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Geology

of

Singapore

Acknowledgments: Singapore Ministry of Education funded ACrf Tier 1 Grant R-264-000-275-133

Topography and geology: Shuttle Radar

Topography Mission

Topography and geology: Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Digital elevation model shows linear belts of mountains and

Digital elevation model shows linear belts of mountains and valleys

www2.jpl.nasa.gov/srtm/

Western Eastern
Western
Eastern

Topographic belts

Western Belt Himalayan-type collision granites 220 – 200 M yr Eastern Belt Andean-type subduction granites

Western Belt Himalayan-type collision granites 220 200 M yr

Belt Himalayan-type collision granites 220 – 200 M yr Eastern Belt Andean-type subduction granites 285 -
Belt Himalayan-type collision granites 220 – 200 M yr Eastern Belt Andean-type subduction granites 285 -

Eastern Belt Andean-type subduction granites

285 - 230 M yr

Central Belt Andean-type subduction

granites

230 220 M yr

Convergent Boundaries

Oceanic-Continental Boundaries

Convergent Boundaries – Oceanic-Continental Boundaries – An oceanic plate and a continental plate converge, with

An oceanic plate and a continental plate converge, with the denser oceanic plate being subducted under the continental

plate.

Just as with an oceanic-oceanic boundary, a chain of volcanoes forms on the nonsubducted plate.

The present is the key to the past:

Andean-type Magmatic Arc above a Subduction Zone

Cold + wet

crust

Magmatic Arc above a Subduction Zone Cold + wet crust Mountains Pengerang andesite lava and ash

Mountains

Pengerang andesite lava and ash

Cold + wet crust Mountains Pengerang andesite lava and ash Pengerang volcano Singapore granite Singapore granites

Pengerang volcano

Mountains Pengerang andesite lava and ash Pengerang volcano Singapore granite Singapore granites m gen Andean-Type

Singapore granite

andesite lava and ash Pengerang volcano Singapore granite Singapore granites m gen Andean-Type Orogeny: oceanic +

Singapore granites

ash Pengerang volcano Singapore granite Singapore granites m gen Andean-Type Orogeny: oceanic + mantle melts =

m

gen

Andean-Type Orogeny: oceanic + mantle melts = granites

with quartz + feldspar + biotite +/- hornblende

Convergent Boundaries

Continental - Continental Boundaries

Boundaries – Continental - Continental Boundaries – Two continents converge and the ocean floor separating

Two continents converge and the ocean floor separating them is subducted, resulting in a collision between the two continents. Neither

plate will subduct.

When the two continents collide, they are welded together to form an interior mountain chain along a zone marking the former site of subduction.

Himalayan-type Orogeny: continental collision = mountain belt

India collides with Asia Eurasia Crust Mantle
India collides with Asia
Eurasia
Crust
Mantle

Everest 8.85 km

Normal

crust 35 km thick

e r e s t 8 . 8 5 k m Normal crust 35 km thick
e r e s t 8 . 8 5 k m Normal crust 35 km thick

(Red-beds)

2 x thickened lower crust melts: granite magma is less dense than solid crust, rises and crystallises as granite plutons in the middle and upper crust:

Himalayan granites have quartz, feldspar, biotite + muscovite

Biotite (black mica) and hornblende

Biotite (black mica) and hornblende Glassy quartz Black biotite White feldspar Andean-type biotite granite Silvery

Glassy quartz

Black biotite

(black mica) and hornblende Glassy quartz Black biotite White feldspar Andean-type biotite granite Silvery muscovite
(black mica) and hornblende Glassy quartz Black biotite White feldspar Andean-type biotite granite Silvery muscovite

White

feldspar

Andean-type biotite granite

Silvery muscovite (white mica)

Himalayan-type

muscovite granite

Granite

- Felsic intrusive igneous rock

- Granular and phaneritic or crystalline

- Predominantly white, pink, or grey in colour, depending on their mineralogy.

Hornblende

Complex mineral, composed of calcium-iron- magnesium silicate, aluminium-iron-magnesium silicate and iron-magnesium silicate.

