, 12 inches long and 3 lbs.
8-9 mos.
- fetus rotates so head is towards the cervix- 21 inches long and 7lbs
Gestation- period of pregnancy, normally lasts for 38 weeks (266 days)
Parturition- labor and expulsion of the fetus; contraction of the uterine wall
every 15-20 minutes for every 20-30 seconds or 15 minutes for 40
seconds or more.
Stages of Labor:
1.) Dilation of the cervix- expulsion of the mucus plug from the cervical
canal which prevents bacteria and sperm from entering the uterus during

2.) Expulsion of the baby- epinotony is done or incision to enlarge the

vaginal opening; stitched later then healed
3.) Expulsion of afterbirth- placenta is expelled after 15 minutes of
delivery; (uterus) uterine muscles contract and uterus shrinks
Human Development After Birth
Infancy Childhood Adulthood Aging
Gerontology- study of aging
Causes of Aging:
1. Genetic in Origin: life span in species is specific (humans, 110
years). Children of long-lived parents tend to live longer than those
of short-lived parents. The number of times a cell divides is specific
(50x). Mutation can lead to the production of non-functional protein
thus contributes to the aging process.
2. Whole Body Process: decline in hormonal system as the cell lack
receptors that enable them to respond.
Example: Reproductive System and Immune System.
Reason: Protein collagen become increasingly cross-linked as
people age causing stiffening and loss of elasticity of organs.
Researchers now have found that glucose has the tendency to
attach to any type of protein that is the first step in cross-linking
process and ends with the formation of Advanced Glycosylation End
products (AGEs). This explains why cataracts develop,
artherosclerosis, diabetes, etc.
Solution: Researchers presently are experimenting a drug
aminoguanidine which can prevent development of AGEs.

3. Extrinsic Factors: due to poor health habits; diet and exercise,

cigarette smoking, alcohol, inadequate calcium intake

b. Point Mutation- change in very small segment of DNA (single


Menopause- sex hormones declined/fall in amount; uterus and cervix

reduced in size; walls of oviducts and vagina become thin; external
genitals become less pronounced

c. Gene Mutation- change in chemical nature of DNA

Andropause- in males, androgen falls gradually at 50-90 years but

sperm production continues
*Females have longer lives than males because estrogen offers
protection against circulatory disorders like heart disease and stroke in
males at 40s but females only after menopause.
Birth Defect Detections
1. Amniocentesis- fetus is tested by getting amniotic fluid in a syringe
centrifuge cell culture for biochem studies and chromosome
2. Chorionic Villi Sampling- embryo is tested by getting cells from
chorionic villi (placenta) using a suction tube and ultrasound
3. Laparoscopy- obtaining eggs for screening for IVF usinf laparoscope
(telescope) and aspirator for biochem studies and chromosome

Molecular Genetics
Mendelian Genetics
Types of Mutations:

d. Chromosomal Mutation- change in the structure/number of

Cell Type Mutation:
13.Somatic Cell Mutation- produces a mutant phenotype in only
a part of the organism; not a heritable trait
14.Germ Cell Mutation- producing a heritable change
A. Chromosomal Aberrations
1. Cri-du-chat (deletion 5)-cry of the cat; intellectual disability
and delayed development, destructive facial features, small
head size (microcephaly), low birth weight, weak muscle tone
(hypotonia), in infancy, most common in female (1:20,00050,000)
2. Patau Syndrome (trisomy 13)- disrupts normal development and
can result to heart and kidney defects, motor and mental
retardation, extra digits, microcephaly, low-set ears, failure of
forebrain to divide properly, eye defects, cleft palate, spinal
defects, abnormal genitalia
3. Edwards Syndrome (trisomy 18)- growth deficiency, abnormal
skull shape and facial features, clenched hands, Rocker bottom
feet and cardio and renal abnormalities
4. Philadelphian Sydrome (translocation 9 & 22)- chromosomal
abnormality associated with chronic mycelogenous leukemia

(CML leukemia and unregulated growth of predominantly

myeloid cells in the bone marrow and accumulation of these
cells in the blood
5. Down Syndrome (trisomy 21)- has mental retardation and other
conditions, low muscle tone which makes difficulty in gross
motor and fine motor skills along with articulating speech
B. Sex Aberration
1. Turner Syndrome (XO)- monosomy 45X, short stature,
underdevelop sexual features, mental retardation
2. Klinefelters Syndrome (XXY)- 47XY, tall male with normal
stature but small testes, sterile, trisomy 23
3. Metafemale (XXX)- trisomy 23, 47X, super female with short
stature, mental retardation and underdevelop reproductive
structures; sterile
Forms of Chromosomal Aberration:
1. Duplication
2. Deletion
3. Inversion
4. Translocation- non-homologous chromosomes
Gene Disorder Detection:
1. Amniocentesis- involves the insertion of a needle through the
abdominal wall and uterus of mother and into the amniotic fluid
surrounding the fetus