Muscovite

Most common mineral of the mica family. The mica group

of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals.

Biotite

Black mica minerals.

mineral of the mica family. T he mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals. Biotite Black
mineral of the mica family. T he mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals. Biotite Black
mineral of the mica family. T he mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals. Biotite Black

Diorite

- Intrusive igneous rock

- Silicate minerals feldspar (typically andesine),

biotite, hornblende, and/or pyroxene.

- Intermediate between mafic gabbro and felsic granite.

Gabbro

- Dark coarse-grained mafic intrusive igneous rocks

- Oceanic crust is mostly formed of gabbro

- Slowly cooled holocrystalline mass

mafic intrusive igneous rocks - Oceanic crust is mostly formed of gabbro - Slowly cooled holocrystalline
mafic intrusive igneous rocks - Oceanic crust is mostly formed of gabbro - Slowly cooled holocrystalline

Geology of Johor and Singapore

Geology of Johor and Singapore JOHOR BATHOLITH Central Belt Eastern Belt Upper Triassic red-beds Tait et

JOHOR BATHOLITH

Central Belt

Eastern Belt

Upper Triassic red-beds

Tait et al. (2008)

25 km

Granite

Granite

Diorite

Diorite

Gabbro

Gabbro
red-beds Tait et al. (2008) 25 km Granite Diorite Gabbro Mid Triassic volcanics Carbon- iferous Oliver

Mid Triassic volcanics

Carbon-

iferous

Oliver (2011)

Geology Map of Singapore

Murai

Slate

Little

Guilin

WESTERN BELT

Let’s go to Little Guilin, ete

Punggol Point

s P. Ubin

Pulau Tekong

s

v

Dairy Farm Quarry

EASTERN BELT

Kent Ridge

Sentosa

North

.
.

St John’s Is

10 km scale

BELT Kent Ridge Sentosa North . St John’s Is 10 km scale Geology after Lee and

Geology after Lee and Zhou (2009)

KEY

Recent alluvium and land-fill

Old Alluvium

Jurong FormationZhou (2009) KEY Recent alluvium and land-fill Old Alluvium Andesitic volcanics (v) + Sajahat Fm sediments

Recent alluvium and land-fill Old Alluvium Jurong Formation Andesitic volcanics (v) + Sajahat Fm sediments (s)

Andesitic volcanics (v)

+ Sajahat Fm sediments (s)

GraniteKEY Recent alluvium and land-fill Old Alluvium Jurong Formation Andesitic volcanics (v) + Sajahat Fm sediments

Gabbro

Gombak Gabbro

Gombak Gabbro Fault Little Guilin Granite dyke

Fault

Little Guilin

Gombak Gabbro Fault Little Guilin Granite dyke

Granite dyke

Gombak Gabbro 260 +/- 2 Ma

White feldspar Dark green pyroxene

Gabbro

inclusion

+/- 2 Ma White feldspar Dark green pyroxene Gabbro inclusion 1 cm Granite veins Gomback gabbro

1 cm

Ma White feldspar Dark green pyroxene Gabbro inclusion 1 cm Granite veins Gomback gabbro cut by
Ma White feldspar Dark green pyroxene Gabbro inclusion 1 cm Granite veins Gomback gabbro cut by
Granite veins
Granite
veins

Gomback gabbro cut by diorite,

cut by granite

Little Guilin Park: dark grey 260+/-2 Ma Gombak Gabbro

intruded by 250+/-2 Ma dyke of white Bukit Timah Granite;

therefore the granite is younger

Bukit Timah Granite: Dairy Farm Quarry

Massive, equigranular granite

Massive, equigranular granite White feldspar Glassy quartz Larger black hornblende Smaller black biotite i.e. Andean-type
Massive, equigranular granite White feldspar Glassy quartz Larger black hornblende Smaller black biotite i.e. Andean-type
Massive, equigranular granite White feldspar Glassy quartz Larger black hornblende Smaller black biotite i.e. Andean-type

White feldspar

Glassy quartz Larger black hornblende Smaller black biotite

i.e. Andean-type Granite

244 +/- 2 Ma

Gombak Gabbro

260+/-2, 254+/2,

249+/2, 246+/-2 Ma

Little Guilin

Granite dyke

250+/-2 Ma

Murai Slate

Mandai Quarry

Granite 237

+/- 1 Ma

Dairy Farm

Granite

244+/-2Ma

P. Ubin Ketam

Quarry Granite

230+/-6 Ma

Punggol Pt

P. Ubin Jetty

Diorite 95+/-1 Ma

Pulau Tekong

s

v

Pengerang

Volcanics

238+/-2Ma

Jurong Fm

detrital zircons

209+/ - 2 Ma to 2.7Ba

North .
North
.
Jurong Fm detrital zircons 209+/ - 2 Ma to 2.7Ba North . RESULTS OF AGE DATING

RESULTS OF

AGE DATING

10 km scale

- 2 Ma to 2.7Ba North . RESULTS OF AGE DATING 10 km scale Geology after

Geology after Lee and Zhou (2009)

U-Pb zircon age dates (Oliver et al. 2011, unpub)

KEY

Holocene Alluvium

and land-fill

Plio-Pleistocene

Old Alluvium

Upper Triassic Jurong Fm

v s
v
s

Middle Triassic andesitic

volcanics and sediments

Middle Triassic granite

Permian gabbro

andesitic volcanics and sediments Middle Triassic granite Permian gabbro Devonian to Murai Slate (?) Carboniferous?

Devonian to

Murai Slate (?) Carboniferous?

Punggol Point

Boulders were quarried from Pengerang in nearby Johor

Geology of Johor and Singapore

Tait et al. (2008)

25 km

Geology of Johor and Singapore Tait et al. (2008) 25 km Pengerang Quarries Punggol P. Tekong
Geology of Johor and Singapore Tait et al. (2008) 25 km Pengerang Quarries Punggol P. Tekong

Pengerang

Quarries

Punggol

P. Tekong

volcanics

Oliver (2011)

Flow banded rhyolite lava

Zircon, U/Pb age of Pengerang Volcanics 10 km to the W in Johor

= 238+/-5 Ma (Oliver et al. 2014)

<10 cm

Brick-sized andesite bombs and ash explosively

erupted from an Andean-type volcano not far away

Murapi Volcano 2011 = Eastern Singapore, 238 million years ago

Murapi Volcano 2011 = Eastern Singapore, 238 million years ago Biggest bombs fall nearest the crater

Biggest bombs fall nearest the crater

Clast size Pengerang: 10 cm = <1 km from source

P. Tekong

Clast size Pengerang: 10 cm = <1 km from source P. Tekong Andesitic volcanic ash

Andesitic volcanic ash

Clast size Pengerang: 10 cm = <1 km from source P. Tekong Andesitic volcanic ash

Eastern Belt, Andean biotite + hornblende

Eastern Belt, Andean biotite + hornblende granites Middle The granite intrusions are the magma chambers for

granites

Middle

The granite intrusions are the magma

chambers for the volcanoes (same age)

Mandai Granite 237 +/22 Ma

for the volcanoes (same age) Mandai Granite 237 +/22 Ma Triassic andesite volcanoes Pengerang Volcano 238+/-2

Triassic andesite volcanoes

age) Mandai Granite 237 +/22 Ma Triassic andesite volcanoes Pengerang Volcano 238+/-2 Ma 25 km Geology:
age) Mandai Granite 237 +/22 Ma Triassic andesite volcanoes Pengerang Volcano 238+/-2 Ma 25 km Geology:

Pengerang Volcano

238+/-2 Ma

25 km

andesite volcanoes Pengerang Volcano 238+/-2 Ma 25 km Geology: Tait et al. (2008). Ages from Oliver

Geology: Tait et al. (2008). Ages from Oliver et al. ( 2014)

Petronas (1999)

Siam/Burma/Malaya/Sumatra = SIBUMASU

Plate Tectonic Reconstructions

(Palaeogeography)