2. Ultrasomography- involves the use of high-frequency sound waves

to produce the image of a fetus on a monitor
3. Fetoscopy- an instrument, endoscope, is used to view fetus inside
the uterus

Non-Mendelian Patterns of Heredity

Multiple Alleles- involves more than two alleles are identified at a
gene locus. Dominant hierarchy should be defined:
Dominant: capital letter
Recessive: lowercase letter
Alleles between two extremes: lowercase letter with suitable
Polygenes- several genes are involved in a given trait, ex. eye color,
strand of hair trait
Incomplete Dominance- alleles that lack dominance relationships
and result in heterozygous that have an intermediate phenotype
that is distinct from either homozygous parent
Codominance- alleles that lack dominant and recessive
relationships and are both observed phenotypically; the phenotypic
effect of each allele is observable in the heterozygous condition
Sex-Related Inheritance
Sex-linked traits- genes located on the x chromosome only (x-linked
genes); recessive trait, ex. colorblindness, hemophilia

Sex-influenced traits- trait that is dominant in one sex and recessive

in the other, ex. baldness
Sex-limited traits- trait that develops only in the presence of sex
chromosomes, ex. Plumages, skin color of animals
DNA Technology
Evidences of Evolution
Evolution- the process of change by which new species develop from preexisting species
1. Convergent evolution- there is an increase in similarities
among species derived from different ancestors and resulting
from similar adaptations to similar environments
2. Divergent evolution- there is an increase in the differences
among descendants of a single ancestral species as time
Evidences of Evolution:
e. Fossils- remains and traces of organisms that once lived;
imprints of animal and plant parts mostly found in
sedimentary rocks (strata). Age is determined by using
radioactive dating. The time in which half the radioactive
atoms of a certain kind in rocks or fossils will break down into
atoms of another element is called the half-life.

Comparative anatomy- similarities and differences in

structures of living things.

Homologous structures- parts of different organisms that are

similar in structure but serve different functions. It shows
evolutionary descent from a common ancestor.
Vestigial organs- parts of many animals that serve little or no
function at all. Believed as remnants of organs that were
once functional in an ancestral form.
Analogous structures- parts that are similar in function but
differ in internal structure. This does not suggest evolution
from a common ancestor.
g. Comparative embryology- vertebral embryo have notochord
and gill puches at some time. Embryological development
suggests that organisms have descended from a common
h. Comparative biochemistry- similarities in the sequences of
bases in DNA result in similarities in the proteins made. The
greater the biochemical similarities among different groups
of organisms, the closer is the evolutionary relationships.
Types of Evolution:
15.Jean-Baptiste Lamarcks
a) Theory of Need- production of new body part results
from a need.
b) Theory of Use and Disuse- organs remain active and
strong as long as they are used but disappear
gradually with disuse.

c) Theory of Inheritance and Acquired Characteristics- all

that has been acquired or changed in structure of
individuals during their life is transmitted by heredity
to the next generation.
16.Charles Darwins Natural Selection Theory- involves

Overproduction- favourable conditions allow a

population to increase in size and pressures can
limit the number that can survive.

Variation- organisms differ in size, behaviour

and other features.

Competition- due to pressures, organisms

compete to survive.

Survival of the fittest- best adapted organism to

the environment survive.

Reproduction- survivors reproduce and pass

their traits to their offspring.

Speciation- population changes when some

traits are not passed on and differs enough from
the original population and new species arise.
This is brought about by:
a) Geographic isolation- a situation in
which interbreeding between two
populations of a species is prevented by a
physical barrier.

b) Reproductive isolation- a situation in

which two populations can no longer
interbreed and produce fertile offspring.
Adaptive radiation- a branching out of a population through variation and
adaptation to occupy many environments.
Artificial Selection- changes of organisms with mans intervention
(artificial breeding).
Example: use of tissue culture and genetic engineering processes.
Evolution of Man:
Australophitecus africanus- discovered in 1934 and named by Dr.
Dart in Africa Homo habilis- 1964 by Dr. Leaky Pithecanthropus
erectus- 1937 in Java Homo neanderthalensis Homo sapiens
(Cro-Magnon man) Homo sapiens (modern man)
Mechanism of Evolution