After Metcalfe 1996

290 Ma SP KL
290 Ma
SP
KL

Exotic

fauna

210 Ma Same fauna SP KL Suture
210 Ma
Same
fauna
SP
KL Suture

Palaeomagnetics

3,500 km apart

Glacial marine

Aussi fauna

NC = North China SC = South China EM = Eastern Malaya (SP)

WB = West Borneo S = Sibumasu incl Western Malaysia (KL)

WC = Western Cimmerian Continent

Cartoons to illustrate the plate tectonic

evolution of the Singapore region

a) Permian 290 250 Ma

of the Singapore region a) Permian 290 – 250 Ma Central Belt Eastern Belt Magmatic arc
Central Belt Eastern Belt Magmatic arc + tin mineralisation 3,500 km wide Andean-type 264 Ma
Central Belt
Eastern Belt
Magmatic arc + tin mineralisation
3,500 km wide
Andean-type
264 Ma (3)
crust
Tethys
margin
Sibu 285-276 Ma (1)
Lithosphere
Mantle
melts
Asthenosphere

Western Belt

Glacials Sibumasu crust Palaeo
Glacials
Sibumasu
crust
Palaeo
Glacials Sibumasu crust Palaeo Vertical scale = 25 km Horiz ’ scale = 100 km

Vertical scale = 25 km

Horiz ’ scale = 100 km

Glacials Sibumasu crust Palaeo Vertical scale = 25 km Horiz ’ scale = 100 km

Sibumasu = Siam Burma Malaya Sumatra

Sibumasu (without any tin mineralisation) is drifting towards the Andean-type margin of

Eastern Malaysia like an ice berg drifts across the sea. A shallow dipping subduction zone consumes the Palaeo Tethys Ocean and forms the tin-bearing magmatic arc in the east of the Eastern Belt

Siam/Burma/Malaya/Sumatra = SIBUMASU

b) Lower to Middle Triassic 260 230 Ma

Pengerang Volcano 238 Ma (1) Andean-type Passive margin tin-granites Singapore gabbro + granites 260-230 Ma
Pengerang Volcano 238 Ma (1)
Andean-type
Passive margin
tin-granites
Singapore
gabbro + granites
260-230 Ma (1)

Subduction zone steepens as slab rolls back and magmatic arc moves westwards

to produce tin-mineralisation and magmatism in the Singapore area. Deep sea sed- iments are scraped off the down going slab to form an accretionary prism

c) Upper Triassic 230 -200 Ma: Indosinian Orogeny

Granite mountains

Himalayan-type tin-granites Jurong Fm 219-198 Ma (3) Central Neo- Belt Eastern Belt W. Belt Tethys
Himalayan-type tin-granites
Jurong Fm
219-198 Ma (3)
Central
Neo-
Belt
Eastern
Belt
W. Belt
Tethys
Singapore
Tin-bearing lower
crustal melts?
Indosinian Orogeny

The subduction zone steepens further and magmatism occurs in the Central Belt.

The Palaeo Tethys Ocean is finally consumed and the Western Belt has collided

with the Central Belt forming the Bentong-Raub suture zone (BRS). The lower crust of the Central Belt is melted and forms tin-bearing Himalayan-type granite mountains in the upper crust of the Western Belt. This is the Indosinian Orogeny.

The Jurong (red bed) Formation is deposited in Singapore as the mountains are eroded

Let’s go to Pulau Tekong: Pulau Sajahat

Gabbro 260+/-2 Ma

Gabbro 260+/-2 Ma

Granite

244+/2Ma

Jurong Formation

youngest = 209+/-2 Ma

North

.
.

10 km scale

Jurong Formation youngest = 209+/-2 Ma North . 10 km scale Geology after Lee and Zhou

Geology after Lee and Zhou (2009)

Granite

230+/-6Ma

s

Diorite

95+/-2Ma

KEY

Pulau Tekong

Andesite

238+/-4Ma

s

v

P. Sajahat

Recent alluvium and land-fill

Old Alluvium

Jurong Formations v P. Sajahat Recent alluvium and land-fill Old Alluvium Andesitic volcanics (v) and sediments (s

Recent alluvium and land-fill Old Alluvium Jurong Formation Andesitic volcanics (v) and sediments (s = Sajahat)

Andesitic volcanics (v)

and sediments (s = Sajahat)

GraniteRecent alluvium and land-fill Old Alluvium Jurong Formation Andesitic volcanics (v) and sediments (s = Sajahat)

Gabbro

Pulau Sajahat

Tanjong Renggam

Pulau Sajahat Tanjong Renggam Tanjong Batu Koyok Pulau Tekong

Tanjong Batu Koyok

Pulau Sajahat Tanjong Renggam Tanjong Batu Koyok Pulau Tekong

Pulau Tekong

Sajahat Formation : Unknown age. No fossils, no age dating

Either Lower Palaeozoic Or same age as Pengerang Volcanics? (Lee & Zhou 2009)

Or same age as Pengerang Volcanics? (Lee & Zhou 2009) Thick beds of sandstone: Tanjong Batu

Thick beds of sandstone: Tanjong Batu Koyok

& Zhou 2009) Thick beds of sandstone: Tanjong Batu Koyok Contact metamorphosed Sajahat sandstone Sheared mudstone,

Contact metamorphosed Sajahat sandstone

Tanjong Batu Koyok Contact metamorphosed Sajahat sandstone Sheared mudstone, Tanjong Renggam X 45 magnification Spotted

Sheared mudstone, Tanjong Renggam

X 45 magnification
X 45 magnification

Spotted hornfels, Tanjong Renggam

Vertical outcrop on Pulau Sajahat trends 015 o E

Vertical outcrop on Pulau Sajahat trends 015 o E Folded

Folded

Sharp sandy base

Sharp sandy base Muddy inter-bed Silty top Graded bedding Turbidite Sharp sandy base Mud

Muddy inter-bed

Silty top

Sharp sandy base Muddy inter-bed Silty top Graded bedding Turbidite Sharp sandy base Mud

Graded bedding

Turbidite

Sharp sandy base

Sharp sandy base Muddy inter-bed Silty top Graded bedding Turbidite Sharp sandy base Mud

Mud

Sharp sandy base Muddy inter-bed Silty top Graded bedding Turbidite Sharp sandy base Mud
Sharp sandy base Muddy inter-bed Silty top Graded bedding Turbidite Sharp sandy base Mud
Sharp sandy base Muddy inter-bed Silty top Graded bedding Turbidite Sharp sandy base Mud
Sharp sandy base Muddy inter-bed Silty top Graded bedding Turbidite Sharp sandy base Mud
Sharp sandy base Muddy inter-bed Silty top Graded bedding Turbidite Sharp sandy base Mud
Sharp sandy base Muddy inter-bed Silty top Graded bedding Turbidite Sharp sandy base Mud

Turbidites form submarine fans

Turbidites form submarine fans Deep sea muds
Turbidites form submarine fans Deep sea muds

Deep sea muds

Flat lying folds

Flat lying folds

Flat lying folds
Flat lying folds

Flat lying folds in biotite schists; regional metamorphism at ~450 o C

Flat lying folds in biotite schists; regional metamorphism at ~450 o C
Flat lying folds in biotite schists; regional metamorphism at ~450 o C

Complex faulting, folding and regional metamorphism

not seen in other rocks, cut by granite: Sajahat Formation is the oldest rock in Singapore? Compares well with the

Mersing Beds in Johor: deposited in the Carboniferous?

the Mersing Beds in Johor: deposited in the Carboniferous? Repeated shearing in Sajahat Formation Unmetamorphosed

Repeated shearing in Sajahat Formation

in the Carboniferous? Repeated shearing in Sajahat Formation Unmetamorphosed folded and faulted granite vein What is

Unmetamorphosed folded and faulted granite vein

What is the age of the metamorphism?

Find the Murai “Schist”

Find the Murai “Schist”
Murai Schist

Murai Schist

Murai “Schist” is actually a slate = low grade regional metamorphism. Age? Mud, squeezed and

Murai “Schist” is actually a slate = low grade regional metamorphism. Age?

is actually a slate = low grade regional metamorphism. Age? Mud, squeezed and regionally metamorphosed (at
Mud, squeezed and regionally
Mud, squeezed and regionally

metamorphosed (at 370/400 o C) to form slate. Gombak Gabbro is not regionally metamorphosed. Therefore, the Murai

Slate is older than the 260 Ma gabbro.

Same slates on Bintan. Age of deposition

and metamorphism? Carboniferous?.

Carboniferous?

Let’s look at the Jurong Formation

Jurong

Mt Faber

Rimau Pt

Sentosa

North .
North
.

10 km scale

Jurong Mt Faber Rimau Pt Sentosa North . 10 km scale Mt Guthrie Jurong Formation: conglomerate,

Mt Guthrie

Mt Faber Rimau Pt Sentosa North . 10 km scale Mt Guthrie Jurong Formation: conglomerate, sandstone,

Jurong Formation: conglomerate, sandstone, mudstone, limestone

Geology after Lee and Zhou (2009)

Guthrie Jurong Formation: conglomerate, sandstone, mudstone, limestone Geology after Lee and Zhou (2009) Fossil localities

Fossil localities

Marine fossils in the Jurong Formation (from Lee & Zhou, 2009)

fossils in the Jurong Formation (from Lee & Zhou, 2009) Scallops Plicatula cf carinata (Healy) LateTriassic

Scallops

Plicatula cf carinata (Healy) LateTriassic

2009) Scallops Plicatula cf carinata (Healy) LateTriassic Palaeonucula sp Corals from the Pandan Limestone, Jurong
2009) Scallops Plicatula cf carinata (Healy) LateTriassic Palaeonucula sp Corals from the Pandan Limestone, Jurong

Palaeonucula sp

Scallops Plicatula cf carinata (Healy) LateTriassic Palaeonucula sp Corals from the Pandan Limestone, Jurong Formation

Corals from the Pandan Limestone, Jurong Formation

Red and purple mudstones, Sentosa.

Lake beds Queenstown Facies

Continental red-beds

Worm burrows, Sentosa

Dinosaur foot prints? Sentosa

in gravel

Seasonal rhythms in lake beds?

IV

V
V
Seasonal rhythms in lake beds? IV V III II I

III

Seasonal rhythms in lake beds? IV V III II I

II

Seasonal rhythms in lake beds? IV V III II I

I

Seasonal rhythms in lake beds? IV V III II I

Claw marks of a dinosaur in red lake mud?

Claw marks of a dinosaur in red lake mud?

A loose boulder lying in the grass outside the Geography Department.

Is this a foot print?

Cretaceous Dinosaurs: Khorat Plateau
Cretaceous Dinosaurs: Khorat Plateau

Cretaceous Dinosaurs: Khorat Plateau

Cretaceous Dinosaurs: Khorat Plateau
Cretaceous Dinosaurs: Khorat Plateau
Fossilised (woody?) vegetation, pieces of conifer, cycad or tree fern? Now coal + goethite

Fossilised (woody?) vegetation, pieces of conifer, cycad or tree fern? Now coal + goethite

Rythmic red, purple, and white mudstone and siltstone Lake deposits White siltstone above thin bedded

Rythmic red, purple, and white mudstone and siltstone

Lake deposits

red, purple, and white mudstone and siltstone Lake deposits White siltstone above thin bedded sandstone River

White siltstone above thin bedded sandstone

River sands

Lake deposits White siltstone above thin bedded sandstone River sands Channelised Sandstones River delta flowing into

Channelised

Sandstones

River delta

flowing into lake

NE

Conglomerates and sandstones at Remau Point

NE Conglomerates and sandstones at Remau Point SW

SW

Rivers flowing into the sea i.e. deltaic marine KEY Pleistocene “Old Alluvium” Jurong Formation (white)
Rivers flowing into the sea i.e. deltaic marine KEY Pleistocene “Old Alluvium” Jurong Formation (white)
Rivers flowing into the sea i.e. deltaic marine KEY Pleistocene “Old Alluvium” Jurong Formation (white)
Rivers flowing into the sea i.e. deltaic marine KEY Pleistocene “Old Alluvium” Jurong Formation (white)
Rivers flowing into the sea i.e. deltaic marine KEY Pleistocene “Old Alluvium” Jurong Formation (white)
Rivers flowing into the sea i.e. deltaic marine KEY Pleistocene “Old Alluvium” Jurong Formation (white)

Rivers flowing into the sea i.e. deltaic marine

Rivers flowing into the sea i.e. deltaic marine KEY Pleistocene “Old Alluvium” Jurong Formation (white) with

KEY

Pleistocene “Old Alluvium”

Jurong Formation

(white) with Queens-

town Facies lake beds (blue) Middle Triassic Granite

Permian Gabbro

Alluvium” Jurong Formation (white) with Queens- town Facies lake beds (blue) Middle Triassic Granite Permian Gabbro

Painted by W. Sillins. Downloaded from http://www.willsillin.com/Natural%20History.html

from http://www.willsillin.com/Natural%20History.html Artist’s impression of what Singapore might have looked

Artist’s impression of what Singapore might have looked like looking north from the vicinity of Sentosa in the Late Triassic Period, 200 million years ago before the

mountains were eroded away to low hills.

In the distance: the Bukit Timah Fault scarp and the Bukit Timah Granite and Gombak Gabbro form the hills behind. Note the volcanic ash clouds. In the foreground: braided rivers drain into Lake Sentosa.

Singapore palaegeography during the Upper Triassic/Lower Jurassic (~200 Ma)

North

during the Upper Triassic/Lower Jurassic (~200 Ma) North Lake Indosinian Mountains Structural template Bukit Timah

Lake

the Upper Triassic/Lower Jurassic (~200 Ma) North Lake Indosinian Mountains Structural template Bukit Timah Fault

Indosinian Mountains

Structural template Bukit Timah Fault trends NW/SE Murai Slate
Structural template
Bukit Timah
Fault trends NW/SE
Murai
Slate
template Bukit Timah Fault trends NW/SE Murai Slate Bukit Timah Fault Scarp Note distribution of lakes,

Bukit Timah Fault Scarp

Note distribution of lakes, swamps, rivers, fault scarps, alluvial fans. Shaded area is Lake Sentosa. Lake valley forms due to extensional tectonics.

(After Fraser et al.1995).

Singapore palaegeography during the Upper Triassic/Lower Jurassic

North

Indosinian Mountains

the Upper Triassic/Lower Jurassic North Indosinian Mountains Bukit Timah Fault trends NW/SE Murai Slate Bukit Timah
Bukit Timah Fault trends NW/SE Murai Slate
Bukit Timah
Fault trends NW/SE
Murai
Slate
Mountains Bukit Timah Fault trends NW/SE Murai Slate Bukit Timah Fault Scarp Structural template Rise in

Bukit Timah Fault Scarp

Structural template

Murai Slate Bukit Timah Fault Scarp Structural template Rise in sea level, +/- subsidence rate >

Rise in sea level, +/- subsidence rate > rate of deposition = syn-rift basin with marine, lake, river and alluvial facies: Extensional tectonics continue

(After Fraser et al.1995).

Geology Map of Singapore (after Lee & Zhou 2009) with the contact of the Jurong

Formation and the Singapore Granites drawn as the Bukit Temah Fault. Note folds in JF.

Murai

Slate

North

folds

St John’s

. 10 km scale

in JF. Murai Slate North folds St John’s . 10 km scale P. Ubin Jetty Diorite

P. Ubin Jetty Diorite 95+/-1 Ma

s

P. Sajahat Dolerite: age?

s

v

Recent alluvium and land-fill

Old Alluvium Jurong Formation

Andesitic volcanics (v)

and sediments (s)

Granite

Gabbro

Geology after Lee and Zhou (2009)

and Oliver et al. (2011)

http://www.geekculture.com/geekycomics/mosquitocreek Singapore’s greatest natural asset is its location as a deep water

Singapore’s greatest natural asset is its location as a deep water seaport near the center of SE Asia on the cross roads between the Indian and Pacific Oceans.

If it was not for plate tectonics, Singapore would not be where it is today and what it is today.